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Objective-type Problems

in

Fundamentals
of

Higher Secondary Mathematics

written
by

S.Ganesan, M.Tech.

PREFACE
Students of Higher Secondary Mathematics course are to learn a plenty of new
concepts like Determinants, Vectors, Complex Numbers, Conics, Derivatives and Integrals. It
is the primary objective of this work to help them to get a thorough understanding of the
fundamentals of these concepts early in their two-year course. The secondary objective is to
help the students who are going to face competitive examinations like Board Exams, AIEEE
and IITJEE in a couple of months to refresh their understanding of the fundamentals of these
concepts.
Fifty problems have been carefully selected from IITJEE Screening Test papers from
1998 to 2005. All problems have been fully solved. I hope that students can learn the
fundamentals of the above topics thoroughly by practising these problems a few times.

~ S.Ganesan.
Email: sg.boilerinspector@gmail.com

About the Author

The author is a graduate in Mechanical Engineering from College of Engineering,


Guindy, Madras and a postgraduate in Mechanical Engineering from Indian Institute of
Technology, Madras. He is a professional in utility and industrial boilers industry.

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1. If

and

dependent vectors, and

are linearly

, then

(a) = 1, = -1
(a) = 1, = 1
(a) = -1, = 1
(a) = 1, = 1
Answer: (d)
Solution:
[a b c] = 0

= 0 =1

1 + 2 + 2 = 3

= 1

2. For three vectors


to any of
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d) (
Answer: (c)
Solution:

, which of the following expressions is not equal

the remaining three?

=
=
=
(

3. If

are unit coplanar vectors, then the scalar triple product


is equal to
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) -3
(d) 3

Answer: (a)
Solution:
If

are coplanar, then linear combinations of these vectors

are also coplanar. Scalar triple product of coplanar vectors is zero.

4. Let

,
depends on
(a) only x
(b) only y
(c) neither x nor y
(d) both x and y

Answer: (c)

and

. Then

Solution:

=
=

[1(1+x-y) - x(1-x)] [1(x2 y2)]

1 + x y x + x 2 x2 + y

5. Let

and

. If

is a unit vector, then the

maximum value of the scalar triple product

is

(a) -1
(b) 10 + 6
(c) 59
(d) 60
Answer: (c)
Solution:

= 1

This will be maximum when


Maximum value of

= 59

6. If

are two unit vectors such that

are

perpendicular to each other, then the angle between If


(a) 45
(b) 60
(c) cos-1 -1
(d) cos-1 (2/7)
Answer: (b)
Solution:
= 0

1 1 cos =
= cos-1 = 60

7. If

,
(a)
(b)
(c) 2

and

, then

is equal to

is

(d)
Answer: (b)
Solution:
Let
b1 + b2 + b3 = 1

=
But
b3 b2 = 0

b3 = b2 ;

b3 = b1 1 ; b2 = b1 1

b1 = 1

b1 b3 = 1 ;

b1 b2 = 1

b1 + b2 + b3 = b1 + (b1 1) + (b1 1) = 1
;

b3 = 0 ;

b2 = 0

8. A unit vector coplanar with


5

(a)

(b)

is

and

and orthogonal to

(c)

(d)
Answer: (a)
Solution:
[(

) + (

)] [5

[(2 + )

] = 0
)] [5

] = 0

(2 + )5 + ( )2 + ( + )6 = 0
= -2
Required vectors = (2 - 2)
=
Selecting = 1, required vector

Unit vector along this vector =

9. If

then f(100) is equal

to
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 100

(d) -100
Answer: (a)
Solution:

C2 C2 + C1
= 0
f(100) = 0

10. If is an imaginary cube root of unity, then (1+-2)7 equals


(a) 128
(b) -128
(c) 1282
(d) -1282
Answer: (d)
Solution:
(1+-2)7 = (-2-2)7 1++2 = 0
= (-2)7 (2)7
= -12814
= -1282

14 = (3)42 and 3 = 1

11. If

= x+iy, then
(a) x = 3, y =1
(a) x = 1, y =3
(a) x = 0, y =3
(a) x = 0, y =0

Answer: (d)
Solution:

= -3i

= 0

12. If i = -1, then

is equal to

(a) 1 - i3
(b) -1 + i3
(c) i3
(d) - i3
Answer: (c)
Solution:
Let =
4 + 5334 + 3365

= 4 + 5333+1 + 3363+2
= 4 + 5 + 32
= 1 + 2 + (3 + 3 + 32)
= 1 + (-1 + i3) + 0

= i3

13. If arg(z) < 0, then arg(-z) arg(z) =


(a)
(b)
(c) -/2
(d) /2
Answer: (a)
Solution:
Let arg(z) = -
arg(-z) = arg(i2z) = arg(i i z)
= - + /2 + /2 ( each multiplication of z by i rotates z
through /2
anti-clockwise)
= - +
arg(z) arg(-z)

= - + (-)
=

14. Let =
is
(a) 3
(b) 3(-1)
(c) 32
(d) 3(1-)
Answer: (b)
Solution:

. Then the value of the determinant

= (-1-2)4 4 (4-2) + (2+1+2)


= -6 - 34 + 32 + 1
= -1 - 3 + 32 + 1
= 3(-1)

15. If ( 1) is a complex cube root of unity, the least value of n N for


which
(1 + 2)n = (1 + 4)n is
(a) 6
(b) 5
(c) 3
(d) 2
Answer: (c)
Solution:
(1 + 2)n = (1 + 4)n
(-)n = (1 + ) n
(-)n = (-2)n
n = 2n
When n = 3, 3 = 6.

16. If in the expansion of (1+x)m(1-x)n, the coefficients of x and x2 are 3


and -6
respectively, then m is
(a) 6
(b) 9
(c) 12

(d) 24
Answer: (c)
Solution:
(1+x)m(1-x)n

=
(m n) = 6

and

m2 m + n2 n 2mn = -12
m + n = 12 + (m-n)2
m + n = 21

( m n = 6)

Solving (m n) = 6 and (m + n) = 21, m = 12

17. For 2 r n,

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Answer: (c)
Solution:

18. In the binomial expansion of (a-b)n, n 5, the sum of the 5th and 6th
terms is zero.
Then a/b equals
(a) (n-5)/6
(b) (n-4)/5
(c) 5/(n-4)
(d) 6/(n-5)
Answer: (b)
Solution:
= 0

=
= (n-4)/5
19. If P(x,y) is any point on the ellipse 16x2 + 25y2 = 400, and F1(3,0) and
F2(-3,0) are its foci, then PF1+PF2 equals
(a) 8

(b) 6
(c) 10
(d) 12
Answer: (c)
Solution:

( Dividing LHS and RHS by 400 )

But for an ellipse, PF1+PF2 = 2a = 10

20.If x1 , x2 , x3 as well as y1 , y2 , y3 are in G.P. with the same common


ratio, then the
points (x1,y1), (x2,y2) and (x3,y3)
(a) lie on a straight line
(b) lie on an ellipse
(c) lie on a circle
(d) are vertices of a triangle
Answer: (a)
Solution:
x2 = x1r

&

x3 = x1r2

y2 = y1r

&

y3 = y1r2

R2 R2 rR1

R3 r2R1

R3 R3 rR2

&

Given 3 points should lie on a straight line.


21. In a PQR, R = /2. If tan (P/2) and tan (Q/2) are the roots of
equation
ax2+bx+c=0
(a0), then
(a) a+b = c
(b) b+c = a
(c) a+c = b
(d) b = c
Answer: (a)
Solution:
tan (P/2) + tan (Q/2) = -b/a
tan (P/2) tan (Q/2) = c/a
P+Q = /2 (P+Q)/2 = /4 tan ((P+Q)/2) = 1

1=
-b = a-c
c = a+b

22. The number of integer values of m, for which the x-coordinate of the
point of
intersection of the lines 3x + 4y = 9 and y = mx + 1 is also an
integer, is
(a) 2
(b) 0
(c) 4
(d) 1
Answer: (a)
Solution:
3x + 4 (mx + 1) = 9
3x + 4mx + 4 = 9
(3 + 4m)x = 5
x = 5 / (3 + 4m)
As x is an integer, (3 + 4m) must be a divisor of 5.
3 + 4m = -1, +1, +5, -5.
But positive values for (3 + 4m) will result in fractional values of m.
3 + 4m = -1 or -5
m = -4 / 4 = -1 , or, -8 / 4 = -2

23. The equation of the directrix of the parabola y2 + 4y + 4x + 2 = 0 is


(a) x = -1
(b) x = 1
(c) x = -3/2
(d) x = 3/2
Answer: (d)
Solution:

y2 + 4y + 4x + 2 = 0
(y2 + 4y + 4) + 4x + 2 = 4
(y + 2)2 = 2 4x
(y + 2)2 = -4 (x )
Y2 = -4X, where Y = y + 2, and X = x
Axis of the parabola is parallel to X-axis and the parabola opens left.
Vertex of the parabola is at (+, -2) and a = 1.
Directrix: x = + + 1
x = 3/2

24. For the hyperbola


constant with

which of the following remains

change in

(a) abscissas of vertices


(b) abscissas of foci
(c) eccentricity
(d) directrix
Answer: (b)
Solution:
a = cos and b = sin with vertex at (0,0).
c2 = a2 + b2 = cos2 + sin2 = 1
c = ae = constant.
Abscissas of foci are independent of .

25. The number of distinct real roots of

= 0 in -/4 x /4 is
(a) 0
(b) 2
(c) 1
(d) 3
Answer: (c)
Solution:

= 0

= 0 (C1 C1+C2+C3)

= 0

(sin x + 2cos x)[(sin2 x cos2 x)(sin x cos x cos2 x)+(cos2 x sin


x cos x)]
=0
(sin x + 2cos x) [sin2 x + cos2 x sin x cos x] = 0
(sin x + 2cos x) (sin x cos x)2 = 0
Either sin x + 2cos x = 0 or, sinx cos x = 0
Case1:

sin x + 2cos x = 0

sin x = -2cos x
tan x = -2
x = tan-1 (-2)

Rejected as x < -/4.


Case2:

sin x - cos x = 0

sin x = cos x
tan x = 1
x = tan-1 1
Accepted as x = /4.

26. If + = /2 and + = , then tan equals


(a) 2(tan + tan )
(b) tan + tan
(c) tan + 2tan
(d) 2tan + tan
Answer: (c)
Solution:
+ = =
tan = tan ( ) =

=
tan = tan + 2tan

27. If the angles of a are in the ratio 4:1:1, then the ratio of the largest
side to the perimeter is
(a) 3 : (2+3)
(b) 1 : 3
(c) 1 : (2+3)
(d) 2 : 3
Answer: (a)
Solution:
Let A:B:C :: 4:1:1
4x + x + x = 180 x = 30
A = 120 , B = 30 , C = 30
Largest side is that side opposite to the largest angle : a
Using the Sine Rule,

a = 3 b and c = b
s = a + b + c = 3 b + b + b = (2+3)b

28. If a, b, c are the sides of a such that a : b : c = 1 : 3 : 2, then the


ratio A:B:C is
equal to
(a) 3:2:1
(b) 3:1:2
(c) 1:2:3

(d) 1:3:2
Answer: (c)
Solution:
Let a, b, c be x, 3x, 2x
Using the Cosine Rule,

cos A =
A = cos-1 (3/2) = 30
Again using the Cosine Rule,
cos B =
B = cos-1 (1/2) = 60
C = 180 (30+60) = 90
A:B:C = 30:60:90 = 1:2:3
29. Let h(x) = f(x) [f(x)]2 + [f(x)]3 for every real number x. Then,
(a) h is increasing whenever f is increasing
(b) h is increasing whenever f is decreasing
(c) h is constant whenever f is decreasing
(d) nothing can be said in general
Answer: (a)
Solution:
h(x) = f(x) [f(x)]2 + [f(x)]3
h(x)

= f(x) 2 f(x) f(x) + [f(x)]2 f(x) + 3 [f(x)]2 f(x)


= 6 f(x) [f(x)]2

h(x) > 0 whenever f(x) > 0


h(x) increases whenever f(x) increases.

30. Let h(x) = min {x, x2}, for every real number x. Then
(a) h is not continuous at two values of x
(b) h is differentiable for all x
(c) h(x) = 1, for 0 < x < 1
(d) h is not differentiable at two values of x.
Answer: (d)
Solution:

By inspection, we can conclude that

31. If

h is continuous for all values of x


h(x) = 2x for 0 < x < 1
h(x) is not differentiable at x = 0 and x =1 due to different slopes
on either sides of these points.
, then the value of f(1) is

(a) 1/2
(b) 0
(c) 1
(d) -1/2
Answer: (a)
Solution:
Differentiating both sides wrt x,
f(x) = 1 x f(x)
(1+x) f(x) = 1
f(x) = 1 / (1+x)
f(1) = 1/2
32. If f(x) = 3x 5, then f-1(x)
(a) is given by 1 / (3x 5)
(b) is given by (x + 5) / 3
(c) does not exist because f is not one-one
(d) does not exist because f is not onto.
Answer: (b)
Solution:

Let y = 3x 5
x = (y + 5) / 3
f-1(x) = (x + 5) / 3
33. Let f(x) = x [x], for every real number x, where [x] is the integral
part of x. Then,

is

(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 0
(d)
Answer: (a)
Solution:

= 0 as x is an odd function.

34. The order of the differential equation whose general solution is given
by
, where C1 , C2 , C3 , C4, C5 are
arbitrary
constants, is
(a) 5
(b) 4
(c) 3
(d) 2
Answer: (c)
Solution:
Let k1 = C1 + C2
Let k2 = C3

Let k3 =
Now we have, y = k1cos (x + k2) k3ex
There are only three constants now. 3rd order.
35. A solution of the differential equation y xy + y = 0 is

(a) y = 2
(b) y = 2x
(c) y = 2x 4
(d) y = 2x2 4
Answer: (c)
Solution:
Since the order of the DE is one, either y = 2x or y = 2x 4 will
qualify.
Let us take up y = 2x 4 for check-up. Substituting it in the DE,
4 x 2 + 2x 4 = 0
36.

is

(a) 2
(b) -2
(c)
(d) -
Answer: (c)
Solution:

( cos 2x = 1 2sin2 x)

=
=
=
=
=
=
37. The function f(x) = sin4 x + cos4 x increases if
(a) 0 < x < /8
(b) /4 < x < 3/8
(c) 3/8 < x < 5/8
(d) 5/8 < x < 3/4
Answer: (b)
Solution:

f(x) = 4sin3 x cos x - 4cos3 x sin x


= 4sin x cos x (sin2 x cos2 x)
[ 2sin x cos x = sin 2x & cos2 x - sin2 x = cos 2x]
= 2 sin 2x (-1) cos 2x
= -sin 4x
For f(x) > 0, sin 4x < 0
sin < 0 in III and IV quadrants.
Taking III quadrant,
< 4x < 3/2
/4 < x < 3/8
Taking IV quadrant,
3/2 < 4x < 2
3/8 < x < /2
38. Let f: RR be any function. Define g: RR by g(x) = |f(x)| for all x.
Then g is
(a) onto if f is onto
(b) one-one if f is one-one
(c) continuous if f is continuous
(d) differentiable if f is differentiable
Answer: (c)
Solution:
Let h(x) = |x|
h[f(x)] = |f(x)| = g(x)
A composite function of two continuous functions is also continuous.
We know
that h(x) is continuous. Therefore if f(x) is continuous, g(x) is
also continuous.
39. If x2 + y2 = 1, then
(a) yy 2(y)2 + 1 = 0
(b) yy + (y)2 + 1 = 0
(c) yy + (y)2 - 1 = 0
(d) yy + 2(y)2 + 1 = 0
Answer: (b)
Solution:
x2 + y2 = 1
Differentiating implicitly with respect to x,
2x + 2yy = 0
x + yy = 0
Again differentiating,
1 + yy + yy = 0
yy + (y)2 + 1 = 0
40. If f(x) =
(a) 0

, then

(b) 1
(c) 2
(d) 3
Answer: (c)
Solution:

f(x) =
f(x) = ecos x sin x , -2 x 2
f(-x) = ecos (-x) sin (-x)
= -ecos x sin x
= - f(x)
f(x) is odd for -2 x 2

= 0+

= 2

41. Let

= 21 = 2
. Then f decreases in the interval

(a) (-, -2)


(b) (-2, -1)
(c) (1, 2)
(d) (2, )
Answer: (c)
Solution:
f(x) = ex (x-1) (x-2)
ex > 0 for all x.
(x-1) (x-2) < 0 if 1 < x < 2
f(x) < 0 if 1 < x < 2
42. If the normal to the curve y = f(x) at the point (3,4) makes an angle
3/4 with the
positive x-axis, then f(3) =
(a) -1
(b) -3/4
(c) 4/3
(d) 1
Answer: (d)
Solution:
Angle of normal = 3/4
Angle of tangent = 3/4 /2 = /4
f(3) = tan /4 = 1
43. The value of the integral

is

(a) 3/2
(b) 5/2
(c) 3
(d) 5
Answer: (b)
Solution:
Let us denote

as ln x for convenience and consistent with

engineering
practice.
Please note that ln x is defined only for x > 0, and ln x < 0, for 0
< x < 1.

We can rewrite

as

We know that
by putting ln x = u dx/x = du
=
= - [-(-1)2] + [22]
= 5/2
44. The domain of definition of

is

(a) R \ {-1, -2}


(b) (-2, )
(c) R \ {-1, -2, -3}
(d) (-3, ) \ {-1, -2}
Answer: (d)
Solution:
x + 3 > 0 x > -3
x2+3x+2 0
(x+1) (x+2) 0
x -1 and x -2
Domain of f(x) is (-3, ) \ {-1, -2}

45. Let g(x) = 1 + x [x] and


f[g(x)] is

equal to

then, for all values of x,

(a) x
(b) 1
(c) f(x)
(d) g(x)
Answer: (b)
Solution:
For all x, [x] x
x [x] 0
1 + x [x] 1
g(x) 1
g(x) > 0 for all values of x
But for all values of x > 0, f(x) = 1
f[g(x)] = 1 for all x.
46. Let f: (0, ) R and F(x) =

. If F(x2) = x2(1 + x), then f(4)

equals
(a) 5/4
(b) 7
(c) 4
(d) 2
Answer: (c)
Solution:
F(x2) =
F(x2) = x2 + x3
Differentiating both sides with respect to x,
F(x2) 2x = 2x + 3x2
f(x2) = (2 + 3x) / 2 [ F(x) = f(x)]
f(4) = f(22) = (2 + 3 2) / 2 = 4
47. The length of the longest interval in which the function 3sin x 4sin3 x
is
increasing, is
(a) /3
(b) /2
(c) 3/2
(d)
Answer: (a)
Solution:
3sin x 4sin3 x = sin 3x
For > 0, sin increases in the interval 3/2 2 + /2
3/2 3x 2 + /2
3/2 3x 5/2
/2 x 5/6
Length of the interval = (5/6) (/2) = /3

48. Let the function f: RR be defined by f(x) = 2x + sin x for all x R.


Then f is
(a) one-to-one and onto
(b) one-to-one but not onto
(c) onto but not one-to-one
(d) neither one-to-one nor onto
Answer: (a)
Solution:
f(x) = 2x + sin x
f(x) = 2 + cos x
f(x) > 0 for all x R
cos x -1 for all x R
f(x) is a strictly increasing function for all x R
f(x) is one-to-one
Since f(x) takes all values of (-, ), it is onto as well.
49. If f: [0, ) [0, ) and f(x) = x / (1 + x) then the function f is
(a) one-to-one and onto
(b) one-to-one but not onto
(c) onto but not one-to-one
(d) neither one-to-one nor onto
Answer: (b)
Solution:
As x 0, x / (x + 1) 1 f(x) is not onto.

Since f(x) is strictly increasing for all x, f(x) is one-to-one.

50. Domain of the definition of function

is

(a) [-1/4, 1/2]


(b) [-1/2, 1/9]
(c) [-1/2, 1/2]
(d) [-1/4, 1/4]
Answer: (a)
Solution:
Let = sin-1 (2x).
From the definition of inverse sine function, is defined only in the
interval,
-/2 /2
But for f(x) to be in R, + /6 0 -/6. This requirement
redefines
the interval of such that
-/6 /2
-/6 sin-1 (2x) /2
Taking sine throughout the inequality, we have
-1/2 2x 1

-1/4 x 1/2