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The qualitative analysis and determination of type of lipid based on their

proper tie and characteristics as a result of their reaction with the different
qualitative tests was sucessfully done. The charring of the casein indicates that
carbon is present. Moisture or droplets in the test tube indicates that hydrogen and
oxygen is present. The bad odor indicates that nitrogen is present. Formation of
white precipitate indicates that sulfur is present. Formation of yellow precipitate
indicates that phosphorus is present.
Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Twenty different types of amino acids
occur naturally in proteins. Proteins differ from each other according to the type,
number and sequence of amino acids that make up the polypeptide backbone. As a
result they have different molecular structures, nutritional attributes and
physiochemical properties. Proteins are important constituents of foods for a
number of different reasons. They are a major source of energy, as well as
containing essential amino-acids, such as lysine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine,
isoleucine and valine, which are essential to human health, but which the body
cannot synthesize. Proteins are also the major structural components of many
natural foods, often determining their overall texture, e.g., tenderness of meat or
fish products. Isolated proteins are often used in foods as ingredients because of
their unique functional properties, i.e.,their ability to provide desirable appearance,
texture or stability. Typically, proteins are used as gelling agents, emulsifiers,
foaming agents and thickeners. Many food proteins are enzymes which are capable
of enhancing the rate of certain biochemical reactions. These reactions can have
either a favorable or detrimental effect on the overall properties of foods. Food
analysts are interested in knowing the total concentration, type, molecular structure
and functional properties of the proteins in foods
A. Carbon, Hydrogen, And Oxygen
1. Prepped a pinch of casein in a test tube
2. Inclined test tube, causing the casein to spread within the bottom of the tube
3. Heated gently in a low flame for 2-3 minutes or until change had occurred
4. Observed and recorded observations
B. Nitrogen
1. Prepped 0.25g of soda lime and a pinch of casein the size of a mongo bean in a
2. Mixed substances within test tube.
3. Transferred the mixture to a dry test tube and heated cautiously
4. Exposed a piece of red litmus paper over the mouth of the tube
5. Observed and recorded observations
C. Sulfur
1. Prepped the 1ml portion of the filtrate
2. Added dilute HCl until it acidifies
3. Heated solution to boiling

4. Added several drops of 0.1M BaCL solution till white precipitate appears.
5. Observed and recorded observations
D. Phosphorus
1. Prepped 5 drops of the second portion of the fusion mixture into a micro test tube
2. Added 2-3 drops of Conc. HNO until the substance is acidic
3. Added 3 drops of Ammonium Molybdate solution
4. Heated nearly to boiling
5. Observed and recorded observations

Carbon, Hydrogen &

Black precipitate

Casein + O2 C + H2O

Red to blue lp basic

There was gas
White ppt , acidic
Yellow ppt , acidic

NH3 + OH2 NH4 + OH

Ba2+ + SO42- BaSO4
PO43- + 3NH4 + 12MoO42+ 24H+
(NH4)3PO4(MoO3)12 +

The presence of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen was tested by heating casein,
a protein found mostly in milk products. The casein was heated for three minutes.
While heating, you can see the charring of casein, creating a black precipitate, this
means that carbon is present. There was also moisture in the test tube, this means
that hydrogen and oxygen is present.
The presence of nitrogen was tested in casein through mixture with soda
lime. It was then heated. A red litmus paper was placed on the mouth of the test
tube while heating. There was also gas inside the test tube while heating. The red
litmus paper turned to blue, this is due to NH 3 gas. The bad odor indicates the
presence of nitrogen.
Fusion was used to oxidize sulfur to sulfate and phosphorus to phosphate.
Casein was mixed with the fusion mixture and was heated in a porcelain crucible.
The substance first turned black and then to white. It was dissolved in a hot water
and filtered. This was then used in the test for sulfur and phosphorus.
The presence of sulfur was tested by using the filtrate from the fusion method
and HCl. It took 17 drops of HCl until it was made acidic. It heated to boiling. BaCl 2
was the added. A white precipitate was then formed. This is the BaSO 4 or barium
The presence of phosphorus was tested by using the filtrate from the fusion
method and nitric acid. Nitric acid was added until acidic. After that, ammonium
molybdate was added then heated. A yellow precipitate was formed. This is the
ammonium phospho-molybdate.

The experiment confirmed that carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur
and phosphorUs is present in proteins.