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Server

Computer hosts that have software installed that enable them to provide
information to other hosts on the network

Client
Hosts that have software installed that enable them to request and display the
information obtained from the server

Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
Networks where each computer can act as a server for the others, allowing
shared access to files and peripherals without the need for a central server

Devices
The physical elements, or hardware, of the network

Services
Provided by network components, services are communication programs, called
software, that run on the networked devices

Media/Medium
Connects the network together, provides the channel over which the message
travels from source to destination; Interconnects devices provides the pathway
over which data can be transmitted e.g. cables, wireless, fibre optic

Physical topology diagrams


Identify the physical location of intermediary devices, configured ports, and cable
installation

Logical topology diagrams


Identify devices, ports, and IP addressing scheme

LAN - Local
A network infrastructure that provides access to users and end devices in a small
geographical area

WAN - Wide
A network infrastructure that provides access to other networks over a wide
geographical area

MAN - Metropolitan
A network infrastructure that spans a physical area larger than a LAN but smaller
than a WAN (e.g., a city) typically operated by a single entity such as a large
organisation

SAN - Storage
A network infrastructure designed to support file servers and provide data
storage, retrieval, and replication. Involves high-end servers, multiple disk arrays
(called blocks), and Fibre Channel interconnection technology

WLAN Wireless LAN


Similar to a LAN but wirelessly interconnects users and end points in a small
geographical area

Internet
A worldwide collection of interconnected networks (internetworks or internet for
short), cooperating with each other to exchange information using common
standards

Intranet
Refers to a private connection of LANs and WANs that belongs to an organisation,
and is designed to be accessible only by the organisation's members, employees,
or others with authorisation

Extranet
An intranet that can be partially accessed by authorised outside users, enabling
businesses to exchange information over the Internet in a secure way

Fault Tolerance
A network is that limits the impact of a failure, so that the fewest number of
devices are affected by it. It is also built in a way that allows quick recovery when
such a failure occurs

Scalability
A networks ability to expand quickly to support new users and applications
without impacting the performance of the service being delivered to existing
users

Also refers to the ability to accept new products and applications

Quality of Service (QoS)


A requirement that networks must provide predictable, measurable, and at
times, guaranteed services

Security
Network infrastructure security: The physical securing of devices that provide
network connectivity, and preventing unauthorised access to the management
software that resides on them

Information security:
Protecting the information contained within the packets being transmitted over
the network and the information stored on network attached devices

Circuit-Switched
A telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated
communications channel (circuit) through the network before the nodes may
communicate