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TECHNICAL Handling heartwater better Heartwater is a serious tick-borne disease that is often fatal. Its

TECHNICAL

Handling heartwater better

Heartwater is a serious tick-borne disease that is often fatal. Its name is derived from fluid that collects around the heart or in the lungs.

Other symptoms include fever, loss of appetite, breathing difficulties, nervous signs convulsions or very hard kicking. If your cattle show these signs, contact your veterinarian immediately.

The rickettsia agent, Ehrlichia ruminantium, causes heartwater. It is transmitted to domestic and wild ruminants by the tick, Amblyomma hebraeum, or the bontpoot tick. Bontpoot ticks transmit the parasitic organism (rickettsia) that causes heartwater when they bite cattle, sheep, goats, antelope and buffalo.

Treatment and prevention

Heartwater should be treated immediately with an oxytetracycline product. Prevent the disease by regularly inspecting animals and pastures for ticks. Catch the disease early to increase survival rates. A vaccination programme and regular dipping to eradicate ticks can also help to prevent heartwater. Outbreaks can be prevented by creating a stable tick population (do not over-dip animals) and vaccination (carried out or supervised by a vet).

Vaccination should start with the very young animals. Calves younger than three weeks usually have a non-specific resistance to heartwater. Vaccinating healthy calves younger than three weeks is not without risk, but still has the lowest risk. This method doesn’t always require treatment, but it is important to keep an eye on the calves after vaccination. When animals older than three weeks are vaccinated, they almost always react to the vaccine – one is in fact infecting them with heartwater. Treatment may be necessary. Do not vaccinate too many animals at once (no more than 20), as these animals require close monitoring.

Dipping facilities

To kill off parasites such as the bontpoot tick, there are a few dipping tips to follow:

Take part in communal dipping for tick control in the area. If farmers dip on their own farms, they should all use the same dipping brand in the same area.

Follow dipping instructions to the letter and mix dip to correct strength. The correct dip strength can cause tick resistance build-up to the dip. Use clean water to mix the dip and check the dip concentration frequently during dipping.

Keep dipping records for later reference and dip weekly until the tick problem is under control.

Continue to check animals regularly for ticks. Tick eggs usually hatch after heavy rainfall in the summer months. Use a pour-on dip during the rainy season as the oily base and will stay longer on the animals’ bodies.

Heartwater disease

Bontpoot ticks transmit the parasitic organism, rickettsia, to cattle, sheep, goats, antelope and buffalo.

rickettsia , to cattle, sheep, goats, antelope and buffalo. Symptoms: Fever, loss of appetite, breathing difficulties,

Symptoms: Fever, loss of appetite, breathing difficulties, nervous signs (high-stepping walk, a goat turns its head towards its body in a strange manner), convulsions or kicking very hard. Often fatal. Fluid collects around the heart or in the lungs.

Treat immediately with an oxytetracycline. Prevention: Regular inspection of animals and pastures. A vaccination programme and regular dipping help to eradicate ticks.

Hartwater

Bontpootbosluise versprei die parasitiese organisme, rickettsia, na beeste, skape, bokke, wildsbokke en buffels.

Simptome: Koors, verlies van eetlus, moeilike asemhaling, senuagtigheid (loop met groot treë, ’n bok draai sy kop op ’n vreemde manier na sy liggaam), konvulsies of harde geskop. Dikwels dodelik. Vloeistof versamel om die hart of in die longe.

dodelik. Vloeistof versamel om die hart of in die longe. Behandel onmiddellik met ’n oksitetrasiklien.

Behandel onmiddellik met ’n oksitetrasiklien. Voorkoming: Gereelde inspeksie van diere en weivelde. ’n Inentingsprogram en gereelde dip help om bosluise uit te roei.

Isifo Samanzi Azungese Inhliziyo (i-Heartwater)

Imikhaza ye-Bontpoot ithumela okuphilayo okuphila ngokudla emzimbeni (i-rickettsia) ezinkomeni, ezimvwini, ezimbuzini, ezinyamazaneni kanye nasezinyathini.

Izimpawu: imfiva, ukungathandi ukudla, ukuba nobunzima bokuphefumula, izimpawu zokuba khona kwemizwa (izinyathelo zokuhambela phezulu ngokweqile, imbuzi ijikisa inhloko yayo iyibhekise emzimbeni ngendlela engajwayelekile), ukudikiza noma ukukhahlela kakhulu kabi. Esikhathini esiningi okunokubulala. Uketshezi luqoqana luzungeze inhliziyo noma amaphaphu.

26 UBISI MAIL | DECEMBER 2010

Esikhathini esiningi okunokubulala. Uketshezi luqoqana luzungeze inhliziyo noma amaphaphu. 26 UBISI MAIL | DECEMBER 2010
TECHNICALTECHNICAL Selaphe ngokushesha ngomkhiqizo we-oxytetracycline. Ukuvikela: Ukuhlola njalo izilwane kanye

TECHNICALTECHNICAL

Selaphe ngokushesha ngomkhiqizo we-oxytetracycline. Ukuvikela: Ukuhlola njalo izilwane kanye namadlelo. Uhlelo Lokujova kanye nokufaka ediphini njalo ukuqeda imikhaza.

Lokujova kanye nokufaka ediphini njalo ukuqeda imikhaza. Lefu la heartwater Matsetse a bitswang bontpoot a fetisetsa

Lefu la heartwater

Matsetse a bitswang bontpoot a fetisetsa kokwan- yana e nwang madi (rickettsia) dikgomong, dinkung, dipoding, matseng le dinareng.

Matshwao: feberu, ho fellwa ke takatso ya dijo, ho hema ka thata, matshwao a methapo- kutlo (ho hatela hodimo, podi e kobela hlooho ya yona mmeleng ka tsela e sa tlwaelehang), ho shwa sethwathwa kapa ho raha ka matla. Ho ntsha mantle kgafetsa haholo. Ho bokellana ha mekedikedi pelong kapa matshwafong.

Alafa phoofolo hang-hang ka prodakte ya oxytetracycline. Thibelo: Hlahloba diphoofolo le makgulo ka mehla. Lenaneo la ho enta le ho isa diphoofolo diping ka mehla ho fedisa matsetse.

le ho isa diphoofolo diping ka mehla ho fedisa matsetse. Isifo se-Heartwater Amakhalane e-Bontpoot asasaza
le ho isa diphoofolo diping ka mehla ho fedisa matsetse. Isifo se-Heartwater Amakhalane e-Bontpoot asasaza

Isifo se-Heartwater

Amakhalane e-Bontpoot asasaza isidleleli esincinane esiphilayo (i-rickettsia) kwiinkomo, iigusha, iibhokwe, ii-antelope nakwiinyathi.

Iimpawu: ifiva, ukungacaceli ukutya, ubunzima bokuphefumla, iimpawu zobuphakuphaku (ukuhamba ngathi sihamba kwindawo ephezulu, ibhokwhe iye ijike intloko yayo ijonge kumzimba waye ngendlela engaqhelekanga), ukuxhuzula okanye ukukhaba ngamandla kakhulu. Kaninzi ziyafa. Ulwelo luye luqokelelana ngasentliziyweni okanye emiphungeni.

luye luqokelelana ngasentliziyweni okanye emiphungeni. Nyanga ngoko nangoko ngemveliso ye-oxytetracycline.

Nyanga ngoko nangoko ngemveliso ye-oxytetracycline. Uthintelo: Ukuhlolwa rhoqo kwemfuyo kunye namadlelo. Inkqubo yokugonya kunye nokudipha rhoqo iphelisa

amakhalane.

Uthintelo: Ukuhlolwa rhoqo kwemfuyo kunye namadlelo. Inkqubo yokugonya kunye nokudipha rhoqo iphelisa amakhalane.

UBISI MAIL | DECEMBER 2010 27