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GUIDELINES FOR OLGA SLUGTRACKING

GUIDELINES FOR OLGA SLUGTRACKING

Slug tracking module

General

Slug tracking module General • Tracking front and tail of each individual slug

Tracking front and tail of each individual slug

Slug tracking module General • Tracking front and tail of each individual slug

Numerical diffusion

Numerical diffusion Real liquid front Standard numerical solution

Real liquid front

Numerical diffusion Real liquid front Standard numerical solution

Standard numerical solution

Numerical diffusion Real liquid front Standard numerical solution

Slug-Tracking module

Slug-Tracking module • When slug flow is indicated, the module sets up a slug and a

When slug flow is indicated, the module sets up a slug and a slug bubble

Slug growth

Slug front an tail tracked

Slug material balance determines whether slugs grow or decay

Terrain slugging

Terrain slugging • Standard OLGA predicts terrain slugging very well • Liquid fronts are sharper with

Standard OLGA predicts terrain slugging very well

Liquid fronts are sharper with slug tracking than in standard OLGA

Slug tracking may give terrain slugging in cases where standard OLGA does not

Slug tracking module

Correlations

Slug tracking module Correlations • Classification of type of tail and front (bubble nose or level/breaking

Classification of type of tail and front (bubble nose or level/breaking front)

Bubble nose velocity

Gas entrainment into slug according to standard OLGA correlation for gas fraction in slugs.

Standard OLGA

Hydrodynamic slugs

Standard OLGA Hydrodynamic slugs • Standard OLGA gives average pressure drop, holdup and flow rates for

Standard OLGA gives average pressure drop, holdup and flow rates for slug flow

Standard OLGA does not show individual slugs or impact of slugging on downstream facilities

Slug tracking module

Hydrodynamic slugs

Slug tracking module Hydrodynamic slugs • Flow regime must be slug flow according to the standard

Flow regime must be slug flow according to the standard OLGA slug model

Minimum initial slug length: 1 D Pipe (default)

(Initial) gas fraction in the slugs are calculated from the same correlation for gas fraction in slugs that is used in the standard OLGA slug model.

Slug tracking input

Hydrodynamic slugs

Available input parameters with slug tracking Initial slug length Initial frequency Delay constant Illegal sections

Slug tracking input Hydrodynamic slugs • Available input parameters with slug tracking • Initial slug length

Slug tracking input

Hydrodynamic slugs cont.

Slug tracking input Hydrodynamic slugs cont. • Be aware of intrinsic ILLEGAL SECTIONS: ( a section

Be aware of intrinsic ILLEGAL SECTIONS:

(a section where the slug front “stops” and the slugs that reach this point

will eventually vanish )

 

first and last section in any Branch consequently at MERGE and SPLIT nodes process equipment except valves

Turn on more ILLEGALSECTIONS only if you have problems

Tuning

Hydrodynamic slugs cont.

Tuning Hydrodynamic slugs cont. • Available field data are limited (Prudhoe Bay, Alaska) • One could

Available field data are limited (Prudhoe Bay, Alaska)

One could calculate slug frequency in pipelines by a method like the Shea correlation

One could tune slug tracking to match frequency from measurements or estimated by other methods by adjusting the DELAYCONSTANT

Use DELAYCONSTANT to tune model rather than initial frequency

Shea correlation

F

sL

=

0 .68

U

SL

D

1 .2

L

0 .6

FsL = slug frequency at pipe outlet

(1/s)

(= no of slugs/observation time period)

  • D = pipeline diameter (m)

  • L = pipeline length

(m)

Shea correlation F sL = 0 .68 ⋅ U SL D 1 .2 ⋅ L 0

UsL = superficial liquid velocity (m/s)

You may tune DELAYCONST (which affects the initial slug frequency) so that the resulting outlet slug frequncy is of same order as FsL for hydrodynamic slugging with moderate terrain effects.

Tracking hydrodynamic slugs (1) • Start with running OLGA without slug tracking until steady state is

Tracking hydrodynamic slugs (1)

Start with running OLGA without slug tracking until steady state is established

If ID = 3 you should run slugtracking

Tracking of hydrodynamic slugs (2) • Turn on slug tracking in a RESTART simulation • (slug

Tracking of hydrodynamic slugs (2)

Turn on slug tracking in a RESTART simulation

(slug tracking can not be turned off in a RESTART)

HYDRODYNAMIC = ON Use the default value of 150 for the Delay Constant

Tracking of hydrodynamic slugs (3) • Model the first slug tracking case with a moderate plotting

Tracking of hydrodynamic slugs (3)

Model the first slug tracking case with a moderate plotting frequency

Plot time trends of QLT 1) and ACCLIQ 2) at pipe outlet and LIQC 3) and NSLUG 4) of each branch.

Specific slug tracking variables apart from NSLUG are seldom needed

1) total liquid volume flow, 2) accumulated total liquid volume flow, 3) total liquid inventory in a branch, 4) total # of slugs in a branch

Tracking of hydrodynamic slugs (4) • Run the case – At least one run-through-time – Until

Tracking of hydrodynamic slugs (4)

Run the case

At least one run-through-time

Until NSLUG is quasi stable

Until LIQC (total liquid content in a branch) is quasi stable

Tracking of hydrodynamic slugs (5) • Make a second restart - from the first slugtracking case

Tracking of hydrodynamic slugs (5)

Make a second restart - from the first slugtracking case

Reduce the plotting interval sufficiently 1 - 5 (s) Run the case several run-through-times Use the 2nd case to analyze liquid surges out of the pipe

use ACCLIQ