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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central

RF Planning Bible

The Few, The Proud

RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central

Chapter 1: CELL SITE PLANNING...............................................8


Chapter 2: SITE DATABASE CREATION...................................24
Chapter 3: RF ROLLOUT.............................................................34
Chapter 4: PRE-LAUNCH OPTIMIZATION...............................52
Chapter 5: INDOOR SOLUTIONS...............................................60
Chapter 6: PROPAGATION MODEL TUNING...........................86
Chapter 7: FREQUENCY PLANNING........................................99
Chapter 8: FREQUENCY RETUNING / REDESIGN................116
ATTACHEMENTS......................................................................122
LNKS:..........................................................................................124
ABBREVIATIONS:....................................................................125
REFRENCES:..............................................................................127

RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central

List of Figures:
Fig 1.1 Cell Site Planning Process................................................................................ 8
Fig 1.2: Coverage Prediction before planning coverage cell site.................................10
Fig 1.3: Coverage Prediction after planning coverage cell site.................................... 11
Fig 1.4: Google view showing coverage cell site......................................................... 11
Fig 1.5: MapInfo view of Capacity planned sites.........................................................13
Fig 1.6: Google Earth View of Capacity Planned Sites.................................................14
Fig 1.7: Coverage Where I am Template sheet.............................................................16
Fig 1.8: MapInfo View of DCS only Site....................................................................17
Fig 1.9: Google Earth View of DCS only Site..............................................................18
Fig 1.10: MapInfo view for Site Design Finalization...................................................21
Fig 1.11: Google Earth view for Site Design Finalization............................................22
Fig 2.1: Telenor Frequency band...................................................................................25
Fig 2.2: Hexagonal Structure.........................................................................................26
Fig 2.3: Cells in practice................................................................................................26
Fig 2.4: Cell Pattern.......................................................................................................27
Fig 2.5: interference.......................................................................................................28
Fig 2.7 C/A.................................................................................................................... 29
Fig 2.8: GSM specifications for C/I and C/A................................................................29
Fig 2.9: Frequency Re-use Pattern.................................................................................30
Fig 3.1: View of SAR validation Candidates...............................................................36
Fig 3.2: Google Earth View of SAR validation Candidates..........................................37
Fig 3.3: Urban area Coverage........................................................................................42
Fig 3.4: Urban Map Info View.......................................................................................43
Fig 3.5: Urban Google Earth View................................................................................ 43
Fig 3.6: Sub-Urban area Coverage................................................................................ 44
Fig 3.7: Suburban Map Info View................................................................................. 45
Fig 3.8: Suburban Google Earth View...........................................................................45
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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central


Fig 3.9: Rural area Coverage.........................................................................................46
Fig 3.10: Rural Map Info View......................................................................................46
Fig 3.11: Rural Google Earth View............................................................................... 47
Fig 3.13: Roads Map Info View.....................................................................................48
Fig 3.14: Roads Google Earth View.............................................................................. 48
Fig 3.15: Map Info view................................................................................................50
Fig 3.16: Google Earth view..........................................................................................50
Fig 4.1: Pre-Launch Optimization Process Flow...........................................................56
Fig 5.1: Omni Directional Antennas..............................................................................66
Fig 5.2: Directional Antennas........................................................................................66
Fig 5.4: Splitters Specifications.....................................................................................68
Fig 5.5: Power Couplers................................................................................................69
Fig 5.6: Couplers Specifications...................................................................................70
Fig 5.8: Active solution layout.......................................................................................71
Fig 5.9: Base station Master Unit.................................................................................. 72
Fig 5.10: VAM............................................................................................................... 72
Fig 5.11: RF Combiner Module.....................................................................................73
Fig 5.12: RSSI of different servers with floor plans......................................................75
Fig 5.13: Priority area marking for an indoor site location........................................... 76
Fig 5.14: Improvement in indoor coverage.................................................................. 77
Fig 5.15: Link Budget Calculations...............................................................................81
Fig 5.16: RF indoor Plan for a floor..............................................................................82
Fig 5.17: Measurements for Cable lengths....................................................................82
Fig 5.18: Antenna Tree diagram.................................................................................... 83
Fig 5.19: Indoor Equipment List................................................................................... 84
Fig 5.20: Rx-Level Idle mode........................................................................................86
Fig 5.21: Rx-Qual Dedicated mode...............................................................................86
Fig 5.22: Spillage...........................................................................................................87
Fig 6.1: Propagation Model parameters values............................................................. 91
Fig 6.2: Propagation Model parameters.........................................................................92
Fig 6.3: Site Selection....................................................................................................94
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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central


Fig 6.4: CW Measurement process................................................................................96
Fig 6.5: Equipment used................................................................................................97
Fig 6.6: Model tuning process....................................................................................... 99
Fig 6.7: Analysis..........................................................................................................100
Fig 6.8: Error vs Log Graph (Before)..........................................................................100
Fig 6.9: Error vs. Log Graph (After).......................................................................... 101
Fig 6.10: RxLev vs. Log (distance)-Before.................................................................101
Fig 6.11: RxLev vs. Log (distance)-After....................................................................101
Fig 7.1: Frequency Planning........................................................................................104
Fig 7.2: Cost Matrix Weight-age................................................................................. 106
Fig 7.3: ILSA diagram.................................................................................................107
Fig 7.4: ILSA Setup..................................................................................................... 107
Fig 7.5: Assigning carriers...........................................................................................108
Fig 7.6: Neighbour Plan in Site Database....................................................................109
Fig 7.7: Neighbours in Map Window.......................................................................... 110
Fig 7.8: ILSA Frequency Planner................................................................................ 111
Fig7.9: ILSA Frequency Planner & Plan List Window.............................................. 112
Fig 7.10: ILSA Plan Status......................................................................................... 112
Fig 7.11: Plan Cost Summary..................................................................................... 113
Fig 7.12: ILSA FP Result............................................................................................113
Fig 7.13: Creating Arrays.............................................................................................114
Fig 7.14: Worst Interferer.............................................................................................116
Fig 7.15: ILSA Cost/Interference Graph......................................................................116
Fig 8.1: Pre- & Post-Activity City Coverage and Rx Level........................................126
Fig 8.2: RxQual Plot of the Gujranwala city before and after the activity..................126

RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central

RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central

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RF Planning Central

The Few The


Proud.pdf

RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central

Chapter 1: CELL SITE PLANNING


Every cellular network needs cell site planning in order to ensure
coverage requirements, to maximize capacity requirements and to
avoid interference. The cell planning process consists of many different
tasks, all together making it possible to achieve a well working
network. The major activities involved in the cell planning process are
represented below:

Fig 1.1 Cell Site Planning Process

Why Cell Site Planning?


A cell may be defined as an area of radio coverage from one BTS
antenna system. It is the smallest building block in a mobile network
and is the reason why mobile networks are often referred to as cellular
networks. Cell site planning can briefly be described as all the
activities involved in determining which sites should be used for the
radio equipment, which equipment should be used, and how the
equipment should be configured. To ensure coverage, to cater the
capacity requirements and to avoid interference, each cellular network
needs Cell Site Planning.
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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central

Nominal Survey Point Identification


The cell site planning process is started by a coverage analysis,
capacity analysis and customer feedback. Coverage analysis identifies
the poor coverage locations and capacity analysis provides the high
traffic cells in the cellular network. Sales and Distribution team also
plays a major role in analyzing the coverage and capacity issues by
providing the subscriber forecast of low coverage areas and growth
rate distribution of populated areas. Coverage holes and poor coverage
areas are identified with the help of ASSET predictions (AIRCOM
based tool used for coverage analysis) and a suitable nominal survey
point (longitude, latitude) is chosen for detailed area profiling visit
(Nominal Survey) to provide coverage to all the customers. Nominal
Survey points are also identified after monitoring the timing advance
(TA) stats of the high traffic cells to address the capacity issues. Also,
the customer feed back is an important parameter to determine the
network quality in a certain region. Customer feedback is analyzed
prior to coverage or capacity issue and then addressed as discussed
above.
All these analysis performed by RF Planner and feedback from the
commercial form the basis of new nominal survey plan. A new nominal
survey plan consists of nominal geographic coordinates for which
detailed area profiling visits are required to evaluate the feasibility of
new cell sites.

Coverage Planning
In order to provide the coverage solutions in the cellular network, radio
frequency planning team extracts the latest coverage prediction from
the AIRCOM based tool ASSET. This prediction is helpful in
identifying the poor coverage areas in the cellular network.

RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central

Fig 1.2: Coverage Prediction before planning coverage cell site

RF Planning Team updates the Asset database with the latest On Air
and Planned sites. Then, Path Loss Predictor is defined according to the
requirements like filters,(On Air or Planned), radius, area and resolution
of the map to be used. All these requirements can be defined with the
help of Asset. The legend of the coverage for the selected ranges can
also be defined. Path Loss predictor is then run and the best server
coverage is displayed. The best server coverage prediction is then
exported in .mif or .tab format and can be viewed in MapInfo
Professional. The feasibility of the new site is then evaluated from
coverage holes or poor coverage areas and nominal surveys (detailed
area profiling visits) are carried out to know the geographical terrain
and expected capacity (traffic load).Fig 1.2 shows the coverage hole in
the cellular network while fig 1.3 shows the coverage prediction after
planning new cell site.

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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central

Fig 1.3: Coverage Prediction after planning coverage cell site

Fig 1.4: Google view showing coverage cell site


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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central

Capacity Planning
One of the basis for cell site planning is the traffic demand, i.e. how
many subscribers use the network and how much traffic they generate.
The Erlang (E) is a unit of measurement of traffic intensity.
To meet the capacity requirements, RF Planning Team monitors the
traffic stats of the network on weekly basis (averaged for one week)
and identifies the
high traffic cells. The traffic stats are extracted for both Nokia and
Siemens regions separately depending upon the equipment installed
vendor in that region. For Nokia and Siemens region, traffic stats are
extracted from the Nokia Optima Harmonized Tool and Stat Mon
Tool respectively. Both these tools contain all the network parameters
data and are used for network planning and optimization. For capacity
planning, GSM Traffic, DCS Traffic, Call Setup Block Rate, Traffic
Channel Utilization and Erlang/Trx are our main area of interest.
For Nokia region, segment level busy hour stats are extracted from
query Segment BH Traffic within the Nokia Optima Harmonized
Tool for the selective dates. Clutter classification and Trx count for
GSM and DCS in each segment are provided by Optimization team. Site
name, Azimuths, Longitude, Latitude, On-Air Date, Status are taken
from MapInfo weekly files.
For Siemens region, BH stat sheets of the days required are added
into Stat Mon Tool. These stat sheets are available at the centralized
server. Segment per Busy Hour (SPBH) is run from trender tab within
the tool by putting in the dates of the sheets added earlier to get the
GSM and DCS traffic. The other parameters are calculated as follows.
Parameter
GSM Traffic
DCS Traffic
Call Setup Block
Rate
Total Time Slots(TS)
GSM Trxs
DCS Trxs
Segment Trxs

Formulae
Erl_C_F+Erl_C_H
Erl_I_F+Erl_I_H
TASSFAIL_NoRadio/(TASSATT_F+TASSATT_H)
NRDEFTCH_C + NRDEFTCH_I
IF(ROUND(NRDEFTCH_C /8,0)- NRDEFTCH_C /
8>=0, ROUND(NRDEFTCH_C /
8,0),ROUND(NRDEFTCH_C /8,0)+1)
IF(ROUND(NRDEFTCH_I/8,0)- NRDEFTCH_I /
8>=0,ROUND(NRDEFTCH_I/8,0),ROUND(NRDEFT
CH_I/8,0)+1
IF(ROUND(Total_TS/8,0)- Total_TS /
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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central

Offered Traffic*
Carried Traffic
TCH Utilization

8>=0,ROUND(Total_TS /8,0),ROUND(Total_TS /
8,0)+1)
(Total TS Erlang B Poison Prediction)*1.5
GSM Traffic+DCS Traffic
Carried Traffic/Offered Traffic*100

Using Total_TS and Grade of Service(2%) , Erlang B Poisson traffic


prediction will give the Offered traffic and multiplying it by
1.5(assuming the half rate HR is enabled on every segment) to
give total Offered traffic.

Final Excel sheet of traffic stats and MapInfo tab file are then filtered
for high traffic areas. The cells having CS block rate > 5% and TCH
utilization > 100 % are then evaluated for the Trx expansions or new
cell sites through Google Earth and MapInfo. Nominal surveys are
planned after monitoring the TA stats from where the maximum traffic
is generated for knowing the geographical terrain and the expected
capacity (traffic load).

Fig 1.5: MapInfo view of Capacity planned sites

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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central

Fig 1.6: Google Earth View of Capacity Planned Sites


The cell site MSG018 and MSG021 are planned as a capacity sites to
share the traffic of neighboring cells MSG0142 and MSG0162 having
TCH utilizations greater than 100%. The nominal locations of these
planned sites are decided by monitoring their TA stats from the Stat
Mon Tool.

Erlang B Table.pdf

Feed Back & Complaints


A feedback or complaint is usually raised by Network user; a special
team by the name of Customer Liaison Team (CLT) is monitoring the
track of all the customer complaints and is in constant coordination
with technical teams. The complaint is analyzed whether it is related to
RF Planning team or optimization team. If it is related to planning
team, it is then analyzed for coverage issue or capacity issue. The
coverage related issues are generally raised by network users, the area
is then identified on MapInfo, and then by using Coverage predictions
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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central


RF planning team confirms of any coverage hole or poor coverage.
Once the coverage issue is confirmed, the RF Planning team analyzes
the neighbor site design to check if the area can be served by existing
site, if not it is surveyed with market sales team or corporate relation
team for a feasibility of new site. If the area is feasible, new site is
planned and placed in buffer so that it is re released when new sites
are to be planned. For capacity issue, cell utilization is checked, if the
utilization is 100% then, the configuration is taken into account. If
there is no room for an additional TRX, i.e. six radios in the cell, a new
site is planned by using TA stats, and if not, expansion is performed by
incrementing the number of radio by 1, until the issue is resolved. The
team makes sure that the problem is resolved and also re-confirms the
status with the complainer. Capacity complaints can be raised from
network user or other departments specially RF Optimization.

Coverage Where am I?
Coverage where am I is a joint tool for Commercial and Technical
teams to identify important locations nationwide and monitor progress
made against providing coverage at these locations on monthly basis.
Commercial team puts forward their feedback or complaints of the
coverage issues in the network and wants to know the RF comments
over these issues. RF team then provides the coverage status of those
areas and evaluates the feasibility of new site. All this feedback is
maintained in the form of an Excel sheet. RF team comments are
required in Coverage Status, Priority, Site Status, Site Name,
New Site Count, Type, Timeliness and Comments fields of the
Excel sheet,
i)

ii)

The 'Coverage Status' field should only have following


values: Covered,
Partially Covered & Not
Covered. If a location like Motorway M1 requires several
sites, it
will be considered 'Partially Covered' until all the
planned sites are on-air. The status will change to 'Covered'
when no more new sites are needed.
The 'Site Status' field should only have following values:
Planned, On-Air, On-Hold Not Planned. The reasons for
'On-Hold' sites should be mentioned in 'Comments' field.
Also, the details about the planned sites stages (TSS done,
SARF released, etc) can be mentioned in 'Comments' field.
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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central


iii)

The Priority field should only have following values: P0,


P1 & P2. The definitions of these are as follows.
P0 = Highest priority. Site needed most urgently.
Infrastructure is complete or near completion and people /
traffic
is
present.
P1 = Site needed. Infrastructure is complete or near
completion
and
people
/
traffic
is
present.
P2 = Infrastructure will take 1-2 years in completion &
traffic is not present.

iv)
v)
vi)
vii)

The Site Name field contains the name of the serving


sites in that area.
The New Site Count field contains the number of
planned sites in that area.
The Type field contains the type of the On Air sites or the
type of the sites to be installed.
The Timeliness field shows the completion period to
provide coverage in that area.

Fig 1.7: Coverage Where I am Template sheet


TD team will update the "Coverage Where I am" sheet identifying the
status of sites in the identified locations. This sheet will be updated
every (2) months for all regions. Monthly meeting will be held among
all stake holders to review progress status. The 'Comments' in the
sheet will specify updated site status obtained from Real Estate team,
in case if it is facing any acquisition related issues. Task force from Site
Acquisition will push for early resolution of issues on stuck sites.
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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central


Commercial team will also identify resources from their side to
facilitate release of stuck sites.

Special Case: 1800 MHz Only Sites


RF Planning Team uses the Coverage Predictions, Traffic Stats Analysis
and corporate complaints feedback to mark probable locations
(capacity/quality) on a monthly basis. In case of a capacity site, RF
planning team identifies the cells carrying high traffic from latest traffic
stats and subscriber forecast provided by S&D. For design, the Inter
Site distance (from all the Sectors) must not be more than 600m &
GOS < 0.5% in Dense Urban & Urban environment. In case of a quality
site, RF planning analyzes the statistical reports and / or the forecasted
yearly subscriber-base by S&D. RF planning team uses coverage
predictions to identify poor coverage locations which should not be
more than 200m in the existing network in Dense Urban and Urban
environment to provide deep indoor coverage. Nominal surveys of all
these locations are also carried out by RF team.

Fig 1.8: MapInfo View of DCS only Site


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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central

Fig 1.9: Google Earth View of DCS only Site


Fig 1.9 shows the DCS only site MOK010 in dense urban area to share
the high traffic of its neighboring cells. Google Earth view of the same
area is showing the dense area and the site azimuths for meeting the
capacity requirements.

RF SURVEY REPORTING
A radio frequency (RF) site survey is the first step in the deployment of
a Wireless network and the most important step to ensure desired
operation. A site survey is a task-by-task process by which the
surveyor studies the facility to understand the RF behavior, discovers
RF coverage areas, estimates for RF capacity requirements, checks for
RF interference and determines the appropriate placement of Wireless
equipment.
In a Wireless network, many issues can arise which can prevent the
radio frequency (RF) signal from reaching all parts of the facility.
Examples of RF issues include multipath distortion, shadowing effect,
time dispersion and time alignment issues. In order to address these,
you need to find the regions where these issues occur. A site survey
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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central


helps you to do this. A site survey helps define the contours of RF
coverage in a particular facility. It helps to discover regions where
multipath distortion can occur, areas where RF interference is high and
find solutions to eliminate such issues. A site survey that determines
the RF coverage area in a facility also helps to choose the number of
Wireless devices that a firm needs to meet its business requirements. A
site survey should also determine the expected subscribers forecast. A
proper site survey provides detailed information that addresses
coverage, interference sources, equipment placement, power
considerations and wiring requirements.
RF Planning team makes a consolidated excel sheet of nominal RF
survey points (geographical coordinates) on the basis of the coverage,
capacity and feedback issues in the network. Afterwards, the nominal
site surveys are split according to the geographical vicinity among RF
resources. Based on the quantity of coordinates, geographic terrain
and distance from base, RF Survey schedule is made.

Performing Survey
A radio frequency planner should be equipped with a laptop, MapInfo,
Google Earth, Global Positioning System Equipment (GPS), Compass,
Digital Camera, Binoculars, Map Source and Global Mapper (optional)
for performing the RF survey. Before going out for the RF survey, latest
coverage prediction should be analyzed for a coverage survey and
Traffic stats and TA trend for the neighboring sites should be analyzed
for a capacity survey and Google earth should be used for rough
estimations and directions. Track Mode of GPS should be in ON state.
Coverage Surveys are carried out in the areas where there is poor
coverage and in these kinds of surveys it is all about exploring the area
to the maximum and finding out good populations. Capacity surveys
are carried out for the cells where there is high TCH utilization or high
CS blocking. Capacity surveys are all about to identify the high traffic
generating areas. The cells which are highly utilized or in which there
are high blocking that cells foot print (coverage area) should be
surveyed for potential populations, which are the candidates for
capacity sites.

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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central


Following Observations should necessarily be made on nominal RF
survey.

Any town, Village or city visited should be profiled with name,


population and available mobile operators in the area.

Snaps should be taken from the center of the village from


average building height taking true north as a reference with the
help of magnetic compass and 8 snaps should be taken with
Digital Camera that are separated apart with 45 degree angle.

Snaps of the roads leading towards major towns or highways of


the area should be taken.

Average Building height should be noted.

All the villages of the area should be profiled with above


mentioned details.

After performing the nominal RF surveys, *.DXF file of marked


waypoints and tracks is extracted from GPS with the help of Map
Source and is imported to MapInfo. Then, *.TAB file of MapInfo is made
with the help of collected data and *.DXF file.

Reporting Survey including .Tab file


All RF Planners prepare their individual survey Tab file after performing
the surveys. Preparation of Tab file includes the tracks, polygons,
location names and its approximate population along with other useful
information and landmarks. Unnecessary points, lines and/or text
should be avoided while preparing Survey Tabs as this will increase the
file size. If it contains any unwanted points, lines and any overlapping
entities, the Tab file should be cleaned to simplify the geometry. The
basic file set for viewing the MapInfo Tab file consists of a minimum of
four files, the *.DAT, *.TAB, *.ID and *.MAP. If any one of these is
missing, the Tab file will fail to open in MapInfo.

Site Design Finalization

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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central


All RF Planners report and discuss their RF survey findings with the
senior team members. The senior team member analyzes their
findings, *.TAB files and snaps of the villages and make decisions for
planning new sites of the performed surveys. The best location for new
site is then selected for providing the good coverage and balancing the
traffic load of neighboring cells. Antenna type, Site type, Antenna
azimuths, Antenna heights and Antenna tilts are then decided with the
mutual discussion of RF surveyor and senior team member depending
upon the clutter type and population spread of the area under
consideration.

Fig 1.10: MapInfo view for Site Design Finalization

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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central

Fig 1.11: Google Earth view for Site Design Finalization


Fig 1.11 shows the detailed area profiling visit (Nominal Survey) of a
certain region and the proposed design for a new cell site to cater the
maximum traffic. The site should always be planned in the middle of
populated area to distribute the traffic equally on all cells. The
azimuths are planned in such a way that all the cells carry good traffic
from the neighboring populated area. Fig. 10 shows the Google Earth
view to verify the nominal cell site plan.

RF Master Plan Release


A nominal cell site plan in the form of an excel sheet is produced after
the site design finalization process. Then, the unique site names are
added in nominal plan sheet and consolidated nominal sheet is floated
which form the basis for new master plan. Nominal cell plans are the
first cell plans produced and these form the basis of further planning.

Ph5 Master RF Plan V


3.1 (30-10-2008)(Central).xls

Site Name Identification

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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central


The nominal cell site plan contains all the site data without site IDs. A
cell site name consists of seven letters and unique throughout the
network. The 1st letter indicates the planning phase of the site and the
2nd letter indicates the planning region of the site. For 3rd, 4th and 5th
letters for site name, universal site naming sheet with all the site
names in the network is filtered out in ascending order to find the
unique site name. The 6th and 7th letter of the site name should be
digits. The selected Site IDs and Segment names are then added in the
nominal cell site plan sheet. The finalized nominal cell site plan sheet
contains the Site Name, Segment Name, Phase, Longitude, Latitude,
Search Ring, City Name, Azimuth, Tilt, Antenna Height, Antenna Type,
Site Type, Date Released, Category, Tower Type and Cells to be
relieved fields in it. All these fields are then appended in the last
release master plan. The feeder cable length, and number of antennas
required for one site are also added in master plan sheet. Finally, the
site priorities are added in master plan sheet and the new version of
the master plan is floated to the concerned departments.

Nominal Sites Database


Nominal Site Database is created from Master Plan sheet. The following
fields are taken from the master plan sheet. Site Name, Longitude,
Latitude, Antenna Height, Antenna Tilt, Antenna Azimuth, Tower
Height,
Date
Released,
Trx
configuration,
Site
Type
(Coverage/Capacity) and Search ring. Site names of new sites
should be rechecked from Nominal Database record and update in
Nominal Record. Consolidated Nominal Sites Database is also floated
within the department.

Central
Nominals(P3+-to-P5Q4)(02-Dec-08).rar

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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central

Chapter 2: SITE DATABASE CREATION

Introduction
Site Database creation for new Sites

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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central

Introduction:
Site database is process of creating frequency parameters of new sites
which are required as by GSM architecture.
In GSM Frequency planning is important to minimize the interference
which improves the quality while giving the coverage and capacity.
Objective is to use the allocated frequency spectrum efficiently. There are
limited frequencies available to Telenor Pakistan (24 ARFCN for 900
band and 44 ARFCN for 1800 band) and the number of calls that the
network can support is limited by the amount of radio frequencies
allocated to that network However, a cellular network can overcome this
constraint and maximize the number of subscribers that it can service by
using frequency re-use.
Frequency re-use means that two radio channels within the same
network can use exactly the same pair of frequencies provided that
there is a sufficient geographical distance (the frequency reuse distance)
between them so they will not interfere with each other. The tighter
frequency re-use plan, the greater the capacity potential of the network.

Telenor Frequency band

Fig 2.1: Telenor Frequency band

Why Frequency Planning is Important


In theory, hexagons are used to represent cell (Coverage area), sites
can be planned Omni or directional (2, 3, 4 Sectors) antennas.
Why Hexagons:
The border between the coverage area of two cells is the set of points
at which the signal strength from both antennas is the same. In reality,
the environment will determine this line, but for simplicity, it is

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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central


represented as a straight line. If six BTSs are placed around an original
BTS, the coverage area that is, the cell takes on a hexagonal shape.

Fig 2.2: Hexagonal Structure


Omni directional cell: An Omni-directional cell (or Omni cell) is
served by a BTS with an antenna which transmits equally in all
directions (360 degrees).
Sector cell: A sector cell is the area of coverage from an antenna,
which transmits, in a given direction only. For example, this may be
equal to 120 degrees or 180 degrees of an equivalent Omni- directional
cell. One BTS can serve one of these sector cells with a collection of
BTSs at a site serving more than one, leading to terms such as twosectored sites and more commonly, three-sectored sites.

Fig 2.3: Cells in practice


In reality, hexagons are extremely simplified models of radio coverage
patterns because radio propagation is highly dependent on terrain and
other factors. The problems of path loss,
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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central


Shadowing and multipath fading all affect the coverage of an area. For
example, time dispersion is a problem caused by the reception of radio
signals, which are reflected off far away objects. The carrier-toreflection (C/R) ratio is defined as the ratio between the direct signal
(C) and the reflected signal (R).
Also, due to the problem of time alignment the maximum distance an
MS can be from a BTS is 35 km. This is the maximum radius of a GSM
cell. In areas where large coverage with small capacity is required, it is
possible to allocate two consecutive TDMA time slots to one subscriber
on a call. This enables a maximum distance from the BTS of 70km.
Cell size mainly depends on the amount of traffic they are
expected to carry so for cell patterns the major contributing
factor is the population density.

Fig 2.4: Cell Pattern

Interference
Frequency re-use is essential not only because of providing capacity but
also for providing quality.
If there are two carriers within the same cell coverage area it will lead to
cause inter symbol interference (ISI). Interference can be avoided by
considering the following factors.
Careful frequency allocation to new cell site
Proper choice for site location
Antenna installation planning
Frequency hopping
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RF Planning Bible: TP RF - Central

Power control
DTX

Fig 2.5: interference


There are two major types of interference which are explained below:

Co-Channel Interference C/I

Co-channel interference is caused by the use of a frequency close to the


exact same frequency. The former will interfere with the latter, leading to
the terms interfering frequency (I) and carrier frequency (C).
This C/I ratio is influenced by the following factors:
The location of the MS
Local geography and type of local scatters
BTS antenna type, site elevation and position

Fig 2.6 C/I

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Adjacent-Channel Interference C/A:


Adjacent frequencies (A), that is frequencies shifted 200 kHz from the
carrier frequency (C), must be avoided in the same cell and preferably in
neighboring cells also. Although adjacent frequencies are at different
frequencies to the carrier frequency they can still cause interference and
quality problems.

Fig 2.7 C/A

GSM Specification for C/I and A/I:


The GSM specification recommends that the carrier-to interference (C/I)
ratio is greater than 9 decibels (dB).
The GSM specification states that the carrier-to-adjacent ratio (C/A)
must be larger than
-9dB.

Fig 2.8: GSM specifications for C/I and C/A

Frequency Re-use

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The re-use patterns recommended for GSM are the 4/12 and the 3/9
pattern. 4/12 means that there are four three-sector sites supporting
twelve cells using twelve frequency groups.

Affected by interference between cells


Type of geographic terrain (radio propagation conditions)
Antenna height / tilting
Antenna types
Omni directional antenna
120 deg Directional
60 deg Directional

Transmission output power


Radio Link Control features
Frequency Hopping
Dynamic Power Control
DTX / VAD

Fig 2.9: Frequency Re-use Pattern

Site Database Creation for New Sites:

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Site database creation for new sites is initiated by creating cell ids for new
cells.
Current Cell IDs for different region are maintained in
separate files for reference.

The last character of Cell ID represents the sector it should be 1, 2, 3,


or 4 for sectors 1, 2, 3 & 4 respectively on 900. For 1800, the last
character should be 5, 6, 7 & 8 for sectors 1, 2, 3 & 4 respectively.
Append respective digit to new site code to make Cell ID for sectors.

Check for newly assigned Cell ID to be unique, if it is not; reassign Cell ID to make it unique.

Frequency Parameters (i.e. BCCH, BSIC and HSN) are planned for target
sites by RF planning team.

RF planning teams carry out the Audit once a month to check


the carrier data of all On-Air sites within RF department.

Start with BCCH planning first:

TP_Freq(Nokia+Siem
ens).xls

Use the BCCH separation of at least 2 when plan BCCH of the cell on
the same site

For the surrounding site try to avoid co and adjacent channel,


sometimes a retune of existing site is required in order to get the suitable
BCCH for the new site. Keep record of the existing site change in order to
create the change request along with new site DB.

Height and tilt data of the cell antenna is essential for BCCH allocation.

Once BCCH allocation is finished the next step is to plan BSIC


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The available range of BSIC of Telenor is 30 37 and 40 47

Do assign BSIC to the new site in the way that there's no co BCCH and
co BSIC in the surrounding area, otherwise it will cause the problem when
doing neighbor cell planning.

Don't forget to check the BSIC of the retuned existing site too. The new
BSIC allocation may be needed in order to avoid co BCCH and co BSIC.

The next step is to plan HSN for new site.

The available range of HSN is 0 63, 0 is for cyclic hopping pattern and
1 63 is for random hopping pattern (normally 1 31 and 33-63 is used
for SFH).

For all cell in the same site the same HSN is used. The only different is
the MAIO offset (the starting frequency to do hopping)

For the surrounding site plan the HSN in the way that there's no co HSN
in the nearby area (Try to use same HSN in the as far away site as
possible)

The MAL and MAIO offset is as followed

MAL 11 is used for Nokia GSM900 site and MAL 105 is used for
Nokia GSM1800 site all cells
MAIO offset 0, 2, 4 is used for Nokia GSM900 intra site different
cell and MAIO offset 0, 8, 16 is used for GSM1800 Nokia intra site
different cell.
MAL 41 is used for Siemens GSM900 site all cells and MAL 51, 52,
53 is used for Siemens GSM1800 intra site different cell.
MAIO offset 1, 3, 5 is used for Siemens GSM900 intra site
different cell and MAIO offset 0, 1, 2 is used for Siemens
GSM1800 intra site different cell
Neighbours for target sites are planned by RF planning

team

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First assign all intra-site cells as the neighbor cell of the new

cell.
Assign the surrounding cell that point to the same area as the
new cell as the neighbor cell. Note that maximum number of neighbor cell
is 31 for Nokia site and 32 for Siemens site.

Add the new cell as the neighbor cell of all those existing cells
that we add as the neighbor of the new cell to make a two way
relationship. Check existing number of neighbor cell of those existing cells
in order to not exceed the limit too. If exceeding the limit ask the
optimization team to delete the unwanted neighbor cells in order to be
able to add the new neighbor cell.

After making neighbor site list for all cells, the next step is to
check if there's co BCCH and co BSIC among them or not.

For Siemens site the condition is


No co BCCH between Source cell and neighbor cell is allowed
No co BCCH and co BSIC among the neighbor list of the same
source cell is allowed

For Nokia site the condition is


No co BCCH and co BSIC between source cell and neighbor cell is
allowed
No co BCCH and co BSIC among the neighbor list of the same
source cell is allowed

If we can't fulfill the condition mentioned above, the new


BCCH or BSIC allocation is needed.

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Chapter 3: RF ROLLOUT

Introduction
SAR Validation
Technical Site Survey Scheduling
Performing TSS
Site Design Finalization
RF Database Update
Work Package Verification

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Introduction:
The rollout process is to make BTS sites come On-Air with timeliness
and meeting all the quality requirements. It ensures clean process flow
between different stakeholders such as Real Estate, Project Control and
Implementation Teams. The BTS sites are selected and constructed in
such a manner that they fulfill all the capacity and coverage
requirements. After the release of RF Master Plan, the sites are
distributed among different sub-contractors (Site Acquisition and
Construction Vendors) based upon their quality of work and their
previous performance. This distribution is done by RE department.

SAR Validation:
SAR (Site Acquisition Report) is a document submitted by the Sub-con
to the Project Control team after hunting of different candidates for a
particular cell site. The PC team then submits this document to the RF
Planning team for validation.
SAR validation is a carried out to check the details of various
candidates hunted for a site, prioritizing and evaluating these
candidates so as to select the most appropriate location for a cell site.
SAR validation process starts with Project Reporting team providing
SAR for review. Site is evaluated whether it is a Normal site or a
difficult one. Normal sites are those which are without any issue while
difficult site may have either of many issues like Border/Ranger site,
Documentation issue, no electricity, Access/foundation issue,
government land, etc.
If the site is a Normal site, the candidates are plotted in MapInfo and
Google Earth. The coordinates are taken from SAR report and the
entries in SAR Comment Sheet are verified along with Distance from
Nominal. Miscellaneous information of the SAR is also verified, from the
Nominal Plan Sheet such as:

Site Name
Candidate Name
Phase Number
Obstacle Diagram
Tower height, Site Type, planned azimuths.
Site Layout Diagram
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Panoramic pictures
Sector Azimuth Pictures etc.

Once these are verified, the RF Comment Sheet is filled. If a candidate


meets RF requirement, it is 'Accepted'. In case more than one
candidates are acceptable, the preferred one is marked 'Accepted
and preferred'. If decision could not be made using MapInfo, Google
Earth and panoramic pictures, then 'Decision to be made at time of
TSS' while 'Conditionally accepted for TSS' indicates that a
candidate is acceptable if certain conditions are met. This is depicted
very clearly in the below pictures of Map Info and Google Earth views.
The Green color asterisk is for 'Accepted and preferred', Blue is for
'Accepted', Yellow is for 'Conditionally accepted for TSS' and Red
is for Rejected:

Fig 3.1: View of SAR validation Candidates

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Fig 3.2: Google Earth View of SAR validation Candidates


Record of the SAR candidate is updated in the SAR Tracking Sheet.
After evaluation, response is sent back to Project Reporting Team for
further intimation to Sub-Con.
In case of difficult site: Difficult site is a term used to identify a site
where candidate cannot be easily finalized. This may be due to a
number of reasons like Airport or Cantonment area, no proper
ownership documents, stay or court case exists, no electricity
available, normal civil works not possible or border/Rangers area. Upon
SAR submission, check the previous record of any candidate submitted
for this particular site in the SAR Tracking Sheet. If previous candidates
are found, check the reason of rejection. Different situations are
possible. Some of the cases are discussed below:
Cantonment / Airport Funnel Area:
Check whether the candidate falls exactly in front of funnel area or in
area of limited height. If it is in front of the Funnel, the candidate is
useless. New Nominal is to be provided to the Subcon. A meeting with
concerned authority should be scheduled to discuss appropriate
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candidates and finalize acceptable one.

No Ownership Documents:
If ownership documents are not available for a particular candidate,
SAR for another candidate within the Search Radius with proper
ownership documents is to be submitted. If it falls in the Government
land, the probability is that no one will have ownership documents. In
such case check the options at the edges of the Government land.
Stay/Court Case:
If there is a stay or court case against the land, Subcon should ensure
whether it will be settled shortly or is it a prolonged stay. If the stay is
long-term, other alternatives need to be considered.
No Power Supply:
Sometimes electricity is not available in the vicinity or it cannot be
extended to the site due to congested population or other legal issues.
In such a situation the site has to be moved to within 2km of the
nearest location where electricity is available.
Rangers/Border Area:
In situations where a candidate falls in Rangers area or near Border,
the final location is to be decided in a joint visit with the Rangers or
Border Security Force.
According to Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) rules and
regularities:

You cannot
international
The Signal
International

install a site within the 10Km distance from


border.
should not penetrate in the 02 Km radius of the
border.

Civil Works Issue:


In congested population, there is a chance that proper access is not
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possible or plot sizes are not adequate within Search Radius. In such
situation, the civil team has to check whether Compact design is
possible. If not possible, Subcon is to be directed to hunt new
candidate. If normal foundation is not possible due to higher water
level under the land, pile foundation is required, but it should be
avoided to its maximum as its a costly solution.
The remaining procedure is as for the Normal site. However, if any SAR
is incomplete the Real Estate Team is asked, via the Project Control
team, to re-submit a correct version and if any candidate is rejected,
they are informed of the reason of rejection. In this case, Subcon has to
hunt for new candidate and submit its SAR. SAR response must be sent
within 48 hours. After receiving SAR response, the Project Control team
prepares TSS tentative dates.

Technical Site Survey Scheduling:


TSS (Technical Site Survey) scheduling is a process to streamline the
efficient use of available man power as well as other resources like
pool vehicles.
TSS Scheduling is done after the intimation of possible TSS candidates
from Project Control team. TSS of only those sites can be scheduled for
which SAR has already been approved. If PC team requests the
scheduling of that TSS for which SAR is not approved, it is immediately
rejected by the RF Planning team. Provided TSS Candidates are then
analyzed according to their regions i.e. their position and importance.
TSS is then planned by keeping in view that minimal of two sites
should be surveyed by one team in a day. But special cases like
difficult site, political site, urgent requirement etc. can be
compensated. Pairing of same site acquisition contractor sites is
preferred. The Normal candidates which could not be paired are sent
back to project control team so that they can be paired with future
coming TSS candidates.
After checking for availability, RF resource is allocated. Once the TSS is
planned, its schedule is floated to the Project Control Team, which
intimates the concerned regional RF representatives, Vendor
representatives and RF Planning AM.
Some sites are categorized as difficult because these are facing issues
like clear documentation issue, court stay, WAPDA availability,
Cantonment area, airport funnel area, etc. For these sites, the RE
department is also involved while performing the TSS, so they must
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also be asked while scheduling. The RE representative resolves all the
legal issues at the time of TSS.
In case of Sharing Sites with other operators, Project Control team has
to coordinate with that operators concerns first so that their resources
are aligned timely. Then, the tentative plan is floated to RF Planning
team. After receiving TSS schedule from RF Planning team, the PC
team has to float this schedule to the host operators concerns as well
along with the mentioned earlier for normal sites.
The whole process of scheduling TSS shall be completed within 48
hours time. It is preferred to schedule the sites for the coming week on
Friday of each week.

Performing TSS:
TSS is a process to select the best suited candidate for the
construction of planned cell site from RF as well as civil and
implementation perspective.
Before going to the TSS visit, RF Planning engineer notes down all the
Nominal Plan details of the sites to be visited. He must evaluate all the
candidates of all the sites on Google Earth. He feeds the Site
coordinates in the GPS. While leaving for the TSS, one should adopt the
best possible route via Map Info.
On reaching the site, RF planner receives the SARs of all the
candidates in Hard Copy form. He verifies the Candidates and Site
coordinates submitted in the SAR and being shown at the time of TSS.
These noted coordinates are also verified with other teams on the TSS.
The Planning guy also notes down DFN, HASL and the Coordinates. He
then takes the Panoramic of all candidates(from some nearby high-rise
building) every 45 degree(i.e. total 8 in number) by keeping North as 0
degree reference, then takes the snaps of 3 or 4 Azimuths, Tower
location, HT line and Road access. If it is an Urban or Suburban site, RF
planner selects the candidate which is very much near to the nominal
point so that the intended population can be best served with the site.
In case of rural site, the selected location should be in the center of
population or which is most suited. Also, the RF Planner should decide
the Sector orientation at the time of TSS along with the Site Type
(whether it should be type 2, type 3, type 4 etc depending upon
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population trend). The dense population has probability of generating
more traffic, so the site should be type 3 or 4. The site should type 2
for less dense, scattered and rural population as well as for roads. The
coverage requirements in urban, suburban, rural areas and on roads
are different. In urban areas sites are very much close to each other, so
heights of antennas are kept low (usually between 20m-30m). In suburban areas population is bit scattered, hence sites are a distance and
also antenna heights are more as well (usually between 25m-35m). In
rural areas and on roads populations is quite scattered, so sites are at
considerable distance an antenna heights are also high (usually
between 30m-45m). The coverage in all these different categories can
be distributed as shown I figures below:

Urban Areas

Sub Urban Areas

Rural Areas

Roads & Highways

Urban Area:

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Fig 3.3: Urban area Coverage

Site Sharing:

Please see the attachment for the Site Sharing process & the SSRF for
shared Sites below:

Site Sharing Operators as Host.vsd

Site Sharing Telenor as Host.vsd

Zong SSRF
LLR143_C-LHR-6356.xls

SSRF for
shared Sites

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Fig 3.4: Urban Map Info View

Fig 3.5: Urban Google Earth View

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Sub Urban area

Fig 3.6: Sub-Urban area Coverage

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Fig 3.7: Suburban Map Info View

Fig 3.8: Suburban Google Earth View

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Rural Area:

Fig 3.9: Rural area Coverage

Fig 3.10: Rural Map Info View

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Fig 3.11: Rural Google Earth View

Roads & Highways:

Fig 3.12: Roads Coverage


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Fig 3.13: Roads Map Info View

Fig 3.14: Roads Google Earth View

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The candidate is selected such that cell site should meet all RF
objectives like being within the radius etc. If there is an obstacle
present near the hunted candidate then its information like
coordinates, height should be carefully measured. If the obstacle is far
than double the distance of tower height, then it wouldnt cause any
problems. If it is within that distance and in front of any of planned
azimuths, it will cause severe blocking. Hence, that candidate is
rejected and the vendor is asked to hunt the new one. Candidate ID
should be verified with RE before being recorded to avoid confusion in
future.

Site Design Finalization


Returning from TSS visit, the Planning guy checks the purpose of site
as coverage or capacity site. Decides the desired distance of coverage
and check whether the planned heights/antenna types are suitable for
desired coverage. Heights should be such that interference is
minimized. Also, check whether the planned azimuths are suitable to
provide coverage and cater the nulls or high utilized areas while
avoiding unnecessary overlaps. For example, while planning a new site
MDG004, the sector S1 is planned to cover the population in null of
MDG003, sector S2 covers null of MDG005 and sector S3 for catering
MDG012 null population. This can be seen from pictures below:

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Fig 3.15: Map Info view

Fig 3.16: Google Earth view


Similarly, antenna tilts are used in urban areas to prevent overshoot.
Tilts are adjusted if required. All these evaluations and adjustments are
made using ASSET (the RF Planning Tool). If changes were made in the
design, then update the Design Changes column in TSS Update Sheet.
RF Planning team then sends the TSS Acceptance/Rejection status by
noon the next day and the filled TSSR (after discussion with Design
Finalization Responsible person) within 2 working days of the TSS
performed to The Project Control Team. The PC team forwards the TSSR
of the accepted sites to the Implementation department for Site
construction.
The final Site design is compared with the BTS site type before filling
the details in the Master plan.

SiteTypes
Template.xls

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RF Database Update:
RF planning team member fills the DB Sheet for the site data and
segment data of newly validated sites. The format of such sheets can
be seen from the template.

D:\Planning\
Database\Sample DB Sheet.xls

Inputs like Tower height, Phase, Site Type and Configuration re


gathered from the latest central nominal sheet. Whereas, Site coordinates, Acceptance status, Date of TSS, TP and Vendor
representatives, Candidate accepted etc are taken from the TSS
update sheet. The segment Data information is filled after discussion
with the person who went on the TSS or from the filled TSSR. For
antenna Power, we are currently using only 2 values i.e. 41 dB for GSM900 and 38.5 for DCS-1800. Clutter and cabinet type is defined on the
basis of area profile and design being used. Mostly cabinet type used is
Outdoor, whereas, MapInfo/Google Earth/TSS Information is used for
clutter definition. It is important to note that for Dual band sites
(having both GSM-900 and DCS-1800 Antennas); segment data
information for sectors 5, 6, 7 has to be entered as well. If site is only
DCS band, it will have segment data information for only sectors 5, 6, 7
and 8, whereas, no information for sectors 1, 2, 3, and 4 will be edited.
Once the RF DB update is completed it is floated to RF DB
administrator for weekly file updation.

Work Package Verification:


Work package Verification is a procedure for evaluation of the finalized
RF design for a particular site before implementation. The teams
involved in this process are RF Planning, Project Control, Site Design
and Implementation. This process is to ensure on time implementation

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of the planned sites hence avoiding any unnecessary delays in the
overall rollout.
The RF Planning team sends the TSSR to Project Control team. The PC
team forwards the TSSR to Subcon who prepares the work package
containing the complete design of that particular site and sends it to
the PC team. The PC team then sends the work package to the Site
Design for design verifications. After verification, Site design team
provides the work package of the accepted candidate for final review
to RF team. The RF TSS report is extracted from the work package for
verification. The RF Planning team verifies the site name and candidate
name with latest MapInfo weekly files. In case, any concerned site is
not present in weekly files, consult the latest RF data base.
The longitude and latitude present on TSSR and on MapInfo weekly
files are carefully verified. All other RF parameters like site type, tower
height, antenna type, antenna azimuths, antenna heights, antenna
tilts, TSS date, TP and vendor representative and vendor are also
verified. In case, if certain fields are not verified, consult the latest TSS
update sheet for the original values and make the corrections in the RF
data base or in the TSSR.
The response of the accepted work packages are provided to the site
design team for implementation and rejected response for non-verified
work packages will be sent to site design team for resubmission of
work package. If there is a need to change certain parameters like
Antenna azimuth, height or tilt then that particular work package is
rejected and Site Design team is asked to send the modified one.
Flowing back, RF Planning has to send the modified TSSR to Project
Control Team which then sends the updated version to Site Design
team and afterwards the work package reaches RF Planning team for
verification. Corrections made should also be updated in the data base
as well as in the next weekly MapInfo files.
The record of the work package verification is also maintained. The
template used for this can be seen in template. Fill in the Site ID,
Candidate name, Vendor, Work Package receiving date, Response and
Response sending date and comments(if any) columns in this sheet.

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D:\Planning\
Database\Work Package Template\WP template.xls

Chapter 4: PRE-LAUNCH OPTIMIZATION

Pre-Launch Optimization
Internal Interfaces
External Interfaces
KPI Commitment
Description of Field Audit / Testing
Site Drive Test Analysis Table description

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Pre-Launch Optimization
Pre-Launch Optimization is done for the newly integrated sites that come on-air in
the cluster of already on-air sites.
The main responsibilities of the Pre-Launch Optimization include:
Conducting the Pre-Launch Drive Test completely which involves a thorough
checking of the site elapsing for more than four hours.
Complete testing of hardware is done so as to ensure that the upcoming site
does not create any trouble for the existing customers in the vicinity.
On-site Resolution of any issues that are encountered on a newly RCO site
with the help of implementation team.
Optimization of the Site after Drive testing the site and putting it in Soft
Launch.

The Pre-Launch process involves both internal and external interfaces


which are:

INTERNAL INTERFACES:
Frequency Planning team (Internal RF-Interface)
Planning team is responsible for frequency planning, neighbor
creation and necessary database creation request at both NSS & BSS
ends, for new sites.
Post Launch Optimization team (Internal RF-Interface)
Post launch optimization is only involved in the acceptance of
the new sites from the pre-launch team based on the KPIs and
justifications.
Project Control Office (Internal Implementation Interface)
Project control team is involved in timely intimation of new sites
ready for DT. Project control will make sure that the sites sent for DT
have the permanent power or for that matter enough fuel for the DT
activity. This team is also responsible for harmonizing the site status
throughout the network.
Pre Launch Optimization team (Internal RF-Interface)
Pre-Launch team is responsible for conducting the DT, design
analysis, recommendation & responsible for pre-launch KPIs for new
sites.
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EXTERNAL INTERFACES:

NSN Implementation team


(External Implementation-Interface)
NSN Implementation team is responsible for making sites
available for DT, provide the adequate resources for activity, and
resolve any hardware issues.

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This time is variable on case to case basis, here only the worst case has been
projected. Moreover this time may delay even more as per the requirement of the
implementation team.

Fig 4.1: Pre-Launch Optimization Process Flow

Intimation
Soon after the sites are received from the project control office, their DT
plan would be made and floated to all the concerned team (NSN
implementation, Project Control) by pre-launch optimization team.
Resource Allocation and comprehensive DT
Once the sites are confirmed ready for DT by NSN implementation,
comprehensive DT would be conducted. The lead time is variable from
case to case basis, however the worst case should be drive tested till the
14th Day from the intimation. All the hardware issues found during the
DT would be resolved from the implementation teams on spot. If
however any issue is not escalated at the point of DT, this would be
done within two days based on comprehensive log file analysis.
Soft Launch
Two days after the DT, site would be put either in soft launch or locked for
NWOP. The site would remain in locked NWOP status till such time the
pending hardware/TI issues are resolved. At the time of soft-launch a
comprehensive and detailed field testing report will be generated. This
report will primarily focus on the field tests and field KPIs. The KPIs are
discussed in the later part of this document.
Stats monitoring & Optimization
Stats would be monitored for seven days once a site is put in soft
launch. Comprehensive optimization activities would be performed in
coordination with post launch optimization teams to meet the pre launch
KPIs. If the KPIs are met after seven days, the said site would be offered
for acceptance to the post launch optimization team. If however the KPIs
are not met, then pre-launch team would require another seven days for
optimization activity. If Even after the additional seven days pre-launch
team is unable to meet the KPIs then the site would be offered for
acceptance to post launch optimization team with recommendations and
justifications.
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Acceptance
A comprehensive pre-launch report would be generated at the time of
acceptance. Once the site is accepted by the post launch optimization
team the site status would be changed to commercial launch by project
control team.

KPI Commitment
Following are the KPI thresholds for field testing:

The HOSR (Handover success rate) with first & second tier
neighbors shall be better than 97% (degradation caused by TCH
blocking will not be considered). Also this target threshold will be
only considered in cases where there is acceptable overlapping
coverage between sites.

RxQual samples: 95% of samples will be within range of 0 to 4


and there is no external interference and frequency spectrum is
clean in that particular area (provided that there is a coverage
overlap between the new site and its existing neighbors).

The Call Setup Success rate (CSSR BSS) shall be better than
97% ( Blocked calls due to circuit unavailability are excluded)

The Dropped Call Rate (DCR) shall be less than 1% (provided


that there is a coverage overlap in the DT area).
NOTE: All measurements / statistics shall be based on drive
testing using post processing tool preferably Actix or equivalent
post processing tool.

Following KPI threshold need to be ensure from Stats (Average


of one week):

The HOSR (Incoming & outgoing) shall be better than 95%


(congestion issues will be excluded). Also this target threshold will
be only considered in cases where there is acceptable
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overlapping coverage between sites.


TA samples: Initially 95% of samples will be within foot print of
the cells (based on morphology class & inter site distance) and
the target will be to have 98% of samples within foot print of the
cells after a period of 4 weeks from commercial launch. This to
avoid over shooting.
The Call Setup Success rate (CSSR BSS) shall be better than
97% (congestion issues will be excluded)
The Dropped Call Rate (DCR) shall be less than 1.5% (provided
that there is a coverage overlap between the new site and its
existing neighbors).
NOTE: All measurements/statistics shall be based on stats
provided by regional RF-Post launch optimization teams

Description of Field Audit/Testing


RF-Design verification
Pre-launch riggers would verify design details for each and every cell of
the respective site. Any discrepancies from the planned configurations
would be escalated to implementation on-site team and rectified onsite.
Site Drive Test Analysis
Drive Route details
DT would be conducted for a cell till the neighboring site. In case
neighboring site cannot be reached by road (Neighboring site lies in
rural/ hilly inaccessible terrain) then the DT would be conducted till
maximum point of access in the direction of the main lobe of the cell.
CS call testing
Following four level CS call testing would be performed at the time of
DT namely:

Scan Mode

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Full BCCH band Scan mode testing would be done for each
cell. The route for scan mode testing would be the same as
for long call testing and EDGE/GPRS dynamic testing. RxLev would be analyzed from this test.

Long Call
Long Call would be made for an infinite period in each sector
of a Site. Rx-Qual, Dropped calls, blocked calls, HO Analysis
would be extracted from this testing

Short Call
Over the same route of the long call, short call testing would
be conducted. 50 or more short call would be made in each
cell where each call would be of 10 sec duration with 3 sec
interval between the calls. Field level KPIs like CSSR, blocked
calls would be extracted from this test.

TRX Test Call


Sufficient number of calls would be made in a cell so as to
check each TRX for two scenarios namely, mute calls,
voice distortion.

The field test KPI table in Site Drive test analysis section would be a
summation of both Long call & Short call testing. The results of both the
testing would be incorporated in the table and the comprehensive
details for any dropped, blocked call, HO failure found in any of the
tests would be discussed in the last section of comments & reasons.

PS call testing
Two level PS call testing would be performed at the time DT namely:

Static mode testing


Uplink & downlink throughput would be verified from this test.
Only FTP file uploading and downloading would be tested. A 1 MB
file would first be uploaded and then downloaded from the server.
HTTP would be tested in the Dynamic mode testing only.
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Dynamic mode testing


Similar to the short call, dynamic mode test would be conducted
over the same route as for the long call. This test would be
conducted to check downloading from an HTTP server, more than
10 MB file would be downloaded from an HTTP server. Moreover
DL throughput with the coding scheme usage along with
EDGS/GPRS territory would be analyzed from this test as well.

Site Drive Test Analysis Table Description


Each column in this table is a summation of the call scenarios from
Long Call testing, short call testing & TRX testing. So in all total
number of calls established while testing one cell would be
independent from another cell. Similarly all the Dropped call, blocked
calls, and HO analysis would be a summation of all the call scenarios
stated above. Handover analysis would be a summation of intra cell &
inter cell for segment. Similarly failures would be the summation of
intra & inter cell scenarios. Comprehensive description of each failure
case would be discussed at the end of the report.
Field test KPIs would be extracted and reported for all the call
scenarios discussed in the above table. Detailed comments would be
provided in case of failure to meeting any field test KPIs.
Field Testing Plots
Rx-Lev Sub dbm & serving cell plots would be extracted from the scan
mode testing, while Rx-Qual Sub dbm would be extracted from the long
call testing. C/I plot along with all the PS graphs including EDGE/GPRS
territory, coding scheme usage and DL throughput would be reported
from the PS dynamic mode testing.

PreLaunch
Report_template.xls

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Pre-Launch
Optimization Process - Process Map.vsd

Pre-Launch Redesign
Activity.vsd

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Chapter 5: INDOOR SOLUTIONS

Introduction
Indoor types
Indoor Antennas
Active IBS
Marketing demand
Initial RF Survey & Reporting
Indoor Path loss Models
Site Acceptance

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Introduction:
Indoor sites are built to cater capacity and coverage issues in indoor
compounds where outdoor macro site cant be a good solution .In
dense urban clutter where buildings
structures and indoor
environment losses are quite large for macro site which makes its an
inappropriate solution. Generally floors underground (basements and
lower ground) have poor RSSI. Major part of reflections takes place
from ground and because of this portion below ground have poor signal
coverage.
On the other hand floors above third have quality and DCR issues. Due
to fewer obstacles in the LOS path, path losses are less compared to
ground floors. There is a multiservers environment due to less path
losses and cells overshooting which leads to ping pong handovers and
interference issues.
In urban areas there are buildings that generate high traffic loads like
commercial buildings, offices; shopping malls may need indoor
systems to take care of the traffic demands. For such areas indoor is
the efficient solution regarding cost, coverage and capacity.
In indoors downlink is the critical link in the air interface. There is no
need to use the uplink diversity in an indoor system or use amplifiers
like TMA for improving the uplink signal .Multi-antenna indoor system is
providing diversity as uplink signals received by several antennas.

Indoor Base station Versus Repeaters:


Repeaters are mainly used for coverage of dead zones, shadows, in
building coverage or other areas with inadequate signal strength. The
output power of the repeater is enough to cover an area which is
shadowed or is an indoor environment. Repeaters used a repeater unit
and distributed antenna system which merely amplifies the outdoor
macro site signals. For an indoor site indoor metro BTS along with
distributed antenna system is deployed. Indoor site is used to cater
capacity as well coverage requirements whereas repeater only looks
for coverage. Repeaters are cost-effective solution for small scale
coverage issues in small offices and parking etc.

Indoor Types:
Micro Cells:
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Micro cells constitute most of the indoors deployed for BTS coverage.
They are more costly and also on large scale with respect to Femto or
Pico cells. They consist of indoor micro /metro BTS and distributed
antenna system for signal propagation in indoor environment .Usually
they have passive components but where large distance to be required
amplifiers especially optical amplifiers are deployed.

Pico cells:
A Pico cell is wireless communication system typically covering a small
area, such as in-building (offices, shopping malls, train stations, etc.),
or more recently in-aircraft. A Pico cell is analogous to a WIFI access
point. In cellular wireless networks, such as GSM, the Pico cell base
station is typically a low cost, small (typically the size of a sheet of A4
paper and about 2-3cm thick), reasonably simple unit that connects to
a Base Station Controller (BSC). Multiple Pico cell 'heads' connect to
each BSC: the BSC performs radio resource management and handover functions, and aggregates data to be passed to the Mobile
Switching Centre (MSC) and/or the GPRS Support Node (GSN).

Femto Cells:
In telecommunications, a Femto celloriginally known as an Access
Point Base Stationis a small cellular base station, typically
designed for use in residential or small business environments. It
connects to the service providers network via broadband (such as DSL
or cable); current designs typically support 5 to 100 mobile phones in a
residential setting. A Femto cell allows service providers to extend
service coverage indoors, especially where access would otherwise be
limited or unavailable. The Femto cell incorporates the functionality of
a typical base station but extends it to allow a simpler, self contained
deployment; an example is a UMTS Femto cell containing a Node B,
RNC and GPRS Support Node (SGSN) with Ethernet for backhaul.
Although much attention is focused on UMTS, the concept is applicable
to all standards, including GSM, CDMA2000, TD-SCDMA and WiMax
solutions.

Equipment Based:
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Passive IBS
Mostly passive IBS is deployed as an indoor solution. Passive IBS
contains splitters, couplers, attenuators, combiners, coaxial cable, DAS
but there is no active element involved.

Active IBS
Active IBS is generally used when the EIRP required is more than the
available. Usually this happen when distance involve are large and
antenna elements are more as well. Active IBS is actually a hybrid IBS
as it contains an active component (repeater) and passive IBS.

Indoor Antennas:
Primary Antenna types in IBS design are:

Omni directional antenna


Directional antenna
Leaky cable

Omni Directional Antennas

Transmits signal in all directions


Low gain
Horizontal direction patter n all over the place but vertical
direction concentrated so gain provided.

General specifications of Omni Antenna:

Gain 2-3 dbi


Beam width 360
Polarized Vertical
VSWR <1.8

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Fig 5.1: Omni Directional Antennas

Directional Antennas:

Transmits signal in a specified direction


High gain

Gain 5 dB.
dB.
Horizontal
BW
Horizontal BW 90 deg.
VSWR < 2
1.5
PolarizedPolarized- Vertical

Gain 5
90

deg.
VSWR<
Vertical

Fig 5.2: Directional Antennas

Leaky Coaxial Cable

Transmits signal along path of the coaxial cable


Contains closely spaced slots in the outer conductor of the cable
to transmit/Receive signals
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Losses in leaky cable:


Two types of losses are there in leaky cable.
Feeder loss- cable attenuation loss
Coupling loss-Average signal level difference between the cable
and dipole antenna at distance of 6m approx.

Fig 5.3: Losses in cables

Power Splitters
Splitters are used to split antenna feeder network power equally
over the output ports.
Two way, three way and four way splitters are generally used.

Splitters Loss:

2-Way Splitter Loss around 3 db


3-Way Splitter Loss- around 5db
4-Way Splitter Loss- around 6db
Insertion loss for these splitters is 0 .2db.

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Fig 5.4: Splitters Specifications

Power Couplers:
Couplers are used to split antenna feeder power unequally
among output ports.
Couplers have tap/coupling loss and through loss e.g 10/0.5
coupler means its coupling loss is 10 while through loss is 5.

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Couplers generally are available in ratings of 3, 6, 7, 10, 15 & 20
db.

Fig 5.5: Power Couplers

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Fig 5.6: Couplers


Specifications

Attenuators:

Attenuators are used to reduce EIRP at antennas where less


EIRP required but the other antennas required high EIRP.
Attenuators are of values 3, 5, 7, 10 etc.

Fig 5.7: Attenuators

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Active IBS:
Coverage systems for active IBS consists of following
Base station Master Unit (BMU)
Fiber optics distributions
Remote units (RU)
(The solution discussed is a vendor specific and component
name/specification may vary, however function of main component
remains the same)

Fig 5.8: Active solution layout

Base Station Master Unit:


Interface between BTS and Remote units
Combines RF signals and converts them to optical
used by remote units.

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Fig 5.9: Base station Master Unit


BMU consist of following parts:

Variable Attenuator Module (VAM)


RF Combiner Module (RCM)
Optical Converter Module (OCM)
Fiber Optics Node (FON)

Variable Attenuator Module


VAM used in Multi-operator system.
VAM adjusts all incoming signals to same signal levels. Variable
gain is used to bring signals from different operators/BTS to
same level.

Fig 5.10: VAM


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RF Combiner Module
Passive RF combining part of BMU.
Equalizes, combines and filter signal
uplink/downlink
Per FON.

from each BTS for

Fig 5.11: RF Combiner Module

Marketing Demand:
Indoor site visit demand comes from the marketing in the Coverage
where I am sheet or during the bimonthly meetings.

Initial RF Survey:
Following are the things which are taken under consideration during
initial RF Survey:
Site(Indoor Building) coordinates
Site Rough Layout sketch
RSSI and C/I of strong servers in different location of indoor site
using TEMS pocket view mode.
No. of subscribers estimation/ floor or as the building
architectural division.
Marking of the different areas what they are specified for.
Snaps of different floors
Building structure observation.

Initial RF survey report:


After the survey report is made in which all the above inputs are put.
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Indoor Site Evaluation:


After the survey it is checkout if any modifications (Hard / Soft
Changes) can be done to the existing neighboring site to improve the
condition at the affected area. Otherwise Site is evaluated as to be an
indoor Micro or wall mounted metro according to the location,
requirements and conditions.

RF Survey with floor Plan:

Once the indoor site is finalized, floor Architectural Plans are


requested from building Authorities.
RF survey with Floor Plans is carried, RSSI is checked & recorded
at each and every part of the indoor environment and C/I is
checked at worst.
TEMS idle mode log files for different floors are made using floor
plans provided.
During the RF survey Detailed Analysis/Observations of the
building/environment is carried out as well as what is the ceiling
thickness, floor heights, thickness of the walls in between floors,
thin walls and their thickness.
Antenna locations are finalized using traditional Ray tracing
techniques(By simply analyzing how reflections and propagation
going to occur)

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Fig 5.12: RSSI of different servers with floor plans

Marking of Priority Area:


In indoor areas like offices and meeting rooms etc have usually high
priority. On the other hand areas like mosques, gyms etc have low
priorities. Similarly area in which outdoor macro coverage and quality
is satisfactory should not be included in intended coverage area for
indoor site. For high priority area coverage should be around -75 dbm
at each point while for low priority area levels should be around -85
dbm.

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Fig 5.13: Priority area marking for an indoor site location

Indoor Antenna Placement:


Antenna placement is the most crucial step in indoor planning.
Following observations should
be considered during antenna
placement:
Antennas especially Omni directional antennas should be placed
at centralized locations.
Panels should be placed in the corners of corridors or where
design demands while keeping in view the spillage of indoor
signals.
Antennas should be placed at high elevations where people cant
touch them as it will affect the performance.
Obstacle free path should be provided for antennas otherwise
coverage in indoor will suffer a lot.
Antennas should be placed away from conductive objects.
Exposure levels of the indoor RF signals are below RF safety
standard of WHO, IRPA, IEEE and FCC. However discretely placed
antenna will reduce the unnecessary public concerns about RF
exposure.

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If the building with low traffic capacity is to be planned antennas


should be placed in zigzag manner such to get an even
distribution of signals as depicted in fig. below

Fig 5.14: Improvement in indoor coverage

Indoor Capacity Calculations:


Subscrib
ers
400

Traffic/s
ub
18 m E

Total TCH
Traffic
7.2 Erlang

BCC
H
1

SDCC
H
1

GPR
S
1

Total
Timeslots
13

Final
Trx
2

Following are required for indoor capacity calculations:

Capacity to be catered (No. of subscribers)


Traffic/subscribers is generally considered as 15, 18, 25, 30, 40 m
E depending upon the subscriber requirements.
Standard value for Erlang/subscriber is considered to be 18 m E.
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Planned
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TCH Timeslots against required capacity is calculated from Erlang


B table using 2% GOS.
SDCCH and GPRS timeslots are planned accordingly to predicted
subscriber usage.
Capacity dimensioning, coverage and quality standards for
offices etc should be higher than indoor cells at public location
e.g shopping malls etc.

INDOOR PATH LOSS MODELS:


Keenan-Motley Model:
Like Okamura-Hata model is developed as a statistical model for
outdoor macro sites, Keenan-Motley model is commonly used for
indoor path loss calculations.

L= path loss (d B)
f= frequency (MHz)
K= number of floors traversed
d= transmitter to receiver separation
F= Floor attenuation factor
P= number of walls traversed by direct wave
W= wall attenuation factor (d B)
D= Linear attenuation factor (.2 db/m after indoor breakpoint)
Db= indoor breakpoint usually 65m
(Floor attenuation factor is generally not considered .It is considered
that the antenna on one floor will serve that floor, so usually Keenanmotley simplified form used)

Keenan-Motley simplified form:


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Mostly this formula is used for path loss calculations

L (db) =

20log (4 f/c) + 20logd + Nw.W

L= path loss (d B)
f= frequency (MHz)
c= speed of light (3*10^8 m/s)
Nw= number of walls traversed by direct wave
W= wall attenuation factor (d B) (10 db for GSM & 12 db for DCS)

Distance Power Law:


Keenan-motley model is mostly used for indoor; however distance
power law is used as well for indoor.

Power = distancen
According to this law path loss equation can be given as,
PL 20 log 4d 0 f c 10n log d d 0

Where:

Pl is the average path loss at a distance, d, from the


antenna

d is the distance expressed in meters

d0 is usually taken as 1 m for indoor.

f is the operating frequency in Hz

c is the speed of light in a vacuum ( 3 108 m/s)

n is the path loss exponent that depends on the


indoor environment (clutter).

The path loss exponent n may range from about 2 (in corridors) to 6
(for cluttered and obstructed paths). For frequencies between 800 MHz
and 1.9 GHz, COST 231 reports the following values for the path loss
exponent n
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Environme
nt

Exponent
n

Propagation
Wave
Corridors
1.4 - 1.9 guidance
Large open
Free
space
rooms
2
loss
Free
space
Furnished
loss
+
rooms
3
multipath
Densely
Non-LOS,
furnished
diffraction,
rooms
4
scattering
Losses
Between
during floor /
different
wall
floors
5
traverses
Table 5.1: For path loss exponent

EIRP Required:
ERP= EIRP +L (db) Or EIRP= ERP - L (db)
Where ERP= -75 dbm
L (db) = path loss
From above equation theoretical EIRP required for each antenna
element is calculated. To achieve these EIRP values passive elements
are arranged accordingly and through link budget EIRP are
recalculated.

Link Budget:
Link Budget calculations are used to calculate the output power (db) at
each antenna element. Passive component (coupler, splitter and
attenuator losses) and feeder cable losses are subtracted from BTS
output power. Link budget calculations are made for band to be used
for indoor GSM/DCS/UMTS.

EIRP= Pout BTS + Ga Lf - Lc- Ls La


Pout BTS= BTS output power at antenna connector
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Ga= Antenna gain (db)
Lf= Feeder loss
Lc= Coupler loss
Ls= Splitter loss
La= Attenuator loss

Fig 5.15: Link Budget Calculations

RF Indoor Plan:
After the path loss and link budget calculations RF plan is made floor
by floor on the autocad layout of the building. Care should be taken
while adjusting the AutoCAD scale. Also antenna, cable lengths and
passive elements should be drawn accurately according to the plan.

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Fig 5.16: RF indoor Plan for a floor

Fig 5.17: Measurements for Cable lengths


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Antenna tree diagram:


Antenna tree diagram is made to have a quick overview of the IBS
design. Care should be taken while calculating the lengths.

Fig 5.18: Antenna Tree diagram

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Indoor Equipment List:

Fig 5.19: Indoor Equipment List

Indoor Site frequency planning:


Frequency planning is performed manually selecting suitable
frequencies by carefully analyzing
the neighboring frequencies.
Exclude the co-channel and adjacent frequencies which will likely to
interfere.
From the remaining set choose the frequency that most likely to cause
interference. BCCH frequency should be the least disturbed. Hopping
on several frequencies will smooth out the interference.

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Following need to be considered if two much clean frequency options
exist:

Increase signal strength of indoor cell.


Allocate dedicated 3-5 frequencies for indoor cells.
Redesign the frequency plan.

(Indoor sites in our network are single cell; single band sites, so no
frequency reuse is done in indoor)

Site Acceptance:
Once the indoor site is implemented site acceptance request is made
by vendors/sub cons. Implementation team will take care of VSWR
calculations, antenna grounding etc. Following is required from RF
Team for acceptance of the indoor site:

On site Audit
Walk test
Spillage check

On Site Audit:
On site verification of the indoor is performed to check the antenna
location as well as the equipment count.

WALK TEST:
Idle Mode:
Walk test in idle mode for the indoor site is performed to check the
RSSI and C/I of indoor site. Logfiles are made on the floor plans
provided. (In case of vendor planning walk test report is to be provided
by them).

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Fig 5.20: Rx-Level Idle mode

Dedicated mode:
Dedicated mode walk test is performed to check the quality and
RSSI of indoor after call setup. Qualities of different TRX are also
checked at RF end by locking the call on different TRXs. Also
handovers with other neighboring sites is tested.

Fig 5.21: Rx-Qual Dedicated mode

Spillage Check:
Spillage is spill of indoor signal outside the indoor location. Spillage
is generally checked 20m away from the periphery of indoor
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compound. Generally -85dbm is set as a threshold and levels below
it are problematic as they will cause unnecessary handovers on
the indoor site. However using Cell Reselection Offset parameters
and handover control parameters, the unnecessary reselections and
handovers can be avoided.

Fig 5.22: Spillage

Coverage:
Coverage is checked at each part of the indoor compound and
should be within the range .

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VSWR:
To be checked by implementation.

Parameters fine tuning:


Once the site is accepted by the planning team it is handed over to
optimization team. Fine tuning of parameters is performed to achieve
the below mentioned KPIs.

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Chapter 6: PROPAGATION MODEL TUNING

Introduction
Propagation Model
Importance of Calibration
Site selection & Audits
Measurement & Data Collection
CW measurement
Model Calibration terminology
The Model Tuning process
Calibration in ASSETT 3G
Conclusion

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Introduction
In designing any radio system, a fundamental task is to predict the
coverage of a proposed system and to determine whether the intended
service objectives are met. Over the years a wide variety of
approaches have been developed to predict coverage using what are
known as propagation models.
Propagation in this context simply means the transfer or transmission
of signals from the transmitter to the receiver. Propagation modeling is
an effort to predict what happens to signals en route from the
transmitter to the receiver. Obviously the signal gets weaker, and
everyone has experienced other signal impairments such as multipath
fading.
If network planning is carried out with the help of a network planning
system then coverage planning, frequency planning, capacity planning,
interference analysis, dominance analysis, handover analysis, etc. rely
on the propagation predictions. It is thus vital that radio propagation
predictions are as accurate as possible taking into account the
practical limitations.

Propagation Model
The traditional approaches to propagation modeling, which have been
developed for analog systems, were intended only to predict signal
attenuation, or path loss, as the signal traveled from the transmitter to
the receiver. While these approaches have been adequate for most
analog systems, digital systems need new techniques to produce other
information in addition to path loss. This information may actually be
the controlling factor on system performance or coverage, even when
the signal-to-noise ratio is well above the value otherwise necessary to
achieve perfect reception.
The propagation model which is commonly used for macro cells is
OkumuraHata Model. These models are developed by combining
propagation theory and extensive measurement campaigns. The model
takes several parameters into account like effective antenna height,
terrain type (morphology), and terrain height (topography), frequency,
EIRP, etc.
The OkumuraHata model is selected for analysis which is based on
the empirical Okumura-Hata (OH) loss formula. The OkumuraHata loss
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depends on the distance, frequency and effective antenna height. The
formula assumes Urban / Suburban areas.

A generalized form of the Hata statistical prediction model is usually


used in the following form:
PRx = PTx + K1 + K2 log (d) + K3 log (Heff) + K4D +K5 log (Heff) log (d) +
K6 log (hmeff) + Kclutter

K1, K2, K3, K4, K5 and K6 are coefficients that are also present in the
original Hata formula, but are left here unspecified for further tuning
for the area. But their values should not be changed much from the
original values in the Hata formula to keep the model structure reliable.

Fig 6.1: Propagation Model parameters values

The coefficient K4 which multiplies a diffraction loss D is included to


adjust diffraction losses that are caused by building or terrain
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irregularities in the line-of-sight of the receiver. The effective antenna
heights for the base station and mobiles, H eff and hmeff are calculated by
considering the terrain profile and the area to be covered. A clutter
correction parameter Kclutter is included to adapt the equation to each
morphological class.

Fig 6.2: Propagation Model parameters


Before the digital maps and advanced propagation prediction tools can
be used, the propagation model should be tuned. Propagation model
tuning is a time consuming and iterative process. Automatic model
tuning based on a radio planning tool is therefore of utmost
importance.

Importance of Calibration
Most propagation models are suitable for either particular areas
(Urban, Suburban, Rural, etc.), or specific cell radius (Macro cell, Micro
cell, Pico cell). To overcome this drawback, the empirical models
parameters can be adjusted or tuned according to a targeted
environment. The propagation model tuning must optimize the model
parameters in order to achieve minimal error between predicted and

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measured signal strength. This will make the model more accurate for
received wireless signal predictions.
Several measurements need to be carried out in order to obtain data
that can be used in propagation model tuning. Usually propagation
measurements are only carried out when starting to plan a new
network, or if there is an area with changes in the propagation
environment, due to new buildings or roads or if a new frequency band
is taken into a use.
Model tuning measurements require a good measurement system, a
well-prepared measurement plan, and a lot of experience. The amount
of measurements depends on the resolution of the digital map and the
size of the target area.
Test CW sites locations need to be carefully selected for both 900MHz
and 1800MHz for each clutter type. The clutter types should be as
follows:

Dense Urban
Urban
Suburban
Rural & Roads

CW Drive Test route should be identified prior to the DT and


arrangements should be made for the access to all test sites. Map data
such as heights, clutter and vectors for the area of interest must be of
acceptable resolution

Site Selection & Audits


Sites are selected per clutter type based upon the certain criteria.
Some of these are:

Similar heights for the antennas


Similar antenna types and tilts
Serving the same clutter (Rural/Road was in this case)
Site should not fall in Security risk areas

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Fig 6.3: Site Selection

Table 6.1: Selected Sites Data


Thorough Site Audits were performed to cross check information such
as antenna heights, azimuths, antenna types and tilts along with
verification of the clutter.

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Measurement and Data Collection


After site selection is finalized, a drive test is performed in scan mode.
Only the three allotted BCCHs are scanned. Drive Test is carried out to
the area until -120dB level is reached. After DT the sites are reverted
back to their original settings.

Pre-requisites for Data Collection


The following considerations were observed for data collection:

Dual BCCH was created one site at a time.


The reason for creating Dual BCCH was to collect data for the
1800 band.
The three (3) 1800 segments were equipped with the BCCHs
allocated for Metro sites (i.e. 621, 623, 625 on the 1 st, 2nd and 3rd
Sectors respectively).
Implementation of the above mentioned BCCHs was done
considering the fact that they are not in the 1800 MA list.
This was done in order to have a non-overlapping service area of
every single cell/BCCH.
Each site was reverted back to its original settings once its DT
was completed.
This process was followed for all sites.

CW Measurement
A CW drive test is performed for the propagation model tuning and
assessment of the suitability of candidate sites from both coverage and
interference aspect. A CW drive test process can be broken down to:

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Fig 6.4: CW Measurement process


The test equipment required for CW Drive Testing include a CW
Transmitter, a Receiver with fast scanner, a Base Station Test Antenna
and accessories like flexible coaxial cable, power cord, GPS, compass
and power meter etc.
Test site should be selected for propagation model tuning so that they
are distributed within the clutter under study and the height of the test
site should be representative of the specific clutter. Care should be
taken not to select site in hilly area. Transmit power setting is set to
maximum transmit power.
The drive route of the data collection is planned prior to the drive test
with the help of a detailed road map. Careful route planning is required
to reduce the testing time. Each clutter is tested individually and the
drive route for each test site is planned to map the clutter under-study
for the respective sites. It is important to collect a statistically
significant amount of data, typically a minimum of 300 to 400 data
points are required for each clutter category.
The data should be evenly distributed with respect to distance from the
Transmitter. In practice, the actual drive route will be modified
according to the latest development which was not shown on the map.
The actual drive route taken should be marked on a map for record
purposes.
Once necessary preparation is completed, a test antenna location is
selected for propagation test. It should be free from any nearby
obstacle to ensure free propagation in both vertical and horizontal
direction. A complete set of 3600 photographs of the location at the
test height and antenna setup should be taken for record.

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Fig 6.5: Equipment used

Model Calibration Terminology


Mean Error:
The RMS (Root-Mean-Square) error is a statistical measure of the
spread of the error around the mean value calculated by examining the
difference between the predicted and measured values. This process is
often done manually, and then adjustment made by computerized
tools. The mean error should be driven to as close to zero as possible.
The RMS error results range typically from 7.4-10.0dB for the dense
urban environment, with a value of 8dB commonly achieved in good
tuning.
K Parameters:
K-values K1 to K6 are prediction steering parameters. These are
generalized coefficients for tuning the propagation model according to
real environment. These are also present in Hata model but are left
unspecified in the general formula for further tuning of the area. It
should be kept in mind that these values should not be changed very
much so as to keep the original model structure reliable.
Standard Deviation:

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Standard deviation is a measure of the dispersion of data about a
mean value. A low standard deviation indicates that the data is
clustered around the mean, whereas a high standard deviation
indicates that the data is widely spread with significantly higher/lower
figures than the mean.

The Model Tuning Process


Model Tuning is a highly iterative and empirical process used to obtain
the value of the model coefficients to minimize the mean and RMS
errors. Data processing and filtering is an important step in using
measurement to tune model coefficients.
It is important to consider that the measurements collected are not
necessarily all informative for the model predictions. For example, data
that appear exceptionally different from the rest and are not
characteristics of the clutter and morphology should be excluded and
filtered out. Such data would include for instance measurements that
show exceptionally weak signal strength from blocking by bridges or
collected under tunnels, which would not be representative of the
typical environment for which the model is intended.

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Fig 6.6: Model tuning process

Calibration in Asset3G
Path-loss model parameters tuning process is highly time consuming
and iterative. It requires change of one variable at the time in small
steps and then does an analysis for each setting. There are several
iterations to perform, in order to find the smallest RMS error and
standard deviations.
Scanned DT logs are converted into Signia format to make it
compatible for Asset. The converted log file is imported into Asset, a
complete analysis is carried out using the CW measurement tool in
Asset to quantify the error between predicted and actual values. For
this analysis, the tool uses two inputs i.e. CW/TEMS Scan data and the
prediction model.
When appropriate filtering is applied on the log data, the model
parameters are altered and then re-analyzed against the measured
data. The effect of change is noted and if the change is beneficial, in
other words, the standard deviation between propagation model and
the CW data is reduced then the change is documented and accepted.
If the result is unsatisfactory adjustment to the model is made and
analyzed.
Once the result is satisfactory, the next parameter of the model is
taken into account. This procedure is repeated until the standard
deviation cannot be reduced further. This way, all the K-values are
obtained. The effective antenna height is decided according to the
clutter type of target area. Clutter Offset should also be refined to
further improve the model and match the realistic environment.

Analyzing Results
To verify the radio propagation model tuning, RF field measurements
are taken at various locations. By using the log data of the
measurement points in the Asset 3G, the tuned parameters are
obtained and compared with the original parameter.

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Fig 6.7: Analysis

The comparison results show a high degree of reduction in


prediction error.

Fig 6.8: Error vs Log Graph (Before)

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Fig 6.9: Error vs. Log Graph (After)

Fig 6.10: RxLev vs. Log (distance)-Before

Fig 6.11: RxLev vs. Log (distance)-After


The Table below shows the results from the Signia files after filtration
and calculation of K-values. As can be seen in the table, the mean
prediction error and the prediction errors standard deviation are
reduced to -0.01 and 8.77 respectively for the tuned model.
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It should be noted that the prediction error of the tuned model can be
reduced further if the tuned parameters are obtained based on the
comprehensive measurements for different transmitter-receiver
locations in the area of propagation zone.

Conclusion
It has been observed that the model tuning process was successful and
a standard deviation of 8.77 was achieved. The model was first tuned
for GSM 1800 for rural area which will help in planning, optimization
and T&R for 1800 traffic analysis. As a next step, the same activity
may be carried out for GSM 900 propagation models for different
clutter types. It is advised that all changes made should be properly
documented and only adjustments to only one parameter should be
made per iteration.
-- Tuning is performed one clutter at a time

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Chapter 7: FREQUENCY PLANNING

Introduction
ILSA (Intelligent Local Search Algorithm)
Frequency Planning in ILSA
Analyzing ILSA FP Result
ILSA Procedure Summary
Conclusion

Introduction
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Frequency planning a GSM network is an important but tedious process


that can take planners a lengthy time to perfect. Frequency Planning is
necessary to avoid the same frequency being used in nearby
(neighbour) cells, which would cause unwanted interference. One of
the important terms in the frequency planning procedure is the reuse
factor. Lower reuse factor means that more frequencies can be used in
each cell, for a given number of total frequencies but also means a
larger interference between the cells.

Fig 7.1: Frequency Planning

Frequency Planning

There are two methods of frequency planning. These are:


a) Manual Frequency Planning:
The frequencies are assigned manually to the cells in the
network while keeping co-channel and adjacent channel
interference to a minimum.

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b)

Automatic Frequency Planning


Modern cellular radio systems typically employ several
thousands of transceivers simultaneously. An appropriate
assignment of frequencies to cells can, in such a case,
significantly suppress the intra-system interference.
However, the process of frequency planning is a very
complex and difficult task due to the fact that a great
number of sometimes mutually opposing requirements
must be satisfied. In automatic frequency planning, the
optimization of a nonlinear, multivariate and multicriterion
interference function is realized in such a way as to provide
a very good frequency planning solution in an acceptably
short time.

What is ILSA?
ILSA is an acronym for Intelligent Local Search Algorithm. It is a
very powerful Automatic Frequency Planning (AFP) tool from AIRCOM
International. It works by evaluating the cost of a particular Frequency
Plan and trying to minimize it. ILSA tries to improve frequency
allocation within user-set constraints. Therefore, accurate planning
requires accurate input parameters because if unrealistic constraints
are input into ILSA, unrealistic results will be obtained.

Cost Matrix
A cost matrix is assigned to ILSA which defines the priorities for the
frequencies to be assigned. For example, it can be specified whether
neighbor cell can use adjacent frequencies or not. Separation Cost
among cells, Equipment Cost, Neighbor Cost, Exception Cost, Filter
Priorities, Handover Counts & Inter modulation Costs are also defined
along Carrier and Carrier Layer Costs.
To set up a Cost Matrix, the weight factor for carrier level is
edited as follows:

BCCH
TCH1 (3)
TCH2 (2)
TCH3 (1)

(4)

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Weighting is a cost multiplication factor which has the effect of


prioritizing the carrier layers. ILSA will try to avoid allocating
interference to carrier layers with a higher weighting factor.

Fig 7.2: Cost Matrix Weight-age

How ILSA Works?


For ILSA to plan frequencies, it needs to know the Best Server, which is
the coverage of each cell on pixel level. This helps ILSA in doing two
things; Neighbour Planning and Interference Analysis.
ILSA will add up all these costs and tries to reduce them in order to
meet the required criterion for frequencies. The algorithms in ILSA
allow it to do different things, for example, if ILSA no longer reduces
cost of a plan for a long period of time then it assigns some random
frequencies or continue iterations to reduce cost dramatically.
It assigns a set of allocated BCCH to cells, and then calculates the C/I
for every cell. It then reassigns the frequencies to all cells, the
frequencies are same, but mutual assignment is changed. It
recalculates the accumulative C/I. So on so forth, it repeats the same.
Once it has checked most combinations, it checks out which
combination is giving least C/I.
ILSA uses the heuristic search algorithm to speed up the process of
frequency assignment.

Frequency Planning in ILSA


The work flow of Frequency Planning consists of a number of
parameters, inputs and steps.

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Fig 7.3: ILSA diagram


1. Add or import the target sites for which frequency plan is
required into Asset Database.
2. Make a new filter (New Sites) for new sites. All previous sites
should be in filter called Old Sites [Database >Filters>Add]

Fig 7.4: ILSA Setup


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3. We will need to create sector wise filter so that ILSA can assign
frequencies according to the groups we will specify. Carrier layers
for each sector will be created. Make 3 filters for GSM900 (Sector
A, Sector B, Sector C) and 3 for DCS1800(Sector A, Sector B,
Sector C)
4. Create Carrier layer. A carrier layer is a sub-set of the total list of
available carriers, grouped together under a common name. For
example, carrier to be used as control channels could be grouped
into a carrier layer called BCCH900. The maximum allocation per
cell should be 1. Carriers to be used as Traffic channels could be
grouped into TCH900 layer. For this, the maximum allocation per
cell would be set to greater than 1

Fig 7.5: Assigning carriers


5. Cell layers define logical group of transceivers on a cell. Using
cell layers means you can distinguish between micro and macro
cells or between carriers of different frequency bands. Cell layer
usually have at least one carrier layer associated with them. As
carriers are associated with carrier layers and carrier layers with
the cell layers, it is possible to determine the available control
and traffic carriers for a particular cell layer. [Configuration >
Layers > Cell Layers]

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6. Best Server Plot is produced so that the coverage of each sector
can be calculated at pixel level. Select filter (Old Sites + New
Site) > go to Server.
7. Next step is to create neighbours. This is created by using Best
Server of Overlapping Areas. Normally 3dB HO margin is used.
Other parameters can be set to determine the number of
neighbours to create, neighbor planning margin etc. [Tools >
Neighbours > Neighbour Wizard]. Select filters, then Technology
(we will use GSM to GSM as we are planning for GSM network).
Also select Use Best server array to avoid extra unnecessary
neighbor list. For neighbour plan, propagation model must be
tuned. In case of any problems, neighbours can be manually
planned using Add Neighbour Cell button and clicking the serving
cell in 2D window, then select the neighbor cells one by one.

Fig 7.6: Neighbour Plan in Site Database

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Fig 7.7: Neighbours in Map Window


8. Although Interference Matrix is optional in ILSA but it is highly
recommended. [Create Array > Worst Interferer and Total
Interference. This will calculate Interference per carrier.
9. ILSA tool: Tools > Frequency Planning > Frequency Hopping
Process Selector. Check GSM900 check box and then: Tools >
Frequency Planner > ILSA Frequency Planner. Specify the filters
[Data from memory, check Import filters button and select the
filters per sector for GSM900], interference [Data from memory
i.e. interference matrix values will be taken from the previously
predictor array] and handover counts [none, as we are planning
without handover count] from the new window Initialize ILSA
Automatic Frequency Planner that appears next. Now press
Initialize button.

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Fig 7.8: ILSA Frequency Planner


10.

ILSA Frequency Planning window: Go to View > Plan List

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Fig7.9: ILSA Frequency Planner & Plan List Window

11.

Output of ILSA: Plan Status

Fig 7.10: ILSA Plan Status


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12.

Plan Cost Summary

Fig 7.11: Plan Cost Summary

Fig 7.12: ILSA FP Result


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Analyzing ILSA FP Result


Once a frequency plan has been created and saved to the database, it
is necessary to view the resulting interference graphically in the Map
View window. For this it is necessary to first set up some initial
parameters such as interference options and cell/carrier layer to
examine. From Array sub-menu, selecting Array Settings will result
in Array Settings window. In the Interference tab co-channel, adjacent
channel or sum of the two can be selected within the Channel
Selection pane.
The plan can be analyzed in a number of ways. Reports such as
Frequency Plan Reporter and Cell Information Reporter generate a
detail report including separation constraints and cells with cochannels or adjacent channels to the target cell.
Interference arrays are generated using the Create Array dialog box
in Asset. There are several options for interference analysis within the
window such as Worst Interferer, which calculates interference
between the serving carrier at the pixel and the strongest interfering
carrier, and Total Interference, which calculates interference between
the serving carrier at pixel location and the summed interference from
all cells using the interfering carrier. Worst or Average Connection
Arrays gives the total or average level of interference on worst
connection. It is used to analyze Frequency Hopping Networks.

Fig 7.13: Creating Arrays

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As with other arrays Coverage Statistics tool can be used to generate
area-based statistics report on interference performance of the
network. This report is an Excel file.

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Fig 7.14: Worst Interferer

Fig 7.15: ILSA Cost/Interference Graph

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Implementing the results into Network


Implementation of the frequency plan is done via OMC-R through the
PRC.

Limitations of ILSA based FP


Although ILSA may not be 100% accurate but it is capable to produce
frequency plan quickly and efficiently, if properly set up. There are a
few considerations which if properly taken care of will result in an
efficient and acceptable frequency plan. Some of these are:

ILSA computes frequency allocations by minimizing carrier cost.


There are too many possible carrier permutations and clearly
checking every possible frequency plan for a reasonable size
network would take a prohibitive amount of time, even if the
period of time taken to check a plan were only of the order of
1milli-second. This is why ILSA take so much time to produce
acceptable results.
ILSA is an Automatic Frequency Planning tool and as such it
depends entirely upon the inputs and parameters. Therefore for

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best results, proper and accurate inputs are required. For


example Site Database etc should be error-free.
ILSA plans the frequencies on the basis of Best Server Plot. This
dictates the need of an accurate propagation model. If the
propagation model is not properly tuned, then ILSA may not
produce best results.
The costs should be defined properly in Cost Matrix and
interference should be calculated in such a way that it reflects
the real network statistics.
Neighbours are very important input for frequency planning in
ILSA. Even when using Neighbour Wizard, there is still a chance
that it may not produce the best results. In such a case, the
neighbor list may require some fine tuning so that there is no
missing or unnecessary extra neighbor.
ILSA, no matter how efficient, requires lots of processor speed
and time. It breaks when used for planning a huge network. To
avoid this situation, it is recommended to scale down the
network to small regions and after the plan select the next region
taking the border sites of previous region as having changeable
BCCH. In this way, the whole network can be planned quickly,
efficiently and with much better results.
If Frequency allocation is not workable, the following should be
considered:
Consider relaxing the constraints
Increase number of cells in the network
Increase number of frequencies involved

ILSA Procedure Summary:

Asset Project is updated with audited database, redesign


recommendations, area polygons, site filters, propagation
model

Calculated predictions of all the sites that will be planned

Best server array is generated to create:


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Setting up of ILSA :

Import filters
Import interference table
Import handover count if applicable
Initialize ILSA

Set up cost matrix and give appropriate inputs like

Neighbours, if using the neighbour wizard option.


Traffic raster, if using the spread live traffic option.
Carriers required, if using the Traffic Analysis Tool
Interference table using the interference table wizard

Filter priorities
Carrier costs
Carrier layer cost etc

Starting planning and viewing progress, we can select any of


the option between:

Use current plan


Create new plan

ILSA should be left running until there has been a


considerable period of time with no improvement. The time
that ILSA takes to find the optimum plan will depend upon the
number of allocations that are required and the number of
frequencies available. Rate of improvement decreases with
time.

Analyze the results using carrier statistics and cell statistics

Further this plan is applied to DB for analysis and creating of


interference plots for comparison with initial on-air FP.

Re-run ILSA with better cost matrix setup if required.

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ILSA
Presentation.ppt

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Chapter 8: FREQUENCY RETUNING / REDESIGN

Introduction
Importance of frequency retuning
Case Study: Gujranwala City Redesign process
Execution phase
Post Activity Benchmarking
Conclusion

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Introduction
Frequency Retuning is an important and integral part in the redesign
process. Network Frequency retunes are required regularly in parallel
with the traffic growth. As a network mature and so does the traffic
growth. Existing frequency plan most of the time becomes outdated
with the addition of new sites and traffic increase. In order to maintain
network quality and efficiency, frequency retune is regularly
implemented every couple of months.

Importance of Frequency Retuning


The purpose of Frequency Retune process is to achieve an
improvement in KPIs. The retuning aims to oversee potential problems
with proactive approach long before the concern becomes a major
issue. The main challenge is to limit any customer impact so they do
not experience any degradation of voice quality or an increase in
dropped calls. Key challenges may include tight timeframe, ensuring
the activity does not impact on the high performance of the existing
mobile network, clarifying the objectives of the redesign activity,
specifying design constraints and ensuring that design meets the
objectives. Using these tools, the retune was implemented
successfully, with drive test data and statistics indicating that call
quality and dropped call rates had actually improved in keeping with
our objective of not degrading service but actually enhancing
experience on our GSM network.
Using the statistics from this trial and reviewing traffic analysis from
the base stations, the impact of retuning is observed. If successful, the
re-farming of frequency results in modified tune frequency plan which
ensure efficient planning and smooth optimization.

Frequency Retuning Process


The city-level redesign and frequency retuning activity is divided
into 3 stages:

Physical Redesigning
Frequency Retuning
Post-Activity Optimization
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Case Study: Gujranwala City Redesign Process


For the process of Redesign, the Gujranwala City Redesign is taken as a
case study. Gujranwala is currently operational with 46 On-Air sites
which cater for an overall traffic of 2750 Erl during Busy Hour.
Pre-Activity DT, Site Audits & Recommendations:
The redesign activity is usually carried out in groups of sites called
Clusters. The first step is to carry out a comprehensive scanned mode
DT within the agreed boundaries and perform site audit for current onground situation. The DT Team gives the results within three (3)
working days to the Redesign team which updates the site audit
database and reports the percentage of erroneous data. Redesign
along with Optimization team makes a tentative plan for reduction in
antenna heights, wherever necessary.
Analysis of Recommendations:
RF Planning team performs Model Tuning from the scan mode DT data
and produces Best Server, Coverage Prediction & C/I plots in Asset3G.
On the basis of these inputs from planning team, the Optimization
team carries out the analysis of major KPIs.
Mutually agreed Redesign recommendations such as Antenna Heights,
Electrical/Mechanical Tilts, Azimuths and RF Plan by Planning, Redesign
and Optimization teams are suggested to improve the coverage stats.
The resulting traffic is analyzed in Asset and from traffic stats.
Neighbour & Frequency Retuning:
Depending upon the above activities, the Planning team then retunes
the Neighbour List in Asset and Frequency using ILSA. The Frequency
and Neighbour retuning process takes Four (04) working days.

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Execution Phase:
When an acceptable Frequency Plan is generated in ILSA, the result is
useless until it is implemented into real world network. Telenor has
developed a set of procedures to carry out this activity.
In the execution phase Work Orders, Site Outage requests are
generated via Service Desk (SD) regarding the redesign activity and
upon approval, all the RF recommendations, retuned Frequency and
Neighbour plans are implemented.
RF Planning and NSN Configuration Management (CM) teams
coordinate about the activity such as its starting date and the duration
of each activity. The result from ILSA based frequency planning is
converted into an agreed-upon excel format between TP RF Planning &
NSN CM team. The format of this Excel file is as follows:

The NSN CM converts the received data into xml format. Time required
for this activity depends upon the number of segments to be
converted. As per TP-NSN understanding, this is 100 segments per day.
For example, if 155 segment will require 2 days for conversion.
The initial dump is shared with NSN CM team which verifies the dump
with original FP. The Dump is rectified if necessary. In case there is any
issue, these are reported to TP RF Planning team which completes it
rectification within one (1) working day time.
After the verification is completed and necessary rectification
performed, it is ready for implementation. Request to operations team
is sent for the outage from TP RF team and NSN CM team requests for
the freeze. Night time is preferred on mutually agreed dates for this
activity so that QoS is least affected.
Once these requests are granted by the concerned departments, NSN
CM team starts implementing the Frequency Plan. Prior to this NSN
maintains a backup of the Frequency Plan of already on-air sites. The
dump is shared again with RF Planning team for verification.
A drive test is performed in the area of observation after the
verification of dump from RF Planning team and the log is analyzed
from frequency point of view. In case of any issue, RF Planning team
asks NSN CM team for rectification if necessary.
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Post Activity Benchmarking:


Whenever any changes are made to the Network, it is mandatory to
carry out a comprehensive post activity DT to monitor the effect of fine
tuning and redesigning by Planning, Redesign and Optimization teams.
The major KPIs and traffic stats are monitored for Four (04) days and a
Benchmarking Report of the activity is generated.

Conclusion
Optimization and redesigning take place continuously on a network in
order to improve quality performance with increased traffic loading
provide additional capacity (new channel additions or network-wide
frequency retunes) and resolve specific problems that arise. Both these
optimization functions need a disciplined approach to network
implementation, operation and quality, and require well controlled and
documented procedures.
The redesign activity in Gujranwala city was successful and
improvement in overall city level KPIs including DCR, CSSR, HOSR and
MPD was observed while maintaining the traffic trend. Redesigning and
retuning of the frequency plan resulted in better RxLev. Slight
improvement was also noticed in overall RxQual on city level as is
evident from the attached figures:

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Fig 8.1: Pre- & Post-Activity City Coverage and Rx Level

Fig 8.2: RxQual Plot of the Gujranwala city before and after the activity
Further improvement can be obtained if new planned sites are
commissioned and minor parameter changes are performed.
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Redesign report for Sialkot city is being attached for reference.

Sialkot_CITY_REDESI
GN.ppt

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ATTACHEMENTS

CELCALC.zip

Macro_For_TEMS_Fo
rmat.rar

RF Calculators.zip

RFCafe_CalculatorW
orkbook_v6p0.zip

rfs-software.zip

Telecom
Calculator.zip

xcell.zip

XLS_to_KML_themeti
c.rar

XTILT.zip

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Mapinfo Mapx v5.02


License - Copy.zip

GeScene.rar

MIPT2Gv1D_200707
03.rar

Angle Converter.rar

Katherine Antenna
Manual 2009.pdf

Telenor Link
Budget.pdf

RF Antenna
Datasheets.rar

ASSET Training.ppt

MapInfo to
ASSET.ppt

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5MUSF20-TSSR.pdf

Zong SSRF
LLR143_C-LHR-6356.xls

Site Sharing Operators as Host.vsd

Site Sharing Telenor as Host.vsd

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LINKS:
For RF Planning departments weekly records & up to date information
please follow the links mentioned below:

\\10.132.31.8\RF Planning and Network Efficiency


\\10.132.31.8\AssetShared
\\10.132.31.8\Planning Inputs
\\10.132.31.8\Shared Folder
\\10.132.31.53\ Shared DATA Folder
\\10.132.31.8\Pre-Launch

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ABBREVIATIONS:
RF: Radio Frequency
GOS: Grade of Service
mE/Sub: mili Erlang per subscriber
TXN: Transmission
RE: Real State
SD: Site Design
CD: Commercial Division
CLT: Customer Liaison Team
TA: Timing Advance
GPS: Global Positioning System
TSS: Technical Site Survey
TSSR: Technical Site Survey Report
KPI: Key Performance Indicators
Erl: Erlang
SA: Site Acquisition
Sub-Con: Sub Contractor
SAR: Site Acquisition Report
SARF: Site Acquisition Request Form
BTS: Base Transceiver Station
LOS: Line of Sight
DFN: Distance from Nominal
HASL: Height above Sea Level
DB: Data Base
WP: Work Package
BCCH: Broadcast Control Channel
BSIC: Base Station Identity Code
HSN: Hopping Sequence Number
MAL: Mobile Allocation List
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MAIO: Mobile Allocation Index Offset
TCH: Traffic Channel
CS: Call Setup
TD: Technical Division
TRX: Transceivers
NOC: Network Operations and Control
O&M: Operations and Maintenance
NSS: Network switching subsystem
CM: Configuration Management
RSSI: Received Signal Strength Intensity
ERP: Effective Radiated Power
EIRP: Effective Isotropic Radiated Power
BSS: Base Station Subsystem
COW: Cell on Wheels
DT: Drive Test
MS: Mobile Station
SSRF: Site Sharing Request Form
SIR: Site Integration Report
CW: Continuous Wave
DTM: Digital Terrain Model
Signia: CW format for asset import
FBP: File Based Provisioning
FP: Frequency Plan
CM: Configuration Management
ILSA: Intelligent Local Search Algorithm
NSN: Nokia Siemens Networks
QoS: Quality of Service

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REFRENCES:
1. Asset User Manual v5.1, Aircom International
2. GSM Advanced Cell Planning,1999 by Ericsson Radio

Systems AB
3. MapInfo User Guide v8.5, Pitney Bowes MapInfo Corporation,

2007
4. GPSMAP 76CSx owners manual, 2005 Garmin Ltd.
5. Map Source users manual, 2005 Garmin Ltd.
6. Global Mapper users manual.
7. Basic Antenna Principles for Mobile Communications, Peter

Scholz, Kathrein.
8. 790-6000 Base Station Antennas for Mobile Communications,

catalogue 2007, Kathrein.


9. Telenor Link Budget Nokia 2003.
10. K. Paran and N. Noori, Tuning Of The Propagation Model ITU-R

P.1546

Recommendation,

Progress

In

Electromagnetics

Research B, Vol. 8, (2008)


11. Simi}

I., Stani} I., Zrni} B. Minimax LS Algorithm for

Automatic Propagation Model Tuning, Technical Paper.


12. CW

Measurement in the 900MHz ISM Band v1.1, LCC

International, Inc. (June 2006)


13. Moe Rahnema, UMTS Network Planning, Optimization and

Inter-Operation with GSM, Wiley-IEEE Publishers (2008)


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14. Frequency Retune Procedure v1, TP TL9000 Document,

Telenor Pakistan
15. Benchmarking Report: Gujranwala City Redesign, T&R Central

Team, Telenor Pakistan


16. Asset User Manual v5.1, Aircom International
17. ILSA Application Notes, Aircom International
18. ILSA 2 Presentation, AIRCOM International
19. GSM Radio Network Tuning, Ericsson, April 2000
20. FAP web (2000) | A website about Frequency Assignment

Problems. Eisenblatter A., Koster A. URL http://fap.zib.de/.

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