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Eidgenssische

Technische Hochschule
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Lecture 4:

4. Stochastic Channel Models


Contents:
Radio channel simulation
Stochastic modelling
COST 207 model
CODIT model
Turin-Suzuki-Hashemi model
Saleh-Valenzuela model

Stochastic Models

Eidgenssische
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4. Stochastic Channel Models


Contents (contd):
WAND model
Spencer-Jeffs-Jensen-Swindlehurst model
IEEE 802.11 model
3GPP Stochastic Channel Model

Stochastic Models

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The importance of stochastic channel modelling


Main application fields of stochastic channel models:
Design and optimization of communication systems:
- Design of the constituents of communication systems
- Optimization of the behaviour and performance of these constituents
- Analytical or simulation-based investigations of the performance of these
constituents

Monte Carlo simulations for system performance assessment


- Link-level simulations (today)
- System-level simulations (today)
- Simulation of cooperative networks (coming soon)
in complex scenarios as close as possible to real operation conditions

Stochastic channel models (SCMs) are crucial and indispensable tools in


the design of communication systems.
Stochastic Models

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Radio channel simulation


The different approaches for channel simulations:
Stored Channel Models (ATDMA)
Measured space-variant or time-variant delay spread functions (SFs) are selected according to some specified criteria to form classes of so-called reference channels.
These delay SFs are stored and can be read on demand
for simulation purposes.
Example:
Reference space-variant delay SF in
an atypical microcellular urban
environments:

Stochastic Models

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Radio channel simulation


The different approaches for channel simulations (contd):
Deterministic Channel Models
These models employ ray optical techniques (ray tracing, ray
launching combined with UTD method) to compute the delay SF
or the direction-delay SF using some more or less extensive geographical information (building
layout, electric properties of
walls and floors, etc.) about the
propagation environment under
consideration.

Stochastic Models

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Radio channel simulation


The different approaches for channel simulations (contd):
Stochastic Channel Models (COST 207, CODIT)
- A parametric model for the delay SFs is derived.
- Realizations of the delay SF are then
generated according to specified
probability distributions of the model
parameters.

Example: COST 207 HT


g ( t ; )
1
0.8
0.6
0.4

- These probability distributions are


gathered by means of statistical
analyses of measurement data
collected during extensive measurement campaigns.
Stochastic Models

0.2
0
0
5
25

10

20
15

15

Delay [ s]
delay [mys]

10
5
20

Time t [ms]
real time [ms]

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Radio channel simulation


Comparison of the different approaches:
Channel
simulation
approaches

Computational
expense

Intrinsic
variability of the
models

Retained channel
features

Challenge

High
(storage)

Low
(=number of
stored channels)

All

Choice of the
appropriate
selection criteria

Deterministic
channel models

High
(identification of
the dominant
propagation
paths)

Medium
(=number of
environments
considered)

Part of them
(ray optical
methods are not
exact)

Identification of
the dominant
prop. paths +
accurate method
for computing
the path weights

Stochastic
channel models

Low

High
(probability
distributions)

Part of them
(depending on the
model used)

Incorporate all
relevant channel
features

Reference
channels

Stochastic Models

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Stochastic modelling
Features to be incorporated into SCMs:
Environment:
Type of environment
Frequency range

Stochastic
channel model
Transceiver characteristics:
Trajectory, velocity
Bandwidth
Antenna (array) types

Stochastic Models

Short-term fluctuations:
Fast fading

Channel dispersion
Delay
Direction of departure
Direction of incidence
Doppler frequency
Polarization
Short range/term (fast)
fading
Long-term fluctuations:
Path loss
Shadowing
Transitions
Delay drift
Drift in directions
Birth & death of paths
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Stochastic modelling
Requirements for SCMs:
Completeness
SCMs must reproduce all effects that impact on the performance of communication systems.
=> Guarantee simulation scenarios close to reality
=> Full basis for system comparisons

Accuracy
SCMs must accurately describe these effects.
=> Realistic results from analytical and/or simulation-based investigations

Simplicity/low complexity
Each effect must be described by a simple model.
=> Enable theoretical study of some particular system aspects and performance
=> Tractable computational effort to simulate the channel in Monte Carlo simulations
Stochastic Models

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Stochastic modelling
Approach for SCM:
Specification of
the area type
additional system parameters (array characteristics,
mobile velocity, etc.)
Software package generating a specific parametric system function of the channel, e.g.
g ( t ; )

g i ( t ) ( i ( t ) )

i=1

Statistical processing of data obtained from


extensive measurement campaigns in the
identified areas
Estimation of the probability density functions of the parameters occurring in the
parametric system function

Realizations of the system function,


e.g. g ( t ; )
Stochastic Models

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Stochastic modelling
Model for g i ( t ) :
Short-term fluctuations:
Specular part:
g i, c ( t ) = h i, c exp ( j2 i t )
( ST )

gi

i : Doppler frequency

( t ) = g i, c ( t ) + g i, d ( t )

Diffuse part:
g i, d ( t ) is a WSS zero-mean circular symmetric complex Gaussian process specified by its ACF R i ( t )
or equivalently its (Doppler) spectrum P i ( ) :
R i ( t )

Stochastic Models

Pi ( )

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Stochastic modelling
Model for g i ( t ) (contd):
Long-term fluctuations (path loss & shadowing effect):
g i ( t ) = 10

L(t )
---------10

L i ( vt )
-----------------10
( ST )
10
gi (t )

L ( t ) : time-dependent path loss computed from one of the models


presented in Lecture 3.
L i ( d ) : real zero-mean Gaussian process with ACF R Li ( d ) .
Usually,
2

R Li ( d ) = exp ( d )

Stochastic Models

: standard deviation of L i ( d )
= 6 8 dB
: decorrelation length
Small macrocells: = 5 8m
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Stochastic modelling
Models for i ( t ) :
Short-term fluctuations:
i ( t ) = i
where { 1, 2, , i, } is a specified random point process.
Long-term fluctuations:
i ( t ) = i + i ( t )
where { 1, 2, , i, } is the above random point process and { i ( t ) }
is a sequence of random processes describing the drift of the components in
the time-variant SF on the delay axis.

Stochastic Models

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COST 207 model


Main characteristics:
Cell type

Macrocell

Area

Typical non-hilly urban (TU), bad hilly urban (BU)


Non-hilly rural area (RA), hilly terrain (HT)

Frequency range

Around 1 GHz

Time-variant SF
g ( t ; ) =
Input

Stochastic Models

P
---N

exp { j ( 2 i t + i ) } ( i )

i=1

Area type
Vehicle velocity
Number of components in g ( t ; )
Delay and Doppler resolution

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COST 207 model


Normalized delay-Doppler scattering function:
1
P n ( , ) --- P ( , )
P

P n ( , ) d d = 1 )

We can decompose P n ( , ) as
P n ( , ) = P n ( ) P n ( )
Normalized delay
scattering function

( P n ( ) P n ( , ) d )

Delay-dependent normalized
Doppler scattering function

The COST 207 models are specified by the two functions:


Pn ( )
Pn ( )
Stochastic Models

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COST 207 model


Normalized delay scattering function:
Typical urban non-hilly area (TU):
Pn ( )

MS

Local
scattering

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

exp ( ) ; 0 [ s ] 7
Pn ( )

0
;
elsewhere

Stochastic Models

0.2

0
0

[s]

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COST 207 model


Normalized delay scattering function (contd):
Typical bad urban hilly area (BU):
P n ( ) 0.7
0.6

v
MS

Local
scattering

Distant
scattering

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

exp ( )
; 0 [ s ] 5

P n ( ) 0.5 exp ( 5 ) ; 5
[ s ] 10

0
;
elsewhere

Stochastic Models

0.1

0
0

10

[s]

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COST 207 model


Normalized delay scattering function (contd):
Typical rural non-hilly area (RA):
P n ( ) 10
9

MS

Local
scattering

7
6
5
4
3
2

exp ( 9.2 ) ; 0 [ s ] 0.7


Pn ( )

0
;
elsewhere

Stochastic Models

1
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

[s]

0.5

0.6

0.7

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COST 207 model


Normalized delay scattering function (contd):
Typical hilly terrain (HT):
Pn ( )

Local
scattering
MS

Distant
scattering

2.5

1.5

exp ( 3.5 ) ; 0 [ s ] 2

P n ( ) 0.1 exp ( 15 ) ; 15
[ s ] 20

0
;
elsewhere

Stochastic Models

0.5

0
0

10

[s]

12

14

16

18

20

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COST 207 model


Normalized Doppler scattering function:
CLASS (Clarkes Doppler spectrum) [ 0.5 s ]:

MS

Many scatterers
with nearly the
same features
uniformly distributed around
the MS

C ()
D

( D = 1 [Hz] )
CLASS

1
1
----------------------------------------- ;
< D

2
D 1 (v )
Pn ( ) =
D

0
; elsewhere

C ()
D

Stochastic Models

( D v )

0
1.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

[Hz]
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COST 207 model


Normalized Doppler scattering function (contd):
GAUS1 [ 0.5 s 2 s ]:
Two strong distant scatterers
v

P n( )

GAUS1

( D = 1 [Hz] )

MS
5

( ) 2
1
G ( ;a, 1, 2 ) a exp ----------------------

2
2 ( 2 )

P n ( ) G ( ;a 1, 0.8 D, 0.05 D )
+ G ( ;a 2, 0.4 D, 0.1 D )

a 2
with -----
= 10 dB
a
1 [dB]
Stochastic Models

0
1.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

[Hz]

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COST 207 model


Normalized Doppler scattering function (contd):
GAUS2 [ s 2 ]:
Two strong distant scatterers
v

P n( )

( D = 1 [Hz] )

GAUS2

3.5

MS

2.5

P n ( ) G ( ;a 1, 0.7 D, 0.1 D )
+ G ( ;a 2, 0.4 D, 0.15 D )
a 2
with -----
= 15 dB
a
1 [dB]

Stochastic Models

1.5

0.5

0
1.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

[Hz]

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COST 207 model


Normalized Doppler scattering function (contd):
P n( )
RICE:
LOS or reflected
component

MS

( D = 1 [Hz] )

Many scatterers with


nearly the same features uniformly distributed around the MS

0.91
0.5

0
1.5

0.5

1
0.41
--------------------------------- + 0.91 ( 0.7 D ) ;
------------ < D
2
D 1 ( v )2
Pn ( )
D

0
; elsewhere

Stochastic Models

RICE

1.5

0.5

1.5

[Hz]

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COST 207 model


Simulation issues:
Make use of the following result:
If the random variables 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, , N , N , N satisfy
the following properties:
the pairs ( i, i ) are independent with probability distribution
P n ( , ) ,
the phases i are independent and uniformly distributed over
[ 0, 2 ) ,
the sequences { ( i, i ) } and { i } are independent,
then for N sufficiently large, the scattering function of the simulated
channel is close to P ( , ) .
Stochastic Models

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COST 207 model


Simulated time-variant delay SF [TU]:
Pn ( ) = C ( )
D
1

( v =100 km/h, f = 900 MHz)

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
1
2
3

Delay [ s]

25
20

4
15

5
10

6
delay [mys]

Stochastic Models

5
7

Time t [ms]

real time [ms]

Source: ETHZ, CTL, R. Heddergott

g ( t ; )

D = 83.3 Hz

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COST 207 model


Simulated time-variant delay SF [BU]:
Pn ( ) = C ( )
D
0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0
2
4

Delay [ s]

25
20

6
15
10

8
5
delay [mys]

Stochastic Models

10

Time t [ms]

real time [ms]

Source: ETHZ, CTL, R. Heddergott

g ( t ; )

D = 83.3 Hz

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COST 207 model


Simulated time-variant delay SF [RA]:
Pn ( ) = C ( )
D
D = 83.3 Hz

2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3

Delay [ s]

25
20

0.4
15

0.5
10

0.6
delay [mys]

Stochastic Models

5
0.7

Time t [ms]

real time [ms]

Source: ETHZ, CTL, R. Heddergott

g ( t ; )

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COST 207 model


Simulated time-variant delay SF [HT]:
Pn ( ) = C ( )
D

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
5

Delay [ s]

25

10

20
15

15

10
5

delay [mys]

Stochastic Models

20

Time t [ms]

real time [ms]

Source: ETHZ, CTL, R. Heddergott

g ( t ; )

D = 83.3 Hz

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COST 207 model


The COST 207 tables:
Example: BU
Tap Delay Power Power Doppler
[lin] [dB] spectrum
No

Tap Delay Power Power Doppler


[lin] [dB] spectrum
No

0.0

0.20

-7

CLASS

3.2

0.20

-7

GAUS2

0.2

0.50

-3

CLASS

5.0

0.79

-1

GAUS2

0.4

0.79

-1

CLASS

6.0

0.63

-2

GAUS2

0.8

1.00

GAUS1

10

7.2

0.20

-7

GAUS2

1.6

0.63

-2

GAUS1

11

8.2

0.10

-10

GAUS2

2.2

0.25

-6

GAUS2

12

10.0

0.03

-15

GAUS2

Delay spread: = 2.5 s


Stochastic Models

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COST 207 model


The COST 207 tables (contd):
Delay scattering function for the BU model:
1.0

0.5

0
Stochastic Models

10

[ s]
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COST 207 model


The COST 207 tables (contd):
Comment:
!! The delays are regularly spaced !!
i.e., i = m i with m i integer and = 0.2s .
-> The transfer function is periodic (with period = 5 MHz)
-> The parameter settings in the COST 231 tables are not appropriate for
investigating the performance of systems which exploit channel
frequency selectivity,
e.g. GSM with frequency hopping.
Solution:
Choose an irregularly spacing of the delays or randomly select them.
Stochastic Models

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COST 207 model


The COST 207 tables (contd):
Frequency hopping:
Real channel frequency transfer function:
H( f )
B c = 0.2

B1

B2

B 1'

B 2'

Transfer function of the COST 207 channel:


1
-----

H( f )

B1
Stochastic Models

B2

B 1'

B 2'

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CODIT model
Main characteristics:
Cell type

Macro-, micro, picocell

Area

Macrocell: urban, suburban, suburban hilly


rural, rural hilly
Microcell: dense urban linear street, town square, industrial area
Indoor: floor cell in buildings, corridor,
large and very large rooms

Frequency band

2 GHz range
Up to 20 MHz signal bandwidth

Time-variant SF
g ( t ; )

g i ( t ) ( i ( t ) )

i=1

Input

Stochastic Models

Area type
Vehicle velocity
System bandwidth

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CODIT model
Short-term variations of g i ( t ) :
i, c

i,

xxxxxxx
xxxxxxx
J
v
v
( ST )
g i ( t ) = h i, c exp j2 --- cos ( i, c ) t + h i, j exp j2 --- cos ( i, j ) t

jxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
=1
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Specular part

Diffuse part

h i, c = i, c ,
arg { h i, c } uniformly distributed over [ 0, 2 )
1 2
h i, j N 0, --- i, d
J

E[ g ( t ) 2 ] = i, c + i, d i : mean power of the i th component


i
2

( i, c i, d ) : coherent to diffuse power ratio of the i th component


Stochastic Models

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CODIT model
Probability distribution of the azimuths i, c and i, j :
p i, j ( )
i, j

Scatterer i

i, c
MS

i, j

Stochastic Models

N ( i, c, 0.15 2[radian] )

i, c

mod2

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CODIT model
Long-term variations of g i ( t ) :
g i ( t ) = zi ( t )

( ST )
gi (t )

Term describing the


long-term fluctuations

Shadowing effects:
zi ( t )

2 v
z i ( t ) 1 + z i cos ------ --- t + i
qi

i : Random variable uniformly distributed over [ 0, 2 )


Stochastic Models

2z i

qi
-------------(v )

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CODIT model
Long-term variations of g i ( t ) (contd):
Emergence of the components:

1
------------------------------ ; vt z
6

z
z i ( t ) 1 + vt
-------------
5

1
; vt > z

zi ( t )
1
zv

Fading of the components:

1
------------------------------ ; vt z
6

z
z i ( t ) 1 + vt
-------------
5

1
; vt < z

zi ( t )
1
zv

z is a random variable uniformly distributed over [ 50, 70 ] .


Stochastic Models

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CODIT model
Short-term variations of i ( t ) :
i ( t ) = i
Long-term variations of i ( t ) :
i ( t )

2 v

i ( t ) = i + i 1 + cos ------ --- t + i


pi

i : Random variable uniformly distributed over [ 0, 2 )

Stochastic Models

2 i
i
pi
-------------(v )

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CODIT model
Selection of the parameters of g ( t ; ) :
The number N of components depends on the area type but is fixed for a
given area, N max = 20.
J = 100
The parameters

2
i ,

( i, c i, d ) , i, c, z i, q i, i, i, p i describing the

behaviour of the components of g i ( t ) are random variables specified by


probability distributions.

Stochastic Models

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CODIT model
Setting Tables:
Example: Suburban hilly environment:

2 2

Stochastic Models

i [s ]

z i

qi

pi

i [ns ]

i = 1
i

E [ hi ]
-------------------------2
Var [ h i ] i

Source: CODIT Report: Final Propagation Model


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CODIT model
Setting Tables (contd):

Source: CODIT Report: Final


Propagation Model

Example: Power delay spectrum generated with the previous table:

Stochastic Models

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CODIT model
Example: Microcell LOS Area:
Evolution of the corresponding
delay scattering function

Contour plot of a realization of g ( d ; ) :

Power [dB]

Distance d [ ]

d = 80

Delay

[ns]

d = 0

Delay

[ns]

Source: CODIT Report: Final Propagation Model


Stochastic Models

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CODIT model
Example: Indoor Picocell LOS Area:
Evolution of the corresponding
delay scattering function

Power [dB]

Distance d [ ]

Contour plot of a realization of g ( d ; ) :

Delay

[ns]

Delay

[ns]

Source: CODIT Report: Final Propagation Model


Stochastic Models

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Turin-Suzuki-Hashemi model
Main characteristics:
Cell type

Macro-, micro- and picocell


(by appropriately setting the probability densities of model parameters)

Area

Urban

Frequency range

500MHz -1GHz

Time-invariant delay SF
g ( t ; ) = h ( ) =

hi ( i )

i=1

Main features

Stochastic Models

Time-invariant
Clustering of the components in h ( ) is reproduced by modelling
the sequence { i } as a Poisson point process or a modification
thereof.

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Turin-Suzuki-Hashemi model
Modelling { i } as a Poisson point process:
{ i } is a Poisson point process with rate ( ):
()
( T ) ( ) d
T

(T )

T
1

i 1 i

N T : Number of points in the time interval T


n

(T )
=
P[ N T = n ] --------------- exp ( ( T ) )
n!
Stochastic Models

[ E[ N T ] = Var[ N T ] = ( T ) ]
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Turin-Suzuki-Hashemi model
Modelling { i } as a homogeneous Poisson point process:
() =
In this case, the delay differences i i 1 are independent random
variables which are (identically) exponentially distributed with parameter :
Probability density of i i 1 :

pi i 1 ( )

p i i 1 ( ) = exp ( )

Drawback of the Poisson model:


It does not describe sufficiently accurately the clustering of the components
as observed in measured delay SFs.
Stochastic Models

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Turin-Suzuki-Hashemi model
Estimated rates in outdoor environments:

Source: Paper by Turin at al.

1ft 1ns

Stochastic Models

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Turin-Suzuki-Hashemi model
Modelling { i } as a modified Poisson point process:
The rate ( ) depends on the random sequence { i } in the following way:
()
s

0()

h( )

Stochastic Models

cs ( )
s

The basic rate 0 ( ) is multiplied by a factor c s


during a predetermined relaxation interval s at
each i :
c s > 1 : Clustering effect
c s = 1 : Poisson point process
c s < 1 : Isolated delay points
Values for s and i (macrocell):
s = 100 ns (arbitrarily selected)

3 4

Clustering effect
( cs > 1 )

0.1 < c s < 3 (estimated from measurements)

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Turin-Suzuki-Hashemi model
Probability distribution of the coefficients h i :
The distribution of the amplitude h i is log-normal,
i.e. 20 log ( h i ) is a Gaussian random variable with a mean h and a
standard deviation h . Both quantities depend on i .
The phase arg { h i } is uniformly distributed over [ 0, 2 ) .

Stochastic Models

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Turin-Suzuki-Hashemi model
Probability distribution of the coefficients h i (contd):
Two examples showing the behaviour of h ( ) and h ( ) for macrocells:
h ( ) + h ( )
h ( )

h ( ) + h ( )

h ( ) h ( )

h ( )

h ( ) h ( )

Excess delay [ns]

Excess delay [ns]


Source: Paper by Turin at al.

Stochastic Models

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Saleh-Valenzuela model
Main characteristics:b
Cell type

Picocell

Area

Indoor

Frequency range

Around 1GHz

Time-invariant delay SF

g ( t ; ) = h ( ) =

J (i)

h i, j ( i, j )

i=0j=0

Cluster index
Main features

Index for the components


within the clusters

Static model
The clustering of the components in h ( ) is reproduced by modelling the sequence { i, j } as a concatenation of two Poisson point
processes

Stochastic Models

51

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

Saleh-Valenzuela model
Modelling { i, j } as a concatenation of two Poisson point processes:

xxxxxxx
h 0, 0
h 0, 2
0, 1

xxxxxxxxxxx
h 1, 1

h 1, 0

h 0, 3

1, 2

1 1, 1
0
0
,
2
0
,
3
= 0, 0
= 1, 0
h 0, 1
h 1, 2

Cluster #i

Cluster #2

h()

Cluster #1

xxxxxxx

h i, 1
h i, 2
=

i, 0
i
h i, 0 i, 1
i, 2

h i, 1
= i, 0
i
h i, 0

Stochastic Models

h i, 2

i, 1 i, 2

i, 1
i, 2

52

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

Saleh-Valenzuela model
Modelling { i, j } as a concatenation of two Poisson point processes:
Cluster delays { i } : (i) 0 = 0
(ii) { i ;i = 1, 2, , N } : Poisson process with
rate .
Delays within cluster i :
(i) i, 0 = i ,..., i, j i + i, j ; j = 1, 2, , J ( i )
(ii) { i, 1, i, 2, } : Poisson process with rate .
Experimentally obtained values for and :
1 = 200 300 ns
1 = 5 10 ns

Stochastic Models

53

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

Saleh-Valenzuela model
Probability distribution of the coefficients h i, j:
Conditioned on i, j , h i, j is a complex zero-mean circular-symmetric
Gaussian random variable with variance:
2

h ( i, j ) E [ h i,
2

2
j

i, j ] = h exp ( i ) exp ( i, j )

h exp ( )
2
h

Experimental values for and :

exp ( i ) exp ( ( i ) )
h ( i, j )

= 60 ns
= 5 10 ns

i, j
i
Stochastic Models

i, j

54

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

WAND model
Include before --- Main characteristics:
Cell type

Picocell

Area

Indoor

Application range

2, 5, and 17 GHz bands

Time-variant azimuthdelay SFSF

Nt

g ( t ;, )

g i ( t ) ( i ) ( i ( t ) )

i=1
Nt

Input

Stochastic Models

g ( t ; ) = g i ( t ) ( i ( t ) )

i=1
Area type: small, large rooms, factory halls, corridors
Velocity of the mobile station

55

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

WAND model
Local dispersion:
Azimuth-delay spread function:
N

h ( , )

h i ( i ) ( i )

i=1

where
N is a Poisson distributed random variable.
{ i } : sequence of independent, uniformly distributed random azimuths
{ i } : sequence of independent, exponentially distributed random delays with
common expectation E [ i ] = d .
{ h i } : sequence of independent, zero-mean complex Gaussian random amplitudes with individual variance
E [ hi
Stochastic Models

i = , i = ] exp { a }
56

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

WAND model
Local dispersion (contd):
Short term time-variant delay SF:
( ST )

( t ; )

i=1

h i exp { j2 i t } ( i )

gi(t )

v
with i --- cos ( i ) denoting the Doppler frequency.

Stochastic Models

57

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

WAND model
Local scattering function (contd):
Local azimuth-delay scattering function:
2

P L ( , ) E L [ h ( , ) ]
N

h i ( i ) ( i )

i=1

Local delay scattering function:


PL() EL[ g
N

( ST )

( t ; ) ]

hi ( i )

i=1
Stochastic Models

58

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

WAND model
Global scattering function:
Global azimuth-delay scattering function:
P ( , ) E [ P L ( , ) ]
exp { }
Global delay scattering function:
P() E[ PL()]
exp { }
with delay spread
=
Stochastic Models

1
( a

1 1
d )
59

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

WAND model
Local versus global delay scattering function:
10
local PDS (one realization)
average of 1000 local PDS
global PDS

Power

10

15

20

25

30

35

50

100

150

200
Delay

Stochastic Models

250

300

350

[ns]

60

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

WAND model
Fluctuations of the number of impinging waves:

t 3

(3)

t 1

(1)
( n )

t 2

(2)

t1 t2

t3 t4

t n + 1
t n
t n 1
tn 1 tn tn + 1

Birth times: { t n } : Uniform Poisson process with rate ( b ) .


Live times: { t n } : Independent and identically, exponentially distributed
random variables with expectation E [ t n ] = l .
Stochastic Models

61

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

WAND model
Fluctuations of the number of impinging waves (contd):
Let N t number of active components in g ( t ; ) at time t .
Nt

t
Stochastic Models

62

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

WAND model
Fluctuations of the number of impinging waves (contd):
N t is a Poisson distributed random variable with expectation
l
E [ N t ] = -----b

Stochastic Models

63

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

WAND model
Fluctuations of the number of impinging waves (contd):
Example of a realization of N t : ( E [ N t ] = 10 )
20

14

one realization
average of 500 realizations

18

12

16

Nt

14

Number of paths M

Time (s)

10

12

10

4
4

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

10

15

Time (s)

Delay (ns)

Stochastic Models

64

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

WAND model
Long-term variations of g i ( t ) :
( ST )

g i ( t ) = zi ( t ) g i

(t)

Transition function:
zi ( t )
1

ti

Stochastic Models

t i

t i + t i

65

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

WAND model
Long-term variations of g i ( t ) (contd):
Selected shape for z i ( t ) :
t t i

z i ( t ) z ---------- t i
with the pattern function
z(t )

Cosine shape

1
15
Stochastic Models

35

15

t
66

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

WAND model
Long-term variations of g i ( t ) (contd):
Example of a realization of the long-term fluctuations of the instantaneous
power of the components g i ( t ) :

Power relative to maximum (dB)

Instantaneous power of g i ( t ) :

5
10

zi ( t ) hi

15

20
15
25
10

30
0
50
100

150
200
250
300
350

Time (s)

Delay (ns)

Stochastic Models

67

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

WAND model
Long-term variations of i ( t ) :
i
i ( t ) = i ---- [ t ( t i + t i 2 ) ]
f
v
where i = --- cos ( i ) is the Doppler shift of the i th component.

Stochastic Models

68

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

WAND model
Long-term variations of i ( t ) (contd):
Example of a realization of the long-term fluctuations of the relative delays:
14

12

Time (s)

10

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Delay (ns)

Stochastic Models

69

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

WAND model
Example of a realization of a time-variant delay SF:

Relative amplitude (lin)

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
15

0.2
10

0
0
50
100

150
200
250
300
350

Time (s)

Delay (ns)

Stochastic Models

70

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

Spencer-Jeffs-Jensen-Swindlehurst Model
Main characteristics:
Cell type

Picocell

Area

Indoor

Time-invariant azimuthdelay SF

h( , ) =

J (i)

h i, j ( i, j ) ( i, j )

i=0j=0

Cluster index

Component azimuth
of incidence

Index of the components


within the clusters
Main features

Stochastic Models

Component delay

Time-invariant
The model is an extension of the model by Saleh-Valenzuela to
include dispersion in azimuth of arrival. The concept of double
Poisson process is maintained.

71

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

Spencer-Jeffs-Jensen-Swindlehurst Model
Stochastic model for{ i, j }:
Cluster delays { i } : (i) 0 = 0
(ii) { i ;i = 1, 2, , N } : Independent uniformly
distributed over [ 0, 2 ) .
Delays within cluster i :
(i) i, j i + i, j , j = 0, 1, 2, , J ( i ), i = 1, , N ;
(ii) { i, j ; j = 1, , J ( i ) } : Independent, Laplace( ( i ) );
(iii){ { i, j ; j = 1, , J ( i ) } ;i = 1, , N }: independent sets

Stochastic Models

72

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

Spencer-Jeffs-Jensen-Swindlehurst Model
Probability density function of i, j [ = 26 ]:
0.03

0.025

0.02

0.015

0.01

0.005

0
200

Stochastic Models

150

100

50

[ ]

50

100

150

200

73

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

Spencer-Jeffs-Jensen-Swindlehurst Model
Additional independence assumption:
The following three sets of random variables
{ i, i, j ; j = 0, 2, , J ( i ), i = 1, , N }
{ i ;i = 1, , N }
{ i, j ; j = 0, 2, , J ( i ), i = 1, , N }

are independent.
Estimates the model parameters [Building 1, Building 2]:

Stochastic Models

= 34ns, 78ns
= 29ns, 82 ns
1 = 17ns, 17 ns
1 = 5ns, 7 ns
= 26, 22
74

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

IEEE 802.11 Model


Main characteristics:
Cell type

Picocell (indoor and outdoor)

Area

Application range

2 and 5 GHz bands

Model (M) B (delay spread: 15ns): residential LOS/NLOS


M C (30ns): Small office NLOS, typical offices LOS
M D (50ns): Typical office NLOS, large office LOS
M E (100ns): Large office NLOS, large spaces (indoor & outdoor) LOS
M F (150ns): Large space (indoor & outdoor), NLOS

Biazimuth-delay SF

h( 1, 2, ) =

J (i)

hi, j ( 1, 2, )

i=1j=1

Input

Area type
Velocity of the mobile station

Feature

The model is inspired from the Spencer-Jeffs-Jensen-Swindlehurst model

Stochastic Models

75

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

IEEE 802.11 Model


Stochastic properties of the biazimuth delay SF:
N

J (i)

h( 1, 2, ) =

hi, j ( 1, 2, )

i=1j=1

hi, j ( 1, 2, ) : complex uncorrelated process


2

E [ hi, j ( 1, 2, ) ] = ( i, j ) f

( i ) ( 1

1, i ) f

( i, j )
i,

= n i, j

= 10ns

f ( ) exp ( 2 )

Stochastic Models

( i ) ( 2

2, i )

n i, j integer
180 < 180 (Laplace)

76

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

IEEE 802.11 Model


Stochastic properties of the biazimuth-delay SF (contd):
The area-dependent parameters N , ( ) , 1 ( i ) , 2 ( i ) J ( i ) , n ij ,
j = 1, 2, , J ( i ), i = 1, , N are provided in tables.
Some illustrative figures:
Number of clusters I : B & C: 2; D: 3, E: 4; F: 6
Azimuth spread (departure) 1 : 14.4-55.2 deg
Azimuth spread (incidence) 2 : 14.4-55.0 deg

Number of paths/cluster J :
Cluster 1: 5-16; Cl. 2: 7-12; Cl. 3: 4-7; Cl. 4: 3-4; Cl. 5 & 6: 2
Comment:
The Kronecker factorization applies to the proposed MIMO (narrow-band)
transfer matrix, which is inconsistent with the above model
Stochastic Models

77

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

3GPP SCM
Main characteristics:
Cell type

Macrocell (BS-BS spacing 3km), Microcell (< 1 km)

Area

Urban macro- (U-Ma) and microcell (U-Mi), suburban macrocell (S-Ma)

Frequency range

2 GHz-band

Biazimuth-Dopplerdelay SF

h ( 1, 2, , ) =

n=1

h n ( 1, 2, , ) =
=

Pn s M
------------
M

h n ( 1, 2, , )
Cluster index
Subpath index
G 1 ( 1, n, m ) G 2 ( 2, n, m ) exp ( j2 n, m )x

m=1

( 1 1, n, m ) ( 2 2, n, m ) ( n, m ) ( n, m )
v
n, m = ------- cos ( 2, n, m )
v

Stochastic Models

78

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

3GPP SCM
Main features

Stochastic Models

N = 6 clusters
Uplink-downlink reciprocity
Site-to-site correlated shadowing with 0.5 correlation coefficient
Further options:
- Per-path polarization
- Bad urban scenario with 5th and 6th paths allocated as far clusters
- LOS scenario (microcell only) specified by a K -factor:
K ( d ) = 13 0.03d [dB] ( d : distance base station - mobile station)
- Urban canyon (modification of the angles of arrival)

79

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

3GPP SCM
Characteristics of one-bounce clusters:
Cluster n
2,n

Subpath (n, m)

1,n
2,n,m

1,n,m

v

2,n
2

1,n
1

v
Mobile station

Base station

Stochastic Models

80

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

3GPP SCM
Parameters:
Environment parameters:
Distance BS-MS d and azimuths 1, 2 from one station to the other
[determined from the cell layout]
MS velocity direction: v uniformly distributed over [ 0, 2 )
Path loss and shadowing
Path loss:
- Macrocell: Hata model
- Microcell: COST231-Walfish-Ikegami model
Shadowing s :
2

- Macrocell: 10 log ( s ) Gauss ( 0, s ) , with s = 8 [ dB ]


- Microcell: 10 log ( s ) = 4dB (LOS); 10dB (NLOS)
Stochastic Models

81

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

3GPP SCM
Global spread factors:
Delay spread:
E [ ] : S-Ma: 170ns; U-Ma: 650ns; U-Mi: 251ns
Macrocell:
2

log ( ) Gauss ( , )
- Suburban: = 6.80 , = 0.288
- Urban: = 6.18 , = 0.180

Stochastic Models

82

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

3GPP SCM
Global spread factors (contd):
Azimuth spread at BS site
E [ 1 ] : S-Ma: 5 ; U-Ma: 8 , 15 ; U-Mi: 19
Macrocell:
log ( 1 ) Gauss ( 1,

2
1 )

- Suburban: 1 = 0.69 , 1 = 0.13


- Urban, E [ 1 ] = 8 : 1 = 0.81 , 1 = 0.34
- Urban, E [ 1 ] = 15 : 1 = 1.18 , 1 = 0.21
Azimuth spread at MS site:
E [ 2 ] = 68 (all areas)
Stochastic Models

83

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

3GPP SCM
Correlation between the log-Global-factors in macrocells:
Intrasite correlation coefficients:
- log ( ) and log ( 1 ) : +0.5
- 10 log ( s ) and log ( 1 ) : -0.6
- 10 log ( s ) and log ( ) : -0.6
Intersite correlation of shadowing: 0.5 correlation coefficient
The four above quantities are random with a joint Gaussian law specified
by
- their expectations , 1 , s = 0
2

- their variances , 1 , s
- their correlation coefficients as above specified
- non-specified correlation coefficients are zero
Stochastic Models

84

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

3GPP SCM
Clustering:
Number of clusters: N = 6
Number of subpaths per cluster: M = 20
Path weights:
Unnormalized mean-squared weights:
n 10

P n = exp ( n ) 10
n Gaussian ( 1, 3 ) (lognormal
per-path shadowing)
Normalized mean-squared weights: P n = P' n P' n'

Stochastic Models

85

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

3GPP SCM
Path delays:
Macrocell
- ' 1, ' 2, , ' N Exp ( ' ) , independent, with ' =
- = 1.4 (S-Ma); 1.7 (U-Ma)
Microcell
- ' 1, ' 2, , ' N Uniform ( [ 0, 1.2 ]s ) , independent
' ( 1 ) ' ( 2 ) ' ( N ) (ordering)
n = ' ( n ) ' ( 1 ) , n = 1, , N
Subpath characteristics:
Phases: n, m Uniform ( [ 0, 2 ) )
Azimuths of departure 1, n, m and of incidence 2, n, m : Fixed, tabulated.
Stochastic Models

86

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

3GPP SCM
Azimuth dispersion at the BS:
Per-path nominal azimuth:
-Macrocell:
2

1, n Gauss ( 0, ) with = 1 1
1

- Suburban: 1 = 1.2
- Urban: 1 = 1.3
- Microcell:
1, n Uniform ( 40, 40 )
Per-path azimuth spread:
- Macrocell: 1, n = 2
- Microcell: 1, n = 5
Stochastic Models

87

Eidgenssische
Technische Hochschule
Zrich

3GPP SCM
Azimuth dispersion at the MS:
Per-path nominal azimuth:
2

2, n Gauss ( 0, , n )
2

The per-path azimuth spread , n is a monotone increasing function of


2

the path weight:


, n = 104.12 ( 1 exp ( 0.2175 10 log ( P n ) )
2

Per-path azimuth spread:


2, n = 35 (all areas)

Stochastic Models

88