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Occupational Hazards

Occupational hazards are dangers to human health and well being which are
associated with specific occupations. While efforts are made to reduce
hazards, these hazards remain present in the workplace by nature of
the profession. For a telephone lineperson, for example, falls from height are
an occupational hazard because members of telephone crews need to work
at heights to do their work. Recognizing occupational hazards is the first step
in working on risk reduction programs for the workplace to keep work as safe
and healthy as possible.
Some jobs are, by their very nature, extremely hazardous. Jobs with
numerous occupational hazards often provide better pay for their employees,
in recognition of the danger, and they are also usually charged higher rates
for insurance, because underwriters recognize that the chance of paying out
on that insurance is much higher. For example, insuring professional
firefighters is more expensive than providing basic disability insurance for a
small office, because the assumption is that firefighting is dangerous.
Occupational hazards may lead to illness, injury, or death. They can include
physical risks like falls and exposures to heavy machinery, along with
psychological ones such as stress. Occupational hazards like exposure to
chemical, biological, and radiological agents are also a concern. In people
who work in jobs with at recognized occupational safety hazard, special
training is often provided so that people are made aware of the hazard.
Given that these hazards cannot be eliminated, workplaces take steps to
address them. For example, people who are exposed to radiation are
expected to wear radiation badges to monitor their exposure so that if their
exposure level becomes dangerous, they can be treated. Likewise, people
who work at heights wear safety harnesses so that if they fall, they are less
likely to be injured. Emergency response plans are also in place to handle
workplace injuries and accidents quickly and efficiently.
People should make sure that they are familiar with all of the occupational
hazards in their workplaces, and that they know how to address the hazard.
This includes everything from learning proper typing posture to reduce injury
at a desk job to checking safety equipment before entering a burning building
with a fire crew. Employers who fail to provide adequate training and
equipment for their staff can be penalized by government agencies which
monitor health and safety, and employees who behave negligently around
occupational hazards may find themselves out of a job.

Key Principles in Occupational Health and Safety

Occupational safety and health is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with


protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or
employment. The goals of occupational safety and health programs include to
foster a safe and healthy work environment.[1] OSH may also protect coworkers, family members, employers, customers, and many others who might
be affected by the workplace environment.
Occupational safety and health can be important for moral, legal, and
financial reasons. All organizations have a duty of care to ensure that
employees and any other person who may be affected by the companies
undertaking remain safe at all times. [2] Moral obligations would involve the
protection of employee's lives and health. Legal reasons for OSH practices
relate to the preventative, punitive and compensatory effects of laws that
protect worker's safety and health. OSH can also reduce employee injury and
illness related costs, including medical care, sick leave and disability benefit
costs. OSH may involve interactions among many subject areas,
including occupational medicine, occupational hygiene, public health, safety
engineering, industrial engineering, chemistry, health
physics, ergonomics and occupational health psychology.

Occupational Health and Safety principles


Evidence shall show an understanding of Occupational Health and Safety to
an extent
indicated by the following aspects
a) The basic legal requirements covering occupational health and safety in
the workplace
encompassing:
general aims and objectives of the relevant state or territory legislation
relating to
OHS.
employer and employee responsibilities, rights and obligations

major functions of safety committees and representatives


powers give to Occupational Health and Safety Inspectors
b) The requirements for personal safety in the workplace encompassing:
the safety precautions that are required to ensure personal safety in the
workplace
potential hazards in relation to improper industrial housekeeping
sources of pollution in an engineering environment and outline control
measures
c) Workplace safety check, identifying potential workplace hazards and
suggested measures
for accident prevention encompassing:
safety checklist for a typical workplace environment
identifying and reporting potential workplace hazards
methods of prevention of safety hazards within a typical workplace
environment
d) working safely with electrical tools or equipment encompassing:
causes of electrical accidents and state the effects that electric shock can
cause
purpose of circuit protection devices, such as fuses, circuit breakers and
Residual
Current Devices (RCDs)
safe isolation of an electrical supply
e) emergency procedures for the rescue of an electric shock victim
equipment
f) emergency First Aid for an electric shock victim
Note: Emergency First Aid is limited to first-on-the scene assistance to a
victim of electric
shock , and basics of CPR.
Electrical safe working practices
Evidence shall show an understanding of working safely on or around
electrical equipment
through the application of risk management principles and control measures
for dealing
with non-electrical hazards and extra-low voltage, low-voltage and highvoltage hazards
and high-current hazards. The following aspects indicate the extent of
understanding
required:
a) Risk management and assessment of risk encompassing:
Principle and purpose of risk management
Processes for conducting a risk assessment
b) Hazards associated with low-voltage, extra-low voltage and high-currents
encompassing:
Arrangement of power distribution and circuits in an electrical installations
Parts of an electrical system and equipment that operate at low-voltage and
extra low
voltage
Parts of an electrical system and equipment where high-currents are likely.
c) Risks and control measures associated with high-voltage encompassing:

Parts of an electrical system and equipment that operate at high-voltage,


The terms touch voltage, step voltage, induced voltage and creepage
as they
relate to the hazards of high-voltage
Control measures used for dealing with the hazards of high-voltage
d) Optical fibre safety encompassing:
Coherent optical sources and joining procedures
Laser safety class 3a devices or their replacement
e) Risks and control measures associated with low voltage encompassing:
Risks associated with modifying electrical installations, fault finding,
maintenance
and repair
Control measures before, while and after working on electrical installations,
circuits
or equipment
Isolation and tagging-off procedures
Risks and restrictions in working live
Control measures for working live
f) Risks and control measures associated with harmful dusts and airborne
contaminants.
Note: Sources include thermal insulation, fibrous cement materials and
asbestos and other fibre
reinforced switchboard materials.
g) Safety, selection, use, maintenance and care of test equipment
encompassing:
Safety characteristics of electrical testing devices
Safe use of electrical testing device
Checks and storage methods for maintaining the safety of testing devices
E2.18.8.2 Occupational Health and Safety, enterprise responsibilities
Evidence shall show an understanding of OHS enterprise responsibilities to an
extent
indicated by the following aspects:
a) Provisions of relevant health and safety legislation
b) Principles and practice of effective occupational health and safety
management
c) Management arrangements relating to regulatory compliance
d) Enterprise hazards and risks, control measures and relevant expertise
required
e) Characteristics and composition of workforce and their impact on
occupational health
and safety management
f) Relevance of enterprise management systems to occupational health and
safety
management
g) Analysis of working environment and design of appropriate occupational
health and
safety management systems
h) Analysis of relevant data and evaluation of occupational health and safety
system
effectiveness

i) Assess resources to establish and maintain occupational health and safety


management
systems.
Electronic safe working practices
Evidence shall show an understanding of working safely on or around
electronic equipment
through the application of risk management principles and control measures
for dealing
with non-electrical hazards and extra-low voltage, low-voltage and highvoltage hazards
and high-current hazards. The following aspects indicate the extent of
understanding
required.
a) Risk management and assessment of risk encompassing:
Principle and purpose of risk management
Processes for conducting a risk assessment
b) Hazards associated with low-voltage, extra-low voltage and high-currents
encompassing:
Parts of an electronic systems and equipment that operate at low-voltage
and extralow
voltage
Parts of an electronic systems and equipment where high-currents are likely
c) Risks and control measures associated with high-voltage encompassing:
Parts of an electronic systems and equipment that operate at high-voltage
The terms used - touch voltage, step voltage, induced voltage and
creepage
as they relate to the hazards of high-voltage
Control measures used for dealing with the hazards of high-voltage
d) Risks and control measures associated with low voltage encompassing:
Risks associated with installation, fault finding, maintenance and repair
Control measures before, while and after working on electronic systems or
equipment
Isolation and tagging-off procedures
Risks and restrictions in working live
Control measures for working live
e) Risks and control measures associated with the high levels of radiation
encompassing:
RF hazards
Maximum exposure levels to RF
Maximum exposure to microwave radiation
f) Optical fibre safety encompassing:
Coherent optical sources and joining procedures
Laser safety class 3a devices or their replacement
g) Safety, selection, use, maintenance and care of test equipment
encompassing:
Safety characteristics of electrical testing devices
Chemical cleaning solvents, glues and joining wastes used in electronics

University of the East


College of Engineering
ESN 324-CE3-1A

Safety Management

Assignment no. 1
Submitted by:
John David Briones
Submitted to:
Engr. De Jesus