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Chapter 1

Introduction to Workshop
Safety Regulations
Chapter Outline
1.1 Introduction
1.2 General workshop safety rules
1.3 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
1.4 Fire Safety
Learning outcome
When you complete this chapter you should be able
1. Acquire knowledge about safety precautions
while working in workshop.
2. Use the protective wear.
3. Classify and be able to understand the safety
equipment : e.g fire extinguisher.

Before you can use equipment and machines or attempt practical work in a workshop you
must understand basic safety rules. These rules will help keep you and others safe in the
Free access to the workshop areas is restricted to authorised personnel only.
No other person may enter the workshop without permission.
Always listen carefully to the workshop supervisor and follow instructions.
Safety in a machine shop may be divided into two broad categories:
Those practices that will prevent injury to workers.
Those practices that will prevent damage to machines and equipment. Too
often damaged equipment results in personal injuries.


Any person working in the mechanical workshop must familiarise themselves
with equipments, tools, etc used.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is provided and must be used where
necessary. Lab. coats, safety glasses/goggles and safety shoes are to be used as
the work dictates.
Report any defective equipment to the workshop supervisor.
Do not run in the workshop, you could bump into another pupil and cause an
Always be patient, never rush in the workshop.
The gangway through the workshop must be kept clear. Any oil spillage, grease
etc. must be cleaned up immediately.
Tools/equipment must be cleaned after use. Any materials, tools or equipment
used must be tidied away.
Precision measuring equipment, drills, etc. must be replaced in their appropriate
cabinets after each working day.
When carrying tools, sharp edges should be pointed downwards.
Tools and equipment must not be removed from the workshop without permission
from the workshop supervisor.
In the event of a fire, leave the building immediately and proceed to the assembly
All unusual incidents (cuts. burns, direct chemical exposure, etc.) and
emergencies whether personal injury resulted or not, must be reported to the
workshop supervisor. The person witnessing the occurrence, the person directly
involved and the supervisor workshop may fill out the report. The report must be
signed by the person reporting the incident.
Safety rules for MACHINE used in the workshop :
When learning how to use a machine, listen very carefully to all the instructions
given by the workshop supervisor. Ask questions, especially if you do not fully
Use the appropriate machine for the work to be done.

When working with machine tools or other equipment with rotating spindles,
jewellery, loose clothes etc. are prohibited and long hair must be completely
No machine may be used or work undertaken unless the workshop supervisor is
satisfied that the person is capable of doing so safely. If equipment is fitted with
guards these must be used. Equipment should never be used if the safety guards
have been removed.


For the operation of the work, PPE must be worn in the workshop. It is the individuals
responsibility to maintain PPE in good condition.
PPE is used to increase individual safety while performing potentially hazardous tasks.
Eye Protection
Where a potential for flying particles or any damage to the eyes exists, eye
protection must be worn by all persons who may be affected. Face shields or goggles
must be worn when operating a grinding wheel. Examples of operation requiring the
use of eye protection include chipping, impact drilling, welding or grinding.

Hearing protection
Damage to hearing can occur from both impact noise and exposure to lower
intensity steady state noise over long period of time. Both hand and power tools are
capable of producing damage to hearing. It is recommended that hearing protection
must be worn if average noise levels exceed 85BA (decibels) over an 8 hour period.
Dust Masks
Make sure that the appropriate masks are worn in dusty conditions.
Foot wear
Make sure that appropriate solid covered footwear is worn to protect feet from
falling objects. NO slippers are allowed!!!
Wear the appropriate work gloves as needed to protect your hands from injuries
caused by handling sharp or jagged objects, wood, or similar hazard-producing

Laboratory coats
Lab coats provide additional protection and it is recommended that they must be
worn at all times in a workshop.
Body protection
Loose fitting clothing, neckties, rings, bracelets, or other apparel that may become
entangled in moving machinery will not be worn by machine operators.


Workshop must be equipped with a fire extinguisher.
In selecting the appropriate extinguishers, the type of combustible material must
be considered.
Fire extinguishers
Class A : Combustible materials such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber and many plastic
Class B : Flammable liquid and gases, oils, greases, tars, oil-base paints, lacquers and
some plastics (LIGHT YELLOW).
Class C : Involve Class A and/or B materials in the presence of live electrical
equipment, motors, switches and wires (BLACK/GREEN).
Class D : Combustible materials such as Magnesium, Titanium, Sodium, Potassium,
Zirconium, Lithium and any other finely-divided metals which are oxidizable
Fire prevention precautious :
Know the location and the operation of every fire extinguisher in the workshop.
Know the location of the nearest fire exit from the building.
Know the location of the nearest fire-alarm box and its operating procedure.
When using a welding or cutting torch, be sure to direct the sparks away from any
combustible material.
Always dispose of oily rags in proper metal containers.
Be sure of the proper procedure before lighting a gas furnace.
Storage of Flammables
Flammable liquids shall be handled and stored away from sources of heat, spark,or
open flame.

Chapter 2.0: Introduction

to Bench Fitting
Chapter Outline
2.1 Introduction to bench fitting
2.2 Overall safety in bench fitting
2.3 Application of hand tools
a) File
b) Hacksaw
c) Fixing tools
2.4 Application of layout tools
a) Steel rule
b) Caliper
c) Scriber
d) Try square
e) Surface gauge
2.5 Application of simple manual machines
a) Drilling
b) Tapping
Learning outcome
When you complete this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Understand common operations in bench fitting
2. Describe various types of hand tools used.
3. Explain the application of various hand tools.
4. Understand the safety procedure/practice in bench
fitting workshop


Bench Fitting is an operation where hand tool are use (which are held by hand to perform
the operation and not required any machine).
Hand tools are used to remove small amounts of material, usually from small areas of the
Bench fitting usually conducted due to :

No machine is available

ii. The workpiece is too large to go on a machine

iii. The shape is too complicated or simply that it would be too expensive to set up a
machine to do work
Since the use of hand tools is physically tiring, it is important that the amount of material
to be removed by hand is kept to an absolute minimum and thus that the correct tool is
chosen for the task.
Common bench fitting operation
1. Marking

6. Drilling

2. Sawing

7. Threading

3. Filing

8. etc

4. Scrapping
5. Chipping
1. Hammer

10. Scrappers

2. Hacksaw

11. Chisels

3. Files

12. Trammel

4. Vices

13. Screw driver

5. V-block

14. Drills

6. C-Clamp

15. Spanner

7. Try Square

16. Pliers

8. Scribers

17. Tap

9. Punch



1. Dont used pliers for cutting hardened steel wire
2. Never used bent, dented, crack, chipped or worn-out chisel
3. Used right tool for job
4. Keep tool at their proper place
5. Never play with tools
6. Dont used pipe or other improvised leverage extensions on handles
7. Plastic handles are only for comfort and dont act as insulation
8. Always used eye protection equipment
9. Ensure that files have handles
10. Dont put sharp or pointed tools in your pocket





A file is a metalworking and woodworking tool used to cut fine amounts of material from
a workpiece. Prior to the industrialization of machining and the development of
interchangeable parts, filing is much more important in the construction of mechanisms.
component parts were roughly shaped by forging, casting or machining. These
components were then individually hand-fit for assembly by careful and deliberate filing.
Files come in a wide variety of sizes, shapes, cuts, and tooth configurations. The crosssection of a file can be flat, round, half-round, triangular, square, knife edge or of a more
specialized shape.
File features
Most files are made from high carbon steel where the Length has been hardened and
tempered, but the Tang has been left soft. Files are manufactured in a variety of shapes
and sizes. They are known either by their cross-section, the general shape, or by their
particular use. Which file you use is dependent on the type of work you are doing and the
material you are using. Files are used to square ends, file rounded corners, remove burrs
from metal, straighten uneven edges, file holes and slots, smooth rough edges, etc. Files
have three distinguishing features, and are classified by these features:

Length (measured without the Tang)

Cross-section or Shape

Grade of Cut

Figure 2.1 : File features

The Point is sometimes called the Top.

The Shoulder can also be called the Heel.

Files have cutting teeth on both Faces. In the case of the Hand File, only one of
the Edges has teeth on it and the other is smooth, and called the Safe Edge. The
Safe Edge allows you to rub the File up against a surface without wearing any
material away.

Always make sure that the Handle is securely attached to the Tang, otherwise you
could give yourself a nasty injury.

The Length of the File, (measured in millimeters), is measured from the Shoulder
to the Point.

Grade of Cut
Files are usually made in two types of cuts :

Single Cut; and

Double Cut

The Single Cut File has a single row of teeth extending across the face at an angle of 65
to 85 for the length of the file. It is often used with light pressure to produce a smooth
surface or to put a keen edge on knives, shears and saws.
The Double Cut File has two rows of teeth which cross each other. For general work, the
angle of the first row is 40 to 45, and the angle of the second row can be anywhere
between 30 and 87. First set of teeth is know as the overcut, second is known as upcut
and upcut is finer then overcut. This type of file usually used with heavier pressure than
the single cut and removes material faster from the workpiece.

Figure 2.2 : Single cut file and double cut file

Files are also classified by the coarseness of the teeth. The bigger the teeth the rougher
the feel of the File, and the quicker the File will remove material when you are using it.
There are four main levels of coarseness that you may come across in the metalwork
room and they are :
1. Rough file (8 teeth per cm)
2. Coarse middle file (10 teeth per cm)
3. Bastard file (12 teeth per cm)
4. Second cut file (16 teeth per cm)
5. Smooth file (20 - 24 teeth per cm)
6. Dead file (40 or more teeth per cm)

Type of files

Figure 2.3 : Types of file

Care of file
1. Store the files in wooden rack and must not contact each other
2. If not using for long time applied lubricant for preventing from rust. When it
going to used, lubricant have to be wash out
3. Applied chalk to the file before use prevent chip stick on file surface (holes
between teeth)
4. Clean files before and after used -- file cleaner or file brush
5. If the file have been used for filling hard material never used it for filling soft



Used for cutting metal rods, bars, pipes etc.

Job piece held in a vice and hacksaw move forward and backward

Cutting operation occur in forward stroke (required pressure) and in return

stroke, no cutting action takes place

Hacksaw blade are made from high carbon steel and high speed steel

A hacksaw is a fine-tooth saw with a blade in a frame, used for cutting materials such as
metal or bone.

Hacksaw features
Hand-held hacksaws consist of a metal arch with a handle, usually a pistol grip, with pins
for attaching a narrow disposable blade. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the
thin blade under tension. The blade can be mounted with the teeth facing toward or away
from the handle, resulting in cutting action on either the push or pull stroke. On the push
stroke, the arch will flex slightly, decreasing the tension on the blade.

Figure 2.4 : Hacksaw features

Frame : There are two types of Hacksaw Frame, a fixed and an adjustable. The fixed
frame can only take one length of Blade, but is more rigid that the adjustable type, which
can take Blades of different lengths ( typically handles 25 mm and 30 mm blades, some
Blade & teeth : Blades are available in standardized lengths, usually 25 mm or 30 mm
for a standard hand hacksaw. The blade chosen is based on the thickness of the material
being cut, with a minimum of three teeth in the material.

Hacksaw blade are made from Low Tungsten Steel or Carbon Steel, however the more
expensive blades are made from High Speed Steel.

Different hacksaw blades have different number of teeth ranging from 14 to 32 teeth per
25 mm. Blades having lesser number of teeth per cm are used for cutting soft materials
like aluminum, brass and bronze. Blades having larger number of teeth per cm are used
for cutting hard materials like steel and cast iron.
Table 2.1. Selection of hacksaw blade
Teeth per



Soft thick materials. Aluminium, Copper, Mild Steel


General use. Soft materials in thin sections. Hard materials in thick sections.


Thin section hard materials.


Very thin materials such as thin tubing and sheet metal.

No of teeth per 25 mm
thickness (mm) Hard materials Soft materials
Up to 3
3 to 6
6 to 13
13 to 25
Thin stock calls for finer teeth; thicker metal requires fewer teeth per 25 mm.

Handle :There are three types of Hacksaw Handle used. The most commonly used
handles are the File Handle and the Pistol Grip Handle.

Figure 2.5 : Types of hacksaw handle

Sawing Procedure

The hacksaw blade is fixed in the hacksaw frame through.


When fitting a new blade to a hacksaw, point the teeth forward, (away from the


Tighten the wing nut and then as a general rule tighten three turns. It is important
to have the correct tension on the blade, if it is too loose then the blade will buckle
and not cut straight, and if it is too tight damage to the blade ends or the frame
may result.

Figure 2.6 : Types of hacksaw a) Adjustable frame [pistol grip], b) Fixed frame, c)
Tubular adjustable frame
1. Groove

2. Pistol

3. Pin
4. Pin
6. Lock screw

5. Thumb rest

Care of hacksaw

Choose the correct blade for the material being cut.


Secure the blade with the teeth pointing forward.


Keep the blade rigid and the frame properly aligned.


Cut using strong, steady strokes directed away from you.


Use the entire length of the blade in each cutting stroke.


Keep saw blades clean, and use light machine oil on the blade to keep it from
overheating and breaking.


Cut harder materials more slowly than soft materials.


Clamp thin, flat pieces that require edge cutting.



i] Vice
A vice is a mechanical screw apparatus used for holding or clamping a work piece to
allow work to be performed on it with tools such as saws, drills, screwdrivers, etc. Vises
usually have one fixed jaw and another, parallel, jaw which is moved towards or away
from the fixed jaw by the screw.
There are three types of vice :

Bench vice

Drilling vice

Hand vice

Bench vice

Moveable jaw

Fixed jaw

Spindle with
buttress thread


Figure 2.7 : Bench vice

Because the bench vise is fitted on the bench, generally it is not possible to change the
height of the vice or the vice itself. Thus, care is needed when fitting a vice on the bench
so that it is at a suitable and convenient height. The height of the top of the bench vice
should be at level with the elbow of the worker. For this purpose, the height of an average
man is selected as height of elbow of individual varies.

Figure 2.8 : A vice must be mounted so that when you are standing next to it, the top
surface of its jaws is level with your bent elbow.

Figure 2.9 : If the bench top is too low, the vice can be raised with a hardwood block.

Drilling vice
It is used to hold the job on the drilling machine for drilling holes in the workpiece.
Drilling vice generally consists of different parts like handle, fixed jaw, screw, moveable
jaw, nut, washer, etc but its base is provided with slots through which it is fitted on the
drilling machine.

Figure 2.10 : a) Machine vice with swivel base

1. Moveable jaw

2. Fixed handle

b) Parallel jaw machine vice

3. Body fixed on base

4. Swivel base

Hand vice
It is a very small machine which is used for gripping very small jobs.

Figure 2.11 : Hand vice

Figure 2.12 : Holding of flat, small workpieces in the hand vice

Care of vice
While using a vice, the following precautions should always be ensured :
1. Always set the workpiece in the centre of the jaw.

Figure 2.13
2. If it is necessary to hold the job on one side of the jaws, then use a piece of steel
or wood on the other side to keep jaws parallel and free from excessive strain.

3. Length of the handle of the vice must be sufficient to tighten the job. Never use a
hammer to tighten the workpiece.
4. Clean the vice and its moving parts regularly before use for smooth working.
5. Fixed the vice rigidly to the work bench with the help of nuts and bolts.


ii] Clamp
It is used to hold different jobs together to perform fitting operations like assembly and
marking. A c clamp is a form of a clamp used to hold metal or wood items. As the name
implies, they are shaped in the letter C which offers a good grip to the metal and wooden
Many people also refer this clamp to be a G clamp as the screw part beneath the
revolving rod gives it a shape of the letter G. These tools are considered as the most
recognizable clamps and are available in sizes varying from 1 inch to 8 inches. Every size
denotes the maximum opening width of the tool. Although, there are larger sizes
available as well however, the smaller ones are most commonly used.

Figure 2.14 : Types of C-clamp



iii] V block
Basic function of V block is to mark and drill. The bar length is placed longitudinally in
the V groove and the screw of U-clamp is tightened. It grips the rod firmly with its axis
parallel to the axis of the V groove. It is used in conjuction with a U-clamp for holding
round bars for marking, centre drilling, for holding in the centre of a lathe and for drilling

Figure 2.15 : V block

Figure 2.16 : V blocks hold round stock securely



Steel rule
Try square
Surface gauge
Surface flat

i] Steel rule

The most basic of the graduated measuring devices is the rule (made of steel, and
often called a steel rule), used to measure linear dimensions.

Rules are available in various lengths. Metric rule lengths include 150, 300, 600,
and 1000 mm, with graduations of 1 or 0.5 mm.

Steel rules may be flexible or non flexible, but the thinner the rule, the more
accurately it measures, because the division marks are closer to the work.

Figure 2.17 : Steel rule

Beside measuring the length, a steel rule can also be used to assess the flatness of
a surface.

Procedure to measure the flatness of a surface :

1. Place the rule on edge across the surface then hold the work and the rule up to the
light (Figure 2.18)
2. If the surface is flat, no light will be able to penetrate between the edge of the rule
and the work piece.

Figure 2.18 : Measuring flatness of a material by using a steel rule

There are two important aspects to keep in mind when using a steel rule :
1) The first is that the rule should be placed so that the graduations are as close to the
work as possible (Figure 2.19). This will eliminate parallax and other errors which
might result because of the thickness of the rule.
For example, where possible, the rule should be placed at 90 to the work so that
the graduations actually touch the work surface.

Figure 2.19

2) Secondly, a habit to avoid is measuring a work piece from the beginning of the
rule the very end markings of a steel rule may have been damaged.
Read the measurement at the graduation that coincides with the distance to be
However, when you use the rule in this way, remember to subtract the initial
numbered amount from the total reading.

Figure 2.20
ii] Caliper

The calipers are opened (either by being pulled open against a friction screw or
having an adjustment knob unwound) until the jaws of the caliper are a gentle
push-fit over the work.

This manual calipers do not have a scale to read the measurement. Therefore, the
calipers are then transferred to steel rule and a reading made of the distance
between the manual calipers jaws. With care, this process can be highly accurate.

Three types of spring calipers :




Figure 2.21 : Inside Caliper

Figure 2.22 : Outside Caliper

Figure 2.23 : Hermaphrodite Caliper

iii] Scriber

A scriber is a piece of hardened steel rod having a needle like a point on one or
both sides.

It is used in metalworking to mark lines on workpiece, prior to machining.

The process of using a scriber is called scribing and is just part of the process of
marking out.

It is used instead of pencil or pen, because the marks are hard to see, easily
erased, and inaccurate due to their wide mark; scribe lines are thin and semipermanent.

For proper use, the end of scriber must be kept sharp. If the end of the scriber gets
blunt, it can be sharpened with an oil stone.

Figure 2.24 : Types of scriber

Using the Scriber

Make sure the point of the scriber is sharp. To sharpen, rotate the scriber between the
thumb and forefinger while moving the point back-and forth on an oilstone.
b.Work Surface.
Clean work surfaces of all dirt and oil.
c.Steel Rule.
Place a steel rule or straight edge on the work beside the line to be scribed.
d.Holding the Scriber.
Use the fingertips of one hand to hold the rule in position and hold the scriber
in the other hand as you would a pencil.
e. Scribing the Line.
Scribe the line by drawing the scriber along the edge of the rule, at a 45 degree angle and
tipped outward slightly in the direction it is being moved.

Figure 2.25 : Scribing the line

Care of scriber
1. Place a soft wood over the point of scriber when not in use.
2. Coat scriber with rust prevention compound before storage.
3. Do not store scribers in drawer with other tools. This practice can cause damage
to scribers and injury to personnel.
4. Rack properly and store in a suitable box. Do not use scribers for purposes other
than those intended.

iv] Try square

It is used for scribing straight lines at right angles to each other, for testing trueness of a
surface and for testing mutually perpendicular surface.
Try squares are made from hardened alloy steel blades. More accurate try squares have
properly ground and leveled edges with a fine finish. Both inner and outer surfaces of the
blade are kept true at right angles to the corresponding surfaces of the stock.

Figure 2.26 : Try square

v] Surface gauge

It is also called scribing block. A surface gauge is used for layout work.

It consists of a heavy flat cast iron black fitted with a vertical steel rod.

Surface gauge is used for locating the centre of round bars held in V block by
drawing straight lines and by tilting the job through different angles.

Figure 2.27 : Surface gauge is also used to the diameter of round bars

Figure 2.28 : Surface gauge is used to scribe layout lines

The spindle may be adjusted to any position with respect to the base and tightened
in place with the spindle nut.

The scriber can be positioned at any height and in any desired direction on the
spindle by adjusting the scriber.

Figure 2.29: Surface gauge

Normally, surface gauge is used in conjunction with either a surface plate or a

marking table which is needed to set the surface gauge to the correct dimension
(Figure 2.30).

Figure 2.30




i] Drilling

Drilling is an operation of producing circular holes o different sizes with the help
of drills.

It cuts by applying pressure and rotation to the workpiece, which forms chips at
the cutting edge.

Twist drills are generally used drills for drilling holes in workpieces.

Figure 2.31 : Twist drill

Figure 2.32 : A drill bit enters the workpiece axially and cuts a hole with a diameter equal
to that of the tool
ii] Tapping

This tool is used for cutting internal threads in cylindrical holes.

A tap cuts a thread on the inside surface of a hole, creating a female surface which
functions like a nut.

Figure 2.33 : Tap

Figure 2.34 : Parts of a tap

Two types of taps :

1) Hand operated taps

2) Machine operated taps

Hand operated taps

Figure 2.35 : Hand operated taps

By using a set of taps : starting tap, intermediate tap and finishing tap.

Different tap set are required for cutting different threads of different diameter.

Figure 2.36 : Hand tap

Figure 2.37 : Set of taps

Starting tap (a.k.a taper tap) :
* The number of tapered threads typically ranges from 8 to 10.
* A very gradual cutting action that is less aggressive than that of the plug tap.
* Most often used when the material to be tapped is difficult to work (e.g., alloy steel) or
the tap is of a very small diameter and thus prone to breakage.
Intermediate tap (a.k.a plug tap or second tap) :
* The number of tapered threads typically ranges from 3 to 5.
* It has tapered cutting edges, which assist in aligning and starting the tap into an
untapped hole.
Finishing tap (a.k.a bottoming tap) :
* It has a continuous cutting edge with almost no taper between 1 and 1.5 threads.
* This feature enables a bottoming tap to cut threads to the bottom of a blind hole.
* A bottoming tap is usually used to cut threads in a hole that has already been partially
threaded using one of the more tapered types of tap.

Wrench is a tool for holding the tap during the hand tapping process.

Figure 2.38 : A tap and T-wrench.

Procedure (using wrench-hand operated taps):
1. A hole must be drilled to the tapping size for the thread.
2. After drilling a hole of the required size, the taper or fixed in the wrench and
screwed into the hole.
3. When starting the cutting, the tap must be perpendicular in all planes to the work.
4. Excessive force must not be used, as this will result in breaking the tap.
5. Cutting fluid should be used to improve the surface finish of threads..
6. Start the cutting action keeping in mind that the tap is turned continuously but
after every half turn, it should be reversed slightly to clear the threads.
7. Therefore, threads must be cleared as often as is necessary to prevent the flutes
from clogging.
8. Proceed until the taper tap is through the hole.
9. Repeat the above operations with the intermediate and finishing tap to finish the

Figure 2.39 : Using Tap Wrench to create a thread for a screw

Machine operated taps

* By using lathe, radial drilling machine, vertical milling machine, etc.
* Machine tapping is faster and generally more accurate because human error is

Figure 2.40 : Machine operated taps

Care of tap
1. Care must be taken not to damage the cutting edges. A chipped tap must never be
2. When not in use, taps should be kept clean and stored in a rack (Figure 2.34).

Figure 2.41

Books :
1. B.J.Black, Workshop processes, practices and materials, 2nd Edition, Arnold,
2. F.W.Turner, O.E.Perrigo, H.P.Fairfield, Machine Shop Work
3. S.K. Yadav, Workshop Practice : Principles and Applications, IBS Buku Sdn
Website :
3. http://homerepair,

Chapter 3
Measuring instrument, gauges
and marking out tools
Chapter Outline
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Errors In Measurement
3.3 Vernier Scale
Vernier Caliper
Vernier Height Gauge
Vernier Depth Gauge
3.4 Micrometers
External Micrometer
Internal Micrometer
Depth Micrometer
3.5 Gauges
Learning outcome
When you complete this chapter you should be able to:
1. Describe common measuring instruments, gauges and
marking out tools in mechanical workshop
2. Select suitable measuring instruments, gauges and
marking out tools in engineering application.
3. Use accurately common measuring instruments, gauges
and marking out tools in engineering application.

There are three reasons why we need measurement.
1. To make things, whether the things we make are of our own designs or somebody
2. To control the way other people make things. This applies to ordering an engagement
ring, fencing a yard or producing a million spark plugs.
3. For scientific description. It would be impossible to give definite information to
someone about aircraft design, electron mobility, etc without measurements.
In some application, not only measurements are required but precise measurement is necessary
especially where parts are to be fit together. To achieve any degree of precision, the measuring
equipment used must be precisely manufactured with reference to the same standard of length.
Having produced the measuring equipment to a high degree of accuracy, it must be used


If you measure the same object two different times, the two measurements may not be exactly
the same. The difference between two measurements is called variation in the measurement.
Another word for this variation - or uncertainty in measurement is "error". This "error" is not the
same as a "mistake." It does not mean that you got the wrong answer. The error in measurement
is a mathematical way to show the uncertainty in the measurement. It is the difference between
the result of the measurement and the true value of what you were measuring
Errors can be minimized, by choosing an appropriate method of measurement, but they cannot be
Causes of error :
1) Reading value
Digital : Record all the digits shown.

Figure 3.1

Non digital : Record all the figures that are known for certain

Figure 3.2
2) Parallex Error
The error that occurs when the pointer on a scale is not observed along a line normal to the scale

Figure 3.3
3) Rounding off
If the last figure is between 5 and 9 inclusive round up
If the last figure is between 0 and 4 inclusive round down

Should not be done after each step of a calculation (it causes rounding errors)

Should only be done at the end of a calculation

4) Errors in procedure
The accuracy of a final result also depends on the procedure used.
Ways to improve accuracy in measurement :
1. Make the measurement with an instrument that has the highest level of precision. The smaller
the unit, or fraction of a unit, on the measuring device, the more precisely the device can
measure. The precision of a measuring instrument is determined by the smallest unit to which it
can measure.
2. Know your tools! Apply correct techniques when using the measuring instrument and
reading the value measured. Avoid the error called "parallax" -- always take readings by looking
straight down (or ahead) at the measuring device. Looking at the measuring device from a left or
right angle will give an incorrect value.
3. Repeat the same measure several times to get a good average value.
4. Measure under controlled conditions. If the object you are measuring could change size
depending upon climatic conditions (swell or shrink), be sure to measure it under the same
conditions each time. This may apply to your measuring instruments as well.



The vernier caliper is a precision instrument that can be used to measure internal, external, step
and depth measurement. It is used to take measurements that are accurate to within 0.001 of an
inch or 0.02 of a millimeter, depending whether the vernier is metric or imperial. Vernier Caliper
are important in tool room die making, model making and similar applications. They provide
long measurement ranges (6 to 80 inch) and are economical.
A vernier caliper has an L-shaped design with a movable arm. The movable arm can be slid out
to allow an object to fit between the arms, and a measurement can be taken.
Vernier calipers have two scales. The main scale is fixed, while the vernier, the secondary scale,
slides along the main scale as the movable arm is shifted. Measurements are taken by looking for
the mark on the main scale which is just to the left of the zero on the vernier caliper for the first

measurement, and then looking to see which mark on the vernier caliper comes most closely into
alignment with a mark on the main scale. This yields a secondary measurement.
Parts of a vernier caliper:

External jaws: used to measure external diameter or width of an object

Inside jaws: used to measure internal diameter of an object
Depth probe: used to measure depths of an object or a hole
Matric scale: gives measurements of up to one decimal place(in cm).
Imperial scale: gives measurements in fraction(in inch)
Vernier scale gives measurements up to two decimal places(in cm and inch)
Locking screw(Retainer): used to block movable part to allow the easy
transferring a measurement

Figure 3.4 : Vernier caliper

Measuring with Vernier Caliper
Example 1

Example 2


Accomplish with a dial for the least count readout. Normally dial caliper is accurate to 20 m per
150 mm (0.001 in. per 6 in.) of travel.
In this instrument, a small gear rack drives a pointer on a circular dial. Typically, the pointer
rotates once every inch, tenth of an inch, or 1 millimeter, allowing for a direct reading without
the need to read a vernier scale (although one still needs to add the basic inches or tens of
millimeters value read from the slide of the caliper).

Figure 3.5 : Dial caliper

Another extension of vernier caliper scale reading is used in the electronic digital caliper. These
battery operated devices not only count the distance travelled by the moveable jaw and display
the count on a digital readout, but they also provide parts for computer cables, so that the data
can easily be used in statistical process control.
Because the digital display makes the instrument even easier to read, electronic digital caliper is
very useful for less experienced users. It also use a floating zero which allows users to make any
point within the scale ranges the references, setting it to zero. Some digital calipers can be
switched between metric and inch units.

Figure 3.6 : Digital caliper


This is also a sort of vernier caliper, equipped with a special base block and other
attachments which make the instrument suitable for height measurements. It follows the
principle of a vernier caliper and also follows the same procedure for linear measurement.
The vernier height gauge is mainly used in the inspection of parts and layout work. With a
scribing attachment in place of measuring jaw, this can be used to scribe lines at certain distance
above surface.The vernier height gage may be used to measure or mark work off vertical
distances to + or - .001 inch (.02 mm) accuracy.

Figure 3.7 : Vernier height gauge features

The vernier height gauge consists of a vertical graduated beam or columnon which the main
scale is engraved. The vernier scale can move up and down over the beam. The bracket carries
the vernier scale which slides vertically to match the main scale. The bracket also carries a
rectangular clamp used for clamping a sciber blade. The whole arrangement is designed and
assembled in such a way that when the tip of the sciber blade rests on the surface plate, the zero
of the main scale and vernier scale coincides. The scriber tip is used to scribed horizontal lines
for preset height dimensions.

The height gauges can also be provided with dial gauges or electronic readout instead of a
vernier. The dial height gauge reads to 20 m (0.001 in). Electronic height gauge is even more
precise which reads to 10 m (0.0001 in)

Figure 3.8 : Electronic and dial height gauge

A depth gauge is a precision measuring instrument, designed specifically to measure the depth of
holes, recesses, cavities and distances from a plane surface to a projection. In other word, a depth
gauge is a variation of the ruler. The depth gauge consists of a rulerusually a narrow one to
measure the depth of holes, counter bores, etc. There is a base through which the ruler can slide
up and down, and a locking screw on the cover to clamp the ruler in place.


Locking screw

Figure 3.9 : Vernier depth gauge

Depth gauges comes in various configurations, depending on the specific application. Depth
gauge types include digital tire thread depth gauges, digital depth gauges, single hook type
digital depth gauges, needle digital depth gauges, double hooks digital depth gauges, digital
depth gauges with adjustable base, vernier depth gauges, and dial depth gauges.
The digital version is capable to output measurements to a wide variety of peripherals and data
collection devices. These simple, inexpensive tools are typically about 150mm long, and they
can even measure up to longer range, such as 1000mm.

Figure 3.10 : Digital depth gauge

1) All depth gauges should be calibrated at least once a year, depending on how frequent it is
used. If a gauge had an impact, it should be tested before use. If a gauge is not calibrated, it can
be checked against an accurately marked shot line.
2) When the display keeps flashing or does not appear, take off the battery cover as the arrow
shows and replace the battery with a new one (SR44, 1.55V). Note that the positive pole of the
battery must be facing out. If the battery bought from the market does not work properly, it
might be power lost due to long shelf life.



A micrometer allows a measurement of the size of a body. It is one of the most accurate
mechanical devices in common use.
Three most common types of micrometer; the names are based on their application:

External micrometer, used to measure the diameter of holes.

Internal micrometer (aka micrometer caliper), typically used to measure wires, spheres,
shafts and blocks.
Depth micrometer, measures depths of slots and steps.

Figure 3.11 : a) External micrometer b) Internal micrometer c) Depth micrometer

The micrometer is a precision measuring instrument, used by engineers. Each revolution of the
rachet moves the spindle face 0.5mm towards the anvil face. The object to be measured is placed
between the anvil face and the spindle face. The rachet is turned clockwise until the object is
trapped between these two surfaces and the rachet makes a clicking noise. This means that the
rachet cannot be tightened anymore and the measurement can be read.
Reading an inch-system micrometer
The spindle of an inch-system micrometer has 40 threads per inch, so that one turn moves the
spindle axially 0.025 inch (1 40 = 0.025), equal to the distance between two graduations on the
frame. The 25 graduations on the thimble allow the 0.025 inch to be further divided, so that
turning the thimble through one division moves the spindle axially 0.001 inch (0.025 25 =
0.001). To read a micrometer, count the number of whole divisions that are visible on the scale
of the frame, multiply this number by 25 (the number of thousandths of an inch that each
division represents) and add to the product the number of that division on the thimble which
coincides with the axial zero line on the frame. The result will be the diameter expressed in
thousandths of an inch.

Figure 3.12 : Micrometer thimble showing 0.276 inch where 0.2000 + 0.075 + 0.001
Example :

The spindle has 40 threads per inch.

Distance between two graduations on the sleeve = 1/40 = 0.025

25 graduations on the thimble allow the 0.025 inch to be further divided

(0.025 25 = 0.001).

Sleeve = 0.025 inch

Thimble = 0.001 inch
Sleeve read (full)

= 0.3

Sleeve read (sub-division) = 1 * 0.025 = 0.025

Thimble read = 1* 0.001
Total Measurement

= 0.001
= 0.326 inch

Reading a metric micrometer

The spindle of an ordinary metric micrometer has 2 threads per millimeter, and thus one
complete revolution moves the spindle through a distance of 0.5 millimeter. The longitudinal line
on the frame is graduated with 1 millimeter divisions and 0.5 millimeter subdivisions. The
thimble has 50 graduations, each being 0.01 millimeter (one-hundredth of a millimeter). To read
a metric micrometer, note the number of millimeter divisions visible on the scale of the sleeve,
and add the total to the particular division on the thimble which coincides with the axial line on
the sleeve.

Figure 3.13 : Micrometer thimble showing 5.78 mm where 5.00 + 0.5 + 0.28 = 5.78 mm

Example :

The accuracy of micrometers is checked by using them to measure gauge blocks, rods, or
similar standards whose lengths are precisely and accurately known.


Figure 3.14 : External micrometer features

The C-shaped body that holds the anvil and barrel in constant relation to each other. It is
thick because it needs to minimize flexion, expansion, and contraction, which would
distort the measurement.

The shiny part that the spindle moves toward, and that the sample rests against.

Sleeve / barrel / stock

The stationary round part with the linear scale on it. Sometimes vernier markings.

Lock nut / lock-ring / thimble lock

The knurled part (or lever) that one can tighten to hold the spindle stationary, such as
when momentarily holding a measurement.

(not seen) The heart of the micrometer, as explained under "Operating principles". It is
inside the barrel.

The shiny cylindrical part that the thimble causes to move toward the anvil.

The part that one's thumb turns. Graduated markings.

Ratchet stop
Device on end of handle that limits applied pressure by slipping at a calibrated torque.


The normal procedure for using inside micrometers is to set them across diameters or between
inside surfaces, remove them, and then read the dimension. For this reason, the thimble on
an inside micrometer is much stiffer than the one on a micrometer caliper. Thus, it holds the
dimension better. It is good practice to verify the reading of an inside micrometer
by measuring it with a micrometer caliper.

Figure 3.15 : Internal micrometer


The depth micrometer is used to measure the precise depths of holes, grooves, and
recesses by using interchangeable rods to accommodate different depth measurements.
The ratchet is turned clockwise until the spindle face touches the bottom of the blind
hole. The scales are read in exactly the same way as the scales of a normal micrometer.

Figure 3.16 : Depth micrometer

Care of micrometer
1. Coat metal parts of all micrometers with a light coat of oil to prevent rust.
2. Store micrometers in a separate container provided by manufacturer.
3. Keep graduations and markings on all micrometers clean and legible.
4. Do not drop any micrometer. Small nicks or scratcthes can cause inaccurate


In engineering, a gauge or gage, is used to make measurements.

1. Bore gauge
2. Center gauge
3. Dial indicator
4. Feeler gauge
5. Block gauge
6. Pressure gauge
7. Radius gauge
8. Ring gauge
9. Thread pitch gauge
Types of
Bore gauge

A device used for measuring holes.



It is a tool used in machining to check

the angle of tool bits used to cut screw

(a.k.a fishtail
The center gauge helps ensure that the
tool bit is the correct dimensions to cut
these threads.


tolerance during the inspection process
of a machined parts.

dial Used in industrial.
dial gauge or
Feeler gauge

Used to measure gap widths.

Mostly used in engineering to measure
the clearance between two parts.
They consist of a number of small
lengths of steel of different thicknesses
with measurements marked on each
In a metric set of feeler gauges the
thickness ranges from 0.05 mm to
approximately 1 mm in varying steps.
When using the thinner gauges care
should be taken to pull the gauge
through a gap rather than push, as by
pushing, the gauge will tend to bend and
wrinkle or possibly if a sideway
movement is used the gauge will tear.

Block gauge

Used as a reference for the setting of

measuring equipment used in machine
shops, such as micrometers, calipers,
and dial indicators


Used for pressure measurement of a gas

or liquid.



E.g. : used to measure the pressure

difference between a system and the
surrounding atmosphere.

Used to measure the radius [internal and

external] of an object.

The gauges are a set of thin blades with

(a.k.a fillet a convex (external) and concave
(internal) radius of the same size on
each blade.
The size of the radius is marked on each
It requires a bright light behind the
object to be measured.
The gauge is placed against the edge to
be checked and any light leakage
between the blade and edge indicates a
mismatch that requires correction.



Ring gauge

Used for checking the external diameter

of a cylindrical object.

Thread pitch Used to measure the screw pitch

gauge, pitch It is a series of thin marked blades
gauge, screw which have different pitched teeth. Each
set of screw pitch gauges has the thread
form stamped on it.
Thread pitch gauges also come in the
standard thread forms of metric,
Whitworth, BSF, UNF, and UNC which
allows both the pitch of the thread to be
gauged and the form or shape of the
thread, to be checked.

9. Anand K Bewoor, Vinay A. Kulkarni. Metrology & measurement. McGraw Hill.

Chapter 4
Industrial materials used in
workshop and
Chapter Outline
4.1 Steel and its alloys
4.2 Cast Iron
4.3 Copper and its alloys
4.4 Aluminum and its alloys
4.5 Bearing Metals

Learning outcome
When you complete this chapter you should be able
1) Acquire knowledge on basic engineering
materials in real world industry.
2) Differentiate types of engineering materials,
basic characteristics and its application.
3) Application of engineering materials especially
in workshop practice.

Generally, engineering materials can be divided into two categories; metal and nonmetal. The major characteristics of metallic materials are their crystallinity, conductivity
to heat and electricity and relatively high strength and toughness.
In workshop practices, all materials we use are metallic material. Metal mainly comprises
as ferrous and nonferrous. It means classification of metal based on ferrous (iron) content
or non ferrous content. There are five types of metal covered in this topic such as :

Steel and its alloys

Cast Iron
Copper and its alloys
Aluminum and its alloys
Bearing Metals

Table below show classification of engineering material based on manufacturing

engineering references book by Serope Kalpakjian.

Figure 4.1 : Enginering materials


Steel mainly consist of iron that contains carbon ranging by weight between 0.022% and
It often includes other alloying ingredients: Manganese
Steel can be grouped into the following categories:

carbon steels
Low carbon

Medium carbon

High carbon

Low alloy
Tool steels


Contain carbon as the principal alloying element; with only small amounts of other
elements (about 0.5% manganese is normal).
Designation scheme :
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) & the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
First digit indicates the family to which the steel belongs :
1- Carbon steels;
2- Nickel steels;
3- Nickel-chromium steels;
4- Molybdenum steels;
5- Chromium steels;

6- Chromium-vanadium steels;
7- Tungsten-chromium steels;
9- Silicon-manganese steels.
Second digit indicate % of major alloying elements (1 means 1%).
Last two digits (3rd and 4th number) indicate amount of carbon in steel (10 means
0.10% C).
Example :
Plain carbon steels are specified by a four-digit number system: 10XX
where , 10 indicates that the steel is plain carbon, and
XX indicates the percent of carbon in hundredths of percentage
For example, 1020 steel contains 0.20% C.
The plain carbon steels can be classified into three groups according to their carbon

Relatively soft and

weak, but possess high
ductility and toughness
sheet metal
Good formability,
Good weldability

Low carbon Contain less
Low cost
than 0.25% C
Tin can
Rated at 55-60%
Bolt and nut
Easy to form in which
high strength is not

Applications requiring
higher strength than
Range in
low carbon steel
components and
engine parts
Machinability is 60between
carbon steel
i.e : crankshafts,
0.25% and
gears and
Good toughness and
connecting rods.

Fair formability

Hardest, strongest
Least ductile of the
carbon steel
High wear resistance

High carbon

Carbon in
greater than
0.60% but
less than 1.4%

Springs, cutlery
Cutting tools &

Increasing carbon content :

Strengthens and hardens the steel
Ductility is reduced.
Can be heat treated - improved properties of steel (hard and strong)
Low alloy steels are iron-carbon alloys that contain additional alloying elements in
amounts totaling less than about 5% by weight.
Owing to these additions, low alloy steels have mechanical properties that are superior to
those of the plain carbon steels for given applications.
Superior properties usually mean;
Higher strength
Higher hardness
High hot hardness
High wear resistance
Higher toughness
Heat treatment is often required to achieve these improved properties.
The effects of the principal alloying ingredients as follows:


Improves :
Wear resistance
Hot hardness.
Hardness of steel


Effective alloying ingredients for

increasing hardenability
Cr improves corrosion resistance.

when the steel is heat treated,

hardenability is improved with increased
improves hardenability and forms
carbides for wear resistance.

Nickel (Ni)

Vanadium (V)

Hot hardness
toughness of steel

Increases hardenability but not as much

as some of the other alloying elements
It improves corrosion resistance
Forms carbides that increase wear


A group of highly alloyed steels. Differ from carbon steel by the amount of chromium
Called stainless because in the presence of oxygen (air), they develop a thin, hard,
adherent film of chromium oxide that protect the metal from corrosion. Also the
protective film builds up when the surface is scratched.
Designed to provide high corrosion resistance. Stainless steel does not stain, corrode, or
rust as easily as ordinary steel, but it is not stain-proof. It is also called corrosion-resistant
steel, particularly in the aviation industry. Stainless steel is used where both the
properties of steel and resistance to corrosion are required.
The principal alloying element in stainless steel are as follow:


(usually above 15%)

Contain sufficient chromium to form a passive film of

chromium oxide, which prevents further surface
corrosion and blocks corrosion from spreading into the
metal's internal structure.


Increase corrosion protection.

Used to strengthen and harden the metal;


However, increasing the carbon content has the

effect of reducing corrosion protection
Why? Because chromium carbide forms to reduce the
amount of free Cr available in the alloy.

Common used of stainless steel is kitchen cutlery, watch strap, piping and fitting.

Figure 4.2 : Applications of stainless steel

Tool steel refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly well-suited to
be made into tools. Their suitability comes from their distinctive hardness, resistance to
abrasion, their ability to hold a cutting edge, and/or their resistance to deformation at
elevated temperatures (red-hardness).
A class of high-carbon alloy steels used to forming, machining or cutting other materials.
It has an excess carbides (carbon alloys) which make them hard and wear resistant.
Its characteristics:
high strength
impact toughness
wear resistance
Commonly has two types:
High speed steel(HSS)
- The most highly alloyed tool and die steels.
- Two basic types of HSS, the molybdenum type (M-series) contain about 10%
molybdenum with other materials or the tungsten type (T-series) contain 1218% tungsten with other alloying elements. It can be coated with titanium
nitride and titanium carbide for improving wear resistance.

Die steel
Are designed for use at elevated temperatures. It has high toughness and high
resistance to wear and cracking. Alloying elements are tungsten, molybdenum,
chromium and vanadium.


Cast iron is a family of ferrous alloys composed of iron, carbon (ranging from 2% 4.5%) and silicon (about 3.5%)
Mainly act as casting raw material in metal casting industry.
There are several types of cast iron :


* The structure causes
the surface of the metal
to have a grey color
when fractured; hence
the name gray cast iron.

Grey Cast Iron

* Grey cast iron

accounts for the largest
tonnage among the cast
In the range 2.5% to 4%
carbon and 1% to 3%

Ductile Iron

White Cast Iron

* Composition of grey
iron in which the molten
metal is chemically
treated before pouring to
cause the formation of
graphite spheroids rather
than flakes.
* Has less carbon and
silicon than gray cast

* Good vibration
damping, which is
desirable in engines
and other machinery


* Automotive
engine blocks and

* Internal lubricating
qualities, which makes
the cast metal
* Motor housings
* Ductility of grey
cast iron is very low;
it is a relatively brittle

* Stronger and more

ductile iron
* Ductile and shock

* Hard and brittle

* Machine tool

* Machinery
requiring high
strength and good
wear resistance

* Railway brake

* Formed by more rapid
cooling of the molten
metal after pouring

* Excellent wear
* Good strength

* When fractured, the

surface has a white
crystalline appearance
that gives the iron its

Malleable Iron

* When castings of
white cast iron are heat
treated to separate the
carbon out of solution
and form graphite

* Ductility (up to 20%

* Strength
* Shock resistant

* Pipe fittings &

* Certain machine
* Railroad
equipment parts.


Copper first produced in about 4000 B.C.
Properties of copper :
Reddish-pink color,
Low electrical resistivity
- one of the lowest of all elements.
An excellent thermal conductor.
Noble metals (gold and silver are also noble
metals), so it is corrosion resistant.
Low strength and hardness of copper.
Easily process by various forming, machining,
casting and joining technique.
Applications :
Widely used as an electrical conductor.
To improve strength, copper is frequently alloyed.
Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin (typically, about 90% Cu and 10% Sn).
Brass is another familiar copper alloy, composed of copper and zinc (typically
around 65% Cu and 35% Zn).
The highest strength alloy of copper is beryllium - copper (only about 2% Be). Be Cu alloys are used for springs.


Among the commercial metals, aluminum is second only to iron
in production and consumption. Aluminum and its alloy are the
most important in nonferrous metallic materials following a few
based characteristic.
Attractive Properties
High strength to weight ratio allows the design and
construction of strong lightweight structures. Advantages
for portable equipment, vehicles and aircraft application (82% of a Boeing 747
and 70% of a Boeing 777) its structural made from aluminum.
Resistance to corrosion in atmospheric environment, in fresh and salt waters and
in many chemicals solution. Resistance to corrosion is excellent due to the
formation of a hard thin oxide surface film.
Aluminum has no toxic-suitable for processing, handling, storing and packaging
of foods and beverage (aluminum can & foil).
High electrical and heat conductivity, especially when light weight is important.
Very ductile metal easy to form
Pure aluminum is relatively low in strength, but it can be alloyed and heat treated to
compete with some of the steels, especially when weight is taken into consideration
high strength but light weight


Also known as babbit metal, was invented in 1839 by Isaac Babbit (USA).
Most commonly used in as a thin surface layer in a complex, multi-metal structure, but its
original use was as a cast-in place bulk bearing material.
Babbitt metal is soft and easily damaged, which suggests that it might be unsuitable for a
bearing surface. However, its structure is made up of small hard crystals dispersed in a
softer metal, which makes it a metal matrix composite.
As the bearing wears, the softer metal erodes somewhat, which creates paths for lubricant
between the hard high spots that provide the actual bearing surface.
When tin is used as the softer metal, friction causes the tin to melt and function as a
lubricant, which protects the bearing from wear when other lubricants are absent.

Figure 4.3 : Bearing metals

Chapter 5
Introduction to Welding
Chapter Outline
5.1 Overall safety in welding
5.2 Filler, Flux, Electrode and shielding gases
5.3 Gas welding
Oxy-acetylene gas welding
5.4 Arc welding
5.5 Spot welding
Learning outcome
When you complete this chapter you should be able
1. Acquire basic knowledge on arc welding and gas
welding and its operating.
2. Differentiate between arc welding, gas welding
and its application.
3. Justify which welding operation is relevant to
certain task.
4. Acknowledge safety procedure when handling
with this equipment


Figure 1 : Oxy-gas welding station (keep cylinders and hoses away from the flame)







Because of the heat sources, such as open flames, arcs, sparks, and hot metal used in
welding and related operations, fire and explosion hazards are always present in the
work area.
Welding processes should be carried out away from all combustible materials,
including flammable fluids, vapors, gases, fuel, wood and textiles.
Protection of the operators eyes, face, and body against sparks, spatter, and infrared
and ultraviolet radiation is essential.
Several types of safety equipment and protective clothing are available and should be
Welding and related methods and machinery that use electricity as a source of energy
also present hazards.
Proper installation and maintenance of equipment and training of personnel are
Proper ventilation systems must be installed and maintained.
Never look at the arc with the naked eye.
Stand on dry footing when welding.
Keep area around welder clean.

This chapter covers permanent joining technique using welding process such as gas
welding, arc welding and spot welding.
Welding is a materials joining process in which two or more parts are coalescence at their
contacting surfaces by a suitable application of heat and/or pressure.
Oxyfuel-gas and arc welding are among the most commonly used joining operations. Gas
welding uses chemical energy; to supply the necessary heat, arc welding use electrical
energy instead.
In all of these processes, heat is used to bring the joint being welded to a liquid state.
Shielding gases are used to protect the molten-weld pool and the weld area against
oxidation. Filler rods may or may not be used in oxyfuel-gas and arc welding to fill the
weld area.
The selection of a welding process for a particular operation depends on the workpiece
material, on its thickness and size, on its shape complexity, on the type of joint, on the
strength required, and on the change in product appearance caused by welding.
A variety of welding equipment is availablemuch of which is now robotics and
computer controlled with programmable features.
Discontinuities can develop in the weld zone (such as porosity, inclusions, incomplete
welds, tears, surface damage, and cracks). Residual stresses and relieving them also are
important considerations in welding.
The weldability of metals and alloys depends greatly on their composition, the type of
welding operation and process parameters employed, and on the control of welding
parameters. General guidelines are available to help in the initial selection of suitable and
economical welding methods for a particular application.
Applications of welding : Manufacture of automobile bodies, furniture, machine frames,
general repair work and ship building.
The weld joint is where two or more metal parts are joined by welding. The five basic
types of weld joints are shown in figure below :

Figure 2 : Basic types of weld joints

Butt joint : The parts lie in the same plane and are joined at their edges.
Corner joint : The parts in a corner joint form a right angle and are joined at the
corner of the angle.
Lap joint : Consist of two overlapping parts.
Tee joint : One part if perpendicular to the other in the approximate shape of the
letter T.
Edge joint : A joint between the edges of two or more parallel or mainly parallel


5.2.1 Filler
When welding two pieces of metal together, we often have to leave a space
between the joint.
The material that is added to fill this space during the welding process is known
as the filler material (or filler metal).
Filler metals are used to supply additional metal to the weld zone during welding.
Filler metal that does not conduct an electric current during the welding process
and often used for gas welding.
They are available as filler rods or filler wire and may be bare or coated with flux.
Coated Filler Metal Rods of this type of filler metal consists
the coating of flux material.
Bare Filler Metal
No coating of flux.
Typically, filler metal is in the form of rod, 90 mm long and diameter ranging
from 1.6 mm to 9.5 mm.
Different types of welding rods are used for welding of different metals. Some
examples are given below.
Metal to be welded
(a) Iron rich steels
(b) Stainless steel
(c) Copper
(d) Aluminium and its alloy
Composition of welding rod
(a) More C Si, Mn less P and S
(b) Should have Cr and V.
(c) Copper rods with phorphorus.
(d) Rods of same metal containing some silicon.

Filler metal composition should be same as that of the material to be welded.

Sometimes additional alloying elements are added to them to improve mechanical
properties of weldment.
5.2.2 Flux
Flux is a substance which is nearly inert at room temperature, but which becomes
strongly reducing at elevated temperatures, preventing the formation of metal
The role of flux is typically dual: dissolving of the oxides on the metal surface,
which facilitates wetting by molten metal, and acting as an oxygen barrier by
coating the hot surface, preventing its oxidation.
Before performing any welding process, the base metal must be cleaned form
impurities such as oxide because this will weaken the weldment. Flux is used to
convert the oxides and nitrides to slag that can be removed from welding zone
Fluxes come in the form of a paste, powder, or liquid. Typical flux : SiO2, TiO2,
FeO, MgO, Al2O3
Flux can be supplied through coating of electrode or coating on filler metal or
Different fluxes are used for welding of different metals. For the welding of
copper and its alloy sodium nitrate, sodium carbonates are used as flux. For
welding of aluminum or its alloy chloride of sodium, potassium, lithium or
barium are used.

Figure 3 : Flux used in shielded metal arc welding: (a) overall process; (b) welding area

5.2.3 Electrode
Electrode is a metal rod which conducts a current from the electrode holder to the
base metal. Used in electric arc welding.
Two types of electrode :Consumable ; Non consumable
A) Consumable electrode
Consumable electrodes not only used as a conductor for the electrical current, but
it provides the source of the filler metal in arc welding.
These electrodes are available in two principal forms of wire and rods (also called
These electrodes are available in two principal forms: rods (also called sticks) and
Welding rods are typically 225 to 450 mm (918 in.) long and 9.5 mm (3/8 in.)
or less in diameter.
The problem with consumable welding rods, at least in production welding
operations, is that they must be changed periodically, reducing arc time of the
Consumable weld wire has the advantage that it can be continuously fed into the
weld pool from spools containing long lengths of wire, thus avoiding the frequent
interruptions that occur when using welding sticks.
In both rod and wire forms, the electrode is consumed by the arc during the
welding process and added to the weld joint as metal.

Figure 4 : Shielded metal arc welding process (consumable electrode)

Figure 5 : Various welding electrodes and an electrode holder

Consumable electrodes can further be classified into two categories :
i) Coated electrode
The most popular arc welding electrodes.
No additional filler metal and flux are required with them.
Purposes of electrodes coating : It forms a gas shield to prevent impurities in
the atmosphere from getting into the weld and form separable slag from metal
ii) Bare electrode
Rarely used (only in MIG)
Simple rods made of filler metal with no coating over them.
Flux is required additionally.
B) Nonconsumable electrode
Only used as a conductor for the electrical current.
Electrode is made of tungsten which resist melting by the arc.
A nonconsumable electrode is gradually depleted during the welding process.
For arc welding processes that utilize nonconsumable electrodes, any filler metal
used in the operation must be supplied by means of a separate wire that is fed into
the weld pool.
5.2.4 Shielding gases
Form a protective envelope around the weld area prevent oxidation
Shielding gases fall into two categories :
Inert shielding gases
Example : Argon, helium
Semi-inert shielding gases
Carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen.
Most of these gases, in large quantities, would damage the weld, but when
used in small, controlled quantities, can improve weld characteristics.

No flux is required
Used in MIG and TIG
5.3.1 Oxy-acetylene gas welding
Oxyfuel-gas welding (OFW) is a general term used to describe any welding process that
uses a fuel gas combined with oxygen to produce a flame. This flame is the source of the
heat that is used to melt the metals at the joint.
Fuel gases (such as hydrogen and methylacetylene propadiene) can be used in oxyfuelgas welding. But, the most common fuel gas welding process uses acetylene (C2H2). This
process is known as oxyacetylene-gas welding (OAW) and is used typically for structural
sheet-metal fabrication, automotive bodies and various repair work.
The apparatus used in gas welding consists basically of an oxygen source and a fuel gas
source (usually cylinders), two pressure regulators and two flexible hoses (one of each for
each cylinder), and a torch. The cylinders are often carried in a special wheeled trolley.

Figure 6 : Apparatus in oxyfuel gas welding

Advantages :
1. Simple, portable and cheap
1. Low welding speed
2. Not recommended for welding reactive metals such as titanium and zirconium
Flame types
In oxy-acetylene welding, flame is the most important tool. All the welding equipment
simply serves to maintain and control the flame. The correct type of flame is essential for
the production of satisfactory welds. The flame must be of the proper size, shape and
condition in order to operate with maximum efficiency. The proportion of acetylene and
oxygen in the gas mixture is an important factor in oxyfuel-gas welding.
Three basic types of oxyacetylene flames used in oxyfuel gas welding :
(a) neutral flame
(b) oxidizing flame
(c) carburizing or reducing flame
a) Neutral flame
The neutral flame as shown in figure below is produced when the ratio of oxygen to
acetylene, in the mixture leaving the torch, is almost exactly one-to-one. Its termed
"neutral because it will usually have no chemical effect on the metal being welded. It
will not oxidize the weld metal and it will not cause an increase in the carbon content of
the weld metal. The neutral flame is commonly used for the welding of:
(i) Mild Steel
(ii) Stainless steel
(iii) Cast iron
(iv) Copper
(v) Aluminum
b) Oxidizing flame
The oxidizing flame results from burning a mixture which contains more oxygen than
required for a neutral flame. It will oxidize or burn some of the metal being welded. To
have this flame set carburizing flame first convert it to neutral flame and then reduce the
supply of acetylene to get oxidizing flame. Its inner cone is relatively shorter and excess
oxygen turns the flame to light blue color. It burns with a harsh sound. An oxidizing
flame tends to be hotter than the neutral flame. This is because of excess oxygen and
which causes the temperature to rise as high as 6300F.
The oxidizing flame is commonly used for the welding metals that are not oxidized
readily such as :
(i) Copper base metals (brass, bronze)
(ii) Zinc base metals
(iii) A few types of ferrous metals, such as manganese steel and cast iron

c) Carburizing flame
The carburizing (or reducing) flame, is created when the proportion of acetylene in the
mixture is higher than that required to produce the neutral flame. A carburizing flame has
an approximate temperature of 5500F (3038C). A reducing flame can be recognized by
acetylene feather which exists between the inner cone and the outer envelope. The outer
flame envelope is longer than that of the neutral flame and is usually much brighter in
color. Larger the excess of acetylene larger will be its length.
The carburizing flame is commonly used for the welding of aluminum and nickel alloys.
Metals that tend to absorb carbon should not be welded with reducing flame. For
example, iron and steel, it produces very hard, brittle substance known as iron carbide.
This chemical change makes the metal unfit for many applications in which the weld may
need to be bent or stretched.

Figure 7 : (a), (b), (c) shows the three basic types of flames. (d) The principle of the
oxyfuel-gas welding operation.

Figure 8 : Comparison between all three flames:

Welding practice procedure and equipment

The basic steps can be summarized as follows:
1. Prepare the edges to be joined and establish and maintain their proper position by
using clamps and fixtures.
2. Open the acetylene valve and ignite the gas at the tip of the torch. Open the
oxygen valve and adjust the flame for that particular operation.
3. Hold the torch at about 45 from the plane of the workpiece with the inner flame
near the workpiece and the filler rod at about 30 to 40.
4. Touch the filler rod to the joint and control its movement along the joint length by
observing the rate of melting and filling of the joint.

Figure 9 : (a) General view of and (b) cross-section of a torch used in oxyacetylene
welding. (c) Basic equipment used in oxyfuel-gas welding.
In arc welding, developed in the mid-1800s, the heat required is obtained from electrical
energy. The process involves either a consumable or a nonconsumable electrode. An arc
is produced between the tip of the electrode and the workpiece to be welded, by using an
AC or a DC power supply.
Power supply
A welding power supply is a device that provides an electric current to perform arc
welding operation. Welding usually requires high current (over 80 amperes) and it can
need above 12,000 amps in spot welding. Low current can also be used; welding two
razor blades together at 5 amps with gas tungsten arc welding is a good example. A
welding power supply can be as simple as a car battery and as sophisticated as a modern
machine based on silicon controlled rectifier technology with additional logic to assist in
the welding process.

Figure 10 : A constant current welding power supply capable of AC and DC

Arc welding (AW) is a fusion-welding process in which coalescence of the metals is
achieved by the heat from an electric arc between an electrode and the work.
To initiate the arc in an AW process, the electrode is brought into contact with the
work and is then quickly separated from it by a short distance. The electric energy
from the arc thus formed produces temperatures of 5500C (10,000F) or higher,
sufficiently hot to melt any metal.
A pool of molten metal, consisting of base metal(s) and filler metal (if one is used) is
formed near the tip of the electrode. In most arc-welding processes, filler metal is
added during the operation to increase the volume and strength of the weld joint. As
the electrode is moved along the joint, the molten weld pool solidifies in its wake.
Types of arc gas welding :
(i) Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)
(ii) Gas metal arc welding, GMAW (@ metal inert gas welding, MIG)
(iii)Gas tungsten arc welding, GTAW (@ tungsten inert gas welding, TIG)

Figure 11 : Basic equipment in arc welding


: Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)

A process that use a coated consumable electrode to lay the weld.

SMAW is by far the most widely used arc welding process.
Applications : Shipbuilding, repair work, pipelines, construction.
Principle :
1. During operation, the bare metal end of the welding stick (opposite the welding tip)
is clamped in an electrode holder that is connected to the power source.
2. The holder has an insulated handle so that it can be held and manipulated by a
human welder.
3. The heat of the welding process melts the coating to provide a protective atmosphere
and slag for the welding operation. It also helps to stabilize the arc and regulate the
rate at which the electrode melts.
4. An electric arc is produced between the end of a coated metal electrode and the steel
components to be welded.
5. As the electrode melts, the (flux) coating disintegrates, giving off shielding gases
that protect the weld area from atmospheric gases and provides molten slag which
covers the filler metal as it travels from the electrode to the weld pool. The slag
floats to the surface and protects the weld from contamination as it solidifies. Once
hardened, the slag must be chipped away to reveal the finished weld.
6. This process may be performed manually.
Advantages :
1. Equipment is portable, cheap & easy to use most widely used of AW process
2. Can be used on carbon steels, low alloy steels, stainless steels, cast irons, copper,
nickel, aluminum
1. Low productivity
2. Operator dependant
3. Electrode must periodically be changed

Figure 12 : SMAW

: Gas metal arc welding, GMAW (@ metal inert gas welding, MIG)

Also known as MIG welding

Most widely used arc welding process for aluminum alloys.
A process in which a continuous and consumable wire electrode and a shielding
gas are fed through a welding gun.
Applications : Used in fabrication operations in factories for welding a variety of
ferrous and non-ferrous metals, automated welding using robots.
Principle :
1. A continuous wire (known as consumable electrode) is fed into the welding gun.
2. The wire melts and combines with the base metal to form the weld.
3. The molten metal is protected from the atmosphere by a gas shield which is fed
through a conduit to the tip of the welding gun.
4. Gases used for shielding : Argon, Helium, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) inert gas
5. The inert gas shield eliminates slag and allows cleaner and stronger weld.
6. This process may be automated.

Advantages :
1. Continuous weld may be produced.
2. High level of operators skill is not required.
3. Slag removal is not required.
Disadvantages :
1. Expensive and non-portable equipment is required.
2. Outdoor applications are limited because of effect of wind, dispersing the
shielding gas.
3. GMAW guns can be bulky and difficult-to-reach small areas or corners.

Figure 13 : MIG

: Gas tungsten arc welding, GTAW (@ tungsten inert gas welding, TIG)

Also known as TIG welding

A process that use a nonconsumable electrode [tungsten, Tm = 3410C] to
produce a weld. The weld area is protected from atmospheric contamination by a
shielding gas (argon, helium) and a filler metal that is fed manually is usually
Applications : Used extensively in the manufacture of space vehicles, when
joining pipes for offshore applications, applied to thin materials, frequently
employed to weld small-diameter and thin-wall tubing such as those used in the
bicycle industry

Principle :
1. The torch holding the tungsten electrode is connected to a shielding gas cylinder
as well as one terminal of the power source. This will allow the welding current
from the power source to enter the electrode.
2. The workpiece is connected to the other terminal of the power source through a
different cable.
3. The shielding gas goes through the torch body and is directed by a nozzle toward
the weld pool to protect it from the air.
4. Protection from the air is much better in TIG than in SMAW because an inert gas
such as argon or helium is usually used as the shielding gas and because the
shielding gas is directed toward the weld pool.
5. When a filler metal is used, it is added to the weld pool from a separate rod or
wire, being melted by the heat of the arc.
6. This process may be performed manually or by machine and automated methods.

Figure 14 : TIG
Advantages :
1. High quality weld
2. Little or no postweld cleaning
3. Can be used to weld reactive metals, such as titanium, zirconium, aluminum and
Disadvantages :
1. Slow process


Used to join two sheet of metal by lap joint form a small nugget at the
Thickness of workpiece = up to 3 mm (1/8 inch).
Applications : In mass production of automobiles, appliances, metal furniture.
Principle :
1. Pressure are applied to workpiece.
2. Current [1000A to 100,000A] is passed through the joint for certain period of
time, so that just enough heat generated to melt the joint.
3. A current stop but the pressure is maintained for certain time until solidification

Figure 15: Spot welding

Advantages :
1. Very little skill required to operate
2. High production rate
3. Heating involve a small portion (less distortion)
4. Possible to weld dissimilar metal with different thickness
1. Complex equipment (expensive)
2. Limited to lap joint only
References :

Chapter 6
Introduction to Metal
Chapter Outline
6.1 Overall safety in metal casting
6.2 Melting practice
6.3 Sand casting
Process cycle
Elements of gating system
Molding material
6.4 Die casting
6.5 Basic design rule in casting
6.6 Cleaning and casting defects
Learning outcome
When you complete this chapter you should be able
1. Have
a basic understanding on casting
terminology and processes
2. Have acquired knowledge on casting defects and
design rules


: Overall safety in metal casting

1. Aprons, gloves and leggings should be leather as this offers the most
protection is a spillage of molten metal occurs.
2. Wear protective clothing and devices like safety glasses and full face shields.
3. Cloths made of natural fibers like cotton are to be preferred over synthetics
that can melt and stick to the skin.
4. Strong, leather shoes should be worn at all times in the workshop as they offer
the best protection for feet. Do not distract anybody during a pour.
5. Do not look into the furnace without appropriate eye safety gear for
splattering and infrared radiation.
6. Always operate in a well-ventilated area. Fumes and dusts from combustion
and other foundry chemicals, processes and metals can be toxic.
7. Spilled molten metal can travel for a great distance. Operate in a clear work

6.2 : Melting Practices

Furnaces are charged with melting stock consisting of liquid and/or solid metal, alloying
elements and various other materials such as flux and slag forming constituents. Furnace
choice is based on the type of metals that are to be melted.
Factors for furnace selection
1. Economic consideration (less cost during operation)
2. Composition and melting point of the metal/alloy
3. Capability to control furnace atmosphere
4. Capacity
5. Environmental consideration (environment pollution)
6. Maintenance (less)
7. Safety (high)
Metals or alloys in casting process are melted and prepared in a furnace which may be
1. Electric arc
2. Induction
3. Crucible
4. Cupola
When the metal is heat up in the furnace, this molten metal is poured into the assembled
mold either via a ladle or directly from the furnace. When the metal has cooled, the mold
and the core materials are removed and the casting is cleaned. Certain castings may
require welding, heat treatment or painting.

1. Electric arc furnace : The furnace is charged with ingots, scrap, alloy metals and
fluxing agents. An arc is produced between three electrodes and the metal charge,
melting the metal. A slag with fluxed covers the surfave of the molten metal to prevent
oxidation, to refine the metal and to protect the furnace roof from excessive heat. When
ready, the electrodes are raised and the furnace tilted to pour the molten metal into the
receiving ladle.
Other characteristics : High rate of melting, much less pollution and the ability to hold the
molten metal for any length of time for alloying purposes.

Figure 1 : Electric arc furnace

2. Induction furnace : It melts the metal by passing a high electric current through copper
coils on the outside of the furnace, including an electric current in the outer edge of the
metal charge that heats the metal because of the high electrical resistance of the metal
charge. Melting progresses from the outside of the charge to the inside. Special hazards
include metal fumes.
Other characteristics : Used in smaller foundries, produce composition controlled smaller
melts, do not introduce dust and noise emissions in operation. Heating is safe and
efficient with no open flame to endanger the operator or obscure the process. Production
rates can be maximized because induction works so quickly.

Figure 2 : Induction furnace

3. Crucible furnace : The crucible or container holding the metal charge is heated by a
gas or oil burner. When ready, the crucible is lifted out of the furnace and tilted for
pouring into the molds.
Other characteristics : Used for ferrous and nonferrous metals. Special hazards include
carbon monoxide, metal fumes, noise and heat.

Figure 3: Crucible furnace

4. Cupola : Furnace is a tall, vertical furnace, open at the top with hinged doors at the
bottom. It is charged from the top with alternate layers of coke, limestone and metal. The
molten metal is removed at the bottom.
Other characteristics : They operate continuously, have high melting rates and produce
large amounts of molten metal. Special hazards include carbon monoxide and heat.

Figure 4 : Cupola furnace

6.3 :

Sand Casting
Form complex metal parts that can be made of nearly any alloy (aluminum, cast
iron, stainless steel).
Involves the use of a furnace, metal, pattern and sand mold.
Produce automobile components, such as engine blocks, engine manifolds,
cylinder heads, and transmission cases

Advantages :
It can create big components with complex shapes; it can be used for variety of metals;
the cost associated with tools and equipment involved in the casting process is relatively
lower; the scrap metal can be used again and the preparation time is relatively shorter.
Disadvantages :
The materials created by sand casting are not as strong as those created by other
techniques. The rate of production is relatively low for sand casting because one mold
only can be used once. The preparation of the final product requires additional machinery
and labor which adds to the cost.

Figure 5 : Sand casting

Figure 6 : Sand casting products

Figure 7 : Cast parts in a typical automobile

6.3.1 Process Cycle
1. Mold making
2. Clamping
3. Pouring
4. Cooling
5. Removal
6. Trimming

- Shape of casting was perform with pattern & core

- To prevent any loss of casting
- Enough molten metal must be poured
- Shorter cooling time may exhibit severe shrinkage
- Sand mold can simply be broken and the casting removed
- Excess material must be trimmed from the casting

Figure 8 : Process cycle in sand casting

6.3.2 Elements of gating system
Mold cavity : Mold cavity is formed by packing sand around the pattern.
: Consist of upper half & bottom half which meet at parting line
: To formed internal surfaces (e.g. : holes, passages)
: Carry the molten metal from basin down to the main channel
: Carry the molten metal into the cavity


: Supply an additional source of metal during solidification

: Carry off gases produced when the molten metal contacts with

Figure 9 : Elements of gating system used in sand casting

6.3.3 Molding material
Molding is the process whereby a pattern is pressed into sand so as to form the desired
impression or shape.
After the pattern has been carefully extracted, molten metal is poured into the cavity thus
formed and the metal on cooling solidifies. The sand is then removed and the resulting
product formed by the metal is known as a casting.
Molding materials (depend on type of mold) :
1. Sand (silica sand, zircon sand, etc)
2. Clay (as a binder: Bentonite, kaolin, etc)
3. Water (active the clay)
4. Additives
Table 1 : Additives used in casting process

Molding is performed by several methods such as green sand and dry sand.
A) Green sand mold :
Mixture of sand (90%), water (3%) and a clay (7%)
Widely used
Surface finish of the castings obtained by this process is not good and machining
is often required to achieve the finished product
B) Skin dried mold (also known as dried green sand) :
Additional bonding materials (or binder) are added
Cavity surface is dried by a torch or heating lamp directed to the mold surface to
increase mold strength.
This improves the dimensional accuracy and surface finish.
More expensive and require more time, thus lowering the production rate.
6.3.4 Pattern
In casting, pattern is a replica of the object to be cast, used to prepare the cavity into
which molten material will be poured during the casting process. Therefore, the first step
in making a sand casting is the design and construction of a pattern.
The pattern material is determined primarily by the number of castings to be made. Wood
patterns are relatively easy to make and are frequently used when small quantities of
castings are required. However, it is not very dimensionally stable, as it may warp or
swell with changes in humidity and it tends to wear out fairly rapidly. Metal patterns are
more expensive but are more dimensionally stable and longer lasting.
Types of pattern :

Figure 10 : Types of pattern a) Single piece, b) Split, c) Match-plate, d) Cope and Drag
a) Single piece pattern :
This is the simplest type of pattern, exactly like the desired casting. For making a mould,
the pattern is accommodated either in cope or drag. Used for producing a few large
castings, for example, stuffing box of steam engine. This is generally used for casting

simple shapes and the productivity rate is low by using single piece pattern and the
removal of the pattern from the mold cavity is difficult when complex pattern shapes are
inserted. Used for producing a few large castings, for example, stuffing box of
steam engine.
b) Split pattern :
The disadvantage of single piece pattern can be avoided by using split piece pattern by
splitting the complex shape in to two parts that is one of them is attached to the cope part
and the other to the drag part and both of them are joined together by using dowel pin
(dowel pin is a temporary fastener used for joining of two parts). Gated system is
incorporated after the cope and drag part are joined together. Example, taps, bushings,
gears, flywheels.
c) Match plate pattern :
A match plate pattern is a split pattern having the cope and drags portions mounted on
opposite sides of a plate (usually metallic), called the "match plate" that conforms to the
contour of the parting surface. The gates and runners are also mounted on the match
plate, so that very little hand work is required. This results in higher productivity. This
type of pattern is used for a large number of castings. Because the moulding is done on
machines, match plate patterns produce castings which are more accurate than those
produced by hand moulding. Example, piston rings, engine.
d) Cope and drag pattern :
A cope and drag pattern is a split pattern having the cope and drag portions each mounted
on separate match plates. These patterns are used when in the production of large
castings. The complete molds are too heavy and cannot be handled by a single worker.
6.3.5 Core
For castings of the hollow type, cores are employed which form the inner pattern
thereby providing for molten metal to run into the cavity formed between the core outer
face and the inner sand formation of the mold, similarly to that for a solid casting.
Cores are made from sand (silica sand) and binder (linseed oil, core oil, resins, etc). The
mixture of sand will be compacting in a specially formed box composed of two or more

Figure 11 : Examples of sand cores showing core prints and chaplets to support cores

6.4 Die casting

Die casting is a process, in which the molten metal is injected into the mold cavity at an
increased pressure up to 30,000 psi (200 MPa).
The die casting method is especially suited for applications where many small to
medium sized parts are needed with good detail, a fine surface quality and dimensional
The reusable steel mold used in the die casting process is called a die. The dies are
fabricated from tool and die steels. The die life is determined the ability of the material to
withstand wear caused by the molten alloys and fatigue caused by multiple heating and
expansion. he cores are made of refractory ceramic materials. Sand based cores are not
applicable due to their insufficient strength under pressure applied in die casting.
The following parts are manufactured by die casting method : automotive connecting
rods, pistons, cylinder beds, electronic enclosures, toys, plumbing fittings.

Figure 12 : An engine block with aluminium and magnesium die castings.

In this process, the molten metal injection is carried out by a machine called die casting
machine. Most die castings are made from non-ferrous metals Zn, Cu, Al, Mg. The
selection of a material for die casting is based upon several factors including the density,
melting point, strength, corrosion resistance, and cost. The material may also affect the
part design. For example, the use of zinc, which is a highly ductile metal, can allow for
thinner walls and a better surface finish than many other alloys. The material not only
determines the properties of the final casting, but also impacts the machine and tooling.
Materials with low melting temperatures, such as zinc alloys, can be die cast in a hot
chamber machine. However, materials with a higher melting temperature, such as
aluminum and copper alloys, require the use of cold chamber machine. The melting

temperature also affects the tooling, as a higher temperature will have a greater adverse
effect on the life of the dies.
Advantages :
1. Near net shaped components
2. High production rate
3. Design can reduce machining and assembly operations (welding, fastening, etc.)
4. Good dimensional control
5. Good surface finish
6. Can cast thin walled components (<0.050)
Disadvantages :
1. Not applicable for high melting point metals and alloys (e.g. : steel)
2. Long wait for first production parts (too long lead time)
3. Casting defects (e.g. : air entrapment, gas and shrinkage porosity can be prevalent
causing lower mechanical properties)
4. Component size limitations
5. High die cost
There are two principal die casting methods:
i) Hot chamber machine
Used for alloys with low melting temperature, which are chemically inert to the
material of the plunger and other parts of the casting machine : zinc alloys (except
zinc alloys containing more than 10% of aluminum), tin alloys and magnesium
In the hot chamber die casting machines, the pressure chamber (cylinder) and the
plunger are submerged in the molten metal in the pot (crucible).
Hot chamber machines have short casting cycle (about 1 sec.). They are capable
to cast thin wall casting with good filling the cavity under precise temperature
control of the molten metal.
Maintenance of hot chamber machines is more expensive as compared to the cold
chamber process.
Process :
It relies upon a pool of molten metal to feed the die. At the beginning, the plunger
goes up allowing the melt to fill the cylinder space. The die is closed at this stage.
The plunger goes down forcing the melt to flow through the gooseneck into the
die cavity. After the die has been filled with the molten metal, the plunger is held
under a pressure until the solidification is completed. The die opens. The casting
stays in the die part equipped with ejectors. The plunger goes up and the melt
residuals return through the gooseneck back to the pot. The ejectors push the
casting out of the die.

Figure 13 : Hot chamber machine used in die casting

ii) Cold chamber machine

Used for alloys with high melting temperature include aluminum
alloys, magnesium alloys, copper alloys and zinc alloys (including zinc-aluminum
Process :
The process for these machines starts with melting the metal in a separate
furnace. Then a precise amount of molten metal is transported to the coldchamber machine. When the pressure chamber is filled with a molten metal, the
plunger starts traveling forward and builds up a pressure forcing the metal to flow
to the die cavity. After the metal has solidified, the plunger returns to its initial
position allowing a new portion of the molten metal to fill the pressure chamber.
The die then opens and the ejector pins removes the casting from the die. The
casting cycle now may be repeated.

Figure 14 : Cold chamber machine used in die casting

Comparison between sand casting and die casting

Table 2 :
Sand Casting
Startup Time

A few days

Initial Expense Inexpensive

Labor Costs

Die Casting
Several weeks

Higher labor costs on long runs Lower labor costs on long runs





High temperatures

High fluidity materials; Better life

with lower temperatures (e.g. zinc)


Casting weight must be between 30

grams (1 oz) and 10 kg (20 lb).
Casting must be smaller than 600
mm (24 in.).

Product Size

Wall Thickness Thicker than die casting

Thinner than sand casting

6.5 :

Basic Design Rule in Casting

i) Wall thickness
Uniform wall thickness will ensure uniform cooling and reduce defects. A thick section,
often referred to as a hot spot, causes uneven cooling and can result in shrinkage, porosity
or cracking.

Figure 15 : Wall thickness

ii) Pattern draft
Draft is the taper allowed in vertical faces of a pattern to permit its removal from the sand
or other molding medium without tearing the mold cavity surfaces. Apply a draft angle of
2 - 3 to all walls parallel to the parting direction to facilitate removing the part from the

Figure 16 : Taper on patterns for ease of removal from the sand mold
iii) Corner
Round corners to reduce stress concentrations and fracture.
Inner radius should be at least the thickness of the walls

Figure 17 : Corner

6.6 : Cleaning and casting defects

6.6.1 Cleaning
The complete process of the cleaning of castings, called fettling. It involves the
removal of the cores, gates and risers, cleaning of the casting surface and chipping of any
of the unnecessary projections on surfaces.

Figure 18 : Aluminum piston for an internal combustion engine: (a) as cast and (b) after
machining. The part on the left is as cast, including risers, sprue, and well, as well as a
machining allowance; the part on the right is the piston after machining.

6.6.2 Casting defects

Several types of defect in casting, include :

Shrinkage cavity
Cold shut
Sand wash
Sand blow
Shift (mold shift, core shift)

1) Misrun

Figure 19 : Misrun

Also known as cold sheet or short run

This defect is incomplete cavity filling.
The reasons can be: - inadequate metal supply, too low mold or melt temperature,
improperly designed gates, .or length to thickness ratio of the casting is too large.
When molten metal is flowing from one side in a thin section, it may loose
sufficient heat resulting in loss of its fluidity, such that the leading edge of the
stream may freeze before it reaches the end of the cavity.

2) Shrinkage cavity

Figure 20 : Shrinkage cavity

A shrinkage cavity is a depression or an internal void in a casting that results from

the volume contraction that occurs during solidification.

3) Cold shut

Figure 21 : Cold shut

Occur when two fronts of liquid metal do not fuse properly in the mold cavity,
leaving a weak spot.
Solution: avoid narrow cross-section

4) Microporosity

Figure 22 : Microporosity

Caused by air entrained in the melt/mold

Solution: Proper foundry practices, e.g. : melt preparation and mold design

5) Sand wash

Figure 23 : Sand wash

It is a projection on the drag face of a casting that extends along the surface,
decreasing in height as it extends from one side of the casting to the other end.
It usually occurs with bottom gating castings in which the molding sand has
insufficient hot strength and when too much metal is made to flow through one
gate into the mold cavity.

6) Scab

Figure 24 : Scab

Occurs when a portion of the face of a mold lifts or breaks down and the recess
thus made is filled by metal.
When the metal is poured into the cavity, gas may be disengaged with such
violence as to break up the sand which is then washed away and the resulting
cavity filled with metal.
The reasons can be : Too fine sand, low permeability of sand, high moisture
content of

7) Sand blow

Figure 25 : Sand blow

Blow is relatively large cavity produced by gases which displace molten metal

8) Shift (mold shift, core shift)

Figure 26 : Mold shift and core shift

Mold shift refers to a defect caused by a sidewise displacement of the mold cope
relative to the drag, the result of which is a step in the cast product at the parting
Core shift is similar to mold shift, but it is the core that is displaced, and (he displacement is usually vertical. Core shift and mold shift are caused by buoyancy of
the molten metal


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Chapter 7.0: Introduction to

Metal Removal Processes
Chapter Outline
7.1 :
Overall Safety in Metal Removal Processes
7.2 :
7.3 :
7.4 :
7.5 :
7.6 :

Learning outcome
When you complete this chapter, you should be able
1. Understand common machine tools used in
2. Describe various types of machine operations
3. Understand the safety procedure/practice in
machine shop workshop

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Correct dress is important, remove rings and watches, roll sleeves above elbows.
Always stop the machine before making adjustments.
Always wear protective eye protection.
Know where the emergency stop is before operating the machine.
Use pliers or a brush to remove chips and never use your hand.
Never lean on the machine.
Never attempt to measure work while the machine is operated.


Lathes generally are considered to be the oldest machine tools. Lathe is a machine which
removes the metal from a piece of work to the required shape and size. One of the most
basic machining processes is turning, meaning that the part is rotated while it is being
machined. It is a versatile machine tool, manually operated, and widely used in low and
medium production also capable of variety of shapes and operations. The job must be
softer than tool material.
There are several types of lathe machines, but the most popular is engine lathe. No
machine shop is seen without this type of lathe. The good thing about engine lathes is that
it can be used in various materials, aside from metal. Moreover, the set-up of these
machines is so simple that they are easier to use. Its main components include the bed,
headstock, and tailstock. These engine lathes can be adjusted to variable speeds for the
accommodation of a wide scope of work. In addition, these lathes come in various sizes.
Engine lathes all have the same general functional parts, even though the specific location
or shape of a certain part may differ from one manufacturer. Basic parts in a lathe
machine consist of:

Figure 1 : Diagram of an engine lathe, indicating its principal components.

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Cross slide
Lead screw
Head stock
Tail stock


: To support the whole machine. It act as the foundation of the machine,

must resist vibration and deflection.
: Assembly that moves the tool post and cutting tool along the ways
: The front part of the carriage assembly on which carriage hand wheel is
: A platform that moves perpendicular to the lathe axis under control of
the cross slide hand wheel
: A precision screw that runs the length of the bed. It is used to drive the
carriage under power for turning and thread cutting operations.
: Contain the drive or power element, remains fixed, always on the left end
(facing the lathe) of the bed.
: It is a cast iron assembly that can be slide along the ways and be locked
in place. Used to hold long work in place or mount a drill chuck for
drilling into end of the work
: A precision ground surfaces along top of the bed on which saddle rides.
the ways are precisely aligned with the centerline of the lathe.

The cutting tool is held in a tool post fastened to the cross-slide, which is assembled to
the carriage. By moving the carriage, the tool can be fed parallel to the work axis to
perform straight turning or by moving the cross-slide, the tool can be fed radially into the
work to perform facing, form turning or cut-off operations.
Workholding devices
Workholding devices are important, particularly in machine tools and machining
operations, as they must hold the workpiece securely.
There are four common methods used to hold workparts in turning :

Mounting the work between centers

Usually is equipped with three or four jaws.
Basically a longitudinally-split, tapered bushing.
Face plate Used for clamping irregularly shaped workpieces. The plates are round
and have several slots and holes through which the workpiece is bolted or clamped.

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Figure 2 : Four workholding methods used in lathes

a) Mounting the work between centers using a dog
b) Three jaw chuck
c) Collet
d) Face plate for noncylindrical workparts
Turning operations perform on lathe machine :
Facing : The tool is fed radially into the rotating work on one end to create a flat
surface on the end.
Taper turning :Instead of feeding the tool parallel to the axis of rotation of the
work, the tool is fed at an angle, thus creating a tapered cylinder or conical shape.
Contour turning: Instead of feeding the tool along a straight line parallel to the
axis of rotation as in turning, the tool follows a contour that is other than straight, thus
creating a contoured form in the turned part.
Form turning : In this operation, sometimes called forming, the tool has a shape
that is imparted to the work by plunging the tool radially into the work.
Chamfering : The cutting edge of the tool is used to cut an angle on the corner of
the cylinder, forming what is called a chamfer.
Cutoff : The tool is fed radially into the rotating work at some location along its
length to cut off the end of the part. This operation is sometimes referred to as parting.

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Threading : A pointed tool is fed linearly across the outside surface of the rotating
workpart in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation at a large effective feed rate, thus
creating threads in the cylinder.
Boring : A single-point tool is fed linearly, parallel to the axis of rotation, on the
inside diameter of an existing hole in the part.
Drilling : Drilling can be performed on a lathe by feeding the drill into the
rotating work along its axis. Reaming can be performed in a similar way.
Knurling : This is not a machining operation because it does not involve cutting
of material. Instead, it is a metal forming operation used to produce a regular crosshatched pattern in the work surface.

Figure 3 : Machining operations other than turning that are performed on a lathe
a) Facing, b) Taper turning, c) Contour turning, d) Form turning, e) Chamfering, f)
Cut-off, g) Threading, i) Drilling and j) Knurling

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Milling is the process of cutting away material by feeding a work-piece past a rotating
multiple tooth cutter. The cutting action of the many teeth around the milling cutter
provides a fast method of machining. The machined surface may be flat, angular or
curved. The surface may also be milled to any combination of shapes. The machine for
holding the work-piece, rotating the cutter and feeding it is known as the milling

Milling is a machining operation in which a workpart is fed past a rotating

cylindrical tool with multiple cutting edges
The axis of rotation of the cutting tool is perpendicular to the direction of
This orientation between the tool axis and the feed direction is one of the
features that distinguish milling from drilling. In drilling, the cutting tool is
fed in a direction parallel to its axis of rotation.
The cutting tool in milling is called a milling cutter and the cutting edges are
called teeth.

Figure 4 : Various types of milling cutter

The machine tool that traditionally performs this operation is a milling

There are two basic types of milling operations;
(a) Peripheral milling
(b) Face milling

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Peripheral Milling
In peripheral (or slab) milling, the milled surface is generated by teeth located on the
periphery of the cutter body. The axis of cutter rotation is generally in a plane parallel to
the work-piece surface to be machined.

Also called as plain milling, the axis of the tool is parallel to the surface being
machined, and the operation is performed by cutting edges on the outside
periphery of the cutter.
Several types of peripheral milling
a) Slab millingThe basic form of peripheral milling; the cutter width
extends beyond the workpiece on both sides.
b) Slotting, also called slot millingThe width of the cutter is less than the
workpiece width, creating a slot in the work. When the cutter is very thin, this
operation can be used to mill narrow slots or cut a workpart in two, called saw
c) Side millingThe cutter machines the side of the workpiece.
d) Straddle millingThe same as side milling, only cutting takes place on
both sides of the work.

Figure 5 : a) Slab milling, b) Slotting, also called slot milling, c) Side milling, d) Straddle
Face milling
In face milling, the cutter is mounted on a spindle having an axis of rotation
perpendicular to the work-piece surface. The milled surface results from the action of
cutting edges located on the periphery and face of the cutter.
Conventional face millingThe diameter of the cutter is greater than the
workpart width, so that the cutter overhangs the work on both sides.
Partial face millingthe cutter overhangs the work on only one side.
End millingthe cutter diameter is less than the work width, so a slot is cut
into the part.
Profile millingthis is a form of end milling in which the outside periphery
of a flat part is cut.
Pocket millinganother form of end milling, this is used to mill shallow
pockets into flat parts.

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Surface contouringa ball-nose cutter (rather than square-end cutter) is fed

back and forth across the work along a curvilinear path at close intervals to
create a three-dimensional surface form. The same basic cutter control is
required to machine the contours of molds and dies, in which case the
operation is called die sinking.

Figure 6 : a) Conventional face milling, b) Partial face milling, c) End milling, d) Profile
milling, e) Pocket milling, f) Surface contouring
Types of Milling Machine
Milling machine can be broadly classified into the following types.
a) Column & Knee Type Milling Machines
Used for general purpose milling operations,
Most common milling machines. The spindle to which the milling cutter is may
be horizontal (slab milling) or vertical (face and end milling).
The basic components are:
Work table, on which the work-piece is clamped using the T-slots. The
table moves longitudinally with respect to the saddle.
Saddle, which supports the table and can move transversely.
Knee, which supports the saddle and gives the table vertical movements
for adjusting the depth of cut.
Overarm in horizontal machines, which is adjustable to accommodate
different arbor lengths.
Head, which contains the spindle and cutter holders. In vertical machines
the head may be fixed or vertically adjustable.

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Figure 7 : Schematic illustration of (a) a horizontal-spindle column-and-knee type milling

machine and (b) vertical-spindle column-and-knee type milling machine.
b) Bed type Machine
In bed type machine, the work table is mounted directly on the bed, which replaces the
knee, and can move only longitudinally. These machines have high stiffness and are used
for high production work.
c) Rotary Table Machine
Rotary table machines are similar to vertical milling machines and are equipped with one
or more heads to do face milling operations.
d) Tracer Controlled Machine
Tracer controlled machines reproduce parts from a master model. They are used in the
automotive and aerospace industries for machining complex parts and dies.

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Shaping is the operations involving the use of a single-point cutting tool moved linearly
relative to the workpart.
In conventional shaping, a straight, flat surface is created by this action.
In shaping, the speed motion is accomplished by moving the cutting tool.

Figure 8 : Shaping

Shaping is performed on a machine tool called a shaper.

Figure 9 : Shaping machine known as shaper

The motion of the ram consists of a forward stroke to achieve the cut and a return
stroke during which the tool is lifted slightly to clear the work and then reset for
the next pass.

Figure 10 : Shaping operations


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7.5 :


Grinding is a machining operation that also known as abrasive machining. One of the
best methods for producing accuracy and fine finishing on parts is abrasive machining.
An abrasive is a small, hard particle having sharp edges and an irregular shape. Abrasives
are capable of removing small amounts of material from a surface through a cutting
process that produces tiny chips.

The grinding wheel is usually disk-shaped, and is precisely balanced for high
rotational speeds.
Cutting speeds in grinding are much higher than in milling
A grinding wheel consists of abrasive particles and bonding material.

Figure 11 : Grinding



Figure 12 : Types of grinder a) Bench grinder, b) Hand grinder


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Hole making is among the most important operations in manufacturing and drilling is a
major and common hole-making process.

Drilling is a machining operation used to create a round hole in a work- part.

This contrast with boring, which can only be used to enlarge an existing hole.
Drilling is usually performed with a rotating cylindrical tool which has two
cutting edges on its working end.
The tool is called a drill or drill bit.
The rotating drill feeds into the stationary workpart to form a hole whose
diameter is equal to the drill diameter.

Drilling machine
Drilling machine is used for drilling holes, tapping, reaming, and small-diameter boring

Figure 13 : Schematic illustration of the components of a vertical drill press.

Drilling machines with multiple spindles (gang drilling) are used for high
production- rate operations.
Workholding devices for drilling are essential to ensure that the workpiece is
located properly.


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Operations related to drilling

Reaming : It is used to slightly enlarge a hole to provide a better tolerance on its
diameter and to improve its surface finish. The tool is called a reamer and it
usually has straight flutes.

Tapping : It is performed by a tap and is used to provide internal screw threads in

an existing hole.


Counterboring : It provides a stepped hole, in which a larger diameter follows a

smaller diameter partially into the hole. A counterbored hole is used to seat bolt
heads into a hole so the heads do no protrude above the surface.


Countersinking : This is similar to counterboring, except that the step in the hole
is cone-shaped for flat head screws and bolts.


Centering (a.k.a. centerdrilling) : This operation drills a starting hole to accurately

establish its location for subsequent drilling. The tool is called a centerdrill.

Figure 14 : Machining operations related to drilling; (a) reaming, (b) tapping, (c)
counterboring, (d) countersinking, (e) centerdrilling and (f) spot facing.


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Reference :


Chapter 8
Introduction to Sheet Metal
Chapter Outline
8.1 Overall safety in sheet metal working
8.2 Layout
8.3 Sheet metal processes :
8.4 Joints

Learning outcome
When you complete this chapter you should be able to:
1. Describe common tools and equipment used in sheet
metal shop.
2. Understand common operations in sheet metal shop.
3. Select suitable tools and equipment in sheet metal
4. Execute accurately basic skills in sheet metal practice
with appropriate tools and equipment.
5. Understand the safety procedure/practice in sheet
metal shop.


: Overall Safety in Sheet Metal Shop

Working in a sheet metal shop can be a physically demanding job and requires careful
attention to safety procedures. Cuts, back injury and repetitive motion injuries can be
avoided by using safe work practices.
Any machinery in the shop should be used with caution and carefully examined
before use.
If a machine is damaged, it should be locked out and not used until repaired.
When working, do not wear baggy clothing, jewelry or long hair. These can get
caught in moving parts.
Physical Injuries
Working with sheet metal involves tasks that use the same physical motions over
and over.
Students should be rotated between different jobs to prevent repetitive motion
Sheet metal edges can be extremely sharp, so students should wear gloves to
protect their hands from cuts.
Work Environment
The sheet metal shop is an area that should have adequate lighting and proper
ventilation. This is extremely important when the shop space is small.
If any fumes will be present, the students should wear a respirator and safety
Maintain your overall health and fitness level because sheet metal work can
require crawling into tight spaces and areas for installations.
Standing, climbing, bending, and squatting may be required for long periods.
Keep your work close to you and rotate your tasks as much as possible to avoid
Sheet metal is simply metal formed into thin and flat pieces. It is one of the fundamental
forms used in metalworking, and can be cut and bent into a variety of different shapes.
Thicknesses can vary significantly, although extremely thin thicknesses are considered
foil or leaf, and pieces thicker than 6 mm (0.25 in) are considered plate. Sheet metal is
available as flat pieces or as a coiled strip.
There are many different metals that can be made into sheet metal, such as aluminum,
brass, copper, steel, tin, nickel and titanium. For decorative uses, important sheet metals
include silver, gold, and platinum. Sheet metal has applications in car bodies, airplane
wings, medical tables, roofs for buildings and many other things.


: Layout

The layout of metal is the procedure of measuring and marking material for cutting,
drilling, or welding. Accuracy is essential in layout work.
Most cases use shop drawings, sketches, and blueprints to obtain the measurements
required to fabricate the job being laid out. Ability to read and work from blueprints and
sketches is paramount in layout work.

Figure 1 : This type of fitting commonly used in gravity furnace leads where a
rectangular-to-round transition is required to connect cold air registers.
Layout tools are used for laying out fabrication jobs on metal. Some of the more common
layout tools that will use in performing layout duties are as follows:

Mallets (short-handled hammer)

Stake or forming support
Cutting tools
Marking and measuring equipment :
Steel Rule
Try Square


Figure 2 : Other marking and measuring tools used in sheet metal work
a. Mallet
A mallet is a kind of hammer, usually of wood, smaller and usually with a relatively large
head. It has round or rectangular cross section. The striking face is made flat to the work.
It is used to give light blows to the sheet metal in bending and finishing.

Figure 3 : Mallet
b. Stake or forming support
Used as supporting and forming tools.
Help in bending operations.
Types of stake :
1. Half moon stake used for working the edges on disc
2. Hatchet stake widely used for forming, bending and seaming
3. Bick iron used for forming long tapered cylindrical components
4. Funnel stake used for forming long tapered conical components
5. Horse head stake used for bending, holding and supporting the component


Convex stake used for forming spherical shapes

Pipe stake used for forming pipes and hollow cylindrical surfaces

Figure 4 : Stakes used in sheet metal work

c. Cutting tools
Types of cutting tool used to cut sheet metal :
1. Hollow punch used for producing small circular holes
2. Groove punch used for making grooves
3. Straight shear used for cutting along a straight lines
4. Bent shear used for cutting along a curvature

a) Straight shear

b) Bent shear
Figure 5 : Shears used in sheet metal
5. Hand shear light application for metal < 0.8 mm thickness

Figure 6 : Hand shear

6. Throatless shear -A throatless shear is a cutting tool used to make complex

straight and curved cuts in sheet metal. The throatless shear takes its name from
the fact that the metal can be freely moved around the cutting blade (it does not
have a throat down which metal must be fed), allowing great flexibility in shapes
that can be cut.

Figure 7 : Throatless shear

d. Marking and measuring equipment
Include :

Steel Rule
Try Square

1. Steel rule
Used to set out dimensions

Figure 8 : Steel rule

2. Try square
Used for making and testing angles of 90

Figure 9 : Try square

3. Scriber
Used to mark lines on sheet metal.
To obtain the best results in scribing, hold the scale or straightedge firmly in
place, and set the point of the scriber as close to the edge of the scale as possible
by tilting the scriber outward. Then exert pressure on the point and draw the line,
tilting the tool slightly in the direction of movement.

Figure 10 : Scribing a line

4. Divider
Used for scribe arc and circles, bisecting lines, to transfer measurements from a
scale to a layout and to transfer measurements from one part of the layout to
another, etc.
To scribe a circle or an arc, grasp the dividers between the fingers and the thumb,
as shown in figure below. Place the point of one leg on the center, and swing the
arc. Exert enough pressure to hold the point on center, slightly inclining the
dividers in the direction in which they are being rotated.

Figure 11 : Setting the divider

Figure 12 : Scribing an arc or circle with divider

5. Protractor
Protractor makes it possible to create angles other than 45 or 90.

Figure 13 : Protractor


: Sheet metal processes

Typically, sheets of metal are sold as flat, rectangular sheets of standard size. If the sheets are
thin and very long, they may be in the form of rolls. Therefore the first step in any sheet
metal process is to cut the correct shape and sized blank from larger sheet.
Sheet metal processes can be broken down into two major classifications and one minor
Shearing processes -- processes which apply shearing forces to cut, fracture or
separate the material.
Forming processes -- processes which cause the metal to undergo desired shape
changes without failure, excessive thinning, or cracking. For example, this
includes bending and stretching.
Finishing processes
8.3.1 : Shearing processes
Three principal operations in press working that cut sheet metal:
a) Shearing
b) Blanking
c) Punching
Shearing is a sheet metal cutting operation along a straight line between two cutting
edges by means of a power shear. Typically, it is used to cut large sheets.

Figure 14 : Shearing operation (1) As punch first contacts sheet and (2) After cutting

Engineering analysis :
The shearing action is illustrated in the figure:

Figure 15 :
(1) Just before the punch contacts work
(2) Punch begins to push into work, causing plastic deformation
(3) Punch compresses and penetrates into work causing a smooth cut surface
(4) Fracture is initiated at the opposing cutting edges which separates the sheet
Blanking and punching
Blanking and punching are similar sheet metals cutting operations that involve cutting the
sheet metal along a closed outline.
If the part that is cut out is the desired product, the operation is called blanking and the
product is called blank.
If the remaining stock is the desired part, the operation is called punching.
Both operations are illustrated on the example of producing a washer:

Figure 16 : Steps in production of washer

Figure 17 : Shearing Operations which include punching and blanking

8.3.2 : Forming processes
a) Bending
b) Stretching
c) Drawing
d) Roll forming
a. Bending
Forming process causes the sheet metal to undergo the desired shape change by bending
without failure.
Bending is typically performed on a machine called a press brake, which can be manually or
automatically operated. For this reason, the bending process is sometimes referred to as press
brake forming. Press brakes are available in a range of sizes (commonly 20-200 tons) in

order to best suit the given application. A press brake contains an upper tool called the punch
and a lower tool called the die, between which the sheet metal is located. The sheet is
carefully positioned over the die and held in place by the back gauge while the punch lowers
and forces the sheet to bend. In an automatic machine, the punch is forced into the sheet
under the power of a hydraulic ram. The bend angle achieved is determined by the depth to
which the punch forces the sheet into the die. This depth is precisely controlled to achieve the
desired bend.

Figure 18 : Press brake [open]

Figure 19 : Press brake [closed]

While using a press brake and standard die sets, there are still a variety of techniques that can
be used to bend the sheet. The most common method in bending operations involve the
processes of :

V-bending - Sheet metal is bent along a straight line between a V-shape punch
and die
Edge bending [also known as wipe bending] - It requires the sheet metal to be
held against the die by a pressure pad. The punch then presses against the edge of
the sheet metal that extends beyond the die and pad. The sheet will bend against
the radius of the edge of the die.

Figure 20 : (above) V bending and (below) Edge bending; (1) Before (2) After bending
b. Stretching
Stretch forming is a metal forming process in which a piece of sheet metal is stretched and
bent simultaneously over a die in order to form large contoured parts.
Stretch forming is performed on a stretch press, in which a piece of sheet metal is securely
gripped along its edges by gripping jaws. The gripping jaws are each attached to a carriage
that is pulled by pneumatic or hydraulic force to stretch the sheet. The tooling used in this
process is a stretch form block, called a form die, which is a solid contoured piece against
which the sheet metal will be pressed. The most common stretch presses are oriented
vertically, in which the form die rests on a press table that can be raised into the sheet by a
hydraulic ram. As the form die is driven into the sheet, which is gripped tightly at its edges,
the tensile forces increase and the sheet plastically deforms into a new shape. Horizontal

stretch presses mount the form die sideways on a stationary press table, while the gripping
jaws pull the sheet horizontally around the form die.

Figure 21 : Stretching or also known as stretch forming

c. Drawing
Forming process causes the sheet metal to undergo the desired shape change by drawing
without failure. A tool pushes downward on the sheet metal, forcing it into a die cavity in the
shape of the desired part. The tensile forces applied to the sheet cause it to plastically deform
into a cup-shaped part. These parts can have a variety of cross sections with straight,
tapered, or even curved walls, but cylindrical or rectangular parts are most common. Deep
drawing is most effective with ductile metals, such as aluminum, brass, copper, and mild
steel. Examples of parts formed with deep drawing include automotive bodies and fuel tanks,
The deep drawing process requires a blank, blank holder, punch, and dies. The blank is a
piece of sheet metal, typically a disc or rectangle, which is pre-cut from stock material and
will be formed into the part. The blank is clamped down by the blank holder over the die,
which has a cavity in the external shape of the part. A tool called a punch moves downward
into the blank and draws, or stretches, the material into the die cavity. The movement of the
punch is usually hydraulically powered to apply enough force to the blank. After a part is
completely drawn, the punch and blank holder can be raised and the part removed from the
die. The portion of the sheet metal that was clamped under the blank holder may form a
flange around the part that can be trimmed off.

Figure : Drawing

Figure 22 : Drawing sequence

d. Roll forming
Roll forming is a process by which a metal strip is progressively bent as it passes through
a series of forming rolls. The material to be rolled is drawn by means of friction into the
two revolving roll gap. The compressive forces applied by the rolls reduce the thickness
of the material or changes its cross sectional area. The geometry of the product depends
on the contour of the roll gap. Roll materials are cast iron and forged steel because of
high strength and wear resistance requirements.

Figure 23 : Roll forming

8.3.3 : Finishing processes
Processes which are used to improve the final surface characteristics.
8.4 : Joints
There are numerous types of joints used in sheet metal work such as :
1. Lap joint
2. Seam joint
3. Locked seam joint
4. Wired edge joint
5. Hem joint
6. Cap joint
7. Flaged joint
8. Angular joint

Figure 24 : Various types of joints used in sheet metal work

8.4.1 : Edges
Edges are formed to :
Enhance the appearance of the work
To strengthen the piece
To eliminate the cutting hazard of the raw edge.
1) Single hem edge
This edge can be made in any width. In general, the heavier the metal, the wider the
hem is made.

Figure 25 : Single hem edge

2) Double hem edge
It is used when added strength is needed and when a smooth edge is required inside as
well as outside.

Figure 26 : Double hem edge

3) Wire edge
Used to strengthen and stiffen the jobs and to eliminate sharp edges. The usage of
lanced tabs is needed to attach the wire or shaft to sheet metal parts.

Figure 27 : Wire edge

Figure 28 : Lanced tabs to attach the wires or shafts to sheet metal

8.4.2 : Seam
Many kind of seams are used to join sheet-metal sections. Seaming is based on the simple
principle of folding two thin pieces of material together much like the joining of two
pieces of paper by folding them at the corner. The metal used in seaming must be ductile
in order for the bending to be feasible, as shown in figure below. The material should be
capable of undergoing bending and folding at very small radii otherwise, they will crack.

Figure 29 : Single lock seaming


: Lap Joint

A lap joint is one of the many joints used to join two pieces of sheet metal together. With
a lap joint, this is done by overlapping the metal and fastening them with rivet together. If
two pieces of metal are joined without any material being removed, a joiner will have
made a full lap joint. The thickness of this joint will be the sum of the thickness of both
metal pieces.

Figure 30 : Lap Joint
8.4.4 : Rivet
Rivet can be used to join thin pieces of metal. Rivets are permanent joining and used
primarily for lap joints as shown in figure above.
A rivet is an unthreaded, headed pin used to join two or more parts by passing the pin
through holes in the parts and then forming a second head in the pin on the opposite side.
A head is formed on the plain end of the pin by hammering or by direct pressure. Once
the rivet has been deformed, it cannot be removed except by breaking one of the heads.
The process of joining two or more plates by means of rivets is called riveting. Before
being installed, a rivet consists of a smooth cylindrical shaft with a head on one end. The
end opposite the head is called the buck-tail. On installation, the rivet is placed in a
punched or pre-drilled hole and the tail is upset, or bucked (i.e. deformed), so that it
expands to about 1.5 times the original shaft diameter, holding the rivet in place. To
distinguish between the two ends of the rivet, the original head is called the factory head
and the deformed end is called the shop head or buck-tail.

Figure 31 : Round head rivet

Figure 32 : The tail of rivet expands to about 1.5 times the original shaft diameter,
holding the rivet in place
Because there is effectively a head on each end of an installed rivet, it can support tension
loads (loads parallel to the axis of the shaft). However, it is much more capable of
supporting shear loads (loads perpendicular to the axis of the shaft). Bolts and screws are
better suited for tension applications.
Types of rivet head :

Snap head use for structural work

Pan head maximum strength but cant be shaped easily
Conical head less strong than snap head
Counter sink used for flush surfaces like ship building

Figure 33 : Types of rivet head

There are two types of rivet :

Solid rivet

Blind rivet

Figure 34 : Comparison between solid rivet and blind rivet : Solid rivet
Solid rivets are one of the oldest and most reliable types of fasteners. Solid rivets can be
made from steel, stainless steel, brass, copper, titanium and aluminum. They are available
with many head styles, including round, flat, countersunk, pan, truss, universal, brazier,
acorn and mushroom.
Solid rivets are used in applications where reliability and safety count such automobile
brake shoes or mining and construction equipment. However, a typical application for
solid rivets can be found within the structural parts of aircraft. Hundreds of thousands of
solid rivets are used to assemble the frame of a modern aircraft.

Figure 35 : Solid rivet

There are several methods for installing solid rivets, such as :

1) Pneumatic riveting hammer
One person holds a bucking bar (used to hold the rivet head in place while air
hammer is used) against the formed head of the rivet, while the other person applies
the tool to the unformed end.

Figure 36 : Riveting team working on the cockpit shell of a C-47 transport at the plant of
North American Aviation. The woman on the left operates an air hammer, while the man
on the right holds a bucking bar.

Figure 37 : Air hammer

2) Riveting machine

Figure 38 : Riveting machine

3) Pin hammer (rivet set)
Rivets may also be upset by hand, using a ball-peen hammer. The head is placed in a
special hole made to accommodate it, known as a rivet-set. The hammer is applied to
the buck-tail of the rivet, rolling an edge so that it is flush against the material.

Figure 39 : Manual installation of solid rivet

Generally, a method of riveting solid rivet are shown as below :

Hole both plate in proper position using punch or drill

Clear all burr along the holes
Place rivet in the hole (original head at the bottom)
Form a second heat (by hand or by riveting machine)

Figure 40 : Method of riveting (a) Initial position, (b) Final position showing
riveted head

Figure 41 : Riveting using a solid rivet : Blind rivet
Blind rivets are tubular and are supplied with a mandrel through the center. Blind rivets
are the best choice for light-duty applications.
The rivet assembly is inserted into a hole drilled through the parts to be joined and a
specially designed tool is used to draw the mandrel into the rivet. This expands the blind
end of the rivet and then the mandrel snaps off.

Figure 42 : Blind rivet

Figure 43 : Rivet gun is used to fasten rivets into two separate materials allowing the
materials to clamp together
Method of riveting blind rivet using rivet gun:

Drill holes in both materials that you will be using the rivet to hold together. The
holes should be adequate enough for the rivet to fit.
Open handle of rivet gun completely. Insert rivet mandrel into nosepiece until rivet
head is in contact with face of nosepiece.
Squeeze handle until rivet mandrel breaks or snap off. If it doesn't snap off after you
squeeze it, simply release the handle and squeeze again and do not try to force the
pin to snap off or you may damage the material or pull the rivet through before it has
completely flattened.

Figure 44 : Riveting of a blind rivet using rivet gun

United States Department of Labor: Sheet Metal Workers Occupational Outlook
Handbook, 2010-11 Editions.
9. State Compensation Insurance Fund: Sheet Metal Worker Safety
10. S. Kalpakjian and S.R. Schmid. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 6th
Edition in SI Units, Prentice Hall, Singapore.
11. M. P. Groover. Principle of Modern Manufacturing, 4th Edition SI Version, John
Wiley and Sons, Asia.