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Welcome to Modern Greek Verbs

The purpose of this site is to provide the complete conjugations of a usable number
(maybe 1,000) of modern Greek verbs. Each verb has been fully conjugated in all
tenses and has been categorized at the top of each page according to Type and Model.
The Types are determined by their personal endings. Type I verbs are accented on the
verb stem. Type II verbs are accented on the personal ending. Most Type II verbs can
be conjugated in either an A or B form. [The IIA verbs are easy to spot: they have an
alternate form in the present, like .] The trick is finding those verbs which are
only conjugated as Type IIB. Clicking on the Type link at the top of each page will
iterate through the list of the three model verbs, , and .
The Models are characterized by the verb stem. The Models are listed at the top of
each verb page from left to right in big-endian sequence. The least-significant Model
is on the list to the furthest right. Clicking on the right-most list will iterate through
the verbs most similar to the one currently displayed.
A search function is also provided at the top of each page. You can enter the Greek
verb using the Greek keyboard, but you'll have to put the accent in the right place.
(This may change in the future.) You can also enter the transliterated version of the
verb. The transliteration is mostly phonetic, but is not a standardized encoding, like
Greeklish, or others. You'll have to experiment. I have tried to group all the verbs
derived from a single root using the english transliteration. For example, you can find
all the verbs based on by searching for "baino". Finally, you can search using
the English definition. This turns the index into an English-Greek dictionary too.
The Search function does a sequential search of the HTML index, so you can see the
list of all conjugated verbs by searching for "href", the hyperlink reference. Typing in
the initial Capital letter will select only the verbs beginning with that letter. You can
do this with
latin {ABGDEZHUIKLMNJOPRSTYFXCV} or
greek {} caps, .
Each record has been annotated with attributes. You can search for anything you see in
the index, like "vt.dep." (=transitive deponents) or "def." (=defectives). Some of the
attributes have been hidden. Searching for "mgv" will display the 201 verbs from the
Barron's book, "rhm" will display the 162 model verbs in the Iordanidou book, and
"twx" the 600 verbs from the [Capri] book. As mentioned, searching for "href" will
display all the verbs which have been hyperlinked.

The dictionary has been designed primarily as a learning tool, to enhance the
dictionaries currently available on paper. You can browse the dictionary
alphabetically, or follow one of the Model lists to see all the verbs which are
conjugated the same. I've tried to comma-separate the lists so they can be copied and
pasted into other programs, like spreadsheets or word-processors, and sorted or
counted. The dictionary can be used with a normal browser, the bigger, the better. The
wider the screen, the more you will see. No special tools are required. You can resize
or even change the font. The tables reformat themselves when you resize the window.
Enjoy!
Kind regards
Bibliagora.co.uk

Verb Dictionaries
Verb dictionaries attempt to define the structure (i.e. conjugation) of each verb. They
are less descriptive semantically; they merely supply morphlogical information. There
are two kinds, the fully-conjugated kind like the [Christides], and the synoptic, which
presents instructions for the conjugation of each verb in the form tables, the individual
conjugation being driven by an index. [Iordanidou] is an example of the latter. It is a
printed dictionary, and therefore limited in space. The instructions are pretty clear, but
have limitations too, the most difficult being for the irregulars. For example,
consider , taken from the index in [Iordanidou], pg. 96:
, * 158
, * 133
, * 158
* 61 ( .)
, - , : .
, . ()
, . (
.
). . ( . )
,
.
This definition seems to imply that similar active forms exist for both verbs, and
conflicts with traditional dictionary entries, which are organized differently, and are
somewhat clearer. For example, [Pandelodimos], pg.1287:

. . tre compos(-e), se composer de, consister. 1.


. Le mlange est compos de trois lments.
. cela consiste.2. ; En quoi
consiste sa faute? . , rsultants f. 3. .
. La rsultante d'une force. 4. (.)
. La victoire a t la rsultante des
efforts de tous ceux qui taient concerns.
, . .
, . . .
( - ) .. { (.) ,
, (.) -, (.) ,
-, -} fonder, constituer, recommander. 1. . Fonder une
socit. . Constituer une commission. 2.
. Ces actes constituent un dlit. 3.
. Je lui ai recommand de ne pas signer le text. . ,
rsultante f, composante f. 4. . . Les rsultantes des
forces.5. (.) . Les composantes
fondamentales d'une politique.
This verb is separated into two entries. The first shows no active voice, while the
second mentions both active and passive forms. To resolve the conflict we make
reference to the corresponding entries in [Babiniotis], pg. 1707: (unicode:
)
. . {-, -, -, -, -, -, .
, -, -, . -, -, -, -, -, ,
- . . . .} 1.(+) :
. 2. (. ,
+) , : ~ ; (
;) ||

... (.) 3. ( . , - , -) ..
. , .
[. ., . (. . ). .
. ( ) ,
( ),
. (.. , . . 3. 6. 14)].
- . :
( , ): () ( )
() , , ( ):

., , ,
: -
.

. . {... | . (. ), - ,
-..., (. . , -, -..., . , -, -),
} 1. , (. ): ~ / /
||
. 2. , :
|| ||
3. , :
||
|| (. .)
. , . (. 3).
. .
[. < . (-), . .
. < - + (. . ). . . -, -.
. . , (, ,
. . ,
(.. , )].
So I have created the entry like this:
, , 133, irr, vi.dep.def. (+) consist of, be composed of,
, the mixture consists of three elements
/, /, , /,
, 158,61,133, irr, vt. constitute, establish, institute, set up,
found, , to establish a company, introduce, advise, recommend
The conjugation uses two pages. The first page, , is a defective mediopassive deponent, because it lacks a perfective system. You can say "consists of", but
you cannot say "consisted of", unless you use the erudite imperfect given only by
[Babiniotis]. The second, /, is a full transitive whose perfective
passive tenses come from - but with passive present , which
overrides (i.e. hides) . Thus you can say both, "I establish" and "I
established". Both verbs are linked in alphabetical order on the least-significant
[Model Prev Next] so they appear in traditional dictionary order. The second verb is
related to , to introduce, via hyperlink. [Iordanidou] makes the connection
using a Note in the back of the book:
, * 1
, , * 2

, -:
, . ()
.

, , ().
.
( , .)
, .
[Iordanidou] makes no mention of as being a popular alternative to
/, but you could make a reasonable inference from [Holton] that it is
conjugated like , 'I resurrect', class (xxi) (Iordanidou models {50, 51})
which is confirmed neither by [Pandelodimos] nor [Babiniotis]. as a
frequent alternative to this class of verbs would be conjugated like , an
irregular (Iordanidou models {104, 105}).

Table of Contents
I wanted to see, for each type, which verbs were missing voices, and why, so I have
sorted the Iordanidou index by: Type {I, IIA, IIB}, Voice {Deponent, Active Only,
Active and Passive, Defective}, Model Pair {{1,2}, {3,4}, {5,6}
etc.}, Form {Regular, Irregular}. The list also serves as a pretty good table of
contents, and a list of irregular verbs too. Clicking on the link will take you to the verb
page. Then follow the Model list on the far right of the page to see all the verbs
conjugated like the model.
Type I
o Deponents have only medio-passive form, with active i.e. middle
(reflexive) meaning (i.e. function). They can be intransitive or transitive,
but if they are transitive, the passive voice must be constructed using a
suitable periphrase:
Model { , 12} = , - , | , - , vt.dep. I
think, reflect
Model { , 16} = , - , , - , vt.dep. I think,
reflect
Model { , 18} = , - , ,
, vt.dep. I dream

Model { , 20} = , - , /,
- , vt.dep. I mock
Model { , 32} = , - , | , - , vt.dep. accept,
receive
Model { , 34} = , - , , - , vi.dep.
compete (with)
Model { , 36} = , - , ,
, vt.dep. I imagine
Model { , 82} = , - , , - , vi.dep. I feel
Irregulars are numbered above 80 and happen to be in
alphabetical order:
Model { , 122} = , - , | ,
, vi.dep. I become
Model { , 127} = , - , , - , vi.vt. I burst,
spread, give off, diffuse
Model { , 134} = , - , - , - , vi.dep. I am
Model { , 142} = , - , (), - , vi.dep. I
explode semi-deponent?
Model { , 150} = , - , | , - , vi.dep. I
come
Model { , 151} = , - , , - , vt.dep. I wish
Model { , 160} = , - , | ,
, vi.dep. I sit (down)
Model { , 180} = , - , , - , vi.dep. be
ashamed of oneself
Model { , 201} = , - , , - , vt.dep. I
respect

Model { , 225} = , - , , - , vi.dep. I appear,


look
o Active only have no passive voice. Naturally intransitive, these verbs
can also be transitives which simply have no passive forms! Passive
voice must be constructed using a suitable periphrase.
Model { 1, } = | , | , - ,
, vi. arrive, be enough; vt.act. reach, catch up
with intransitive active-only
Model { 1, } = , - , - , , vi.def. shake,
shiver, tremble defective active-only middle.
Model { 3, } = , , -, , vi. I am bleeding,
vt.act. stain with blood, active-only middle, transitive
Model { 5, } = , , - , - , vi. have weight, be valid
Model { 7, } = , , - , , vi. bend down
Model { 9, } = , , - , - , vi. I am absent, I missed you,

Model {15, } = , , - , - , vi. flash, lightning
Model {17, } = , , - , , vi.ppp. I
travel
Model {17, 19, } = , /, - ,
- , vt.act. I beg, supplicate alternate active-only forms
Model {19, } = , , - , - , vt.act. I aim, intend no
passive
Model {19, 17, } = , /, - ,
, vi. I make progress alternate active-only
forms
Model {21, } = , , - , - , vi.. I end, terminate,
conclude

Model {23, } = , , - , , vi.act.mid.. I


am sleepy
Model {31, } = , , - , - , vi. I run
Model {33, } = , , (?), - , vt.act. I think,
believe, consider
Model {33, } = , ( :imperf), - , - , vt.act.def. I
value, vi. I am worth
Model {35, } = , , (),
, vt.act.ppp. I raise, carry/lift/put
up ()
Model {44, } = , , - , , vi.mid. I die
Model {47, } = , , - , - , vt.act. I am a burden on
Model {52, } = , , - , - , vi. I have time,
vt.act. catch up with
Irregulars
Model { 92, } = , , - ,
, vt.act. ascend, climb no passive?
Model { 93, } = , , vi.def. belong defective, no
perfect
Model { 94, } = , , vi. contradict vt. in
English
Model { 98, } = , , - , - , vt.act.
enjoy vi. too!
Model {101, } = , , vi. I am pleasing (to her)
= She likes me
Model {109, } = , , - , , vi.ppp I go
out, exit

Model {120, } = , , - , , vt. I tip, dip,


bend, bow, vi. lean over, stoop
Model {123, } = , | , - ,
- , vt.act. I discern
Model {141, } = , , -, -, vi.vt.act.
depreciate, decline in value
Model {145, } = , , -, -, vi. intervene,
interfere
Model {154, } = , -, -, -, vt.act. I have, defective: no
perfect, no passive.
Model {157, } = , , -, -, vt.act. I want
Model {164, } = , | , - ,
, vt.act. I make
Model {178, } = , , - , - , vi. I remain, stay
Model {179, } = , , - , , vi.ppp I go
in, enter
Model {192, } = | , , - ,
, vi.ppp I go
Model {193, } = , , - , , vi.ppp I fall
Model {211, } = , , - , - , vt.act.
congratulate semi-deponent: active imperfective, mediopassive perfective!
Model {217, } = , (imperf. ), - , - , vt.act.def. I
know, no aorist!
Model {223, } = , , - , - , vi. I exist
Model {228, } = , , - , - , vi. I flee

Model {230, } = , , - , - , vi.mid. I am to


blame
o Active and Passive are transivite verbs.
Model { 1, 2} = , , , , vt. tie, bind
Model { 1, 39} = , , , , vt.
catch
Model { 3, 4} = , , , , vt.
declare
Model { 5, 6} = , | , ,
, vt. dissolve, dismantle, wear out
Model { 7, 8} = , , , , vt. dig,
carve
Model { 7, 171} = , , , , vt.
cut, vi. cut oneself
Model { 9, 10} = , , |
, , vt. leave out, neglect no passive participle!
Model { 9, 10} = , - , - , - , vt.def.def. govern only in
present
Model { 9, 180} = , , , , vt.
permit no passive participle!
Model {11, 12} = , , | ,
, vt. cover, conceal
Model {11, 90} = , , |
, , vt. dig, excavate
Model {11, 124} = , , ,
, vt. disrupt, cut off

Model {11, 224} = , ,


, - , vt. steal cunningly
Model {13, 14} = , , , , vt.
spread
Model {13, 122} = , , | ,
, vt. write Note alternate form in pass.perf stem!
Model {13, 122} = , , ,
, vt. register, inscribe These verbs
have no alternate form in pass.perf stem!
Model {13, 122} = , ,
, -, vt. write, author no ppp
Model {13, 210} = , , ,
vt. turn, vi. turn yourself around. About face!
Model {15, 16} = , , , , vt.
harm, damage
Model {17, 18} = , , , , vt.
gather, collect
Model {19, 20} = , , |
, , vt. publish
Model {19, 17, 20} = , /,
/, , vt. gather, collect
Model {21, 22} = , , , , vt. coil,
wind; roll up, wrap
Model {23, 24} = , , , , vt.
vex, hurt
Model {25, 26} = , , , , vt. knit
Model {27, 28} = , , | ,
, vt. preach, declare

Model {27, 95} = , , |


, , vt. deliver, release, absolve,
relieve (of duties)
Model {29, 30} = , , , , vt.
arrange, put right; make, have made, let
Model {31, 32} = , , | ,
, vt. control, inspect
Model {31, 113} = , , , |
, v.imper to rain, vt. get wet
Model {33, 34} = , , , , vt. define
Model {33, 232} = , ,
, , vt. I take a picture
Model {35, 36} = , , ,
, vt. buy
Model {37, 38} = , , , , vt.
shape
Model {40, 41} = , | ,
, , vt. close off, ! No
chance!
Model {42, 43} = , , ,
, vt. inspire
Model {44, 45} = , , , , vt.
warm, heat up
Model {44, 46} = , , ,
, vt. warm, heat up
Model {48, 49} = , , ,
, vt. widen

Model {50, 51} = , , ,


, vt. ressurect, re-erect, bring back to life, revivify
Model {53, 54} = , | ,
, , vt. freshen up These verbs are
of foreign i.e. latin origin
Model {55, 54} = , ,
, , vt. from the
French emballer, to pack
Model {56, 57} = , ,
, , vt. garnish, decorate
Irregulars are numbered above 80 and happen to be in alphabetical
order:
Model { 80, 81} = , , , - , vt. raise, lift
Model { 83, 84} = , , ,
, , vt. hear, listen
Model { 85, 86} = , | ,
, , vt. announce
Model { 85, 91} = , , - ,
(), - , vt. suspend defective in pass.aorist
Model { 87, 88} = , | ,
| , , vt. show off
Model { 96, 97} = , | ,
, - , vt. expel
Model {102, 103} = , , ,
, vt. to spice
Model {104, 105} = , , ,
, vt. increase

Model {104, 89} = , ,


, , vt. portray
Model {106, 107} = , , ,
, vt. let, allow
Model {108, 182} = , , , , vt.
put in
Model {110, 111} = , , , , vt.
see, watch
Model {112, 151} = , , ,
, vt. graze, browse, wander
Model {114, 115} = , , , , vt. I find
Model {116, 117} = , , ,
, vt. I suckle, breastfeed
Model {118, 119} = , , ,
, vt. I skin, scratch, scuff
Model {120, 119} = , , , , vt.
I beat
Model {125, 126} = , , ,
, vt. I distribute
Model {128, 129} = , , ,
, vt. I prove false, deny
Model {131, 132} = , , , , vt. I
give
Model {135, 136} = , , |
, , vt. introduce
Model {137, 138} = , , ,
, , vt. expose

Model {139, 140} = , , |


, , vt. select, choose
Model {143, 144} = , | ,
, , vt. rinse
Model {146, 147} = , , ,
, vt. impose, enforce
Model {148, 149} = | , |
, , , vt. attain, achieve
Model {152, 153} = , | ,
, -, vt. invent, contrive
Model {161, 162} = , , , ,
, vt. burn, shrivel
Model {161, 170} = , , ,
, , vt. weep (for), vi. grumble,
moan
Model {165, 166} = , ,
, , vt. occupy, take over
Model {167, 2} = , ; ,
(), vt. swallow defective (no pass.perfective)
Model {172, 2} = , , , , vt.
judge
Model {174, 175} = | , , | ,
, vt. say, tell
Model {185, 119} = , , , , vt.
get, receive, take
Model {186, 187} = , | ,
, , vt. surrender

Model {190, 191} = , , , - , vt.


afford, provide
Model {194, 2} = , , , , vt.
drink defective (no pass.perfective)
Model {195, 196} = , , ,
, vt. wash
Model {204, 205} = , , , , vt.
pull
Model {207, 207} = /, -, , -, vi. I
am standing (still)
Model {208, 209} = , , ,
, vt. send
Model {217, 218} = , , , , vt.
pull
Model {219, 220} = , , | ,
, vt. nourish, feed
Model {221, 222} = | , , ,
, vt. eat
Model {226, 227} = , , , , vt.
carry, bear
Model {228, 100} = , | ,
, - , vt. avoid
Type II:
o Type II A:
Deponents:
Model { , 59} = , - , , - , vi. wander

Model { , 63} = , - , , - , vi. be bored, vt.


be bored with
Irregulars:
Model { , 99} = , - , ,
- , vi. I make an attempt, "I tried!"
Active only:
Model {58, } = | , , - ,
, vi. ppp I am awake, vigilant
Model {68, } = | , , - ,
, vi.ppp I am hungry
Irregulars:
Model {177, } = | , , - ,
, vt. intoxicate defective. no passive
Active and Passive:
Model {58, 59} = | , , ,
, vt. love
Model {58, 74} = | , ,
, , vt. drive
Model {58, 173} = | , ,
, , vt. I roll something,
vi. I roll, wallow
Model {60, 61} = , ; ,
, , vt. regain
Model {62, 63} = | , , ,
, vt. wear
Model {64, 65} = | , , ,
, vt. look

Model {66, 67} = | , , ,


, vt. pull, drag, draw
Model {68, 69} = | , , ,
, vt. pass
Model {70, 34} = | , | ,
, , vt. turn, give back
Model {71, 72} = , ; ,
, , vt. reflect
Irregulars:
Model {158, 159} = ,
; , () ,
, vt. appoint, make, vi. be made,
become
Model {158, 133} = ,
; ,
, , vt. install,
establish, appoint, vi. settle, establish oneself
Model {231, 22} = , ; ,
, , vt. guard
o Type II B:
Deponents:
Model { , 75} = , ,
, vt.dep. I look after someone like 74, but
with complete Imperfect
Model { , 79} = | , ,
, vi. I sleep, I go to bed (with someone)
Irregulars:

Model { , 130} = , - , - , - , vt. I am


entitled to defective
Active only:
Model {73, } = , , -, - , vi. live
Model {73, } = , , - ,
, vi.ppp I am happy, I prosper
Model {76, } = , , -, vi. I can
Model {156, } = , , -, -, vi.vt. think,
believe Type I imperfective
Active and Passive:
Model {73, 74} = , ; ,
, , vt. consider
Model {73, 74, 75} = , ,
, , vt. satisfy
Model {73, 79} = , ; |
, , , vt. grieve,
sadden
Model {73, 59} = ,
; | ,
, , vt. thank Type IIB,
Type IIA
Model {76, 77} = , ; , ,
, vt. divide
Model {76, 78} = , ; ,
, , vt., perform, vi. take place
Model {76, 163} = , ; ,
, - , vt. call, summon

Irregulars:
Model {197, 130} = , - ; , - ,
- , vt.def.def. fill, fulfill defective in both active and
passive
Deponent Verbs
Deponent verbs have only passive voice forms. They often have middle meaning i.e.
they refer to actions which are not only performed by the subject, but also affect the
subject as well. Such thoughts are expressed in the other languages, like German and
French, using reflexive pronouns. As a native English speaker, I had to get used to the
idea of a "Middle" voice, which is used in Greek to express things
likethinking and washing oneself, , Ich wasche mich.
Of course, deponent verbs can also be transitive, but since the forms are used
"actively" you can't use them passively. So how do you do it? How do you transform
an active sentence into a passive one when a deponent is involved?
By using an alternative construction, a periphrase. Here is an example:
.
The President of the Republic received the Prime Minister.
See what I mean? The forms of are used up for active voice sentences. To do
the transformation you can do this:
.
The Prime Minister was received by the President of the Republic.
The verbal syntagma is + , in German, 'wurde empfangen'. is
called a "verbal adjective" but they do not exist for all verbs. It is like a past participle,
a nominal form of the verb, and I have not treated them here.
Active-only Verbs
There are also many verbs with active-only forms. These are naturally intransitive intransitives take no object - like coming and going, but they can also have "middle"
meaning, like being hungry or thirsty. Being "middle" means the active-only verbs
often have medio-passive participles, something quite strange for intransitive verbs,
which normally can have no passive voice (*I am/was being gone/come/etc.). You can
see a list of them by querying the dictionary for ppp (passive perfect participle). In

fact, the presence of a medio-passive participle with an active-only verb usually marks
it as middle active-only.
The medio-passive participles of such active middles have essentially the same
meaning as the perifrased active perfective participles, e.g.
=
having become thirsty = I am thirsty.
=
having gotten hungry = I am hungry
They both have perfective i.e. completed meaning, but the periphrase
with places more emphasis on the action than on the state.
Of course, active-only verbs can be transitive, so it would be logical to use them
passively, but alas, they have no passive forms! This means the passive voice must be
formed perifrasitcally, or by using another verb with similar meaning which does have
passive forms. For example, since means to be done, it can be used as the
passive of , to do, which has no passive voice forms [nor does ,to have, but
think of all the verbs meaning to have or to hold, like , to be held].
Active-Passive Verbs
Active-Passive verbs would normally all be transitive, except for the Middle voice,
which effectively hides the direct object, so the Passive voice can get lost, or become
context-sensitive: the verb can be used both reflexively and passively. For
example, . can mean either, "I love myself" or "I am loved (by me
i.e. )". is clearly a passive
construction. It means "I am loved by my mother". I guess this means: if the passive
agent is not present, the passive form could be middle or passive. Not much of a rule.
This is a verb dictionary of fully conjugated forms, so I have taken the tables from
Iordanidou, which split the verb into active and medio-passive forms, and
reassembled them, removing all doubt regarding such fine points as accenting the
compound verbs on the preposition, lengthening augments, euridte forms etc.. This
involved merging her notes too, and consulting the other sources, especially for the
erudite forms, which she only includes in the third person.

Many verbs can be conjugated according to more than one active or passive model.
Such verbs require more than one page for the complete conjugation. Examples would
be [...] Additional pages have been hyperlinked together. I've also hyperlinked verbs
which are related in meaning or which derive from other verbs, but have undergone a
change in form, and therefore do not belong to the same Model list.
Defective Verbs
Defective verbs lack an aorist tense system, so they do not have a perfective past (but
they usually have an Imperfect, which is constructed from the imperfective i.e. nonaorist stem). Any kind of verb -- deponent, active-only and active-passive -- can be
defective. I have marked the defectives with def.. Sometimes an active-passive verb
will only be defective in one of the voices, and not the other, so I have marked the full
active-passive defectives def.def. You have to look at the semi-defective verb to see
which voice is defective.

The Tenses
Traditional Tenses
The verb dictionary contains all the traditional tenses and retains the traditional tense
names. I have chosen a traditional structure, one which groups the tenses logically,
and not physically, according to:Voice {Active, Passive}, Mood {Indicative,
Subjunctive, Imperative, Participles}, and Time {Past, Present, Future}:
Voice {Active, Passive}
o Indicative
Present
1. Present
Past
2. Imperfect
3. Aorist
4. Present Perfect - Perfect
5. Past Perfect - Pluperfect

Future
6. Future Continuous - Future I - Imperfective Future
7. Simple Future - Future II - Aorist Future - Perfective
Future
8. Future Perfect - Future III
o Subjunctive
9. Present Subjunctive
10. Aorist Subjunctive - Potential Future
11. Perfect Subjunctive
o Imperative
12. Present Imperative
13. Aorist Imperative - Potential Future
o Participles
14. Present Participle
15. Perfect Participle
16. Infinitive - Indefinite
There is another traditional structure, one which groups the tenses according to the
physical structure of the forms: Voice {Active, Medio-Passive}, Aspect {Non-aorist,
Aorist, Perfect}, Time {Present, Past, Future}, and Mood {Indicative, Subjunctive,
Imperative, Participle}. This is the structure used by [Christides] and [Capri]:
Voice {Active, Passive}
o Non-Aorist
Present

Present Indicative (1)


Present Subjunctive (9)
Present Imperative (12)
Present Participle (14)
Past
Imperfect Indicative (2)
Future
Future Indicative - Future I - Future Continuous (6)
o Aorist
Past
Aorist Indicative (3)
Future
Aorist Subjunctive (10)
Aorist Imperative - Potential Future (13)
Aorist Future - Perfective Future - Simple Future - Future
II (7)
Indefinite
Infinitive(16)
o Perfect
Past
Perfect Indicative - Present Perfect (4)
Perfect Subjunctive (11)

Perfect Participle (15)


Pluperfect - Past Perfect (5)
Future
Future Perfect - Future III (8)
The primary advantage of this system is that the forms of Greek verbs are easily
derived from the verb stem, which is either non-aorist or aorist, so it's easy to see how
the tenses are constructed. However, the classification is more complex, and a bit less
intuitive. It's harder to understand.
The Modern i.e. Functional Classification of the Tenses
Finally, the new way of doing things: functional grammars divide the tenses up into
the even more abstract categories of modality {modal, nonmodal}, aspect {perfective, non-perfective} and time {past, non-past}:
1. Present: non-modal [assertion], non-past [present], imperfective
o .
Every day he walks to the office.
o . [Holton:
Factual Condition]
If you know English you are suitable for this job.
o , . [Holton:
Consequence]
If it is midday here, in Australia it is midnight.

2. Imperfect: non-modal [assertion], past, imperfective


o .
She was always saying the best things about (complimenting) you.

3. Aorist: non-modal [assertion], past, perfective

o .
The performance started early.

4. Present Perfect: non-modal [assertion], non-past, "perfect"


o .
She has already signed up for the excursion.

5. Past Perfect: non-modal [assertion], past, "perfect"


o .
She had not been born during the war.
o () .
Once I saw a film by Felini and I was (not) impressed.
*Once (a long time ago) I had seen a Felini movie and I had not been impressed.
Use of the English Past Perfect to express the remote past sounds funny to me, but many people
use it, especially les miserables who appear before Judge Judy. (p.s. most Americans do not like
Felini movies. :)

6. Future Continuous: modal [assertion/intention/conjecture], nonpast [future], imperfective


o , . [Intention]
He feels so good, he will be coming to Greece every summer.
(It makes him feel so good, he plans to come to Greece every summer)
o . [Conjecture]
George must be taking his exams now.
Conjecture means supposition. This conjecture is about [present] time. George is taking his exams
now, I suppose. It is conjecture because of the interesting opposition between the future tense
and the present . This conflict creates the illusion of uncertainty. (Past conjecture would
be: i.e. George must have taken his exams. Here, the opposition is
between future and past, , time. See 15. below.) For that matter, even a simple assertion
about the future, , 'he will be taking exams', is conjecture too.

7. Present Subjunctive: modal [commanding/requesting/uncertainty], nonpast [present], imperfective


o ! [Optative]
I wish you well.
o () '!
You should keep touching me! [Request]
(Don't touch me!) [Command]
o . [Command]
He should keep me informed of his every move.
o ! [Command]
He should wait!
i.e. Let him wait! a third-party command.

o , , .
[Request]
You should clean your shoes, please, when you come into the house
o , [Holton: Positive Imperative]
You should read a little louder, please.
o , .
[Optative]
He should come more often so I can see him, because I like his company.
o ... [Dubitive]
Where could Petros be now...
o ;
[Requesting Permission]
Can I too borrow books from the library on the weekend?
Darf ich auch Bcher leihen...

8. + Present: modal [granting, wishing], non-past [present], imperfective


o , , . [Granting i.e
"conceding" permission]

Let her come back whenever she wants, provided she is ok.
A concession is a stipulation (i.e. a statement of fact, e.g. LET A = B) which serves to highlight a
contradition, something you would not expect, an opposition therefore e.g. "I am an American
(but: I don't like apple pie)" [a metaphor meaning "I am not patriotic"]. In this example the
concession is: she can come back any time she wants. It is not a good example, because
introduces a "concessive" subordinate of its own "as long as she is ok" which is not the issue
here. For a better example see 14. (:
) = "Nikos knows alot of things (but: he only finished grade school)"

o ,
! [Granting i.e. "conceding" permission]
Let him stay in his old house, as long as we can find him!
Another misleading i.e. ambiguous example, for the same reason.

9. Simple Future: modal [assertion/intention], non-past [future], perfective


o .
This year they will also be taught Greek dances.
o , .
The guilty will be punished, whoever they are.
o () . [Holton: Factual
Condition]
If I go to Greece I will try to see him.

10.Aorist
Subjunctive: modal [command/invitation/permission/concession/wish], nonpast [present/future], perfective
o ! [Negative Command]
Don't do anything!
o !
Those interested should be notified immediately!
o , , , .
You should type, if you can, the letters, please.

o . [Holton: Factual
Condition - Subjunctive]
If you go to Greece you should try to see him
o ' . [Holton: Optative]
You should come tomorrow, so we can see you.
(If only you would come tomorrow, so we can see you.)
o - ; - ! [Permission, Doubt]
"May I take a chocolate?" Yes, of course you can!
"Darf ich eine Shokolade nehmen?" Jawohl, Du darfst!
o , , . [Concession]
Ok, I will go, if no one else can.
o , ! [Wish]
Holy Mary, I pray my father gets well.
o ; [Permission, Doubt]
Can I ask you something?
o . [Permission, Doubt]
Can I tell you.
o ; [Doubt]
What should I tell you?
o ; [Doubt, Possibility]
What should I do?
o . [Possibility,
Hypothetical]
If my team wins, I promise you all a good time.

11. + Indefinite: modal [concession/command/invitation/instigation/wish], nonpast [present/future], perfective


o , !
Ok, let's go tomorrow morning!

o ,
!
Let Dimitris go buy the newspaer, so father is not tired!
o () . [Holton: Subjunctive]
Let's (not) bother him now.
o , !
If she wants to pass the examinations, let her study a little more!
o !
Let's hope our team wins tomorrow!
o . [Holton: Optative]
Let me see him and then die.

12.Future Perfect: modal [assertion/intention/probability], nonpast [future], "perfect"


o .
By the time you return from the office, we will have filled out the
request.
o , ;
You have probably seen that work, haven't you?
o .
More that twenty years must have passed since then.

13.Subjunctive Perfect: modal [command/invitation/uncertainty/wish], nonpast, "perfect"


o !
The document should have been sent by next Monday at the latest!
o ;
Could they have left for Partas already?

o !
If only it would have snowed when we arrive in the village!

14. + Present Perfect: modal [concession/wish/instigation], nonpast, "perfect"


o , .
Even though Nikos has only finished grade school, he knows alot of
things.
o , , !
The package should have finally arrived!
o ,
!
If she wants us to take her with us, she should have her homework done
by the time we leave!

15. + Imperfect: modal [conjecture, possibility], past, imperfective


o , ' . [Conjecture]
Petros must have been in a hurry; that's why he didn't stop.
o . [Conjecture]
It was past midnight and everyone must have been asleep.
o , .
[Hypothesis]
I would not have confided in you, if I did not trust you.
o , . [Hypothesis]
If you were to read his letter, you would understand.
o , . [Hypothesis]
If you had read his letter, you would understand.
o ', . [Hypothesis]
If you loved me, you would marry me.

o , . [Intention]
Of course, I would pay the pasha.
o . [Hypothesis]
Petros would like to buy a car.
o . [Hypothesis]
Petros would gladly buy a car.

16. + Imperfect: modal [wish/uncertainty], past, imperfective


o !
If only her brother would finally come from America! [Optative]
o ' .
I wish he would come so we could see him. [Holton: Optative]
o .
Petros would like to buy a car. [Optative]
o ;
Would she have put the address on the envelope I sent? [Dubitive]

17. + Imperfect: modal [wish/condition], past, imperfective


o !
If only I could also have taken a month-long vacation!
o '!
If only I had money, then you would see!
o ! [Optative]
If only I were ten years old!
o , ! [Optative]
I wish you would wear your overcoat, so you don't catch a cold!

18. + Aorist: modal [conjecture], past, perfective


o ' . [Probable Conjecture]
She must have worked very hard for that job.
o . [Probable Conjecture]
You must have already understood what the Ithakans mean.
o . [Holton: Conjecture]
If he found the letter he must have read it for sure.

19. + Aorist: modal [uncertainty], past, perfective


o ;
Hm, could the match be finished?

20. + Aorist: modal [concession], past, perfective


o , ' .
Let him not pay, I will pay for him.

21. + Past Perfect: modal [conjecture, possibility], past, "perfect"


o , .
Something must have been announced, but he was not saying anything to
anybody.
o .
She might have won me over, if she had spoken better to me.
o , . [Joe: non-real hypothetical]
ou would have married me, if you loved me.
o , . [Joe: non-real
hypothetical]
You would have married me, if you had loved me.

o , . [Holton: Counterfactual
Condition]
If you had read his letter, you would have understood.
o , . [Holton:
Counterfactual Condition]
If you had read his letter, you would have understood.
o , . [Hypothetical]
If you would have run, you would have caught him.
o , , ,
. [Negated Hypothetical]
If you would not have run, you would not have caught him, but you ran,
so you caught him.

22. + Past Perfect: modal [uncertainty/wish/condition], past, "perfect"


o ;
Would he have understood his end?
o ! .
If only it had rained a little earlier! The harvest might not have been
ruined.
o , .
If only I had had money left over, I would have bought that little
machine.
o / . [Holton: Optative]
If only I had never met him.

23. + Past Perfect: modal [concession/wish/condition], past, "perfect"


o , .
Even though he made her sick, she still served him with kindness.

o !
If only I had not lost my passport!
o
.
If only I had not lost my youth to work, then you would see what an
athlete I would have become.

24.Present Imperative: modal [command/invitation/instigation/permission], nonpast, imperfective


o , !
Eat quickly, or we will miss the bus!
o , , !
Finish, children, time is up!
o !
Pick up a phone so we learn your news!
o , !
Go for a walk, if you think you have the time!
o . [Holton: Factual Condition Imperative]
If you go to Greece go and see him!

25.Aorist Imperative: modal [command/invitation/instigation/permission], nonpast [present/future], perfective


o !
Fall in!
Get in line!
o , , !
Ladies and Gentlemen, please, proceed to the boarding gate!

o !
Think well before deciding!
o , !
If you want to leave, leave!
o . [Holton: Imperative]
Write it to him.
o . [Holton: Optative]
Come tomorrow to have a chat.
o !
Do what I say (not what I do :)!
Greek has three little modal particles {, , } which can be combined with the
traditional tenses to change the mood of the sentence in amazingly complex ways. In
essence, these particles create new tenses from the old. The easiest way to add
modality to your sentence is to use one of
the modal auxiliaries: [possibility], [wish], or [obligation,
probability].

Alternative Perfect Constructions


Most European languages have compound tenses formed using an auxiliary, like to
have, or to be, and the passive perfect participle. Greek has this too, but the more
common way does not involve the participle, but an "infinitive" form based on the
dependent. From [Holton] Greek: A Comprehensive Grammar, pg. 233:
Alternative Perfect Constructions
Another, much less common, way of forming perfect tenses is with the use of the
auxiliary followed by the passive perfect participle.


At twelve o'clock she had cooked the food and ironed the clothes
This construction with and the passive participle focuses even more on the result
of the action of the verb to the extent that it is now presented as a property of the
object itself. Thus we may say that we have a progression from the action to the result
as shown by the use of the participle. However, we are still operating in an active

construction due to the auxiliary , which allows the agent of the actions to remain
the subject of the construction. Compare:
a.
I wrote the letter
b.
I have written the letter
c.
I have written the letter
d.
The letter is written
We can interpret the progression from a. to d. as follows: a. I performed the action of
writing the letter, b. I wrote the letter and this past action carries on being relevant
now, c. I performed the action of writing and as a result the letter is now written, and
d. the letter is written and it does not matter who did the writing.
The perfect formed with and the passive participle may occur more frequently in
some dialects such as those of rural Crete. It is rare in Standard Greek but is found in
idioms:

He has tied up his donkey = He has nothing to worry about

I have written you on my old shoes = I ignore you, I don't give a damn
about you
( )
He has lost his mind = he is crazy
Needless to say, this construction can also occur in the pluperfect ( 'I
had written it'), future perfect ( 'I will have written it'), and perfect
conditional ( 'I would have written it').
The topic is also treated in [Adams] Essential Modern Greek Grammar, pg. 71:
Active Compound Tenses

The active perfect (or present perfect) in Modern Greek is formed by combining the
present tense of ("have"; see p. 55 for its conjugation) with either an invariant
aorist (identical with the third person singular aorist subjunctive but with the ending
spelled -) or the aorist participle that ends in -: (I have caught),
(he has caught), etc.
The aorist participle in - always agrees in gender and number with the direct
object:
(I have written the letter)
(I have seen Athens)
BUT:
(invariant)
(invariant)

The active future perfect is formed with plus the present perfect: or
(I will have caught).
The active pluperfect (or past perfect) is formed by combining the imperfect of
with either the invariant aorist (third person singular subjunctive) or with the aorist
participle: (I had caught), (he had caught) ; (I
had caught), (he had caught), etc.
You will have noticed that the alternate perfect construction only applies to transitive
verbs, and that the passive participle is always in the accusative and agrees with the
verb's object. A concoted example would be:


For those of you familiar with the Romance languages:
J'ai aim les femmes avec lunettes.
Je les ai aimes.
The passive participle in French, Italian and Spanish only agrees with the object
pronoun if it preceeds the verb. Greek is more uniform. It must always agree.
(German and English don't care. That's the best.) This sentence fails on pragmatic
grounds. Better would be .

Regular Verbs

Regular verbs follow the classifications Type and Model.


The [Type] tab classifies the verbs according to their personal endings. There are
essentially two types, I and II; then, there are two II types, A and B. Type I verbs are
accented on the stem. Type II verbs are accented on the personal ending. It's as simple
as that. There are some complications with Type II verbs though: some verbs don't
seem to belong to A or B, while others belong to both A and B. Verbs having more
than one conjugation are hyperlinked on the first person present of the activeindicative, the "name" of the verb.
The [Model] tab classifies the verbs according to the stems. Stem formation is quite
regular too. There are probably 25, or 30 of them. Each verb usually has three stems,
one imperfect stem, shared in active and passive voice, like {, },
and two perfect stems, one active, like , and one passive, like .
The full conjugations are created by combining the Active and Passive models from
the Iordanidou book, so our "Model" is an ordered pair, eg. has two models, {1,
2}, and {1, 39}. Verbs belonging to more than one model have more than one
conjugation, and are connected by hyperlinks. For example, , and both
represent the same verb: "draw, pull, drag".
Sub [Model]... odels can divided into submodels, like when a group of verbs share
the optional parts of a model. Check out . They're all pretty close. Some
conjugations do not have a participle, some have an optional infinitive, others have
additional periphrased tenses...

Irregular Verbs
What makes a Greek verb irregular?
Nearly every Greek verb is irregular. Modern Greek has 235 model conjugations. The
more regular they are, the more verbs belong to the model. Irregular verbs are special.
Irregular verbs belong to singleton models (the ones numbered above 79), i.e. one
verb per category, except for the compound verbs, which are derived from the same
root, like .
All verbs belong to a [Type] -- even the irregulars -- so we have Type I irregulars,
like and Type II irregulars, like . There are some type II verbs which
share I and II forms... Now these really are wierd.
The most irregular verbs?

These are usually the most frequently used. is part of almost every conjugation;
even the personal endings of the passive voice look like . Same thing with :
it is part of almost every conjugation. Here is a list of the most common irregular
verbs:
, , , vt. see
| , , | , vt. say
| , , vi. go
, is probably the most bizarre. It is impersonal, and has only two
forms, so it gets no page in the dictionary.
, is intransitive, , but usually introduces a
subordinate clause, that which can be done. It is also impersonal, ,
maybe.
[This list has been superseded by the lists or irregular verbs]

Defectives
A defective is "broken", for some reason, or other. Strictly speaking, "defective"
means lacking a perfect system (no aorist), like , belong. It could also mean
lacking a tense, a voice (like a vt. with no passive), etc. The smallest entry in the
dictionary is . Most impersonals are merely listed in the index.

Impersonals
An impersonal is only formed in the third person, like "It's raining" , which also
happens to have a full conjugation, and can be used personally, like "I get the dog
wet" or "The dog got wet in the rain".

Transitives
I am only interested in transitivity to determine if a verb could (logically) have a
passive form. There is a class of verbs in modern Greek, like , , etc.
which are transitive, but have no passive forms. So, how do you create a passive
expression? Using periphrase. [Some verbs are both vt. and vi.; they take an optional
object, but they do take an object, so I mark them as vt. (Sorry, if I offend any purists
out there.)]

Intransitives
Intransitives are verbs of being, motion... Many Greek verbs are intransitive, but have
passive participles, like ... The participle seems to retain an active
meaning, "happy".
Most Greek/English dictionaries list reflexives as intransitives, because they do not
take an explicit object. Greek reflexives often have passive form, an artifact from
Ancient Greek, like in Latin.
Key:
ppp - All those verbs having a passive perfect participle
dep - Deponents
vi - Intransitives
o vi.ppp - Intransitives with passive perfect participle
o vi.dep - Deponents, with passive perfect participle
o vi.irr - Irregular intransitives, missing tense, aspect, mood.
vi.irr.dep
o vi.vt - Intransitives which can optionally be used transitively, making
them vt
vt - Transitives
o vt.dep - Transitives deponents can only be used passively in paraphrases,
or using a synonym vt
o vt.vi - Same as vi.vt. Order of categories does not matter.
irr - Others

Reflexives

1) Reflexives which refer to self. 2) Reflexives which refer to things going on in the
mind of the speaker
1) Most Greek/English dictionaries list reflective verbs as intransitives, vi., because, in
English, they have no object. [Well, they do: the object is the speaker himself.]
Ancient Greek had a Middle voice whose forms closely resembled the Passive, so
Greek doesn't use reflexive pronouns for such common expressions as: "Ich wasche
mich" , or "Ich wasche mir die Haende." "Ich setze mich" is . "Je me
couche" is .
2) Greek also uses the passive forms to describe things going on in the mind of the
speaker, like thinking, feeling,..
Ich fuerchte mich is . [Note to self: "foobar" is GI talk for "furchtbar", or
"fucked up beyond repair". It looks like it has a Greek origin, "foo".]
Ich erinnere mich, I remember, is .
Ich freue mich is , I am happy, , I'm glad to meet
you, , the pleasure is mine...
is a wee, tiny bit irregular. First, as an intransitive, it should have no passive
participle, but it does, but with active, predicative meaning, like an adjective,
expressing a state of mind, and not as a verb, expressing a reflexive, or heaven forbid,
a passive action. Second, that participle is a wee, tiny bit irregular. If it were like the
model , it would normally be , but it's not. See what I mean?
[Note to self: is a medio-passive participle, stupid, a middle participle
(not a passive participle) so the form and the meaning are "medial" or reflexive. No
contradiction here. ...and it is perfectivereflecting the action as a state (of mind)]

Active
All verbs have an active meaning. The deponents have active meaning, but passive
form. Are there any verbs which have passive meaning only? The form doesn't matter.
Even an intransitive deponent, active reflexively, has active meaning. The subject and
object are the same person.

Passive

Romance languages form the passive perphrastically [German and English too].
Greek has retained the classical Middle forms, conjugated with fused to the
stem, not as a periphrase.

Semideponents
There was an important (but obscure) class of latin verbs called semideponents, which
had active form, but passive meaning, audeo, ausus sum, I dare. [Actually they were
mixed mode, having both active and passive form]. I suppose these verbs should be
conjugated under the heading Passive. [That would only be half right :] What were
they again? audeo, ausus sum, I dare, I dared.
For example, , , I ascend, ascended and , , I
congratulate, congratulated are semideponent, because they have active forms in the
imperfective tenses, and passive forms in the perfective tenses. Both are
transitive and defective (of course), because they lack a way to build the passive
voice. [Danger: use the formal definition of defective - lacking an aorist system.
Lacking a Voice is not a defect. It happens alot.]

Defectives
These verbs lack components, like a perfect system. (one) is defective,
(too). (: three :).

Impersonals
like "It's raining; it's pouring... the old man is snoring." It's snowing, thundering,
lightning... is impersonal, and doesn't have a page of it's own, just an entry in
the index.

Infinitives
Greek also lacks an infinitive. The Greeks prefer finite (i.e. conjugated) subordinate
clauses, like ... The "infinitive" is just the third person of something they call the
"dependent" tense, , ...
"The names have been changed, to protect the innocent."
Words like infinitive, indefinite, non-finite, undefined, aorist, unbounded ... all mean
the same thing, only the context changes. Aorist means "undefined", and is used to
describe the "simple" past, i.e. one-shot past, or, for that matter, the "simple" future,

something that happens only once, but in the future. [Don't get me started on
"perfect", meaning "complete", "done", "finished" etc. "I'm a perfectionist, but not
perfect."]
Aorist means "undefined with respect to another action". It means "non-perfect".
Perfect tenses always make reference to other actions, mentioned either adverbially, or
in a subordinate clause. "Imperfect" acts are uncompleted, "Perfect" completed. Aorist
means "does not apply to the perfective system, has no Aspect". Aorist merely defines
an action, usually in the past.
Greek for Indicative mood is "" meaning definite. Actually, the indicative
mood is not a mood at all, it lies outside the system of Modality {Subjunctive,
Imperative, Optative(=Wish), Potential(=Possibility, the "if" clause in a contraryreality condition), ...}: it is used in unadulterated stament of fact, implies no
subjectivity. Indicative means "non-modal".
Infinitive means "non-finite, unfinished, lacking personal endings". Infinitives and
participles also happen to lack mood, meaning they are "indicative", but that is not the
reason they are infinitives. You could imagine a language with imperative infinitives,
like Italian, or conditional infinitives. (I had a neighbor who came from Albania who
used to tell his dog, "You, no barking!") Infinitives are non-finite because they are
unconjugated. Infinitives act as nouns. They name the action, as a noun, so they are
"singular" and could be declined for case, but are usually not. Participles are
adjectives. They usually agree with the noun they determine in case and number, but
not in English. Participles have personal endings which come from the Noun domain.
They are declined, not conjugated. Nouns are matter, verbs energy, so you convert
nouns into verbs according to the equation e=mc 2.
Gerunds as adverbs. They qualify the verb and have no endings at all, like an adverb.

The Dependent Tenses


The dependent tense is not a tense at all. The dependent tenses "depend" on the
particles (the aorist subjunctive) and (the simple, or perfective, future). They are
the built using the aorist stem, which has no Aspect. They have the same personal
endings as the present tense. They are sometimes called the "indefinite" tenses,
especially in older books, but I think this is easy to confuse with the "infinitive".
Examples: { , }, { , }, { , } etc.
Sometimes an irregularity occurs, where the dependent is not exactly like the
perfective stem, e.g. -> -> , -> -> , -> | ->
|.

References
[Adams] Adams Douglas 1987: Essential Modern Greek Grammar (NY: Dover), 90
pgs. ISBN 0-486-25133-0 (pbk.).
[Capri] Capri-Karka ..: 600 Modern Greek Verbs - Fully Conjugated (.., ..: Pella), ...
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