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1/21/2015

12VoltDCPowerSupplyCircuit

ANOFFLINE12VOLTSMPSPOWERSUPPLYUNIT
THEORYOFOPERATION,SCHEMATICDIAGRAM,CIRCUITBOARDLAYOUT
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DESCRIPTION.Theschematicdiagrambelowshowsasimpletriviallowcost12voltDC50WofflineSMPSswitchingpowersupply

circuit.ItcanbeusedforDIYhomeprojectsortolearnoperationofflybackconverters.ThisPSUcanworkoverauniversalinputAC
linerange90264VAC.Itprovidesanominal12VDCoutputatmorethan4Aload.Lineandloadregulationisbetterthen0.5%.
Theunithasovercurrent,overtemperatureandovervoltageprotections,aswellas
passiveinrushcurrentlimiting.Outputrippleareapproximately0.2Vpeaktopeakin
therange0to20MHz.Ifyouneedtogetlowerripple,youmayputanadditional
outputcapacitororanLCfilteroutsideofthefeedbackloop.Thisprojectisa
modificationofa24VcircuitthatI'vedesignedmanyyearsagoasaconsultantfora
smallcompany.Thatcompanywantedapluginreplacementtoacheapofftheshelf
ACtoDCpowersupply,whichhadalongleadtime.BythetimeI'vecompletedthe
designandbuiltaproto,theyfoundtheofftheshelfpartelsewhereinstock.So,they
neverproceededwithamanufacturingofthismodule.Accordingly,Ihavenottested
thisdesignbeyondabasicDVT.Youcanbuildthiscircuitforpersonaluse(atyour
ownriskofcourse).Butyouarenotallowedtorepublishthecontentofthispage
anywhereoruseitforcommercialpurposeswithoutmypermission.
SAFETYWARNING.Tosafelytestortroubleshootthiscircuititisrecommendedto

poweritviaanisolationtransformerorfromanisolatedACsource.Alsonotethatan
offlinesingletransistorflybackconvertergeneratesinternalvoltageswhichmayreach600V.Don'ttrytoplaywiththiscircuitunless
youareofalegalage,understandpowerelectronicsandknowhowtodealsafelywithhighvoltage.Youmaywanttotakeourquick
powersupplysafetyquiz.
SCHEMATICDIAGRAM:

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1/21/2015

12VoltDCPowerSupplyCircuit

CIRCUITOPERATION.

ThisACtoDCpowersupplyutilizesaflyback,whichisthesimplestSMPSconvertertopology.Itusesan800V/11AMOSFET(Q1)
astheswitchingdeviceandPWMcontrollerUC3844AN(U3).Theinputsectionincludesafuse,EMIfilter,inrushcurrentlimitingNTC
resistorR1,afullbridgerectifierCR1,andaDCbusfiltercapacitorC2.
TheinitialstartupcurrentforthePWMICisprovidedby"bleeding"resistorsR7,R8thatallowsmallcurrentwhichchargestheVcc
capacitorC7.WhentheVccpinofU3reachesthepositiveundervoltagelockoutthreshold(typically14V16V),theICstartsto
operateandwillbedrivingONandOFFtheswitchQ1viaagatedriveresistorR4atafixedfrequency(inthiscircuititis100kHz).
WhenQ1turnson,theDCbusvoltageisappliedacrossthetransformerT1primarywinding,currentthroughthetransformerprimary
rampsupandenergyisaccumulatedinthetransformer'smagneticfield.DiodesD4andD7duringthistimeintervalarereversed
biased.WhenQ1turnsoff,theenergystoredinthemagneticfieldcausesthevoltagesacrossallwindingtoreversepolarity.Asa
result,outputrectifiersD4andD7conductandthestoredenergyistransferredtotheoutputandtothebiascircuit.Oncethe
converterisstarted,thebiasforthecontrolPWMcomesfromthebiaswindingofthetransformer.
ThesecondarysidefeedbackcontrolloopusesaTL431precisionshuntregulatorD1asboththereferenceandanerroramplifier.It
comparesdividedoutputvoltagetoD1'sinternalreference2.5V.AnoptocouplerU1feedsthecurrentproportionaltotheerrorsignal
acrossthetransformergalvanicisolationboundarybacktotheprimaryPWM.Ifaccurateregulationoftheoutputisnotrequired,the
feedbackcanbetakenfromthebiasvoltageatC9andfedviaadividerintofeedbackpin2.
PrimarycurrentinT1issensedbyaresistorR6.Thiscurrentsensevoltageisappliedthroughaspikefiltertothecurrentsense
terminalofU3,whereitiscomparedagainstthescaleddownerrorsignalatcompensationpin1.Whencurrentsensevoltageramp
reaches1/3(Vpin11),thepulseisterminatedandQ1turnsoff.
ZenerdiodeD6withoptocouplerU2provideanonlatchingoutput'sovervoltageprotection.
ThermalswitchshutsdownthepowersupplywhentemperatureontheMOSFETheatsinkexceeds95100oC.

HereiscompleteBOM.Notethatitwascompiledmorethantenyearsago.Somepartnumbersmayneedreplacements.
PRINTEDCIRCUITBOARD:

FINDPOWER
SUPPLY
PRODUCTS
BYSPEC

POWERTRANSFORMER

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12VoltDCPowerSupplyCircuit

Thetransformerdesignmaylookunusual.Notethataflybacktransformeroperatesasaninductor:itaccumulatesenergyinthe
magneticfieldduringONperiodofQ1.Thenittransfersit(minuslosses)intothesecondariesduringtheOFFperiodofQ1.Inorder
tostoreenergyefficientlywithminimalphysicalsize,anonmagneticgapisneededinserieswithahighpermeabilitymagneticcore
material.Flybacktransformerdesignusuallyusesferritecoreswithaphysicalgap,orpowderedmetalcoreswithaninherently
presentdistributedgap.Gappedferritesnormallyfeaturelowerlosses,buttheyhaveabruptsaturationcurve.Powdercoreshave
higherlosses,buttheirB(H)curveissoft.Amongotherformfactors,toroidaltransformershavelowestleakageinductance.Inthis
PSUthetransformerismadewithKoolMpowdertoroidalcore.Properwindingphasingiscriticalinflybacksjustlikeinallsingle
endedconverters.Ifwindingsaremisphasedthecircuitwillnotworkormaysimplyblowup.Refertotheschematicandwinding
diagramaboveforpropertransformerinstallation.AllcoilsinthisdesignhavetobemadeofwirewithtwoormorelayersofTeflon
insulationtoassurereinforcedinsulationbetweenprimaryandsecondary.
Alsoseerelatedpages:
Computerpowersupplyconnectorscompatibility
SMPSdiagramandoperationtheory.
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2007,2012LazarRozenblat
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