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Two Reaction Theory of Synchronous

M.achines
BY R. H. PARK*
Associate, A.I.EE.

Synopsis.-The analysis presented in a previous paper is extended to include a consideration of synchronizing and damping
torque during continuous and transient oscillations, the description
of an equivalent circuit which has been found useful in calculating

the decrement of the short circuit current of interconnected machines,


and the derivation of simple approximate formulas for the roots of
the equation determining the wave shape of the current on three-phase
short circuit.

T HIS paper is a continuation of a paper presented in


February 1929,1 and the presentation presupposes
a foreknowledge of the material in that paper.
A. SYNCHRONIZING AND DAMPING TORQUE OF A SYN
CHRONOUS MACHINE CONNECTED TO AN INFINITE
BUS, FOR SMALL OSCILLATIONS OF FIXED
FREQUENCY AND AMPLITUDE
Equation (64) of part I, and the equation following
it, define an operational function f(p), such that the
electrical torque on the rotor, for small oscillations, is
given by the expression
AT =f(p)* A
(1)

for a large variety of operating conditions, and finds


that the computed values agree for the most part,
although in some cases the differences between them
are not insignificant. S. Loukomskyt determined a
value of Td experimentally by means of tests on a 15
hp motor. The result obtained in this test was found
to differ from the value computed by formula (4) by
about 16 per cent, which may be regarded as a satisfactory check considering the difficulties involved in
the test, and the fact that in the computations no account was taken of any closed rotor circuit other than
the field.

where

[idO+idoXq(p)][(e sin 60+ fd,p)Zd(p)


+ (e cos bo +

q6,op) Xd(p)]
[,lqo + iqoXd(p) I [(e cos bo + ikqop) Zq(P)
-(e sin 8o + 'dop) Xq(P)]
f(p) =
D (p)
Let
where

s = per unit frequency of oscillation


=(1/f)
(oscillationspersecond)
per second)
= (llf) (oscillations

(2)

TORQUE DURING DISTURBANCES


Messrs. Crary and Waring' have presented an analysis
B. DAMPING

AT = f(p) . A ~

of the behavior of synchronous machines which shows


clearly the nature of the phenomena which take place
during disturbances. A method of calculation is also
given, based essentially on the numerical evaluation of
"Duhamel" integrals. This method of calculation is
straightforward and, subject to the fact that armature
circuit resistance is neglected, theoretically susceptible
of unlimited accuracy. Practically, however, it is believed that it should involve some inaccuracies, and
especially if the time constants of quantities under the
integral should approach or become less than the time
interval used in the step-by-step process.
In view of these considerations the writer believes
that ordinarily it will be preferable to employ the usual
method of calculation in which field phenomena and
synchronizing torque are calculated as though the field
were the only circuit on the rotor, and the effect of currents induced in the amortisseur or other "additional"
circuits is regarded simply as that of producing a damping torque which may be expressed in the form
(5)
damping torque = Tdp 6
It can be shown that when this method of calculation
1Semployed Td should represent the damping 6 torque
coefficient
for small oscillations about the angle which
wudoti ftefedwnighdn eitne
Thus when armature resistance is neglected the
torque which depends on motion is of the general form

f = normal frequency.
Then introducing a system of vectors rotating at s
per unit angular velocity, there is p = js, and
A T = f(js) A 6
(3)
and
are
the
if
But T,
Td
synchronizing and damping
coefficients there is also
AT = (T, + Tdp) t = (Ts + jsTd) Ab
from which it follows that
Ts= real part of f(js)
sTd = imaginary part of f(js)
(4)
T'his,, formuila. for Td is to be onmpa.red with that.
previuslyobtaned b Nicle ad Piece.2 C.,,A
Keenert has computed values of Td by both formulas
*Caleo Chemnical Co., Bound Brook, N. J.
1. For numbered references see Bibliography,
tUniversity of Illinois, Urbana, Ill.gieinquto(4)fpatIi.,
Presented at the iVinter Convention of the A.I.E.E., New York,gvni qain(4)o atI ..
N. Y., Janulary 23-27, 1933.
tGeneral Electric CO., LYnn, Mass.
352

23-22

PARK: TWO-REACTION THEORY OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES-II

June 1933

esin a
+ e2 cos a

Xd -Xd(P)
z
p)(cos a0-cosa)
XdXd(P)
xq

X(p))(sin

sin*o)

Xd

Xd

Xd
fdf
~
sin6Z Xd'Xad"

(6)

+e2C

X0

d(-U

353
i6()6(u

fE -aqn (U-))cos A

(u) 6 (u) du

Introduce
(12)
Xd' (p) = Xd(p) with infinite amortisseur and field where the summations are extended over the roots of
collar resistance.
Xd'(P) = 0, and xq(p) = 0.
If a'(t) = change in speed is small, in particular if 6'
Xd'(P) = Xd(P) with zero field resistance.
is not changing rapidly relative to the rate of decay of
But, as a matter of algebra,
the decrements E -dnt and E -aqnt as is usually the case,
the terms sin 6 (u) a' (u) and cos a (u) 6' (u) may be
Xd - Xdl(p)
Xd - Xd(p)
Xd'(P) - Xd(P)
+
(7) the
takenextra
outside theabove
sign ofthat
integration,
and consequently
XdXd(p)
Xd(p)Xd'(P)
XdXd'(p)
torque
accounted for by the field
Hence it follows that the direct axis component of alone may be expressed as,
torque in equation (6) may be resolved into two subTd a' (t) = Tdp a
(13)
where,
components,
X
e2sina XdXd' d() (cosC 0- cos )
(p)

dXd"
To=
el sino Xd
d
if',j

adn

and

e2sin5 Xd'(P)
Xd

xd(P)

(P)Xd(P)

(cos a-cosa)

(8)

But the first of these components is precisely that which


would be computed ln the step-by-step method if the

]
(14)
It will
from equation
part I, that
Td
this resultbeis evident
substantially
equivalent(54)to ofcomputing
on the basis of zero field resistance, provided that a' (t)
is small relative to the decrement factors, as has been
assumed
The foregoing analysis has not considered the effects
of armature resistance. It is reasonable to suppose,
however, that the result arrived at would be found to
hold true generally, if a more elaborate analysis including the effects of resistance were carried out.
+ cos2(5

Xq

qXq

Also, since the amortisseur time constants are -small


with respect to the time constant of the field it follows
that the difference between the short-circuit current at
no-load and the short-circuit current which would obtain
if the amortisseur and field collars were of infinite
resistance will be very nearly the same whether the field
winding has its actual resistance, or whether it has zero
resistance, and consequently, that,
C. APPROXIMATE FORMULA FOR THE ROOTS OF THE
EQUATION d (p) = 0
x(p
(9) Formula (32) of part I gives an expression for three=d(p) Xd"(p)
,d/
Xd
Xd (P) (P)X d"
Xd(P)
phase short-circuit current in terms of the roots of the
cubic
or that
d(p)
Xd XqT Op3 + [Xd'rTO + (Xd + rTo) xj] p2
Xd'(P) - Xd (P)
Xd - Xd (P)
+ [r (Xd + Xq + rTo) + Xd'xqTo] p + r2 + XdXq
Xd Xd (P)
Xd(p)Xd(P)
- Xd'XqTo(p ai) (p-aa- ab) (P aa+ b) =0 (15)
Consequently it follows that the torque due to motion
It was pointed out in part I that a very good apmay be computed by adding to the torque computed by
the step-by-step method considering the field alone, a proximation to one of the roots, i.e., the root a,, could
be obtained in practical cases by assuming To = co. This
torque equal to
suggests the possibility of determining the roots a1 and
si5(cs(o
o e)a in an equally simple manner. We shall find that
xd zd (P)
~~~~~thiscan be done as follows:

e2-d"P

e2 cos a

XXl(2(P)

Xq - Xq(P)
(sin a -sin (5)

(11)

T0 infinite. This yields


~~~~Assume
+Xd' +
r2 + Xd'Xq

By the superposition (Duhamel's) theorem thisXdqXdq

torque is equal to,

xq,p

= p2-2 aap +aoac2-cb2

(16)

354

PARK: TWO-REACTION THEORY OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES-II

Equating like terms yields, first


Xd' + Xq
aa2Xd'Xq

(17)
(17)

2Xd'X,

the result previously found in part I, and second


2
I r2 + Xd'Xq
Cb2Xd'Xq
-X

1- -

-_|d r )
2 XciXqr

(18)

If we substitute these values in (16), expand, and then


equate like terms, three expressions for a, are obtained,
Two of these are found to be unsatisfactory, while
the third
(19)
a, = (r2 + xdXxq)/(r2 + Xd'Xq) To
is found to coincide with the result previously given by
Doherty and Nickle.4 A detailed check against the
exact solution of the cubic shows that equations (18)
Xd

calculation of the effects of quick response excitation.


The circuit may also be extended so as to give subtransient as well as transient decrements by shunting
part of the resistance Xd' by another capacitor.
While the circuit is principally useful on account of
the assistance which it renders in analytical analysis,
it may, with the aid of an oscillograph, be used for the
prediction of decrements by experimental methods.
A somewhat similar circuit may be employed for
computing the decrements of the d-c component. In
this circuit the reactances are represented as resistances
as in calculating the a-c component, except that the
machines are represented merely by simple resistances
equal in magnitude to the machine negative phase
sequence reactance. Armature circuit resistances, of
course, must be included, and are represented by capacitors of magnitude equal to the reciprocal of the
resistances which they represent.

Bibliography
1.

Park, R. H., Two-Reaction Theory of Synchronous Machines

TRANS., Vol. 48, No. 2, July, 1929, p. 716.


-I,2. A.I.E.E.
Nickle, C. A. and Pierce C. A., Stability of Synchronous

Xd- Xd

Machines, A.I.E.E. TRANS., Vol. 49, No. 1, Jan. 1930, p. 338.


3. Crary, S. B. and Waring, M. L., Characteristics of Synchronous Machines Following System Disturbances, A.I.E.E. TRANS.,
Vol. 51, No. 3, Sept. 1932, p. 764.
4. Doherty, R. E. and Nickle, C. A., Three-Phase Short-Circuit
Synchronous Machines-V, A.I.E.E. TRANS., Vol. 49, No. 2,
April 1930, p. 700.

it
T
o

Ad -Xd

Transactions A.I.E.E.

ii,_________________________

E/
_

lD

iscussion
S. B. Crary: The method presented in the paper for the

FIG. 1

and (19) as well as (17) may be relied on to give .


a very
close approximation to the true roots of the cubic, in the
case of machines of normal design.

D. AN EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT FOR COMPUTING SHORTCIRCUIT CURRENT

Asmlcicuitcurrentin fotercomputingthewno-loadishort-ci

determination of the component of torque due to the motion of


the rotor by separating this component into two others, is a
deint
definite imrveet
This method offaprahntol
improvement. Thsmto
approach not only
removes the difficulties of computing the component of torque
due to the terms having small time constants, as pointed out in
the paper, but also allows for the more ready evaluation of
changes in the individual circuits as may be affected by design
or by changes in the external field circuit.
Gabriel Kron: In this and in his other publications Park
definitely abandons a method of attack which has been followed

cuit current in interconnected networks, first used by by practically all writers on analysis from the first days rotating
the writer in 1927, is believed to be worth recording.
machines were built and strikes out along a new road with surThe circuit is the same as the usual circuit of the d-c prising success. He disregards the voltages due to leakage fluxes,
calculating table, in which reactances are represented common fluxes and introduces only voltages due to resultant flux

With their aid he sets up a simple vector equation for


by resistances,
except
that the machinelinkages.
by resistances, except that
the machine
reactances
are the armature
represented by the circuit of Fig. 1.
b
= + +
It may be seen that this circuit fulfills the relations
(in part I, below Fig. 31) which, divided into its scalar com1
xtT0p + Xdi
4' - Top + 1 EiT0p ~ ~
E
Top +
= G(p)E -Xd(P)1

ponents, (equations (8) and (9)) forms the foundation for all
(19) transient and steady state performance calculations giving in
Top + 1an easy manner rigorous solutions for otherwise difficult problems.
If it is assumed tha,t the field is stationary and the armature
(20) is rotating, a simple physical interpretation can be given to

and therefore correctly represents the machine at no4'4's,


=
load, when
i.e.,

't = ~~~d.

The advantage derived from the use of this circuit is


that it not only gives the initial value of the currents,
but also their decrements, regardless of the number of

interconnected machines. Also it is adapted to the

equation (1) and with this interpretation the equation applies

notallonly
for salient-pole
the rotor
other
asymmetricalsynchronous
machines machines but
or for
commutator
machines). Let the current-density wave 27 and the flux-linkage

~~~~~~~~~~Of

(induc.tion

wave + in the rotor be assumed distributed sinusoidally in space


at all instants. Then, due to the instantaneous velocity pO of

1. A.I.E.E. TRANS., July 1929, p. 718.