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Different Types of

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


Induced Stress
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MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

INTRODUCTION

Machine components transmit forces and motion from one point to


another. The transmission of force can be envisioned as a flow or force
distribution that can be further visualized by isolating internal surfaces
within the component. Force distributed over a surface leads to the
concept of stress, stress components, and stress transformations (Mohrs
circle) for all possible surfaces at a point.
Stresses and strains: When any solid body is subjected to external
forces, resisting forces are set up within the body. These internal forces
per unit area are called unit stresses. The stress is tensile where the
force tends to elongate fibers in the member collinear with the stress,
compressive where the force tends to shorten fibers in the member
collinear with the stress, and shear where the forces in the member tend
to make adjacent planes in the member slide relative to each other. It is
evident that elements of area in the member may be subjected to a force
which has components both parallel and perpendicular to the area such
that the stresses at the area may be both shear and tension or
compression.
The forces acting on a body cause changes in the geometry of the
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body; these changes increase as the forces increase. These changes in


the geometry or shape of the body are called deformations or strains; if
measured on a body of unit dimension or per unit length of the body,
they are called unit strains.
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In engineering
practice, the machine parts are subjected to various
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
forces which
may bePENINSULA
due to either oneSTATE
or more of
the following:
BATAAN
UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

MECHANICAL
Energy
transmitted, ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Weight of machine,
Frictional resistances,
Inertia of reciprocating parts,
Change of temperature, and
Lack of balance of moving parts.

LOAD
It is defined as any external force acting upon a machine part. The
following four types of the load are important from the subject point of
view:
1. Dead or steady load. A load is said to be a dead or steady load,
when it does not change in magnitude or direction.
2. Live or variable load. A load is said to be a live or variable load,
when it changes continually.
3. Suddenly applied or shock loads. A load is said to be a suddenly
applied or shock load, when it is suddenly applied or removed.
4. Impact load. A load is said to be an impact load, when it is applied
with some
Engineering Stress
When some external system of forces or loads acts on a body, the
internal forces (equal and opposite) are set up at various sections of the
Page 147

body, which resist the external forces. This internal force per unit area at
any section of the body is known as unit stress or simply a stress. It is
denoted by a Greek letter sigma ( ). Mathematically,

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stress , R=F
/A
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Where:MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE OF BATAAN, CITY OF BALANGA C-2100
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

F: load applied perpendicular to specimen cross-section;

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

A: cross-sectional area (perpendicular to the force) before application of


the load.
In S.I. units, the stress is usually expressed in Pascal (Pa) such that
1 Pa = 1 N/m2. In actual practice, we use bigger units of stress i.e.
megapascal (MPa) and gigapascal (GPa), such that
1 MPa=1 x 10

1GPa=1 x 109

N
N
=1
2
m
mm 2
N 1 kN
=
m2 mm2

Engineering Strain
When a system of forces or loads acts on a body, it undergoes
some deformation. This deformation per unit length is known as unit
strain or simply a strain. It is denoted by a Greek letter epsilon ().
Mathematically,
strain , =

Where:

= Change in length of the body

L = Original length of the body.


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Essence of Designing
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1. Know
your Material
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Types of Material
BATAAN
PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY
Ductile
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE OF BATAAN, CITY OF BALANGA C-2100
OF
High
Resistance against
Deformation
COLLEGE
ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
Basically Soft
MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
High Resistance
to Impact Load
Define Yield Point
Fails by Sliding, Necking or Yielding

Brittle
Low Resistance against Deformation
Basically Hard
Low Resistance to Impact Load
No define Yield Point
Fails by Fracture
Carbon Content
Wrought Iron = 0 - 0.08%
Low Carbon Steel = 0.04 - 0.30%
Medium Carbon Steel = 0.30 - 0.60%
High Carbon Steel = 0.60 - 1.70%
Cast Iron = 1.70 - 4.50%

2. Know Your Strength of Material

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Fig 2.1 Stress-Strain Diagram for Ductile Specimen


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BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Fig 2.2 Stress-Strain Diagram for Brittle Specimen

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Fig 2.3 Properties on Stress-Strain Curve


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BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Fig 2.4 The Elastic Line


Stress is directly proportional to Strain ( )

Stress-Strain Diagram
In designing various parts of a machine, it is necessary to know how
the material will function in service. For this, certain characteristics or
properties of the material should be known. The mechanical properties
mostly

used

in

mechanical

engineering

practice

are

commonly

determined from a standard tensile test. This test consists of gradually


loading a standard specimen of a material and noting the corresponding
values of load and elongation until the specimen fractures. The load is
applied and measured by a testing machine. The stress is determined by
dividing the load values by the original cross-sectional area of the
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specimen. The elongation is measured by determining the amounts that


two reference points on the specimen are moved apart by the action of
the machine. The original distance between the two reference points is
known as gauge length. The strain is determined by dividing the
elongation values by the gauge length.
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BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY

The
values
of ,the
stressOFand
corresponding
strain
are used to draw
MAIN
CAMPUS
PROVINCE
BATAAN
, CITY OF BALANGA
C-2100

COLLEGE OF
ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
the stress-strain
diagram
of the material
tested. A stress-strain diagram
MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
for mild steel
under tensile
test is shown
in Fig 2.4.a

the various

properties of the material are discussed below:

Fig 2.4.a: Stress-strain diagram for mild steel under tensile test

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BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY

1. Proportional
limit,
we seeOFfrom
the
that C-2100
from origin to A is a
MAIN CAMPUS
, PROVINCE
BATAAN
, Cdiagram
ITY OF BALANGA
OF ENGINEERING
AND
straightCOLLEGE
line, which
represents that
theARCHITECTURE
stress is proportional to strain.

DEPARTMENT
Beyond pointMECHANICAL
A, the curve ENGINEERING
slightly deviates
from the straight line. It is

thus obvious, that Hooke's law holds good up to point A and it is known
as proportional limit. It is defined as that stress at which the stress-strain
curve begins to deviate from the straight line.
2. Elastic limit. It may be noted that even if the load is increased beyond
point A up to the point B, the material will regain its shape and size when
the load is removed. This means that the material has elastic properties
up to the point B. This point is known as elastic limit. It is defined as the
stress developed in the material without any permanent set.
Note: Since the above two limits are very close to each other, therefore,
for all practical purposes these are taken to be equal.
3. Yield point. If the material is stressed beyond point B, the plastic stage
will reach i.e. on the removal of the load; the material will not be able to
recover its original size and shape. A little consideration will show that
beyond point B, the strain increases at a faster rate with any increase in
the stress until the point C is reached. At this point, the material yields
before the load and there is an appreciable strain without any increase in
stress. In case of mild steel, it will be seen that a small load drops to D,
immediately after yielding commences. Hence there are two yield points
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C and D. The points C and D are called the upper and lower yield points
respectively. The stress corresponding to yield point is known as yield
point stress.

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4. Ultimate
stress. At D, the specimen regains some strength and higher
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values BATAAN
of stresses are
required for higher
strains,
than those between A
PENINSULA
STATE
UNIVERSITY
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OF

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OF

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and D. COLLEGE
The stressOF
(orENGINEERING
load) goes onAND
increasing
till the point E is reached.
ARCHITECTURE
The gradual increase in the strain (or length) of the specimen is followed
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

with the uniform reduction of its cross-sectional area. The work done,
during stretching the specimen, is transformed largely into heat and the
specimen becomes hot. At E, the stress, which attains its maximum
value, is known as ultimate stress. It is defined as the largest stress
obtained by dividing the largest value of the load reached in a test to the
original cross-sectional area of the test piece.
5. Breaking stress. After the specimen has reached the ultimate stress, a
neck is formed, which decreases the cross-sectional area of the
specimen. A little consideration will show that the stress (or load)
necessary to break away the specimen, is less than the maximum stress.
The stress is, therefore, reduced until the specimen breaks away at point
F. The stress corresponding to point F is known as breaking stress.
Note: The breaking stress (i.e. stress at F which is less than at E)
appears to be somewhat misleading. As the formation of a neck takes
place at E which reduces the cross-sectional area, it causes the specimen
suddenly to fail at F. If for each value of the strain between E

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and F, the tensile load is divided by the reduced cross-sectional area at


the narrowest part of the neck, then the true stress-strain curve will
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
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follow R
the
dotted line EG. However, it is an established practice, to
EPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
calculate
strains on
the basis of original
cross-sectional
area of the
BATAAN
PENINSULA
STATE
UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

specimen.
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

6. Percentage reduction in area. It is the difference between the original


cross-sectional area and cross-sectional area at the neck (i.e. where the
fracture takes place). This difference is expressed as percentage of the
original cross-sectional area.

Modulus of Elasticity, E
The ratio of the compressive or tensile force applied to a substance
per unit surface area to the change in volume of the substance per unit
volume. Also known as bulk modulus; compression modulus; hydrostatic
modulus; modulus of compression; modulus of volume elasticity.
Slope of the stress-strain curve in the elastic region.
E=

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Derivation:

1.0 E=

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=E
1.1
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BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE
=E OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE
1.2
A
L

()

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

1.3
If

FL
AE

is given:

1.4

L
E

Hookes Law it is name after Robert Hooke, who first established it


by experiments in 1678.
Where: E is a constant of proportionality known as Young's modulus or
modulus of elasticity.
In S.I. units, it is usually expressed in GPa i.e. GN/m2 or kN/mm2. It
may be noted that Hooke's law holds good for tension as well as
compression.
The following table shows the values of modulus of elasticity or
Young's modulus (E) for the materials commonly used in engineering
practice.
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Table
2.1 Values of E for the commonly used engineering Materials
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BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


Material
MAIN CAMPUS
, PROVINCE

OF

Modulus
of C-2100
elasticity
BATAAN, CITY
OF BALANGA

(E)

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE


in GPai.e GN/m2 or
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
kN/mm2

Steel and Nickel


Wrought iron
Cast iron
Copper
Brass
Aluminum
Timber

200 to 220
190 to 200
100 to 160
90 to 110
80 to 90
60 to 80
10

Theories of Elastic Failure


There are number of machine components, which are subjected to
several types of loads simultaneously. For example, a power screw is
subjected to torsional moment as well as axial force. Similarly an
overhang crank is subjected to bending and torsional moments. The bolts
of the bracket are subjected to forces that cause tensile stress and shear
stress. Crankshaft, propeller shaft and connecting rods are examples of
components subjected to several types of loads, combined stresses are
induced. For example, torsional moment induces torsional shear stress,
while bending moment causes bending stresses in transmission shaft.
The failures of such components are broadly classified into two
groups-elastic failure and yielding and fracture. Elastic failure results in
excessive elastic deformation, which makes the machine component,
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unfit to perform its function satisfactorily. Yielding results in excessive


plastic deformation after the yield point is reached, while fracture results
in breaking the component into two or more pieces.

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The
design of machine parts subjected to combine loads should be
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
related BATAAN
to experimentally
determined STATE
propertiesUNIVERSITY
of material under similar
PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

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OF

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conditions.
However,
it is not possible
conduct such tests for different
COLLEGE
OF ENGINEERING
ANDto
ARCHITECTURE
possible combinations of loads and obtain mechanical properties. In
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

practice, the mechanical properties are obtained from a simple tension


test.

They

include

yield

strength,

ultimate

tensile

strength

and

percentage elongation. In the tension test, the specimen is axially loaded


on tension. It is not subjected to either bending moment or torsional
moment or a combination of loads.
Theories of elastic failure provide a relationship between the
strength of machine component subjected to complex state of stresses
with the mechanical properties obtained in tension test. With the help of
these theories, the data obtained in the tension test can be used to
determine the dimensions of the component, irrespective of the nature
stresses induced in the component due to complex loads
Basic Designing Equation

Safe or Allowable or working


design stress

Failure Causing Stress Applied


=

to the member due to the load

Basis is Strength of Material as

Basis is Nominal Stress

Tested

Formula based on Loading

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Design Strength

Induced Strength

For Good Design:


Applied Factor of Safety
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Fig 2.5 BATAAN

Graphical
PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY

MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

of

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

on

illustration
stress-strain
ductile
specimen

Fig 2.6 Graphical illustration of stress-strain on brittle specimen

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DESIGN STRENGTH =

STRENGTH OF MATERIAL
FACTOR OF SAFETY

For Axially- loaded member:


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For Ductile material
Fs
PENINSULA
STATE UNIVERSITY

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= y

BATAAN

MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

d = ENGINEERING
MECHANICAL
DEPARTMENT
For brittle material
F
s

Factor of Safety
Factor of safety, also known as safety factor, is a term describing the
structural capacity of a system beyond the expected loads or actual
loads. Essentially, how much stronger the system is than it usually needs
to be for an intended load. Safety factors are often calculated using
detailed analysis because comprehensive testing is impractical on many
projects, such as bridges and buildings, but the structure's ability to carry
load must be determined to a reasonable accuracy.
Many systems are purposefully built much stronger than needed for
normal usage to allow for emergency situations, unexpected loads,
misuse, or degradation.
It is defined, in general, as the ratio of the maximum stress to the
working stress. Mathematically,

Factor of Safety=

maximum stress
workingdesign stress

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In case of ductile materials e.g. mild steel, where the yield point is
clearly defined, the factor of safety is based upon the yield point stress.
In such cases,
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BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

yield point stress


Factor COLLEGE
of Safety= OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE
workingdesign stress

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

In case of brittle materials e.g. cast iron, the yield point is not well
defined as for ductile materials. Therefore, the factor of safety for brittle
materials is based on ultimate stress,

Factor of safety =

ultimate stress
workingdesign stress

This relation may also be used for ductile materials.


Note: The above relations for factor of safety are for static loading.
Selection of Factor of Safety
The selection of a proper factor of safety to be used in designing any
machine component depends upon a number of considerations, such as
the material, mode of manufacture, type of stress, general service
conditions and shape of the parts. Before selecting a proper factor of
safety, a design engineer should consider the following points:
1. The reliability of the properties of the material and change of these
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properties during service.


2. The reliability of test results and accuracy of application of these
results to actual machine parts.
3. The reliability of applied load.
4. The certainty as to exact mode of failure.
5. The extent of simplifying assumptions.
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6.
7.
8.
9.

The
extent of localized stresses.
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
The extent of initial stresses set up during manufacture.
BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY
The extent of loss of life if failure occurs.
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE OF BATAAN, CITY OF BALANGA C-2100
The
extent OF
of loss
of propertyAND
if failure
occurs.
COLLEGE
ENGINEERING
ARCHITECTURE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Each of the above factors must be carefully considered and


evaluated. The high factor of safety results in unnecessary risk of failure.
The values of factor of safety based on ultimate strength for different
materials and type of load are given in the following table.

Table 2.2 Basic Factor of Safety


BASIC YIELD

BASIC ULTIMATE

1.0

1.5 - 2.0

3.0 - 4.0

Steady Loads
2.0

3.0 - 4.0

6.0 - 8.0

Moderate Shock
3.0

6.0 - 8.0

12.0 - 16.0

Heavy Shock
Table 2.3 Values of Factor of Safety
Material

Steady

Live Load

Shock

Cast iron
Wrought iron
Soft material and

load
5 to 6
4
6

8 to 12
7
9

Load
16 to 20
16 to 15
15

alloys
Leather

12

15
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Timber

10 to 15

20

Summary of Design Stress

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BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Page 147

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BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

Members Subjected to Direct Tensile Loads


Failure Profile:MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
1. Fibers are elongated beyond its strength (strength failure)
2. Fibers are elongated beyond its deformation limit (deformation
failure)
Design Steps:
1. Check Strength Failure for Good Design
2. Check deformation failure if / limit in specified used Hookes
Law:

FL
AE

While:
A=

D
4

Where:
A - cross-sectional area

4 FL
D 2 E

- the elongation

F tensile Force
E modulus of elasticity

d=

4 FL
E

1. if is not specified:
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Base your design on pure strength only.


Table 2.4 Units and Conversions

SI
1 MPa

FPS
145.0377

CGS
10,000,00

MKS
0.001

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psi

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BATAAN PENINSULA STATE


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

N
2
m
UNIVERSITY

0 Ba
OF

BALANGA C-2100

F COLLEGE1OF
N ENGINEERING
0.22481
100000
AND ARCHITECTURE
dyne
lb

kg
s2

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
f

10.7639
ft

10000
cm

1m

3.2808 ft

100 cm

1m

1m

3.2808 ft

100 cm

1m

Induced Stresses or Stresses Caused by Loading


1. Direct Axial Loads (F A)
The strength against an axially loaded member of a structure is
assessed on the magnitude of stress, the intensity of the axial force,
i.e., the force per unit area and is denoted by the Greek letter
(sigma).
F1
Tensile Stress ( t = A
Tensile Stress is the stress state leading to expansion, that is,
the length of a material tends to increase in the direction of the force /
stress while the volume of the material stays constant. Generally,
tensile stress occurs when a material is subjected to pulling or
stretching force.
When a body is subjected to two equal and opposite axial pulls
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P (also called tensile load) as shown in Fig. 2.9 (a), then the stress
induced at any section of the body is known as tensile stress as
shown in Fig. 2.9 (b). A little consideration will show that due to the
tensile load, there will be a decrease in cross-sectional area and an
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

increase
in length of the body. The ratio of the increase in length to
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
the original
length
is known as tensile
strain.UNIVERSITY
BATAAN
PENINSULA
STATE
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Fig. 2.9 Tensile stress and strain.

F2

c
Compressive Stress (
A
Compressive stress is the reverse of tensile stress. Adjacent
parts of the material tend to press against each other through a
typical stress plane. Compressive stress is the stress on materials that
leads to a smaller volume.
When a body is subjected to two equal and opposite axial
pushes P (also called compressive load) as shown in Fig. 2.10(a), then
the stress induced at any section of the body is known as
compressive stress as shown in Fig. 2.10 (b). A little consideration
will show that due to the compressive load, there will be an increase
in cross-sectional area and a decrease in length of the body. The ratio
of the decrease in length to the original length is known as
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compressive strain.

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BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

Fig. 2.10 Compressive stress and strain.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

2. Transverse Load (F Neutral Axis)


Transverse loading is type of applied force perpendicular to the
longitudinal axis line. This loading cause objects to bend and gets
deflected from the original point of contact. It has compressive
strains and internal tensile resulting in curvature change.

Fig. 2.11

Shearing Stress:

F
A

When a body is subjected to two equal and opposite forces acting


tangentially across the resisting section, as a result of which the body
tends to shear off the section, then the stress induced is called
shear stress. The corresponding strain is known as shear strain
and it is measured by the angular deformation accompanying the
Page 147

shear stress.

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Fig. 2.12 Single shearing of a riveted joint.


Considering a body consisting of two plates connected by a rivet as
shown in Fig. 2.12 (a). In this case, the tangential force P tends to shear
off the rivet at one cross-section as shown in Fig. 2.12 (b). It may be
noted that when the tangential force is resisted by one cross-section of
the rivet (or when shearing takes place at one cross-section of the rivet),
then the rivets are said to be in single shear.
Considering two plates connected by the two cover plates as shown
in Fig. 2.13 (a). In this case, the tangential force P tends to shear off the
rivet at two cross-sections as shown in Fig. 2.13 (b). It may be noted that
when the tangential force is resisted by two cross-sections of the rivet (or
when the shearing takes place at two cross-sections of the rivet), then
the rivets are said to be in double shear.

Page 147

Fig. 2.13. Double shearing of a riveted joint.


Notes:
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

1. All Rlap
joints and single cover butt joints are in single shear, while
EPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
theBATAAN
butt joints with
double cover plates
are UNIVERSITY
in double shear.
PENINSULA
STATE
2. In M
case
AIN Cof
AMPUS
shear,
, PROVINCE
the area
OF BATAAN
involved
, CITYisOFparallel
BALANGA to
C-2100
the external force
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

applied.
3. When theMECHANICAL
holes are to be
punched or drilled
in the metal plates, then
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
the tools used to perform the operations must overcome the
ultimate shearing resistance of the material to be cut. If a hole of
diameter d is to be punched in a metal plate of thickness t, then
the area to be sheared,
A=

dt

and the maximum shear resistance of the tool or the force required
to punch a hole,
P = A u = d t u
where u = Ultimate shear strength of the material of the plate.

Load converted as the moment (Flexural or Bending stress)


Flexural strength is defined as a material's ability to resist
deformation under load. The transverse bending test is most
frequently employed, in which a rod specimen having either a circular
or rectangular cross-section is bent until fracture using a three point
flexural test technique. The flexural strength represents the highest
stress experienced within the material at its moment of rupture.

Page 147

Figure 2.14 Bending


C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Bending stress is the normal stress that is induced at a point in a


body subjected to loads that cause it to bend. When a load is applied
perpendicular to the length of a beam (with two supports on each end),
bending moments are induced in the beam.
Flexural theory states that most materials will exhibit linearplastic behavior, i.e. they will respond to an applied load by deflecting in
accordance to Hooke's Law, and will return to their original shape and
form when the load is removed. This stress-strain relation exists only up
to a certain load, after which the material will undergo some irretrievable
deformation. Hooke's Law states that deformation of an object under
loading is proportional to the magnitude of the load.
Materials which are said to be "elastic" become distorted when
they are compressed, stretched, or bent. This behavior is due to the
forces that different parts of a member exert on each other when a
structure is subjected to loads. A simply supported beam of length L,
subjected to a concentrated transverse load P at midspan would exhibit
vertical deflection (and start to curve) due to bending caused by the two
Page 147

reaction loads at the supports. At midspan, the top of the beam would be
the location at which the maximum compression occurs in the beam due
to contraction in the top fibers. The bottom of the beam would
experience maximum tension due to the elongation in the bottom fibers.
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

Torque
or Twisting
Moment STATE UNIVERSITY
BATAAN
PENINSULA
M
AIN
C
AMPUS
,
P
ROVINCE
OF B
CITY OF due
BALANGA
C-2100
Torsion is the twisting
ofATAAN
an ,object
to an
applied torque. In
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

sections perpendicular to the torque axis, the resultant shear


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

stress in this section is perpendicular to the radius.

Fig 2.15
Twisting Moment

Bearing stress

Page 147

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Fig 2.16 Bearing Stress In a Riveted Joint


A localized compressive stress at the surface of contact between two
members of a machine part that are relatively at rest is known as
bearing stress or crushing stress. The bearing stress is taken into account
in the design of riveted joints, cotter joints, knuckle joints, etc.
Bearing stress is the stress cause by a force which is perpendicular
to the resisting area (Ab). It is the contact pressure between two separate
bo0dies.
S b=

P b Pb
=
Ab LD

Where:
Sb

= Bearing Stress

Pb

= Perpendicular force to the resisting area

Ab

= resisting area (projected area) perpendicular to the force

Page 147

Shear Modulus or Modulus of Rigidity


It has been found experimentally that within the elastic limit, the
shear stress is directly proportional to shear strain. Mathematically
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

THE PHILIPPINES
REPUBLIC
=C
. OF =C

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

Where:

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

= Shear stress,

= Shear strain, and

= Constant of proportionality, known as shear modulus or modulus

of rigidity. It is also denoted by N or G.

The following table shows the values of modulus of rigidity (C) for
the materials in everyday use.
Table 2.5 Values of C for the commonly used materials
Modulus of Rigidity (C) in
Material

GPa i.e. GN/m2 or

Steel
Wrought iron
Cast iron
Copper
Brass
Timber

kN/mm2
80 to 100
80 to 90
40 to 50
30 to 50
30 to 50
10

Working Stress
When designing machine parts, it is desirable to keep the stress
Page 147

lower than the maximum or ultimate stress at which failure of the


material takes place. This stress is known as the working stress or design
stress. It is also known as safe or allowable stress.

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

Note: By
failure it is not meant actual breaking of the material. Some
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
machine
parts are said
to fail when they
have UNIVERSITY
plastic deformation set in
BATAAN
PENINSULA
STATE
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

them, and
they no
perform their
satisfactory.
COLLEGE
OFmore
ENGINEERING
ANDfunction
ARCHITECTURE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

DERIVATION OF FORMULA

For Tensile Stress:

t=

F1
A

Where:
t

- tensile stress

A cross-sectional area
F External force or load

For Compressive Stress:


c=

F
A

Where:

Page 147

- compressive stress

A cross-sectional area
F axial compressive force acting
on a body
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

For Transverse Load:

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

F
=
A ;

Where:

shearing stress

A resisting area
=

F
2 A ; (for double shear)

F tangential force

For Flexural Stress:

Mc
=
I

Where:

- bending stress

M moment about the neutral axis


C perpendicular distance to the
neutral axis
I second moment of area about
the neutral axis

Page 147

For Twisting Moment:

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

Where:
T (r )
STATE
=
BATAAN
PENINSULA
UNIVERSITY
shearing stress
;
J
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE OF BATAAN, CITY OF BALANGA C-2100
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
ARCHITECTURE
T AND
torque

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
R - radial distance
of point from

center of section
J polar moment of inertia

SAMPLE PROBLEMS
Compressive Stress
1. A column supports a compressive load of 200kN. Determine the
outside diameter of column if inside diameter is 170 mm and
compressive stress of 40MPa.
Given:
F=210 kN

Di=180 mm
c =50 MPa

Solution:
Page 147

Solving for the Area of the column:


c=

F
A

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

210 kN
A

REPUBLIC
OF THE
PHILIPPINES
40000
kPa=

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF3ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
2

A=5 x 25 m

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Solving for the Outside Diameter of the column:


From:

A=

( D 2Di2 )
4 o

x 253 m2= [ D o2( 0.180 m )2 ]


5
4
Do=0.18113 m=181.13 mm

2. A short hollow steel cylinder with a wall thickness of 35mm is to carry


a compression load applied uniformly on the end of 6800kN. If the
allowable working stress in steel in compression is 135MPa, then the
minimum outside diameter of the cylinder required to safely support
the load is:
Given:
t=35 mm
F=6800 kN

S=135 MPa

Page 147

Solution:
Solving for the area of the hollow steel cylinder:

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

F
A

REPUBLIC
c =OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

6800000 N
A ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
MECHANICAL

138 MPa=

A=49275.36 mm2
Solving for the outside Diameter of the hollow steel cylinder:
Since:
D i=Do 2t
D i=Do 2 ( 35 mm )
D i=Do 70 mm
Thus,
From:

49275.36 mm2 =

A=

D o2Di2 )
(
4

Do2( Do 70 mm )2 ]
[
4

62739.34 mm2= Do2D o2 +140 mm Do4900 mm2

Page 147

Do=483.1357 mm
Tensile Stress

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

1. Determine
the minimum mean diameter of a taper pin for use to fix
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
a lever
to a shaft,
if it is to transmit
a maximum
torque of 760 in-lbs.
BATAAN
PENINSULA
STATE
UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

theCOLLEGE
shaft diameter
is 4 inchesAND
andARCHITECTURE
the material allowable stress is
OF ENGINEERING
30000 psi. Use factor of safety 4.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Given:
T =760.lb
Dshaft =4
S=30000 psi

Factor of Safety=4

Solution:
F=

F=

T
r

760. lb
4.
4

F=760lbs .

S=

T
A

Page 147

where

2
A= d
4

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

760.lb
2
d
BATAAN PENINSULA
STATE UNIVERSITY
4
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE OF BATAAN, CITY OF BALANGA C-2100
REPUBLIC 30000=
OF THE PHILIPPINES

COLLEGE
OF ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
d=0.0323.=4.5618
mm

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

2. A hallow steel tube is used to carry a tensile load of 400kN at a


stress of 130MPa. If outside diameter is 10 times the tube thickness,
find the thickness of the tube.
Given:
T =400 kN
S=130 MPa

D o=10 t

Solution:
Solving for Area of the steel:
s=

T
A

Page 147

130000 kPa=

400 kN
A

A=3.08 x 103 m2
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

REPUBLIC
THE PHILIPPINES
Solving
forOFInside
Diameter,

Di

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

Do=10 t

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Do=Di +2 t

10 t=Di+ 2t
Di=8 t
Since Area of steel & Inside Diameter is now given,
Solve for the thickness of the tube:
From:

A=

D o2Di2 )
(
4

3.08 x 10 m =

(10 t )2( 8 t )2 ]
[
4

3.92 x 10 m =36 t

t=0.0104 m=10.4319 mm

Bearing Stress
1. A journal bearing with a diameter of 80mm is subjected to a load of
5500N while rotating at 200 rpm. If its coefficient of friction is 0.02
Page 147

and L/D = 2.5, find its projected area in mm2.


Given:
D=80 mm
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

F=5500 N

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN
PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY
N=200 rpm
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

Coefficient of Friction=0.02

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

L
=2.5
D
Solution:
From:

L
=2.5
D

L
=2.5
80 mm
L=200 mm

Solving for the Projected Area:


A=D x L
A=80 mm ( 200 mm )

A=16000 mm 2

3. A lap joint consists of steel plate 250mm by 18mm in thickness is


connected by 4-20mm diameter rivets. Compute the bearing capacity
Page 147

of the rivet connection if the allowable bearing stress is 210MPa.


Given:
L=250 mm
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

t=18 mm

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN
PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY
d=420 mm
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

S b=210 MPa

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Solution:
From:

S b=

F
A

Where:
A=4 ( d x t )
A=4 ( 0.020 m x 0.018 m )
A=0.00144 m2
Then:
210000 kPa=

F
2
0.00144 m

F=302.4 kN =302400 N
Page 147

Flexural or Bending Stress


C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

1. A R
simply
supported timber beam is 60mm by 300mm in crossEPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

section
and 5mPENINSULA
long. If the fiber STATE
stress is not
to exceed 8.3MPa and
BATAAN
UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

theCOLLEGE
beam OF
weight
is neglected,
find the maximum mid-span
ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
concentrated load that the beam can support if the 200 mm
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

dimension is vertically oriented.


Given:
b=60 mm
h=300 mm

L=5 m
S=8.3 MPa

Solution:
For rectangular beam:
M =SZ
Where:
Z =section modulus of rectangularbeam

Z=

bh
6

Page 147

( 60 mm )( 300 mm )2
Z=
6
Z =900000 mm3
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

Thus,

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


M =SZ, PROVINCE
MAIN CAMPUS

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
M =( 8.3 MPa ) ( 900000
mm3 )

M =7470000 N m=7470 kN m

For simply supported beam:


M=

7470

PL
4

kN m=

P (5 m)
4

P=5976 kN
2. The gear reducer of a shaft has a flexural stress of 250 psi and a force
acting unit which is 2000 lb. if the diameter of the gear is 4 in.
Calculate the actual length of the shaft.
Given :
f = 250 psi
F = 2000 lb
Page 147

D = 4 in
L=?
Solution :
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

32 M
3
D
PENINSULA

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

f =

BATAAN

MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

STATE UNIVERSITY

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

WhereMECHANICAL
:
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

M=

FL
4

f =

32 FL
4 D3

32 ( 2000 ) L
( 4 ) (4 )3

250 psi =

32 ( 2500 ) L
3
4 ( 4)

L = 2.513 in
Shear Stress
1. If the ultimate shearing strength of a steel plate is 3000 Mpa. What
force is necessary to punch a 25 mm diameter hole in 8 mm thick
plate?
Page 147

Given:
Ss = 3000 Mpa
t = 8 mm
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

D = 25 mm

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


Solution:
M
AIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

Ss=

F
A MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

F = Ss x A
F = 3000 N/mm2 ()(25mm)(8mm)

F = 1884.9556 kN
2. What force is necessary to punch a 1 inch hole in a 1/8 inch steel
plate if the ultimate shearing stress is 60000psi and the ultimate
compressive stress is 80000psi?
Given:
D=1.
1
t= .
8
S s =60000 psi
c=80000 psi

Solution:
Solving for the shearing area during punching:

Page 147

From:

A= D t

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

BATAAN
PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY
1
, PROVINCE OF BATAAN, CITY OF BALANGA C-2100
MAIN C8AMPUS
COLLEGE
A= OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


2

A=0.3926
Thus,
Ss =

F
A
2

0.3926

60000 psi=

F=23 ,562 lbs

Torsional stress
1. A 3 inches shaft is subjected to 3kN-m torque. Find the stress
developed.
Given:
1m
=0.0762 m
3.281 ft
1 ft
D=3. x

12 x

Page 147

T =3 kN m

Solution:
Using the shaft stress formula:
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

16 T
3
D
BATAAN

REPUBLIC
S S =OF THE PHILIPPINES

PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY

MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

SS=

16 ( 3 kN m )

MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
( 0.0762 m)3

S S =34 . 532 MPa

Ter
min

Adhesion. Intimate sticking of


metal

surfaces

compressive

under

stresses

by

formulation of metallic bonds.


Adhesive
such
attract

as

bond.
dipole

The

forces

bonds

which

adhesives

and

base

materials to each other.

required to separate two objects


of

standard

bonded

area

by

either shear or tensile stress.


Airy

stress

biharmonic

function.

function

of

A
two

variables whose second partial


derivatives

give

the

stress

components of a body subjected


to plain strain.

Page 147

Allowable
Adhesive

strength.

stress.

The

The

maximum force per unit area

strength of an adhesive bond,

that may be safely applied to a

usually measured as a force

solid.

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

or deflect in the direction in

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

Alternating
stress.
A stress
BATAAN
PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

which the
load is applied.
STATE
UNIVERSITY

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

produced
in a material
by forces AND ARCHITECTURE
COLLEGE
OF ENGINEERING
which are such that each force
Bending stress.

An internal

alternately

compressive

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

acts

in

opposite

directions.

tensile

or

longitudinal stress developed in


a beam in response to curvature

Anelasticity. Deviation from a


proportional

induced by an external force.

relationship

between stress and strain.

Biaxial stress. The condition in


which there are three mutually

Axial modulus. The ratio of a

perpendicular principal stresses.

simple tension stress applied to


a material to the resulting strain

Bows notation. A graphical

parallel to the tension when the

method of representing coplanar

sides

forces

of

the

sample

are

and

stress

restricted so that there is no

alphabetical

letters,

lateral deformation.

solution

stresses

of

using
in

the

or

in

determining the resultant of a

B
Bearing pressure. Also known
as bearing stress, it is the load
on a bearing surface divided by
its area.

system of concurrent force.


Boussinesqs
problem

of

problem.

The

determining

the

stresses and strain in an infinite


body.
Page 147

Bending Strength. The quality

Breaking

load.

The

stress

of a material which resists forces

which, when steadily applied to

from causing a member to bend


C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

structural
member is just
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

sufficient
to break orPENINSULA
rupture it.
BATAAN
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

Cold stress.
Forces tending
STATE
UNIVERSITY

BATAAN, CITY

OF

to

BALANGA C-2100

deform steel, cement, and other


COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

Breaking strength. The ability

materials

of a material to resist breaking

temperature.

resulting

from

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

low

or rupture from a tension force.


Cold
Breaking stress.

The stress

required to fracture a material


whether

by

compression,

tension, or shear.
Buckling stress. Fore exerted
by the crippling load

stretch.

pulling

operation on extruded plastic


filaments in which little or no
heat is used: improve tensile
properties.
Combined stresses. Bending
or

twisting

structural
with

stresses

member

direct

in

combined

tension

or

compression.

Casting strain. Any strain that


result from cooling of a casting

Compliance constant. Any one

stress.

of

the

components

of

the

relationship in the generalized


Casting stress. Any stress that

Hookes law used to express

develops in a casting due to

strain

geometry and casting shrinkage.

function

components
of

the

as

linear
stress

components.
Page 147

Cohesive

strength.

Hypothetically the stress causing

Compressibility. The property of

tensile fracture without plastic

a substance or material capable of

deformation.
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

being reduced
in volume by
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
application
of pressure.
BATAAN
PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

Cooling
stress. Stress resulting
STATE
UNIVERSITY

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

from uneven contraction during


COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE
cooling of metals and ceramics
MECHANICAL
DEPARTMENT
Compression.
Reduction ENGINEERING
in
due to uneven temperature
volume of a substance due to
distribution.
pressure.
Compression failure. Buckling
or

collapse

caused

by

compressive force.
Bulk

modulus of elasticity.

beam

or

structural

member which is subjected to


compressive stress.
Compressive

stress

which,

temperature,

at

will

given

cause

material to rupture in a given

member.
other

of solid caused by stress.


Creep rupture strength. The

Compression modulus.

Compression

Creep. A time dependent strain

strength.

time.
Creep

strength.

The

stress

which, at a given temperature


will result in creep rate of 1%

The

maximum compressive stress a


material can withstand without
failure.

deformation

within

100,000

hour.
Creep
stress

limit.
a

withstand

The

given
in

maximum

material

can

given

time

Page 147

Compressive stress. A stress


which causes an elastic body to

without exceeding a specified


quantity of creep.

shorten in the direction of the


applied load.
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

Crushing
strength.
The
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
compressive
stress required
to a
BATAAN
PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

load to maximum permissible


load that
can be safely
STATE
UNIVERSITY

BATAAN, CITY

OF

placed

BALANGA C-2100

cause a COLLEGE
solid to fail
fracture.
on a structure.
OFby
ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Damaging

Design stress. A permissible

stress.

Minimum

unit stress for a given material


and use that will cause damage
to the member and make it unfit
for

its

expected

length

of

service.

stress

machine

part

or

structural

member

may

be

subjected,

shape or dimension of a body


by

expansion
chemical

stresses,
or
or

transformations,

thermal

contraction,
metallurgical
or

shrinkage

and expansions due to moisture


change.

to

which

which is large enough to prevent


failure in case the loads exceed
expected

values,

uncertainties

Deformation. Any alteration of


caused

maximum

or

other

turn

out

unfavorably.
Deviatonic stress. The portion
of the total stress that differs
from

an

isostatic

pressure,

it

difference

is

hydrostatic

equal

between

to

the

the
total

stress and spherical stress.

Deformation curve. A curve

Elastic body. A solid body for

showing

relationship

which the additional deformation

between stress and load on a

produced by an increment of

the

Page 147

structure.

stress

completely

disappears

when the increment is removed.


Design factor. A safety factor
based on the ratio of ultimate

Elastic

buckling.

An

abrupt

increase in lateral deflection of a

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

column Rat
a critical load while
EPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
the

stresses
acting
on the
BATAAN
PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

ElasticUNIVERSITY
failure. Failure
STATE

BATAAN, CITY

OF

of a

BALANGA C-2100

column COLLEGE
are whollyOF
elastic.
body to recover its original size
ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE
and shape after a stress is
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Elastic center. The point of a

removed.

beam in the plane of the kinetic


energies of translation of the

Elasticity.

participating

systems

the

whereby

solid

same

the

as

changes

its

shape

after

is

collision

before.

shape

property
material
and

size

under action or opposing forces,


but

Elastic

The

curve.
of

the

The

curved

longitudinal

recovers

its

original

structure when the forces are


removed.

centroidal surface of a beam

Elastic

when

stress a solid can sustain without

the

transverse

loads

limit.

acting on it produced wholly

undergoing

elastic stresses.

deformation.

Elastic

The

maximum
permanent

deformation.

Elastic recovery. The fraction

Reversible alteration of the form

of a given deformation of a solid

or dimension of a solid body

which behaves elastically.

under stress or strain.


Elastic

equilibrium.

The

condition of an elastic body in

Elastoplasticity. The state of a


substance subjected to a stress
Page 147

which each volume element of

greater than its elastic limit but

the body is in equilibrium under

not so great as to cause it to

the combined effect of elastic

rapture, in which it exhibits both

stresses and externally applied

elastic and plastic properties.

body force.
C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

Elongation.
The
fractional
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
increaseBATAAN
in a materials
length
PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

Erection stress. The internal


force exerted
on a structural
STATE
UNIVERSITY

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

due to COLLEGE
stress in OF
tension
or to AND ARCHITECTURE
member during construction.
ENGINEERING
thermal expansion.
F
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Endurance Limit. Also known


as fatigue limit the maximum
stress that will not cause failure
when

the

force

is

reverse

indefinitely.
Equivalent bending moment.
A bending moment which acting
alone would produce in a circular
shaft a normal stress of the
same

magnitude

maximum

normal

as

the
stress

produced by a given bending


moment and a given twisting
moment acting simultaneously.
Equivalent twisting moment.
A twisting moment which acting
alone would produce in a circular
shaft a shear stress of the same

Factor

of

safety.

The ratio

between the breaking load on a


member, appliance or hoisting
rope and the safe permissible
load on it.
Failure. Condition caused by
collapse, break or bending so
that a structure or structural
element can no longer fulfill its
purpose.
Failure fatigue. The number of
applied repeated stress cycles a
material

can

endure

before

failure.
Fatigue limit. The maximum
stress a material can endure for
an

infinite

number

of

stress

Page 147

magnitude as the shear stress

cycle without breaking.

produced by a given twisting


moment and a given bending

Fatigue ratio. The ratio of a

moment acting simultaneously

fatigue limits or fatigue strength


to the static tensile strength.

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

Grinding

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

FatigueBATAAN
strength.
The
PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

stress.

Residual

tensile UNIVERSITY
or compressive stress
STATE

BATAAN, CITY

OF

or

BALANGA C-2100

maximum
stress OF
a material
can AND ARCHITECTURE
combination of both on the
COLLEGE
ENGINEERING
endure for a given number of
surface of a material due to
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

stress cycles without breaking.

grinding.

Fiber stress. The tensile or


compressive stress on the fibers
of a fiber metal or other fibrous
material, especially when fiber
orientation

is

parallel

with

neutral axis.
Flow curve. The stress-strain
curve of a plastic material.
Flow stress. The stress along
one axis at a given value of
strain that is required to produce
plastic deformation.
Fluid stress. Stress associated
with plastic deformation in a
solid material.

Hookean

deformation.

Deformation

of

substance

which is proportional to force


applied to it.
Hookean solid. An ideal solid
which obeys Hookes law exactly
for all values of stress.
Hookes law. The law that the
stress

of

solid

is

directly

proportional to strain applied to


it.
Hydrostatic

strength.

The

ability of a body to withstand


hydrostatic stress.
Page 147

Fracture stress. The minimum


tensile stress that will cause

Hydrostatic

fracture

condition in which there are

stress.

The

equal compressive stresses or

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

equal

tensile
stresses in all
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

direction,
and no shear
stresses
BATAAN
PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

Internal

stress.

systemUNIVERSITY
within a solid that
STATE

BATAAN, CITY

OF

stress
is not

BALANGA C-2100

on any plane.
dependent on external stress.
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Isostatic.

Impact stress. Force per unit


area imposed on a material by a
sudden applied force.
Inelastic

buckling.

In

photoelasticity

studies of stress analyses to


which represent the progressive
change

in

principal-plane

directions.
Sudden

increase of deflection or twisting


in a column when compressive

stress reaches the elastic limit

Load stress. Stress that result

but

from a pressure or gravitational

before

elastic

buckling

develops.

load.

Inelastic stress. Force acting

Local

on a solid which produced the

discontinuity.

deformation such that the origin

intensified stress on a small

size or shape of the solid are not

portion of a structure.

structural
The

effect

of

restored after removal of force

M
Instantaneous recovery. The
immediate

reduction

in

the

Mean

normal

stress.

In

system stressed multiaxially, the


Page 147

strain of a solid when a stress is

algebra

mean

of

removed or reduced, in contrast

principal stresses.

the

three

to creep recovery.
Mean

stress.

mean

of

the

The

algebraic

maximum

and

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

minimum
values of a periodically
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
varying BATAAN
stresses.

PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


N

MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE


Normal stress.

Membrane
which

is

stress.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
component
at a

equivalent

to

the

average stress across section


involved

and

normal

to

the

stress

point

in

structure which is perpendicular


to the reference plane.

reference plane.
Modulus

The

Stresses

of

rupture

in

Operating stress. The stress to

torsion. The maximum stresses

which

structural

per unit area that a specimen

subjected in service.

unit

is

can withstand without breaking

when its ends are twisted, as


calculated

from

the

breaking

load under the consumption that


the specimen is elastic until
rupture takes place.

of

elasticity

of

material that deforms other than


according to Hookes law.
Modulus

of

in which two of the principal


stresses are always parallel to a
given plane and are constant in

Modulus of deformation. The


modulus

Plane stress. A state of stress

elasticity.

the normal direction.


Plastic

deformation.

Permanent change in shape or


size of a solid body without

The

fracture

resulting

from
Page 147

ratio of the increment of some

application of sustained stress

specified form of stress to the

beyond the elastic limit.

increment

of

some

specified

form of strains such as young

Plasticity. The property of a

modulus or the shear modulus.

solid body whereby it undergoes

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

a permanent
change in shape or
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
size when
subjected to
stress.
BATAAN
PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

possibly

over

considerably

period of
time.
STATE
UNIVERSITY

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

Poissons ratio. Is the ratio of a

Relaxation. Relief of stress in a

lateral unit deformation to axial

strained material due to creep.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

unit deformation.
Residual

stress.

Internal

Proportional limit. Is the stress

inherent,

at

body stress that exists within a

which

stress-strain

curve

deviates from a straight line.

trapped

locked-up

material as a result of things


other than external loading such

Primary stress. A normal or

as

cold

working,

heating

shear stress component in a

cooling,

solid material which is under a

stressing and electroplating.

etching,

or

repeated

condition of equilibrium and is

not self-limiting.
Principal

stress.

stress

occurring at right angles to a


principal plane of stress

Shear strength. Is the ability


of metal to withstand forces thus
following a number of twist.
Shearing stress. A stress in
which the material on one side

Radial stress. Tangential stress

of a surface pushes on the

at the periphery of an opening.

material on the other side of the


Page 147

surface with a force which is


Recovery. The return of a body

parallel to the surface.

to its original dimension after it


has been subjected to stress

Stiffness.
steady

The

force

ratio
acting

of
on

the
a

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

deformable
elastic medium to
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
the resulting
displacement.
BATAAN
PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

as moment of force; rotation


movement.
STATE
UNIVERSITY

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

Strength. Is the ability of metal

Thermal

stress.

Mechanical

to

stress induced in a body when

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

withstand

loads

without

breaking down.

some or all of its parts are not


free to expand or contract in

Stress. The force acting across

response

a unit area in a solid material

temperature.

resisting

the

to

change

of

separation,

compacting, or sliding that tends


to be induced by external forces

Uniaxial

stress.

state

of

stress in which two of the three


principal stresses is zero.

T
Tensile

strength.

Stress

developed by a material bearing

Unit stress. The load per unit


of area.

a tensile load.

Y
Tension stress. The exerted
force

by

support

on

stretching object.
Torque. For a single force, the

Yield point. The stress at which


low or medium steel undergoes
a marked elongation without an
increase in load.

Page 147

cross product of a vector from


some reference point to the
point of acceleration of the force
with the force itself. Also known

Yield strength. The stress at


which the material exhibits a
specified

deviation

proportionality

of

stress

from
and

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147

strain.

Also

called

total

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

extension.
BATAAN

PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY

MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

Youngs
modulus.
BATAAN, CITY
OF BALANGA
C-2100

The ratio of a

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND simple


ARCHITECTURE
tension stress applied to a

Yield stress. The lowest stress

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
material
to the resulting strain

at which the extension of the


tensile

test

piece

increases

parallel

without increase in load.

Page 147

C h a p t e r 2 : D i ff e r e n t T y p e s o f I n d u c e d S t r e s s
Page 147