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GE Energy


EX2100e Excitation Control for 35 A

Regulator Systems
Product Description
These instructions do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment, nor to provide for every possible contingency
to be met during installation, operation, and maintenance. The information is supplied for informational purposes only, and
GE makes no warranty as to the accuracy of the information included herein. Changes, modifications, and/or improvements to
equipment and specifications are made periodically and these changes may or may not be reflected herein. It is understood
that GE may make changes, modifications, or improvements to the equipment referenced herein or to the document itself at
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assist that customer in the installation, testing, operation, and/or maintenance of the equipment described. This document
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Revised: 2011-11-30
Issued: 2010-10-22
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Overview ....................................................................................................................................................... 3
Related Documents .......................................................................................................................................... 4
Hardware ....................................................................................................................................................... 5
Digital Controller (IGBT-based Systems) ....................................................................................................... 6
Dual (Power Bridge - Warm Backup) ............................................................................................................ 7
Control Cabinet ........................................................................................................................................ 8
Control Boards ......................................................................................................................................... 9
I/O Terminal Boards .................................................................................................................................. 11
Modules .................................................................................................................................................. 15
Software ........................................................................................................................................................ 21
Testing........................................................................................................................................................... 24
Routine Factory Tests................................................................................................................................. 24
Customer Witness Tests.............................................................................................................................. 24
Standards Supported......................................................................................................................................... 26

The EX2100e Regulator Control System is GE Energys latest state-of-the-art control
system for steam, gas, or hydro generation for both new and retrofit units. GE has
supplied more than 6,000 thyristor and regulator systems in over 70 countries during the
last 40 years. The EX2100e regulator is GEs fourth generation digital excitation control
system. There are over 4,000 first and second generation GE digital excitation controls
operating in 60 countries.
Hardware and software design is closely coordinated between GEs system and controls
engineering to ensure delivery of a true system solution. Integration is seamless between
Excitation Controls, Turbine Control system, Static Starter System, Integrated Control
System (ICS), and Human-machine Interface (HMI). For stand-alone retrofit applications,
integration with customer distributed control systems (DCS) through serial or Ethernet
Modbus is supported.
This document specifically addresses applications for the EX2100e Excitation Regulator
Control System, 35 A regulators.


Product Description

Related Documents
For further information on the EX2100e Regulator Control product, refer to the following

GEH-6707, ToolboxST User Guide for EX2100e Excitation Control

GEH-6783, EX2100e Regulator Control Installation and Startup Guide

GEH-6784, EX2100e Regulator Control Maintenance and Troubleshooting Guide

GEH-6788, Power System Stabilizer for an EX2100e Excitation

GEI-100256, EX2100e Receiving, Handling and Storage of GE Drive and Exciter


GEI-100509, Exciter Attenuation Board IS200EXAMG_B (EXAM) Instruction Guide

GEI-100525, Exciter Regulator Static Converter ERSC IS200ERSCG_A

GEI-100531, Exciter Regulator Third-party Ground Detector Terminal Board

IS200ERGTH_A Instruction Guide

GEI-100665, Mark* VIe Controllers UCCx and UCSx Instruction Guide

GEI-100770, EX2100e EDFF Dc Fanned Feedback Board Instruction Guide

GEI-100771, EX2100e ERAX Regulator Auxiliary I/O Board Instruction Guide

GEI-100772, EX2100e ESYS System I/O Interface Board Instruction Guide

GEI-100773, EX2100e EDSL Dual Regulator Selector Instruction Guide

GEI-100775, EX2100e CT Expansion Board IS200ECTXG1A Instruction Guide

GEI-100782, High-speed Serial Link Interface Board (HSLA) Instruction Guide

GEI-100787, EX2100e Touchscreen Local Operator Interface Instruction Guide

The EX2100e excitation control is available in several configurations to provide control
flexibility for thyristor and regulator control. For small regulator applications, the
pulse-width modulated (PWM) system utilizes Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT)
to provide up to 35 A output. This system can support the following applications:

Saturable Current Transformers / Power Potential Transformers (SCT / PPT) regulator

Brushless exciter regulator

Direct current (dc) rotating exciter regulator

The architecture is a single or dual control with customer interface sub- system, an optional
diagnostic interface local operator (touchscreen), optional control operator interface (COI)
remote touchscreen interface, control power input module, and Power Control Module
(PCM). The PCM consists of a bridge interface sub-system, power bridge, ac and dc filter
networks, and alternating current (ac) and/or dc isolation devices.
In the SCT / PPT regulator and dc rotating exciter regulator applications, the EX2100e
regulator can desensitize the effect of the exciter time constant. The EX2100e regulator
incorporates direct measurement of the generator field voltage and field current to enhance
speed of response to system transients.
The EX2100e regulator supports Ethernet local area network (LAN) communication to
the following:

Turbine Controls and ICS, HMI, Programming Interface (PI-based) Historian, Onsite
Monitoring System (OSM), COI, and VersaMax*

Extended input and output (I/O) modules using the Ethernet Global Data (EGD)

Customer distributed control system (DCS) through Ethernet or Ethernet Modbus

remote terminal unit (RTU)

ToolboxST* application

GE On-site Support* for monitoring and diagnostics

The EX2100e regulator incorporates a powerful diagnostic system and a control simulator
to support rapid installation, tuning of control constants, and training.


Product Description

EX2100e 35 A Regulator Functional Diagram

Digital Controller (IGBT-based Systems)

The EX2100e exciter products offer a regulator control system with a 600 mm control
enclosure with supporting hardware based on the particular application. The control and
PCMs are panel mounted. The regulator system can be purchased as part of a finished
cabinet, or the individual components can be shipped separately for mounting onsite to
better serve retrofit applications.
Power conversion consists of an input section, a dc link, and the converter output section.
The input section is a three-phase diode bridge with input filters. The ac input range is 90
to 280 V rms, nominal. Maximum continuous ac input frequency is 480 Hz. Ac input
can be single or three-phase from a permanent magnet generator (PMG), auxiliary bus, or
generator terminals. An input PPT is not required for the PMG input but it is required for
an auxiliary bus or generator terminal feed.
A backup source from nominal 125 to 250 V dc batteries is filtered, diode-isolated, and
combined with the three-phase diode bridge output. These sources energize the dc link, an
unregulated source voltage for the control output power through the IGBTs. The dynamic
discharge circuit limits the dc link voltage level during events such as load rejection or
unit trip.

The converter output section uses IGBTs to pulse-width modulate the dc link source
voltage to its final value. The chopping frequency of the IGBTs is approximately 1,000
Hz. This output is fed to the exciter field as a regulated voltage or current. An output
shunt monitors the field current. Continuous current output is provided up to 35 A dc with
150% forcing (maximum 52.5 A) for 10 seconds. A dc output contactor within the shunt
contactor module (SCM) applies current to the exciter field.
Refer to the section, I/O
Terminal Boards for more

The EX2100e regulator control contains up to six boards interconnected through a

high-speed serial link (HSSL) cabled to their associated I/O terminal boards.

Dual (Power Bridge - Warm Backup)

The EX2100e regulator features a warm backup configuration, which includes dual
exciter control I/O and protection. The control design includes M1 (Master One) and M2
(Master Two), with two IGBT bridges that can accept separate or shared ac input power.
The control configuration can also share a common dc output circuit to the exciter field
through the shunt contactor selector module. M1 and M2 are independent controls, each
with automatic and manual regulator functions.
Either control, M1 or M2, can control the bridge firing, as determined by the operator. In
the warm backup configuration, M1 controls bridge #1, and M2 controls bridge #2.

EX2100e Regulator Dual Control System Block Diagram


Product Description

For processing the application software, two independent Universal Controller Stand
Alone Board (UCSB) controllers, with separate PCMs and an output selector module,
provide the dc output current for the exciter field (or SCT control winding).
The active power bridge receives the gating commands from the active control (M1 or
M2), and supports the full-field voltage and current needs of the exciter field while the
backup power bridges gating circuit is inhibited. The operator has full control to select
which of the dual power bridges is active or inactive. Bi-directional bumpless transfer
between active and inactive bridges is standard. The active master can also self diagnose
a failure or missed operation and activate the backup control and power bridge without
operator intervention.

Control Cabinet
The EX2100e regulator is encased in a National Electrical Manufacturers Association
(NEMA) 1/IP20 freestanding, indoor metal cabinet for floor-mounting installation. An
IP54 option for the cabinet is also available. The equipment is designed to operate in an
ambient temperature range of 0 to 40C (32 to 104 F). Depending upon the specific
application, a current derating factor may apply at 50C (122 F).
The standard cabinet color is ANSI-70 (light gray) on exterior surfaces (other colors are
available). Interior surfaces are galvanized.
Shipment of the EX2100e regulator systems modules as a parts kit is available for retrofit
into existing systems.

EX1200e Regulator Transfer Module

EX2100e Regulator PCM

EX2100e Regulator Cabinet - Floor,

Right Side, Hidden

EX2100e Regulator Cabinet - Left

Side Wall and Roof, Hidden

Control Boards
The EX2100e exciter 35 A regulator control boards include:


IS420UCSB Microprocessor-based Universal Controller Stand-alone (UCSB) Board

IS200HSLA High-speed Serial Link Interface (HSLA) Board

Product Description

UCSB Controller
The EX2100e control architecture is based on a UCSB controller. The UCSB controller
operates as a stand-alone module without a rack or backplane. Refer to GEI-100665,
Mark VIe Controllers UCCx and UCSx Instruction Guide for more information on the
UCSB controller.
The UCSB controller communicates to all I/O through normalized, serial interface
including combinations of the following:
Ethernet interface to the Unit Data Highway (UDH), ToolboxST application, and
Operator Interface (OI).

IONet interface to GE I/O modules common to several GE energy products.

HSSL interface, a custom GE interface to product specific I/O.

Each UCSB controller interface uses standard RJ-45 connectors and 100 M bps CAT5
Ethernet cables.
The UCSB controller provides both inner and outer loop control/regulator functions.
The inner and outer loop control/regulator functions include the following:
Set point controller for the auto and manual regulators

VAR or power factor (PF) control

Limiter functions

Power system stabilizer (PSS)

Balance meter

The inner loop control/regulator includes the following additional functions:

Field voltage or field current regulator

Field current limiter

Sequencing of start/stop, flashing, and alarms and trips

Generator instrumentation

Generator simulation

UCSB Controller (Redundant)

UCSB Controller (Simplex)


Refer to GEI-100782,
High-speed Serial Link
Interface (HSLA) Board
Instruction Guide for more

The HSLA board is a single or dual-port HSSL interface board. The UCSB controller
interface is from a HSLA HSSL daughterboard. A key feature of the HSLA is its field
programmable gate array (FPGA), which provides the digital logic functions for the HSSL.
Configuration of the HSLA FPGA is automatically performed by the UCSB controller.

HSLA Board

I/O Terminal Boards

The EX2100e regulator control I/O and terminal boards are as follows:


IS200ESYS EX2100e System Interface (ESYS) Board for Customer I/O

IS200EDFF EX2100e dc Fanned Feedback (EDFF) Board

IS200ERAX EX2100e Regulator Auxiliary I/O (ERAX) Board

IS200EAUX EX2100e Auxiliary Interfaces (EAUX) Board

S200EBAC EX2100e Bridge AC Feedback (EBAC) Board

IS200ECTX CT Expansion (ECTX) Board

IS200EDSL EX2100e Dual Regulator Selector (EDSL) Board

IS200ERGT EX2100e Regulator Third-party Ground Detector Terminal (ERGT)


IS200ERSC EX2100e Regulator Static Convertor (ERSC) Board

Product Description


ESYS Board
Refer to GEI-100772, EX2100e
ESYS System I/O Interface
Board Instruction Guide for
more information.

The ESYS board is designed for use in both the static and regulator versions of the
EX2100e advanced generation excitation control. The ESYS interfaces the basic I/O
external to the exciter (customer I/O) with the control system.
The ESYS board handles all the system I/O interfaces, such as PT and CT inputs, digital
control inputs, customer analog I/O, general purpose relays, and trip relay outputs. The
interface to the customer I/O is through pluggable screw terminal boards and the interface
to the EX2100e control system is through HSLA HSSL daughterboards mounted on the
ESYS board.

ESYS Board
The ESYS contains isolation transformers for critical generator voltage and current
measurements. Two three-phase generator PT voltage inputs can be connected for the
generator voltage feedback. Two generator CT inputs with current rating of 1 A or 5 A
provide the current feedback to the board.
The board also has provision for two 4 to 20 mA or 10 V analog inputs that can be used
for specific applications. It also provides the interface for four 12-bit analog outputs
driven by M1 and M2.
The board supports excitation contact inputs and contact outputs. It contains two trip relay
outputs for driving a customer lockout device based on 2-of-3 hardware voting output.
It also supports four general-purpose form-C relay contact outputs and seven auxiliary
contact inputs powered (wetted) with 55 V dc. The ESYS also processes 52G and seven
general purpose contact inputs.
The resulting status information from all the above I/O modules is provided to the UCSB
controllers through the HSLA boards. The ESYS board is supplied in three board groups
to support simplex, dual control, and TMR levels of control redundancy.


ESYS Board Groups






Dual Control (not used in the EX2100e Static Control)


Simplex Control

ERAX Board
Refer to GEI-100771, EX2100e
ERAX Regulator Auxiliary I/O
Board Instruction Guide for
more information.

The ERAX board contains the interface electronics for communication between the UCSB
controller and the PCM. The UCSB controller interface is from a HSLA HSSL daughter
board mounted to the ERAX board.
The ERAX board includes the following:

PCM transistor (IGBT) gate drive control for field excitation

Dynamic Discharge (DD) to control dc link overvoltage

PCM feedbacks to monitor the following:

IGBT gate drive status and de-saturation protection

Control of the K41 dc output contactor and the K3 dc link-charging relay

Field ground detector interfaces with the EXAM attenuator or the ERGT terminal
board to provide:


Dc link voltage including overvoltage detection

Output shunt current including over-current detection
PCM output voltage
PCM heat sink temperature

50 V dc square wave signal to the EXAM board for ground detection

Conditioning of ground detection feedback signals from the EXAM
Ground detector test functions on the EXAM
Alarm inputs from third party ground detectors using the ERGT interface board

Generator field voltage and field current feedbacks from the SCM

Dc to dc conversion and isolation of 28 V dc power input as required to support

the above functions

86G hardware and software lockout function

Interface to the dual control selector board, EDSL, for dual applications

Product Description


ERAX Board Layout

EDFF Board
Refer to GEI-100770, EX2100e
Dc Fanned Feedback (EDFF)
Board Instruction Guide, for
more information.

The EDFF board is designed to interface with the EX2100e Auxiliary Interface (EAUX)
board. The EDFF board measures field current and field voltage at the SCR bridge and
interfaces to the EAUX board over a high-speed fiber-optic link. The fiber-optic link
provides voltage isolation between the two boards, as well as high-noise immunity. Field
current is measured using a shunt in the dc field circuit. The field voltage feedback circuit
provides eight selector settings to scale the bridge voltage, depending on the type of
bridge application.
The EDFF board functions are to scale and convert field current and field voltage
at the exciter or regulator output into frequency feedback signals. It consists of
voltage-to-frequency (V-F) converter circuits: one for field current feedback and one
for field voltage feedback, for up to three redundant control sections M1, M2, and C. It
is available in three groups of boards; H1 for TMR, H2 for dual, and H3 for simplex
systems, respectively.
Note The EDFF board handles bridge dc voltage and current feedback.


EDSL Board
Refer to GEI-100773, EX2100e
EDSL Dual Regulator Selector
Instruction Guide for more

The EDSL board is used in the dual redundant version of the EX2100e regulator. The dual
regulator includes two UCSB-based controllers and two insulated gate bipolar transistor
(IGBT) power converters. The EDSL monitors the status of the two regulator sections
to determine which one is active. EDSL is not required in the simplex version of the
regulator. The EDSL is mounted on the Shunt Contractor Module (SCM).

EXAM Board
Refer to GEI-100509,
Exciter Attenuation Board
Instruction Guide for more

The EXAM board provides attenuation between the EX2100e control and the ERAX
board. The EXAM board is mounted on a bracket with the optional EDFF board and
contains a sense resistor connected to a resistor network across the field. The EXAM
board applies the low frequency 50 V square-wave signal, supplied from the ERAX
board, to one end of the sense resistor. The resulting current generates a voltage across the
resistor that is sent back to the ERAX board for Field Ground Detection (FGD) function.

ERGT Board
Refer to GEI-100531, Exciter
Regulator Third-party Ground
Detector Terminal Board
IS200ERGTH_A Instruction
Guide for more information.

The ERGT board is the interface between the ERAX and third-party field ground
detectors. The ERGT can be DIN-rail or wall-mounted.

ERSC Board
The ERSC board interfaces the IGBT control signals from the ERAX to the IGBT module
in the PCM.

The EX2100e 35 A regulator control modules are:


Power Conversion Module (PCM)

Shunt Contactor Module (SCM)

Dc Isolation Device

Ac Isolation Device

Battery Filter

Ac Line Filter

Touchscreen (optional)

Product Description


The PCM consists of an integrated IGBT inverter module that contains six IGBTs
connected in a three-phase inverter configuration. Two of the six IGBTs are used to create
the PWM dc output for field excitation. A third IGBT is used to discharge the dc link
capacitors into an external DD resistor. The maximum output is 35 A dc continuous, 52.5
A dc for 10 seconds. Input power is either rectified ac, dc from a station battery, or both. A
K3 relay is provided to bypass the dc link-charging resistor. The dc link-charging resistor
provides a soft charge on initial power up for the dc link capacitors.
In the dual redundant application, there is a primary control and PCM (M1), and a backup
control and PCM (M2).

EX2100e Regulator PCM (for M1 and M2) Block Diagram

EX2100e Regulator PCM


Power components that vary depending on the application current and dual requirements
are located in a separate module, the shunt contactor module (SCM). This module includes
the EDSL board for dual redundant applications.

EX2100e Regulator SCM (for Dual) Block Diagram

EX2100e Regulator SCM

The function of the EDSL board in the SCM is to control the transfer contactor, K5, which
is used to select which of the two PCMs is connected to the generator field. The selection
is based on control signals from the two controls, M1 and M2.
During the interval, while K5 is changing from open to closed, or from closed to open, the
EDSL board provides an alternate path through the silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR) for
circulation of field current. This is done to prevent arcing in the K5 contacts.


Product Description


Dc Isolation Device
For all regulator applications, a field interrupting dc contactor in the rectifier bridge dc
positive output is used to connect the regulator to the exciter field leads. The dc contactor
is located in the SCM. The dc contactor and the DD circuitry form the internal field
breaker function used to remove stored energy in the exciter field during trip events.

Ac Isolation Device
A 30 A, molded case ac circuit breaker is supplied as the standard ac isolation device
between ac input power and the regulator module.

Battery Filter
A battery filter is provided for requisitions requiring primary or backup control power
from a dc battery system to control and suppress transient voltages into the EX2100e
regulator control. The dimensions are 342.9 w x 228.6 h x 152.4 mm d (13.5 x 9 x 6 in)
and an estimated watt loss of 10 W.

Battery Filter


Ac Line Filter
An ac line filter is required when the ac input power source is provided from an auxiliary
bus or generator output terminals. Input isolation and fault current impedance requires an
input PPT, typically mounted at the bottom of the cabinet enclosure. The ac line filter and
PPT are not required for units fed from a PMG source. The dimensions are 231.1 w x 254
h x 114.3 mm d (9.1 x 10 x 4.5 in) and an estimated watt loss of 25 W.

Ac Line Filter


Product Description


Refer to GEI-100787, EX2100e
Touchscreen Local Operator
Interface Instruction Guide,
for touchscreen details and
operating guidelines.

The optional touchscreen is mounted on the control cabinet door and provides full exciter
operation. The touchscreen includes bar graph and variable displays to indicate system
conditions such as generator mega watt (MW) and mega volt-amperes reactives (MVARs),
field current and voltage, and regulator balance (null balance). Diagnostic displays, such
as the alarm history, setup, application data, and I/O interface, provide system information
for maintenance and troubleshooting. It can be disabled and password-protected to
prohibit local operation. The touchscreen can issue the following commands:

Start/stop commands

Regulator transfer commands

Regulator activation commands


Control Operator Interface (COI)

Remote or local
(door-mounted) control is

The COI is a cabinet door-mounted interface that displays and controls EX2100e signals
wherever remote control is needed. The COI connects directly to the EX2100e control
through the UDH, and is a less functional, more cost-effective control interface than an
HMI. The COI configuration uses a hard disk drive, Windows-based touchscreen interface
with either a 10, 12, or 15 in liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen.
The touchscreen can be used to collect sequence of events (SOE) data and run the
ToolboxST application and Data Historian. Screen displays for operation, alarms, and
COI configuration are supported.


The EX2100e control software is designed to support high performance and is structured
to help the customer and field engineers understand, install, commission, tune, and
maintain the excitation control system. The exciter software is configured and loaded
from the ToolboxST application and resides in the controllers. The software is represented
on the ToolboxST Component Editor screen by control blocks linked together to display
the signal flow.
The following figure is a simplified overview of the exciter control system, displaying
the main control functions. Both the generator field and stator currents and voltages are
measured and input to the control system. In normal operation, the ac regulator is selected.

Software Overview Block Diagram


Product Description


The generator voltages and currents from the PTs and CTs are the source of the control
signals needed by the automatic (generator terminal voltage) regulator, most limiters, and
protection functions. They are wired to the ESYS board, which acts as a signal conditioner
to isolate and scale the signals. The conditioned signals are then fed to the controller.
The system simultaneously samples the ac waveform at high speed and uses advanced
mathematical algorithms to digitally generate the variables needed.
The output of the software transducer system includes the following:

Generator voltage

Generator active current (average in phase with watts)

Generator reactive current (average in phase with reactive power, volt-amperes

reactives [VARs])

Generator frequency (current)

Slip (signal representing the change in the rotor speed)

The transducer system uses the outputs above to calculate the following:


Generator power and VARs

Magnitude of generator flux (V/Hz)

Phase angle and power factor

Software Transducer Overview Block Diagram


Product Description


The following section is a brief description of the quality assurance tests performed on
each exciter.

Routine Factory Tests

Each excitation control is subjected to routine factory tests including, but not restricted to,
the following:

Circuit continuity check

Dielectric (hi-pot) tests in accordance with IEEE standard 421B

Functional check of all components and devices for proper operation

Customer Witness Tests

All equipment goes through extensive testing with appropriate reviews and sign-offs as
described in the section Routine Factory Tests. After that, the customer can select either of
two options for a customer witness test.
Our customers are always
welcome to visit the Salem
factory to see how their
equipment is engineered and

Option A lets the customer examine the appearance and workmanship of the
equipment, then review the engineering and test paperwork. This is a standard service
for no additional charge.

Option B lets the customer witness a demonstration of the hardware and software.
This is an added-cost item to the customer.

Customers who desire some form of witness test other than Option A or Option B must
contact GE Salem upon placing their order to discuss the feasibility and cost of conducting
such a test.

Option A
This normal production inspection, performed immediately prior to shipment, verifies
the mechanical integrity, conformance to special purchaser hardware requirements,
appearance, and design completeness of the enclosure. The purchaser can elect to
participate in this inspection at no charge. This inspection and review process lasts
approximately four hours, and includes:

Inspection of appearance and mechanical integrity

Review for completion:


Test instructions
Test log
Test defect record
Check engineering log
Inspection defect records

Audit T check (for example, labeling/nomenclature)

As-shipped prints

Purchaser special requirements

The customer usually inspects the hardware the day before the unit is sent to shipping.
At this point, the unit will have been completely tested and inspected. The customer can
inspect the unit to ensure that its appearance meets their expectation before it is shipped.
Generally, the customer reviews the quality of workmanship, looking at paint, wiring,
crimping, assembly, etc.
The second part of this option is a review with the engineer. The customer can review all
paperwork relevant to the engineering and testing of the requisition. This would include
the elementary, I/O list, alarm list, layouts, outlines, test sign-off sheets, and such. This
documentation provides the basis for certification that the customer's hardware and
software went through the proper engineering, verification, and test processes.
Customers should advise GE Salem eight weeks prior to shipment of their intent to visit
the factory to inspect his equipment. GE will inform the customer two weeks prior to the
inspection date so that the customer can make travel arrangements. There is no additional
cost associated with this option.

Option B
This customer witness option consists of two demonstrations:

Hardware demonstration

Software demonstration

The hardware demonstration is an audit of those tests previously performed as described

in the section Routine Factory Tests. The duration of this witness demonstration is
typically two to four hours.
For the software demonstration, the customer's application software is downloaded to a
simulator panel at a convenient workstation area (not the customer's equipment) to verify
its integrity, functionality, and conformance to the specifications. The simulator panel uses
the same printed wiring boards and software that are used in the customers equipment to
model the specific application, or a typical generator and its field.
The software simulates a normal startup and control sequence:

Emulating the necessary contactor(s) and relays

Checking feedback echoes for closing verifications

Activating regulators in both the manual and automatic modes

Displaying any faults

The engineer uses the simulation method to check out the integrity of the system by
also exercising any special functions. The duration of this witness demonstration is
approximately four hours.
Option B, if selected, should be included as part of the initial purchase order. If a customer
decides to purchase this option after the initial order drawing release, an amendment to
the PO will be required. If option B was not initially purchased, then notification of a
change order is required at least eight weeks prior to shipment of the equipment. GE will
inform the customer two weeks prior to the test date so that the customer can make travel
arrangements. There is an additional cost associated with this customer witness point.


Product Description


Standards Supported

UL508C Standard for Power Conversion Equipment

CSA 22.2 No. 14 Industrial Control Equipment

ANSI IPC/EIA guidelines

CE Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive 2004/108/EC

EN 55011: ISM equipment emissions (CISPR 11)

EN 6100-6-4 Generic Immunity Industrial Environment

EN 61000-4-2 Electrostatic Discharge Susceptibility

EN 61000-4-3 Radiated RF Immunity
EN 61000-4-6 Conducted RF Immunity
EN 61000-4-4 Electrical Fast Transient Susceptibility
EN 61000-4-5 Surge Immunity

CE Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC

EN 50178 Electronic equipment for use in power installation 1997


421.1 Standard Definitions for Excitation Systems for Synchronous Machines (2007)

421.2 Guide for Identification, Testing, and Evaluation of the Dynamic Performance
of Excitation Control Systems (1990)

421.3 High-Potential Test Requirements for Excitation Systems for Synchronous

Machines (2004)

421.4 Guide for the preparation of Excitation Systems Specifications (2004)

421.5 Recommended Practice for Excitation Systems for Power Stability Studies

C57.12.01 General Requirements

Seismic - IBC 2006/Universal Building Code (UBC) Seismic Code section 2312 Zone 4


Glossary of Terms
Auto Regulator Reference (AUTO REF) generates the auto control (AC) setpoint
variable for the automatic voltage regulator (AVR). Operator commands, (raise and lower
inputs) come in from direct inputs or over a data link from an HMI operator station or
from a plant DCS or remote dispatch system.
Note The AUTO REF and MANUAL REF blocks can be configured with upper and
lower limits, presets, and up/down ramp times.
Automatic and Manual Reference Follower (Tracking) are software
implemented ramp functions that adjust the non-active regulator output to automatically
track the active regulator. That is, when the auto regulator is controlling the generator,
the manual regulator tracks, and when the manual regulator is controlling the generator,
the auto regulator tracks. This provides for smooth transition when a transfer occurs
from one regulator to the other.
Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) maintains the generator terminal voltage
constant over changes in load and operating conditions. The error value (average
generator voltage minus the composite reference output from the EXASP block) is the
input to a proportional plus integral (PI) regulator with integrator windup protection. In
most applications, AVR control output directly controls the firing command generator,
which controls the gating of the power bridge SCRs when the AVR is enabled.
Note On some applications that require an inner loop regulator, such as compound
(voltage and current sourced) exciters and some high ceiling exciters, the manual
regulator uses the control output from the AVR as a setpoint input.
DCS Interface (ModBus RTU) slave data link is supported to interface with customer
DCS systems. This link uses TCP/IP support over Ethernet 10/100baseT hardware. Both
commands and data can be supported.
Exciter AVR Setpoint (EXASP) combines a number of functions to produce the
reference input to the AVR and the variables to support regulator tracking. The reference
output from this block is a summation of:


Stabilizing signal from the PSS block

Output of the AVR reference block

Limiter signal from the underexcitation limiter (UEL) block

Output from the reactive current compensation/active reactive current compensation

(RCC/ARCC) block

Combination of frequency and generator voltage to generate the V/Hz limiter signal

External test signal to support injection of white noise and step test signals

Glossary of Terms


Exciter Phase Unbalance (EUT) monitors the secondary voltage from the 3-phase
input PPT. If a voltage phase unbalance condition exists, an alarm is generated, and a
trip signal is initiated after a time delay.
Note EUT is not available in the EX2100e Regulator Control.
Generator Field Temperature Calculation measures the resistance by dividing the
field voltage by the field current. From the known field resistance at 25C and the linear
resistance temperature change in copper, the algorithm calculates operating temperature.
An adjustable high temperature alarm output contact is also included.
Generator Overvoltage Trip (59G) monitors the generator armature voltage and
initiates a trip signal upon detecting an unacceptably high voltage.
Generator Simulator (GEN SIM) is a detailed generator model that is included as
part of the excitation control system software. It can be configured to closely match the
operation of the real generator. It can also be used for operator training, and can support
the checkout of regulators, limiters, and protection functions while the unit is shut down.
Hydrogen Pressure/Temperature Limiter compensates the configuration
parameters of key generator limiters and protection functions based on generator cooling.
For hydrogen-cooled generators, the correct parameter is the internal hydrogen pressure,
and for air-cooled generators, it is air temperature. In either case, the exciter uses a 4-20
mA input to capture the parameter.
Note The intent of this function is to correlate limiter action to the valid generator
capability curves.
The three limiters affected by pressure/temperature compensation are:

Underexcitation limiter (UEL)

Overexcitation limiter (OEL)

Stator current limiter

Entering the parameters of three generator capability curves configures compensation.

Sophisticated software in the exciter extrapolates this data into an infinite number of
curves needed to translate the present operation condition of the generator into the correct
limiter configuration parameters.
Loss of Excitation Protection (40) detects a loss of excitation on synchronous
machines. It can provide the GE-recommended settings, which require two separate relay
characteristics. The function is performed within software code and can accommodate
offset settings and two diameter settings. The recommended offset settings are both equal
to one-half the machine transient reactance (X'd/2). The small diameter setting is equal to
1.0 per unit on the machine base, and the large diameter setting is equal to the machine
synchronous reactance (Xd). The small diameter setting has no time delay and the large
diameter setting has an adjustable time delay.


Each of the two relays characteristics (offset, diameter, time delay) are independently
adjustable and can be used to initiate a TRIP signal. GE recommends the use of two relay
characteristics since there is some concern about the performance of the voltage regulator
when it is operating on the under-excited limit. The regulator may undershoot while
trying to maintain the limit and cause the apparent impedance to momentarily enter the
relay characteristic. If only one relay characteristic is used (small diameter), there may
be undesired operation as a result of any regulator undershoot. Using the large diameter
setting with time delay helps to avoid this problem with undershoot.
Manual Regulator (FVR or FCR) controls the generator field voltage or current,
letting the generator output voltage. The manual regulator, like the AVR, uses a PPI
regulator with integrator windup protection and its control output directly controls the
firing command generator that controls the gating of the power bridge SCRs when enabled.
The Manual Regulator has two inputs:

Setpoint or reference for most applications, the manual regulator setpoint or

reference input only comes from the MANUAL REF block and is only in control
of the power bridge when selected by the operator or after a control transfer. For
applications that require an inner loop regulator to be used with the AVR, when the
AVR is in control of the generator, the setpoint input comes from the AVR control

Generator field feedback (indicates the type of manual regulator) Field Voltage
Regulator (FVR) is the typical manual regulator supplied on most applications and
uses the generator field voltage as the feedback input. While FVRs do permit the
current to vary as a function of the field resistance, GE has selected the FVR as its
standard manual regulator to make the manual regulator completely independent
from the over excitation limiter.

Field Current Regulator (FCR) is a special application of the manual regulator and uses
the generator field current as the feedback input. While it does regulate constant field
current over varying field temperature, GE has not selected the FCR as its standard manual
regulator because it inhibits the signal independence from the over excitation limiter.
Manual Regulator Reference (MANUAL REF) generates the manual setpoint
variable for the manual voltage regulator (MVR). Operator commands, (raise and lower
inputs) come in from direct inputs or over a data link from an HMI operator station or
from a plant DCS or remote dispatch system.
Manual Restrictive Limiter limits the under-excited operation of the EX2100e while
the manual regulator is selected (FVR or FCR). It also does not allow the manual regulator
to track the automatic regulator when the unit is operating below the field voltage limit
called for by the manual restrictive limiter.
Offline Overexcitation Protection (OLOT) serves as backup to the overexcitation
limiter when the generator is offline. If the generator field current exceeds 120% of
no-load field current while operating offline (in either the automatic or manual regulator
mode) and the limiter cannot correct an overexcitation condition, this function will initiate
a trip signal after a time delay.


Glossary of Terms


Overexcitation Limiter (OEL) protects the generator field from damage by events
that require abnormally high field currents. These high currents, over an extended time,
can overheat the field and cause damage. Generator fields are designed to ANSI Standard
C50.13, which specifies the over voltage as a function of time that the field is designed to
follow. This standard uses curves to describe the field overheating as a function of time
and current. The OEL design approximates the curve of field voltage versus time.
Note The current limit values are selectable based on the operating mode of the
generator. When the generator is offline, the offline limits are used, and when the
generator is online, the online limits are used.
The OEL interfaces directly with the power bridge firing command generator, therefore it
can protect the generator field from damage in either automatic or manual regulator mode.
The function is not active under normal operation conditions. This allows the exciter to
respond to any generator fault condition without current limit for a time period of about one
second. After this, a two stage current limiter is activated. The first stage normally limits
the current to a high value. The thermal load into the field is integrated, using the known
heating time constant of the field, until reaching the field limit. At this time, the current
limiter transfers to the lower limit. When the event is over, the integrator discharges based
on the cooling time constant of the field, which is slower than the heating time constant.
Overexcitation Protection (OET) is a backup to the over-excitation limiter and can
be supported with or without the C (protection) controller. If an over-excitation condition
should occur which the limiter cannot correct, then a trip signal is produced. This function
approximates the curve of field voltage versus time defined in ANSI Std. C50.13.
Potential Transformer Fuse Failure Detection (PTFD) detects loss of PT
feedback voltage to the voltage regulator. If the sensing voltage is lost or if it is
single-phased, there is a transfer to the manual regulator and an alarm output is provided.
If the PPT is fed from an auxiliary bus instead of the generator terminals, then a second set
of PT signals must be supplied to independently monitor the generator terminal voltage.
Power System Stabilizer (PSS) provides an additional input to the automatic
regulator to improve power system dynamic performance. Many different quantities
may be used by a PSS, such as shaft speed, frequency, synchronous machine electrical
power, accelerating power, or some combination of these signals. The PSS offered in the
EX2100e is a multi-input system using a combination of synchronous machine electrical
power and internal frequency (which approximates rotor speed) to arrive at a signal
proportional to rotor speed. This comes from the integral of accelerating power, but with
shaft torsional signals greatly attenuated.
Reactive Current Compensation (RCC/Line Drop) has two modes. The reactive
current compensation (RCC) mode permits sharing reactive current between paralleled
machines. Line drop mode allows for better regulation of voltage at some point down
stream from the generator terminals.
Stator Current Limit (SCL) determines the AVR/VAR control. When the generator
stator current exceeds the rated value, the exciter changes from AVR control to a VAR
control preset. Once the stator current is less than the rated value, the exciter returns to
AVR control.


Transfer to Manual Regulator upon Loss of PT detects loss of PT feedback

voltage to the ac voltage regulator. If the sensing voltage is lost, the regulator forces its
output to ceiling for 0.5 seconds and then transfers to manual. This is distinctly different
from the PTFD function, which does not force the regulator to ceiling before transferring.
Underexcitation Limiter (UEL) is an auxiliary control to limit the AVR demand
for underexcited reactive current. The UEL prevents reductions of the generator field
excitation to a level where the small-signal (steady state) stability limit or the stator core
end-region heating limit is exceeded. Performance is specified by identifying the region of
the limiter action on the generator capability curve.
Unit Data Highway Interface (UDH) connects the exciter with the turbine control
system, HMI or HMI viewer/data server, and GE Industrial Platforms controls. The UDH
is based on EGD protocol. The UDH provides a digital window into the exciter where
variables can be monitored and controlled. It also supports the ToolboxST application
configuration and maintenance tool for the exciter.
VAR/PF Control is accomplished by slow ramping of the AVR reference setpoint. The
VAR/PF is selected by operator command and the VAR/PF value is controlled using the
raise/lower pushbuttons. When the exciter interfaces with a Mark VI turbine control
system, this function is typically included in the Mark VI system.
Volts per Hertz Limiter (V/Hz Lim) limits the generator volts per hertz ratio
to the programmed setting in the EX2100e. This function uses two inputs from the
software transducer, average generator voltage and generator frequency (its V/Hz ratio is
configurable). Typically, the generator is considered to be operating acceptably within
5% of rated terminal voltage at rated frequency.
Volts per Hertz Protection (24G) serves as a backup to the V/Hz limiter and can be
supported with or without the C (protection) controller. The protection scheme consists
of two levels of V/Hz protection. One level is set at 1.10 per unit over V/Hz with an
inverse time period, and the other level is set at 1.18 per unit with a two second time
period. In operation, this means:
Note Both trip and time setpoints are adjustable.


From 1.0 to 1.10 per unit no alarm or trip occurs

From 1.10 to, but not exceeding, 1.18 per unit an alarm is activated with trip time
inversely proportional to the magnitude of the over volts per hertz

At 1.18 per unit trip time is 45 seconds (adjustable from 6-60 seconds)

If over volts per hertz exceeds 1.18 per unit, either initially or during the inverse time
period, trip activation occurs in 2 seconds (adjustable from 1.7 to 2.8 seconds)

Glossary of Terms


GE Energy
1501 Roanoke Blvd.
Salem, VA 241536492 USA
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