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DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "A"

A
Abbreviation or symbol for Absorption coefficient,
Acceleration, Ampere, Attenuation coefficient,
Fine-structure constant, Helmhotz free energy,
Magnetic vector potential.
A-2 tire
A term used for tire sizes 16.00 and larger in nominal
cross section. Also called earthmover, off-road, or
off-the-road tire.
A4R70W
Acronym for Automatic Overdrive Electronic Wide
Ratio Transmission
AA
Acronym for Automobile Association a term used in
Great Britain.
AAA
Acronym for American Automobile Association
AABM
Acronym for Association of American Battery
Manufacturers, Inc.
AAC
Acronym for Auxiliary Air Control Valve
AADT
Acronym for Annual Average Daily Traffic -- a
measure of traffic flow.
AAE
Acronym for Association of Automotive Employers
(Poland).
AAIA
Acronym for Automotive Aftermarket Industry
Association.

AALA
Acronym for American Automobile Labeling Act
AAM
Acronym for Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers.
AAP
Acronym for Auxiliary acceleration pump
A arm
See
A-arm
A-arm

A-arm
A Suspension linkage formed in the shape of an A or
V found commonly on the Front suspension. The
sides of the two legs of the A-arm are connected to the
Chassis by rubber Bushings and the peak of the Aarm is attached to the wheel assembly. In this way, the
wheel can freely move up and down. Sometimes there

is an upper A-arm, a lower A-arm, or both upper and


lower A-arms. The British call it a wishbone.
Also
See
Double
wishbone
Double a-arm
AAS
Acronym for Air aspirator system.
AASHTO
Acronym for American Association of State
Highway and Transportation Officials
AAV
Acronym for Anti-Afterburning Valve (Mazda)
AAWF
Acronym for Annual Average Weekday Flows -- a
measure of traffic flow.
AAWT
Acronym for Annual Average Weekday Traffic -- a
measure of traffic flow.
b
1. Symbol for susceptance in an AC circuit (unit is
the siemens; measured by the negative of the
reactive component of the admittance
2. Symbol for magnetic flux density in a magnetic
circuit (unit is the tesla; 1T=1 Wbm-2=1 Vsm-2).
B+
An acronym for Battery positive voltage used to
designate positive voltage at aor near the battery level.
BA
An abbreviation for British Association which is a
term used to describe a series of fine, small diameter
threads for electrical and precision equipment.
Babbitt
An Alloy of tin, copper, and antimony having good
antifriction properties. Used as a facing for bearings.

Also
See
Babbitt's metal
Babbitt metal
See
Babbitt
Babbitt's metal
Babbitt's metal
A bearing alloy originally patented by Isaac Babbitt,
composed of 50 parts tin, five antimony, and one
copper. Addition of lead greatly extends range of
service. Composition varies widely, with tin 5-90%,
copper 1.5-6%, antimony 7-10%, lead 5-48.5%.
Babysitter
Colloquial term for a co-signer or co-buyer on an
automobile purchase contract.
Babcock and Wilcox boiler
A water-tube boiler consisting in its simplest form of a
horizontal drum from which is suspended a pair of
headers carrying between them an inclined bank of
straight tubes.
Babo's law
The vapor pressure of a liquid is lowered when a nonvolatile substance is dissolved in it, by an amount
proportional to the concentration of the solution.
Baby
A small incandescent spotlight used in film and
television production.
Baby seat

Baby Seat

A specially designed seating device (which is not


generally standard equipment) to hold safely very
young children (usually under the weight of 10
kilograms).
BAC
1. Acronym for Blood Alcohol Content
2. Acronym for bypass air control system
3. Acronym for Bypass air control valve
Back
A large vat used in various industries, such as dyeing,
soap-making, and brewing. Also spelled beck
Also
See
Backbone
chassis
Backbone
frame
Be
Back
blowback
Feedback
Frost
Back
Kamm
back
Popping
back
Spine-back
Roll Back
Back ampere-turns
That part of the armature ampere-turns which
produces a direct demagnetizing effect on the main
poles. Also called demagnetizing ampere-turns
Back annealing
Controlling the softening of a fully work hardened metal
so as to produce the desired degree of temper by
partial recrystallization.
Also
See
Annealing
Temper
Back axle
The rear axle.

Back axle ratio


See
Final drive ratio
Back band
The outside member of a door or window casing.
Backbone
The major long-distance, multi-channel link in a
telecommunication network, from which smaller links
branch off
Also
See
Backbone frame
Backbone chassis
See
Backbone frame
Backbone frame

Backbone Frame
A vehicle Frame, having the cross-section of a
rectangular box, that runs along the center of the
vehicle and occupies the space between the seats. This
box generally divides at the front, running along each
side of the Gearbox and engine up to a crossmember
to which the Front suspension pieces are attached. At
the rear a similar triangular frame encloses the finaldrive housing and provides attaching points for the
Rear suspension. Lightness combined with high
Torsional rigidity are features of this frame design,
made famous by Colin Chapman with the Lotus Elan.
Also
See
Tubular backbone frame

Backbone network
A high-capacity computer network that links together
other networks of lower capacity. Fiber optic cables are
often used to form these links.
Back coupling
Any form of coupling which permits the transfer of
energy from the output circuit of an amplifier to its
input circuit.
Also
See
Feedback
Back diode
See
Backward diode
Back edging
A method of cutting a tile or brick by chipping away the
biscuit below the glazed face, the front itself being
scribed.
Back EMF
The EMF which arises in an inductance (because of rate
of change of current), in an electric motor (because of
flux cutting) or in a primary cell (because of
polarization), or in a secondary cell (when being
charged). Also called counter EMF
Back-emf cells
Cells connected into an electric circuit in such a way
that their emf opposes the flow of current in the circuit.
Back emission
Emission of electrons from the anode.
Back end
When the dealer sends a vehicle purchase contract to
the bank for financing, the dealer is given an extra
bonus (the back end) from the bank for choosing this
bank.
Backfill
Materials used to replace previously excavated
material.
Backfire

1. Passage of unburned fuel mixture into the


Exhaust system where it is ignited and causes
an Explosion (backfire) prematurely.
2. Sometimes Ignition takes place in the Intake
manifold by a flame from a Cylinder because the
Intake valve leaks. Burning of the fuel mixture in
the Intake manifold may be caused by faulty
Timing, crossed plug wires, leaky Intake valve,
etc.
3. A welding term referring to a short pop of the
torch flame followed by extinguishing of the flame
or continued burning of the gasses.
Backfiring
Repeated backfires in the exhaust or the cylinders.
Backfitting
Making changes to nuclear (and other) plants already
designed or built, e.g., to cater to changes in safety
criteria.
Back-flap hinge
A hinge in two square leaves, screwed to the face of a
door which is too thin to permit the use of a butt hinge.
Backflow scavenging
See
Loop scavenging
Backflushing
Pushing fluid in a direction opposite of normal flow. This
is done for cleaning the engine's cooling system.
See
Flushing the cooling system
Back focus
The distance between the rear surface of a lens and the
image of an object at infinity.
Back gear
A speed-reducing gear fitted to the headstock of a beltdriven metal-turning lathe. It consists of a simple
layshaft, which may be brought into gear with the
coned pulley and mandrel when required.

Background
Extraneous signals arising from any cause which might
be confused with the required measurements, e.g., in
electrical measurements of nuclear phenomena and of
radioactivity, it would include counts emanating from
amplifier noise, cosmic rays and insulator leakage.
Background job
A task having a low priority within a multiprogramming
system.
Also
See
Job queue
Background noise
Extraneous noise contaminating sound measurements
and which cannot be separated from wanted signals.
For example residual output from microphones,
pickups, lines giving a signal-to-noise ratio. Also called
ground noise
Background radiation
Radiation coming from sources other than that being
observed.
Background video
(BGV) A technique for overlaying video on previously
recorded depth multiplex audio. Also called video on
sound (VOS).
Backhand welding
Welding in the direction opposite to the direction that
the gas flame is pointing. Also called backward
welding.
Also
See
Forehand welding
Backheating
Excess heating of a cathode due to bombardment by
high-energy electrons returning to the cathode. In
magnetrons, it may be sufficient to keep the cathode at
operating temperature without external heating.
Backing
1. Some material placed on the root side of a weld to
aid control of penetration.

2. Light-absorbent layer on the rear surface of


photographic film or plate to reduce unwanted
exposure
3. A meterological term describing the changing of a
wind in a counter-clockwise direction.
Also
Veering

See

Also
See
Steel backing
Backing boards
Wedge-shaped wooden boards between which an
unbound book is held in the lyingpress, while the joints
are being formed for attaching the case.
Backing pad
A rubber disc which is secured to a spindle which in
turn is attached to a drill or other tool which rotates the
spindle. An abrasive disc or polishing disc is secured to
the backing pad.
Backing plate

Backing plate
1. The part of a drum brake to which the wheel
cylinder(s) and the brake shoes are attached.

2. A pressed steel plate upon which the brake shoes,


wheel cylinder, and anchor pin are mounted.
Also
Brake backing plate

See

Backing-up
1. Printing on the second side of a sheet.
2. Backing a letterpress printing plate to required
height.
Back-kick
The violent reversal of an internal-combustion engine
during starting due to a Backfire
Backlash
1. The amount of play or Clearance between two
parts. In the case of gears, it refers to how much
one gear can be moved back and forth without
moving the gear into which it is meshed.
2. Mechanical deficiency in a tuning control, with a
difference in dial reading between clockwise and
counterclockwise rotation.
3. Property of most regenerative and oscillator
circuits, by which oscillation is maintained with a
smaller positive feedback than is required for
inception.
Backlight
1. The rear window of a vehicle. Most people call it a
rear window and erroneously think of backlight
as the taillight.
2. The light source (often a cold cathode discharge in
a flat fluorescent envelope) used in some lightmodulating flat panel displays such as those based
on LCD

Backlight compensation
(BLC) The opening of the iris to correctly expose a
backlit subject which would otherwise be a silhouette
Backlight defogging system
Heated rear window
Backlight heater
Heated rear window
Back lighting
Lighting illuminating the subject from behind, opposite
the camera, often to provide rim light or halo effects.
Back lobe
Lobe of polar diagram for antenna, microphone, etc.
which points in the reverse direction to that required.
Backlocking
Holding a signal lever partially restored until completion
of a predetermined sequence of operation.
Backmatter
The items which follow the main text of a book, i.e.,
appendices, notes, glossary, bibliography, index. The
UK term is end matter
Back observation
An observation made with instrument on station just
left. Also called back sight
Back panel
The panel of the body shell set underneath the trunk
lid. It is sometimes referred to as the rear valance if
the area below the trunk lid consists of only a single
panel that extends down to the bottom of the body; in
many designs, however, the rear valance is a separate
horizontal panel that extends from the rear bumper
area downward. The British term is rear panel
Also
see
Lower Back Panel
Backplate
British term for Brake backing plate
Back-porch effect

The prolonging of the collector current in a transistor


for a brief time after the input signal (particularly if
large) has decreased to zero.
Back pressure
1. The Resistance to the flow of Exhaust gases
through the Exhaust system. By rerouting the
exhaust gases for noise suppression, a Muffler
causes back pressure, but a straight pipe alone
causes only minimal back pressure. Some engines
require back pressure, so that removing the
Exhaust system will cause internal damage.
2. Pressure in low side of refrigerating systems; also
called suction pressure or low-side pressure.
3. The pressure opposing the motion of the piston of
an engine on its exhaust stroke.
4. The exhaust pressure of a turbine. Increased by
clogged or defective exhaust system.
5. Pressure against which a fluid or gas is flowing,
resulting from friction in lines, restrictions in
pipes, valves, pressure in vessel to which fluid is
flowing, hydrostatic head, or other impediment
that causes resistance to fluid flow.
Also
See
Exhaust
back
pressure
Negative
back
pressure
valve
Negative back pressure modulated valve
Back pressure modulated
See
Negative back pressure modulated valve
Back pressure modulated valve
See
Negative back pressure modulated valve
Backpressure Transducer EGR Valve
See
Integral Backpressure Transducer EGR Valve
Back Pressure Transducer Valve

See
Exhaust Back Pressure Transducer Valve
Back-pressure turbine
A steam turbine from which the whole of the exhaust
steam, at a suitable pressure, is taken for heating
purposes.
Back pressure valve
See
Negative back pressure valve
Backpressure variable transducer
(BVT) a system combining a ported EGR valve and a
backpressure variable Transducer to control emissions
of NOx
Back projection
1. Projection of a picture, from film, transparency, or
video, on to a translucent screen to be viewed
from the opposite side,
2. A form of motion picture composite photography
in which the projected picture forms the
background to action taking place in front of it,
both being photographed together.
Back rake
In a lathe tool, the inclination of the top surface or face
to a plane parallel to the base of the tool.
Backrest
The back (upright) part of the seat against which your
back reclines.
Back scatter
The deflection of radiation or particles by scattering
through angles greater than 90 with reference to the
original direction of travel.
Back-seat
1. An air conditioning term which means to rotate a
service valve counterclockwise all the way down
until the valve is back-seated. When referring to a
stem type service valve, the term has a more
specific meaning-in the back-seated position, the

valve outlet to the system is open and the service


port in the valve is closed (its normal operating
position).
2. The seating behind the front passenger and/or
driver
Back-seat driver
A person who is not physically in control of the vehicle,
but who gives driving instruction to the driver, usually
in an obnoxious manner.
Back seating
Fluid opening or closing such as a gauge opening to
seat the joint where the valve stem goes through the
valve body.
Back sight
See
Back observation
Backspacing
Process which maintains synchronization when video
recording is stopped and started. The tape being rolled
back for roughly one second at the end of a recorded
segment then switched into play to compare and
synchronize the control track pulses with the
incoming synchronization pulses before recording
begins again.
Back-step welding
Welding small sections of a joint in a direction opposite
the direction that the weld as a whole is progressing.
Backstop
The structure of a relay which limits the travel of the
armature away from the pole-piece or core.
Back-to-back
Parallel connection of valves, with the anode of one
connected to the cathode of the other, or transistors in
parallel in opposite directions, to allow control of AC
current without rectification.
Back up
To go in reverse.

Back up alarm
An annoying loud beeping which is repeatedly sounded
when a vehicle (usually a large truck) is placed in
reverse. It is designed to warn pedestrians behind the
vehicle. The British term is reversing warning signal
Back up light
A white light which is located at the rear of the vehicle
and is illuminated when the transmission is placed in
reverse. The British term is reversing light
Back-voltage
Voltage which opposes the current when the current in
an inductive circuit changes and the magnetic field cuts
the conductors.
Also
See
Self-induction back-voltage
Backward busying
Applying busy condition at the incoming end of a trunk
or junction (usually during testing or fault-clearance) to
indicate at outgoing end that circuit must not be used.
Backward diode
One with characteristic of reverse shape to normal. Also
called AU diode or back diode
Backward hold
A method of interlocking the links of a switching chain
by originating a locking condition in the final link and
extending it successively backwards to each of the
preceding links
Backward lead
See
Backward shift
Backward shift
Movement of the brushes of a commutating machine
around the commutator, from the neutral position, and
in a direction opposite to that of the rotation of the
commutator, so that the brushes short-circuit zero emf
conductors when the load current, through armature
reaction, results in a rotation of the neutral axis of the
air-gap flux. Shifting the brushes in this way reduces

sparking on the commutator. Also called backward


lead
Backward signaling
Signaling from the called to the calling end of a circuit.
Backward-wave tube
General term for a family of microwave travelingwave tubes in which energy on a slow-wave circuit or
structure, linked closely to the electron beam, flows in
the opposite direction to the electrons. They can be
used as stable, low-noise amplifiers or as oscillators, as
the latter, they can be easily tuned over a wide
frequency range by altering he beam voltage.
Backward welding
See
Backhand welding
Backwater
Water, containing fine fibers, loading and other
additives, removed in the forming section of a paper or
board-making machine. It is generally re-used within
the system or clarified in a saveall to recover
suspended matter.
Backyard mechanic
A person, whether qualified or not, who repairs his own
vehicle or those of others and works in his own
property.
BAC level
Acronym for Blood Alcohol Content level
Badge
An emblem with a manufacturer's name and/or logo on
a plate to identify a model or component.
Also
See
Bonnet
badge
Hood badge
Badge engineering
When a manufacturer sells two identical vehicles but
the model names are different, he is badge
engineering. For example, General Motors may sell a
vehicle as a Chevrolet or a Pontiac where the only

difference is the model name, logo, and more or less


chrome or other minor alterations.
Badging
The act of a manufacturer in Badge engineering
Baffle

Baffle
1. An obstruction (e.g., plate or vane) used to slow
down or divert the flow of gases, liquids, sound,
etc. They are found in the Fuel tank, Crankcase,
Muffler, and Radiator.
2. Extended surface surrounding a diaphragm of a
sound source (loudspeaker) so that an acoustic
short-circuit is prevented.
3. Any device to impede or divide a fluid flow in a
tank to reduce sloshing of liquid.
4. Plates fitted between cylinders of air-cooled
engines to assist cooling.
5. Internal structure or electrode, with no external
connection, used in gas-filled tubes to control the
discharge or its decay.
6. An object placed in an Appliance to change the
direction of or retard the flow of gas, air, gas-air
mixtures, or flue (exhaust) gases.
7. A wall or partition inside a liquid tank that inhibits
the flow of fluids reducing the slosh effect that
liquid tankers experience.
Also
Air
Box

Horn

See
Baffle
baffle

Flue
gas
Load-Bearing
Flue
Gas
Non-Load-Bearing Flue Gas Baffle

baffle
Baffle

Baffle loudspeaker
An open-diaphragm loudspeaker, in which the radiation
of sound power is enhanced by surrounding it with a
large plane baffle, generally of wood.
Baffle plate
1. A metal plate that acts as a Baffle.
2. A plate used to prevent the movement of a fluid in
the direction which it would normally follow, and
to direct it into the desired path.
3. Plate inserted into waveguide to produce change
in mode of transmission.
See
Directional Baffle Plate
Bag
See
Air
bag
Courier
bag
Cruiser
bag
Driver
air
bag
Handlebar
Bag
Passenger-side
air
bag
Shot
bag
Side
impact
air
bag
Tank bag
Bag drop
A location where your supplies have been cached. In
randonneuring events of 1200 km, you can pre-arrange
to have a bag of extra clothes and other supplies
waiting for you at a prescribed control (i.e.,
checkpoint). Also called a drop.
Bagger

A motorcycle equipped with saddlebags and other


touring amenities.
Bag molding
Use of a flexible membrane ( the bag) to exert
pressure, usually about one atmosphere, on a
thermosetting composite Laminate or sandwich
component while it is curing at ambient temperature in
an open mold. Pressure can be generated either by
evacuating the inside of the bag (vacuum bag molding)
or by pressurizing its outer surface (pressure bag
molding).
Bag pump
A form of bellows pump, in which the valved disk taking
the place of the bucket is connected to the base of the
barrel by an elastic bag, distended at intervals by rings.
Bail
The spring-wire loop used to secure the cover on most
Master cylinder reservoirs.
Bailey bridge
A temporary bridge made by assembling portable
prefabricated panels. A nose is projected over rollers
across the stream, being followed by the bridge proper,
with roadway. Also used over pontoons.
Baily furnace
An electric-resistance furnace in which the resistance
material is crushed coke placed between carbon
electrodes; used for heating ingots and bars in rolling
mills, for annealing, etc.
Bainite
A microstructural product formed in steels when cooled
from the austenite state at rates or transformation
temperatures intermediate between those which form
pearlite martensite, i.e., between about 800 and
500 K. It is an acicular structure of supersaturated
ferrite containing particles of carbide, the dispersions of
the latter depending on the formation temperature. Its
hardness is intermediate between that of pearlite and
martensite and exhibits mechanical properties similar

to those of tempered martensite in a steel of the same


carbon content.
Bait
See
Bear bait
Baize
A lightweight woollen felt used to cover pool tables and
bulletin boards.
Bake
A process of drying or curing paint by using heat.
Baked core
A dry sand core baked in the oven to render it hard and
to fix its shape.
Also
see
Core sand
Baked images
The technique of heating a printing plate (mainly
lithographic) to harden the printing image and thus
increase the image's resistance to wear, hence
lengthening the run expectancy on the press.
Bakelite
The trademark for a synthetic thermosetting plastic
Resin used in electrical parts because it is a good
insulator. The name comes from its inventor, L. H.
Baekeland, 1863-1944.
Bake-out
Preliminary heating of components of a vacuum device
to release absorbed gases.
Baking finish
Paint that requires baking in order to dry.
Baking temperature
The temperature at which a varnish or paint must be
baked to develop desired final properties of strength
and hardness.
Balance
1. The state in which weight is evenly distributed.

2. The action of applying weights or drilling holes in


something to establish even weight distribution so
that vibration is reduced.
3. Adjustment of sources of sound in studios so that
the final transmission adheres to an artistic
standard.
4. Said to be obtained in bridge measurements when
the various impedances forming the arms of the
bridge have been adjusted, so that no current
flows through the detector.
Aerodynamic
balance
Automatic
White
Balance
Balance
shaft
Brake
balance
Counter
balance
Crankshaft
counter-balance
Dynamic
balance
Electrical
Balance
Harmonic
balancer
Heat
balance
Kinetic
balance
Off-car
balance
On-car
balance
Quartz-fiber
Balance
Spool
balance
valve
Spring
Balance
Static
balance
Steering
wheel
balance
Tire
balance
Wheel balancer
Balance bar
The heavy beam by which a canal-lock gate may be
swung on its Pintle, and which partially balances the
outer end of the gate.
Balance box

A box, filled with heavy material, used to


counterbalance the weight of the jib and load of a crane
of the cantilever type.
Balance control
A switching device on a stereo radio which adjusts the
amount of sound coming from the left and right
speakers or from the front and rear speakers.
Balance-crane
A crane with two arms, one having counterpoise
arrangements to balance the load taken by the other.
Balanced amplifier
One in which there are two identical signal-handling
branches operating in phase opposition, with input and
output connections balanced to ground.
Balanced-armature pick-up
A pick-up in which the reproducing needle is held by a
screw in a magnetic arm, which is pivoted so that its
motion diverts magnetic flux from one arm of a
magnetic circuit to another, thereby inducing emf in
coils on these arms.
Balanced circuit
For AC and DC, a circuit which is balanced to ground
potential, i.e., the two conductors are at equal and
opposite potentials with reference to ground at every
instant.
Balanced crankshaft
A crankshaft with extended reinforcements to form
counterbalancing or act as a vibration damper.
Balanced current
A term used, in connection with polyphase circuits, to
denote currents which are equal to all the phases. Also
applied to DC three-wire systems.
Balanced draft
A system of air-supply to a boiler furnace, in which one
fan forces air through the grate, while a second,
situated in the uptake, exhausts the flue gases. The
pressure in the furnace is thus kept atmospheric, i.e., is
balanced.

Balanced draught
A system of air-supply to a boiler furnace, in which one
fan forces air through the grate, while a second,
situated in the uptake, exhausts the flue gases. The
pressure in the furnace is thus kept atmospheric, i.e., is
balanced.
Balanced engine
An engine in which all the reciprocating parts such as
pistons and connecting rods are adjusted to exactly the
same weight.
Balance disc
A disc-shaped device in a centrifugal pump which is
attached to the pump shaft. The disc lifts when a force
is applied to the underside of the disc allowing pressure
to leak past until the axial forces are balanced.
Balanced laminate
Symmetrical laminated material in which the sequence
of laminae above the center plane is the mirror image
of that below it.
Balanced line
A line in which the impedances to ground of the two
conductors are, or are made to be, equal. Also called
balanced system
Balanced load
A load connected to a polyphase system, or to a singlephase or DC three-wire system, in such a way that the
currents taken from each phase, or from each side of
the system, are equal and at equal power factors.
Balanced mixer
A mixer, which may be made of discrete components or
formed in stripline or waveguide, in which the local
oscillator breakthrough in the output is minimized and
certain harmonics suppressed. The contribution of local
oscillator noise to the receiver's overall performance is
also reduced by such a mixer.
Balanced modulator
A modulator in which the carrier and modulating signal
are combined in such a way that the output contains

the two sidebands but not the carrier. Used in color


television to modulate subcarriers, and in suppressedcarrier communication systems.
Balanced network
A network arranged for insertion into a Balanced
circuit and therefore symmetrical electrically about the
mid-points of its input and output pairs of terminals.
Balanced-pair cable
A cable with two conductors forming a loop circuit, the
wires being electrically balanced to each other and
ground (shield), e.g., an open-wire antenna feeder.
Balanced pedal
In an organ console, the foot-operated plate, pivoted so
that it stays in any position, for remote control of the
shutter of the chambers in which ranks of organ pipes
are situated; it also serves for bringing in all the stops
in a graded series.
Balanced protective system
A form of protective system for electric transmission
lines and now widely used domestically in which the
current entering the line or apparatus is balanced
against that leaving it. Any fault, such as a short circuit
to ground, upsets this balance and energizes a relay
which trips the faulty circuit. Also called differential
protective system or colloquially, ground leak relay
or ground trip.
Balanced system
See
Balanced line
Balanced terminator
A two-terminal load in which both terminals present the
same impedance to ground.
Balanced voltage
A term used, in connection with polyphase circuits, to
denote voltage which are equal to all the phases. Also
applied to DC three-wire systems.
Balanced weave

A weave in which the length of free yarn between the


intersections is the same as the warp and weft
directions and on both sides of the fabric.
Balance gate
A flood gate which revolves about a vertical shaft near
its center, and which may be made either self-opening
or self-closing as the current sets in or out by giving a
preponderating area to one leaf of the gate.
Balance patch
A factory installed patch used to bring a new tire within
quality control balance tolerances before distribution
and sale. It is placed inside the Tire casing and looks
much like a nail hole repair patch.
Balance pipe
A tube which joins two or more carburetors to even out
the flow difference.
Balance piston
See
Dummy piston
Balancer
A device used on polyphase or three-wire systems to
equalize the voltages between the phases or the sides
of the system, when unbalanced loads are being
delivered.
Also
See
AC
balancer
Crankshaft
Balancer
Harmonic
balancer
Wheel balancer
Balancer transformer
An autotransformer connected across the outer
conductors of an ac three-wire system, the neutral wire
being connected to an intermediate tapping.
Balance shaft
An engine will normally vibrate because of the up-anddown motion of the Pistons which turn a Crankshaft
in one direction. A balance shaft rotates (often in the
opposite direction) so that its vibration cancels some of

the vibration of the engine. Sometimes an engine will


have two balance shafts turning in opposite directions
located on either side of the Crankshaft.
Balance valve
See
Spool balance valve
Balance weight
1. A lead weight attached to the rim of a wheel.
2. Small weights threaded on radial arms on the
movement of an indicating instrument, so
adjusted that the pointer gives the same
indication whatever the orientation of the
instrument.
3. A weight used to counterbalance some part of a
machine, e.g., weights applied to a crankshaft to
minimize or neutralize the inertia forces due to
reciprocating and rotating masses of the engine.
Also
Wheel weight

See

Balancing
1. Dismantling engine and reassembling it to exact
Specifications and Tolerances. This process
may help to improve engine performance,
smoothness, and reliability. Sometimes called
Blueprinting.
Also
Balanced engine

See

2. Keeping wheels in balance.


3. In color reproduction, control of the levels of the
three color components to achieve a satisfactory
picture without obvious color bias, esp. in the
representation of neutral grey tones.

4. The process of adjusting a traverse, i.e., applying


corrections to the different survey lines and
bearings so as to eliminate the closing error.
Also
See
Off-car
Balancing
Off-the-car
balancing
On-the-car
balancing
On-car
Balancing
Wheel Balancing
Balancing antenna
Auxiliary reception antenna which responds to
interfering but not to the wanted signals. The
interfering signals thus picked up are balanced against
those picked up by the main antenna, leaving signals
more free from interference.
Balancing machine
A machine for testing the extent to which a revolving
part is out of balance, and to determine the weight and
position of the masses to be added, or removed, to
obtain balance.
Also
See
Wheel balancer
Balancing speed
See
Free-running speed
Balancing weight
See
Wheel weight
Bald tire
A tire on which the tread is all worn away. A Slick also
has no tread, but this is done deliberately for racing
purposes.
Balk
The material between two excavations. Also called
baulk.
Balking

See
Crawling
Balk ring

Click image to supersize


Balk Ring
A friction-regulated Pawl or plunger used to make the
engagement of gears easier. British spelling is baulk
ring
Ball
A sphere usually made of metal when
automotive applications.
Also
Ball
and
Ball
Ball
Ball
joint
rocker
Check
Detent
ball
and
Discharge
Check
Hitch
Impact
swivel
ball
universal
Pump
Inlet
Check

used

in

see
spring
bearing
joint
arm
ball
spring
Ball
ball
joint
Ball

Recirculating-ball-and-nut
steering
Recirculating
ball
steering
Recirculating
ball
worm
and
nut
Towing ball
Ball and nut
See
Recirculating ball and nut steering
Ball-and-nut steering
See
Recirculating ball steering
Ball and socket
See
Ball joint
Ball-and-socket head
Camera mounting allowing universal movement in
rotation and tilt before fixing by clamping usually fitted
to the top of tripod.
Ball-and-socket joint
A joint between two rods, permitting considerable
relative angular movement in any plane. A ball formed
on the end of one rod is embraced by a spherical cup
on the other. Used in light control systems (e.g., in
connecting a pair of bell-cranks which operate in planes
at right angles) and in the steering mechanism of
motor vehicles, in which both ball and cups are of casehardened metals. Heavier examples allow a large base
plate to be placed under a supporting column in a jackup pontoon or modified as bridge bearings to allow
some articulation.
Also
See
Ball joint
Ball and spring
Also
See
Detent ball and spring
Ballast
1. Any liquid or solid weight (gravel or stone) placed
in a ship to change the trim, increase the draft, or
to regulate the stability.

2. A layer of broken stone, gravel, or other material


deposited above the formation level of road or
railway; it serves as foundation for road-metal or
permanent-way respectively.
3. Sandy gravel used as a coarse aggregate in
making concrete.
Also
See
Dry
ballast
Lead
ballast
Liquid ballast
Ballast ignition system
An ignition system which uses a Ballast resistor
connected in series with the coil primary winding and
which is bypassed when the starter is engaged so that
the spark is more efficient under cold weather starting.
Ballasting
The addition of Liquid or Dry weight inside the tire to
act as a counterbalance, to increase traction, reduce
wheel spin, and dampen out bounce.
Ballast lamp
Normal incandescent lamp used as a ballast resistor,
current limiter, alarm, or to stabilize a discharge lamp.
Ballast resistance
A term used in railway signaling to denote the
resistance between the two track rails across the
Ballast on which the track is laid. If allowed to fall too
low, it will have the effect of shunting the signal from a
trains's wheels.
Ballast resistor
(BAL RES)
1. A resistor inserted into a circuit to swamp or
compensate changes, e.g., those arising through
temperature fluctuations. One similarly used to
swamp the negative resistance of an arc or gas
discharge. Also called ballast tube.
2. A Resistor constructed of a special type wire, the
properties of which tend to increase or decrease

the Voltage in direct proportion to the heat of the


wire.
Also
See
Barretter
Ballast tank
Tanks at the bottom or sides of a ship which are filled
with seawater for ballasting purpose.
Ballast tube
See
Ballast resistor
Ball bearing
An antifriction bearing consisting of an inner and outer
Hardened steel Race (or Cage) separated by a series
of hardened steel balls.
Also
See
Annular
ball
bearing
Linear
ball
bearing
Loose Ball Bearings
Ball bearing puller
A tool for removing a ball bearing from a shaft or from
a housing.
Ball cage
A circular frame which holds the balls in place in a ball
bearing.
Ball check valve
Valve assembly which permits flow of fluid in one
direction only.
Ball-ended magnet
A permanent magnet, consisting of a steel wire with a
steel ball attached to each end; this gives a close
approximation to a unit pole.
Ball end hexagon screwdriver
A tool that looks like an Allen wrench except it has a
small ball at the very end. This arrangement allows it to
work at various angles.
Balling

1. A process that occurs in the cementite constituent


of steels on prolonged annealing at 650C 700C.
2. The operation of forming balls in a puddling
furnace.
Ballistic circuit breaker
A very high-speed circuit breaker, in which the pressure
produced by the fusing of an enclosed wire causes
interruption of the circuit.
Ballistic galvanometer
A galvanometer with a long swing period; the deflection
measures the electric charge in a current pulse or the
time integral of a voltage pulse.
Ballistic method
A method of high-grade testing used in electrical
engineering, a Ballistic galvanometer being used.
Ballistic pendulum
A heavy block suspended by strings so that its swings
are restricted to one plane. If a bullet is fired into the
block, the velocity of the bullet may be calculated from
a measurement of the angle of swing of the pendulum.
Ballistics
The study of the dynamics of the path taken by an
object moving under the influence of a gravitational
field.
Ball joint

Ball Joint

A flexible Joint using a ball and Socket type of


construction, used in Steering linkage setups,
Steering knuckle pivot supports, etc. Their flexibility
helps to compensate for the changes in the wheel and
steering when turning or hitting a bump on the road.
There are usually upper and lower ball joints attached
to the upper and lower A-arms. Some have a grease
nipple to allow periodic lubrication.
See
Upper Ball Joint
Ball joint rocker arm

Ball Joint Rocker Arm


A Rocker arm used by GM that is mounted upon a
ball-shaped device on the end of a Stud instead of
being mounted around a shaft.
Ball joint separator
A tool for forcing out ball or tapered joints. One style is
shaped like a two-prong fork with a wedge-shaped jaw
which is struck with a hammer to separate the joint.
Another style uses direct pressure from a screw or
screw-activated lever action to split the joint.
Ball joint steering knuckle

Steering Knuckle
A Steering knuckle that pivots on Ball joints instead
of on a Kingpin.
Ballonet
An air compartment in the envelope of an aerostat,
used to adjust changes of volume in the filler gas.
Balloon
A general term for aircraft supported by buoyancy and
not driven mechanically.
Also
See
Barrage balloon Captive Balloon
Balloon barrage
An anti-aircraft device consisting of suitably disposed
tethered balloons
Balloon former
On rotary presses, an additional former mounted above
the others, from which folded webs are gathered to
make up the sections of multi-sectioned newspapers or
magazines.
Ballooning of yarn
The shape taken up by yarns on the spinning or
doubling machines.
Balloon tire

A type of low pressure tire which was first introduced in


the 1920s. Its width and height were the same which
gave it a rounded shape. This style was used on
bicycles as well as automobiles.
Ballot
A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 model
automobiles with required application are Classic cars.
Ballotini
Small, solid glass spheres or beads used as a filler for
plastics and to increase reflectivity in paints and
printing inks.
Ball-pane hammer
A fitter's hammer, the head of which has a flat face at
one end, and a smaller hemi-spherical face or pane at
the other; used chiefly in riveting. Also called Ball pien
hammer
Ball pien hammer

Ball Pein Hammer


A hammer with two ends on the head. One is round
and the other is flat. They are best used for hammering
and shaping metal. Also spelled ball peen
Ball peen hammer
A hammer with two ends on the head. One is round
and the other is flat. They are best used for hammering
and shaping metal. Also spelled ball pien
Ball race

1. The inner or outer steel ring forming one of the


ball tracks of a ball bearing.
2. Commonly, the complete ball bearing
Ball sizing
Forcing a suitable ball through a hole to finish size it,
usually part of a Broach with a series of spherical
lands of increasing size arranged along it.
Ball socket
A recessed spherical well for receiving the ball in a Ball
joint
Ball steering
See
Recirculating ball steering
Ball track
See
Ball bearing
Ball universal
See
Impact swivel ball universal joint
Ball universal joint
See
Impact swivel ball universal joint
Ball valve
A check valve in which a ball in a tube is used to control
the flow of liquid.
Ball worm
See
Recirculating ball worm and nut
Ball worm and nut
See
Recirculating ball worm and nut
BALPA
Acronym for British Airline Pilots Association
BAL RES
Abbreviation for Ballast resistor
Bambi

Trucker slang for a deer (dead or alive) as in "There's a


Bambi on the side at the 43 yardstick."
Banana plug
A single conductor plug which has a spring metal tip, in
the shape of a banana. The corresponding socket or
jack is termed a banana jack
Banbury mixer
Type of machine used for compounding rubber with
vulcanizing ingredients and carbon black.
Band
Bands are like a metal belt which is in the shape of a
circle where the two ends are close, but do not meet.
They wrap around parts inside the Transmission
called drums. The drums house the gears and
Clutches and Freewheel until a certain gear needs to
be applied. When first gear needs to be applied, the
drum for first gear is locked up by the application of the
band. By locking up the drum, the gears now drive the
wheels rather than Freewheel inside the drum.
Also
See
Back
band
Brake
band
Frequency
band
Power
band
Squish band
Band brake
A flexible band wrapped partially around the periphery
of a wheel or drum. One end is anchored, and the
braking force is applied to the other.
Also
See
Brake band
Band chain
Steel tape. More accurate than ordinary chain.
Band clutch
A Friction clutch in which a fabric-lined steel band is
contracted on to the periphery of the driving member
by engaging gear.
Band conveyor

An endless band passing over, and driven by, horizontal


pulleys, thus forming a moving track which is used to
convey loose material or small articles. Also called belt
conveyor or conveyor belt
Band edge energy
The energy of the edge of the conduction band or
valence band in a solid, measured with respect to
some convenient reference or else used as the
reference level for other energy states.
Also
See
Band theory of solids
Band gap
The range of energies which correspond with those
values which are forbidden for delocalized states,
according to the Band theory of solids. Localized
states such as those associated with ionized dopants,
impurity atoms, or crystal imperfections exist in the
gap. The generation of pairs of electrons and holes
requires quanta of at least the energy of the band gap.
Direct recombination likewise furnishes quanta with
energies at least equal to the band gap.
Band ignitor tube
A valve of mercury pool type in which the control
electrode is a metal band outside the glass envelope.
Also called capacitron
Banding
1. A structural feature of wrought metallic materials
revealed by etching, resulting from microstructural
segregates and constitutional differences within
the grain structure becoming drawn out in the
direction of working.
2. Defect in videotape recording heads causing
visible horizontal bands in the picture.
Band-pass filter
Filter which freely passes currents having frequencies
within specified nominal limits, and highly attenuates
currents with frequencies outside these limits.

Band radio
See
Citizens band radio
Band-rejection filter
See
Band-stop filter
Bands
See
Band
Bandsaw
A narrow endless strip of saw-blading running over and
driven by pulleys, as a belt; the strip passes a work
table placed normal to the straight part of the blade.
The workpiece is forced against the blade and intricate
shapes can be cut. Also used for cutting animal
carcases in butchery.
Band spectrum
Molecular optical spectrum consisting of numerous very
closely spaced lines which are spread through a limited
band of frequencies.
Band-spreading
1. Use of a relatively small tuning capacitor in
parallel with the main tuning capacitor of a radio
receiver, so that fine tuning control can be done
with the smaller; useful when the frequency band
is crowded.
2. Mechanical means, like reduction gearing, to
achieve the same result.
Band-stop filter
Filter which attenuates signals having frequencies
within a certain range or band, while freely passing
those outside this range. Also called band-rejection
filter
Band theory of solids
For atoms brought together to form a crystalline solid,
their outermost electrons are influenced by a periodic
potential function, so that their possible energies form

bands of allowed values separated by bands of


forbidden values (in contrast to the discrete energy
states of an isolated atom). These electrons are not
localized or associated with any particular atom in the
solid. This band structure is of fundamental importance
in explaining the properties of metals, semiconductors,
and insulators.
Bandwidth
1. The range of audio frequencies that an audio
component (radio) can handle.
2. The width, or spread, of the range of frequencies
used for a given purpose, e.g., the width of
individual channels allotted to speech or to
television transmissions.
3. The space occupied in the frequency domain by
signals of a specified nature, e.g., telephone
quality speech, broadcast-quality stereophonic
music, television, radar transmission, etc.
B&S
Abbreviation for Bore and Stroke which describes the
width of a cylinder hole and the distance that the piston
moves each time.
B & S gage
Abbreviation for Brown and Sharpe. A standard
measure of wire diameter.
B & S gauge
Abbreviation for Brown and Sharpe. A standard
measure of wire diameter.
Banger
1. A colloquial term used to express the Cylinders in
an engine. Often used with a number such as Six
banger.
Also
Four banger Six Banger

See

2. A British colloquial term for Beater (an older,


cheaper, well-worn car which is still usable).
3. One who fakes an accident.
Also
Car banger

See

Banger racing
A competition of speed on small racing tracks where
older cars are driven as fast as they can go and where
bumping other racing cars is permitted (encouraged??).
Banging
See
Car banging
Banjo
1. Besides being a musical instrument, this is a
Fitting which is shaped like a banjo. It has round
end that is doughnut shaped with a tube coming
out from one side. It is usually used to transfer
fluid from the center hole of the round end and
out the lateral tube.
2. A drum-shaped central part of an axle casing
containing the differential.
Banjo axle
The commonest form of rear-axle casing in which the
provision of the differential casing in the center
produces a resemblance to a banjo with two necks.
Banjo fitting
A type of hydraulic fitting, shaped like a banjo, through
which a hollow bolt passes, allowing fluid transfer from
a hydraulic line to a hydraulic component.
Banjo rear axle housing
A rear axle housing from which the Differential unit
may be removed while the housing remains in place on
the vehicle. The housing is solid from side to side.
Compare Split rear axle housing
Bank

A number of similar pieces of equipment grouped in line


and connected, e.g., a bank of engine cylinders, coke
ovens, or transformers.
Also
See
Cylinder bank
Banked boiler
A boiler furnace in which the rate of combustion is
purposely reduced to a very low rate for a period during
which the demand for steam has ceased by e.g.,
covering the fire with slack or fine coal or banking up.
Also called banked fire.
Banked fire
See
Banked boiler
Banking
1. The slope of a track from the wall to the Apron,
generally measured in the corners.
2. Angular displacement of the wings of an aircraft
about the longitudinal axis, to assist turning. In
other words, tipping the plane so that one wing
drops while the other rises.
3. Process of suspending operation in a smelter by
feeding fuel into the furnace only until as much
metal and slag as possible have been removed,
after which all air inlets are closed.
Banquette
1. A raised footway inside a bridge parapet.
2. A ledge on the face of a cutting.
Also
Berm

See

Bar
1. A unit of pressure. One bar equals 100 kilopascals
(10 5Pa) or 750.07mm of mercury at 0C and
latitude 45 or about 14.5 psi.
2. A rod.

3. A pivoted bar, parallel to a running rail, which


being depressed by the wheels of a train, is
capable of holding points or giving information
about a train's position
4. Material of uniform cross-section, which may be
cast, rolled, or extruded.
Also
Angle
Anti-roll
Anti-sway
Antisag
Balance
Boring
Bulb
Bull
Bumper
Bus-bar
Compensating
Compensator
Extension
Freeway
Gunwale
Header
Hi-way
Highway
Hood
Impact
Ladder
Landau
Levering
Locking
Main
Nerf
Nudge
Port
Push
Quarter-wave

see
bar
bar
bar
bar
bar
bar
bar
bar
bar
bar

bar

bar
bar
bar
bar
bar
bar
bar
Bar
bars
bars
bar
clamp
bar
bar
bar
bar
bar
Bar

Roo
bar
Side
impact
bar
Sissy
bar
Spring
bar
Stabilizer
bar
Stringer
bar
Strut
bar
Sway
bar
T-bar
Targa
bar
Test
bar
Tommy
bar
Torsion
bar
Track
bar
Traction
bar
Tread
bar
Wear
bars
Wheelie
bar
Wheelie
bars
Wobble extension bar
Barach
The author and compiler of this dictionary at
Motorera.com
Bar-and-yoke
Method of magnetic testing in which the sample is in
the form of a bar, clamped into a yoke of relatively
large cross-section, which forms a low reluctance
return path for the flux.
Barathea
Woven fabric used for coats and suits and made from
silk, worsted, or man-made fibers. Characteristic
surface appearance arising from the twill or broken-rib
weave used in its manufacture.
Barba's law
Law concerned with the plastic deformation of metal
test pieces when strained to fracture in a tensile test; it
states that test pieces of identical size deform in a
similar manner.

Barbershop
Trucker slang for a low overpass where a large truck
might clip its top if the truck's clearance is higher than
the height of the overpass.
Bar clamp

Bar Clamp
A tool with a stationary head and a sliding foot for
clamping purposes.
Also
See
Locking bar clamp
Bare
1. Something slightly smaller than the specified
dimension.
2. A unit without the attaching hardware
Bare conductor
A conductor not continuously covered with insulation,
but supported intermittently by insulators, e.g., busbars and overhead lines.
Bare electrodes
Electrodes used in welding that are not coated with a
basic slag-forming substance.
Bar ends

Bar Ends
Short handlebar Add-on extensions which are attached
to the ends of a Mountain bike handlebar to add
another riding position.
Bar end shifter

Bar End Shifter


A bicycle gear shifter that is inserted into each of the
ends of a handlebar.
Bare pavement
A road condition where the pavement is visible and
substantially free of snow and ice following plowing,
scraping, or other means
Bare shell
The shell of a car body in which all parts have been
removed including doors, hood, and trunk lid.
Barge
A flat-bottomed boat for carrying cargo or bunker oil,
usually pulled by tugs.
Also
See
Tank-barge
Barge carriers
Ships designed to carry barges.

Bar generator
Source of pulse signals, giving a bar pattern for testing
TV cathode-ray tubes.
Bar keel
See
Keelson
Barkhausen effect
The phenomenon of discontinuous changes in the
magnetization of a magnetic material while the
magnetizing field is smoothly varied. It is the
consequence of sudden changes in the domain
structure as domain walls overcome various pinning
defects and to a lesser extent as domain orientations
discontinuously rotate away from preferred crystal
areas H. G. Barkhausen (in 1919) detected voltage
pulses induced in coils surrounding a magnetic sample
as it was magnetized. Analogous ultrasonic emissions
are also associated with the magnetization of
magnetostrictive
materials.
The
character
of
Barkhausen emissions is strongly dependent on
microstructure and stress.
Barkhause-Kurz oscillator
Oscillator with a triode valve having its grid more
positive than the anode. Electrons oscillate about the
grid before reaching the anode. Output frequency
depends on the transit time of electrons through the
tube.
Bar lathe
A small lathe of which the bed consists of a single bar
of circular, triangular, or rectangular section.
Barlow lens
A plano-convex lens between the objective and eyepiece of a telescope to increase the magnification by
increasing the effective focal length.
Bar magnet
A straight bar-shaped permanent magnet, with a Pole
at each end.
Bar mill

A rolling mill with grooved rolls, for producing round,


square, or other forms of bar iron of small section.
Barn
Unit of effective cross-sectional area of nucleus equal to
10 -28 m. So called because it was pointed out that
although one barn is a very small unit of area, to an
elementary particle the size of an atom which could
capture it is "as big as a barn door."
Also
See
Cross-section
Barn door
Pair of adjustable flaps on a studio lamp for controlling
the light.
Barney
A soft cover to reduce noise from a film camera.
BARO
1. Acronym for Barometric Pressure
2. Acronym for Barometric pressure sensor.
3. Acronym for Barometric absolute pressure
sensor
Barograph
A recording Barometer, usually of the aneroid type, in
which variations of atmospheric pressure cause
movement of a pen which traces a line on a clockwork
driven revolving drum.
Barometer
An instrument used for the measurement of
atmospheric pressure. The Mercury barometer is
preferable if the highest accuracy of readings is
important, but where compactness has to be
considered, the Aneroid barometer is often used.
Also
See
Altimeter
Barometric absolute pressure sensor
(BARO or BP)
1. A sensor that provides ambient atmospheric
pressure information.

2. Sends a variable voltage signal to the computer


which varies in accord with atmospheric pressure,
allowing adjustment of the spark advance, EGR
flow, and air/fuel ratio as a function of altitude.
Also called a Barometric pressure sensor
Barometric and manifold absolute pressure sensor
(BMAP) A housing containing both BP and MAP sensors.
Barometric corrections
Necessary corrections to the readings of a mercury
barometer for index error, temperature, latitude, and
height.
Barometric error
The error in the time of swing of a pendulum due to
change of air pressure. Though small, it is sometimes
avoided in clocks by causing the pendulum to swing in
an atmosphere of constant (low) pressure.
Barometric pressure
(BP) The pressure of the atmosphere as read by a
barometer. Expressed in millibars (See Bar), the height
of a column of mercury, or (SI) in hectopascals (SI
units).
Barometric pressure sensor
(BARO or BP) A sensor found in the engine
management system which detects the ambient
barometric pressure so that precise fuel mixture can be
maintained at different altitudes.
Barometric tendency
The rate of change of atmospheric pressure with time.
The change of pressure during the previous three
hours.
Barostat
A device which maintains constant atmospheric
pressure in a closed volume, e.g., the input and output
pressure of fuel metering device of a gas turbine to
compensate for atmospheric pressure variation with
altitude.
Barrage

See
Balloon barrage
Barrage balloon
A small captive kite balloon, the cable of which is
intended to destroy low-flying aircraft.
Barred code
Any dialed code that automatic exchange apparatus is
printed to reject by connecting the caller no further
than number unobtainable tone.
Barrel
1. A hollow, usually cylindrical, machine part, often
revolving, sometimes with wall apertures
2. The Air horn in the Carburetor. In particular, it
is that part where the Throttle valve is located.
If a Carburetor has four openings with a throttle
valve in each, it is called a four-barrel
carburetor.
Also
Carburetor
Four barrel carburetor

See
barrel

3. Another name for the Carburetor barrel,


Cylinder,
Cylinder
barrel,
Four
barrel,
Polishing barrel, and Single barrel.
4. To travel fast as in We barreled down the
highway well above the speed limit.
5. The main cylinder in which molten polymer is
prepared for extrusion or injection into molds.
Also
Injection molding

See

6. (bbl) A capacity of 42 US gallons (35 imperial


gallons or 159.1 liters) frequently used as a unit in
the oil industry.
Barrel cam

A cylindrical cam with circumferential or end track.


Barrel carburetor
See
Four
barrel
carburetor
Single
barrel
carburetor
Twin barrel carburetor
Barrel distortion
Curvilinear distortion of an optical or electronic image
in which horizontal and vertical straight lines appear
barrel-shaped, bowed outwards. Also called positive
distortion.
Barrel etcher
A device usually used to oxidize and thereby strip away
hardened photoresist materials during semiconductor
processing. In it a batch of wafers is exposed to a lowpressure oxygen plasma.
Barrel hopper
A machine for unscrambling, orienting and feeding
small components during a manufacturing process, in
which a revolving barrel tumbles the components on to
a sloping, vibrating feeding blade.
Barrel Nut
An internally threaded screw with a slotted head.
Barrel plating
Electroplating of many small items by placing them in a
perforated barrel revolving in a vat filled with an
appropriate plating solution. The barrel is made the
Cathode in the cell and the articles tumble against
each other during rotation, continually touching at
different places, and so become uniformly coated with
the electrodeposit.
Barrel shape
A drum defect caused by excessive wear at the center
of the friction surface.
Barrel tappet
A hollow rocker arm shaped like a barrel.
Barrel temperatures

Temperatures at which an extrusion or injection


molding barrel is kept, usually rising to a peak at the
nozzle. The range is determined by the polymer type
and its melt viscosity.
Also
see
Injection molding
Barrel-type crankcase
A gasoline-engine crankcase so constructed that the
crankshaft must be removed from one end; in more
normal construction the crankcase is split.
Also
see
Split crankcase
Barrel wear
A type of brake drum wear in which the center of the
friction surface is worn more than the edges
Barretter
Iron-wire resistor mounted in a glass bulb containing
hydrogen, and having a temperature variation so
arranged that the change of resistance ensures that the
current in the circuit in which it is connected remains
substantially constant over a wide range of voltage.
Also called ballast tube
Barricade
A temporary structure designed to warn vehicles that
the road or a portion of the road is no longer usable.
See
A-frame
barricade
Breakaway barricade
Barrier
1. In transformers, the solid insulating material
which provides the main insulation, apart from the
oil.
2. The refractory material intended to localize or
direct any arc which may arise on the operation of
a circuit breaker.
Also
Brush

see
barrier

Crash
barrier
Jersey
barriers
Radiant
Barrier
Vapor Barrier
Barrier cream
A special cream which is applied to your hands before
working on a greasy engine. When the job is over, you
can wash your hands and easily remove the grease
stains. Also called invisible glove or silicon glove
Barrier effect
The effect produced by coating metal to shield it from
corrosion.
Barrier layer
1. In semiconductor junctions, the depletion layer
2. In an optical fiber cable, an intermediate layer of
glass between the low refractive index core and
the high refractive index cladding.
3. In general a layer placed so as to inhibit
interdiffusion of heat, matter, etc.
Barrier paint
A primer which is used on bare metal to prevent
corrosion.
Barring gear
An arrangement for moving heavy electrical plant,
using manpower. Rotating machines and transformers
are equipped with wheels and movement is possible by
inserting crowbars at suitable points and levering the
equipment.
Barring motor
A small motor which can be temporarily connected, by
a gear or clutch, to a large machine to turn it slowly for
adjustment or inspection.
Bar roof
See
T bar roof
Bars

See
Bar
Ladder
bars
Landau
bars
Riser
Bars
Wear
bars
Wheelie bars
Bar suspension
A method of mounting the motor on an electrically
propelled vehicle. One side of the motor is supported
on the driving axle and the other side by a springsuspended bar lying transversely across the truck. Also
called yoke suspension.
Also
see
Torsion bar suspension
Bar-type current transformer
A Current transformer in which the primary consists
of a single conductor that passes centrally through the
iron core upon which the secondary is wound.
Bar winding
An armature winding for an electric machine whose
conductors are formed of copper bars.
Bar-wound armature
An armature with large sectioned conductors which are
insulated and fixed in position and connected, in
contrast with former-wound conductors which are
sufficiently thin to be inserted, after shaping in a
suitable jig.
Barye
See
Microbar
BAS
Acronym for Belt Alternator Starter -- a Hybrid
vehicle system from GM
Base
1. The lowest supporting part of an upright member.
2. The bottom layer or coating in a series of paint
coats.

3. The major ingredient, other than pigments and


filler, that make up the non-volatile portion of an
adhesive, coating, or sealing compound.
4. The region between the emitter and collector of a
transistor, into which minority carriers are
injected. It is essentially the control electrode of
the transistor.
5. The part of an electron tube which has pins, leads,
or terminals through which connections are made
to the internal electrodes.
6. The thin flexible support on which a photographic
emulsion or magnetic coating is carried.
7. A layer of specified material of specified thickness
placed below the road surface.
Also
See
Bead
base
Carburetor
Base
Edison
base
Flat
base
rim
taper
Flat
base
rim
Lithium
base
grease
Load
base
Negative
load
base
Quaternary
Ammonium
Bases
Rim well base
Base and clear system
Paint finish which is made up of a colored base coat
(usually a metallic finish) and clear lacquer coat.
Base circle
As applied to the Camshaft the lowest spot on the
cam, the area of the cam directly opposite the lobe or
nose. No lift is produced by the base circle. Also called
Cam heel
Base coat
The first coat in a paint system. It is either the
undercoat or primer or a colored coat which is covered
by clear lacquer.

Base gasket
The Gasket directly below the Cylinder and between
the Cylinder and Crankcase. Also called cylinder
gasket.
Base grease
See
Lithium base grease
Base idle
The idle speed determined by the throttle lever setting
on the carburetor or throttle body while the idle speed
control (ISC) motor, or any other computer-controlled
idle speed control device, is fully retracted and
disconnected.
Base interest rate
The interest paid on the usage of the vehicle during a
lease. It is the cost of a lease before factoring in
discounts, fees, and penalties and is not directly
comparable to the APR for a loan. Lowering the base
interest rate is one of the methods manufacturers use
to subsidize leases. The phrase money factor
measures the same cost and can be converted into a
base interest rate. For example, to convert a money
factor of 0.00276 into an approximate base interest
rate would multiply the money factor by 24. The result
would be 0.0662 or 6.6%.
Baseline
A fore-and-aft reference line at the upper surface of the
flat plate keel at the centerline for flush shell plated
vessels. Vertical dimensions are measured from a
horizontal plane through the baseline, often called the
molded baseline.
Base material
Any material (metal or plastic) which needs to be
coated.
Base metal
1. Metal that is under a coating or that needs to be
coated.
2. Metal to be welded, cut, or brazed.

Base model
The least expensive vehicle with the least amount of
features as standard equipment. It has the smallest
engine and often Manual transmission as well as few
power equipment. Base models constitute only a small
percentage of the cars sold. Sometimes called a
stripper or stripped down unit.
Baseplate
A strong metal plate which is the main support for
something.
Also
see
Distributor baseplate
Base rim
See
Flat
base
rim
Flat base rim taper
Base rim taper
See
Flat base rim taper
Base Year
See
Auto Pact Base Year
Basher
A small studio lamp placed close to or on the camera
mounting.
Basic ignition setting
The ignition setting on a non-running engine according
to the specifications. After the engine is running, the
timing can be set more accurately.
Basic ignition timing
The ignition timing on a non-running engine according
to the specifications. After the engine is running, the
timing can be set more accurately.
Basic loading
The limiting mechanical load, per unit length, on an
overhead line conductor.
Basic price

The price of a vehicle without including any optional


accessories, taxes, delivery charges, etc.
Basic process
A steel-making process, either Bessemer, open-hearth,
or electric, in which the furnace is lined with a basic
refractory, a slag rich in lime being formed, enabling
phosphorus to be removed.
Also
see
Acid process
Basic six
The group of instruments essential for the flight
handling of an aircraft and consisting of the airspeed
indicator, vertical speed indicator, altimeter, heading
indicator, gyro horizon, and turn and bank indicator.
Basic slag
Furnace slag rich in phosphorus (as calcium phosphate)
which, with silicate and lime, is produced in steel
making, and ground and sold for agricultural fertilizer.
Basic speed
The speed which an electric motor develops at rated
voltage with rated load applied
Basic steel
Steel which has reacted with a basic lining or additive
to produce a phosphorus-rich slag and a lowphosphorus steel.
Basic T
A layout of flight instruments standardized for aircraft
instrument panels in which four of the essential
instrument panels in which four of the essential
instruments are arranged in the form of a T. The pitch
and roll attitude display is located at the junction of the
T flanked by airspeed on the left and attitude on the
right. The vertical bar portion of the T is taken up by
directional information.
Basic timing
The ignition timing on a non-running engine according
to the specifications. After the engine is running, the
timing can be set more accurately.

Basic weight
The weight of the structure (wing, body, tail unit, and
landing gear) of an aircraft, plus the propulsion system
and the airframe services and equipment (mechanical
systems, avionics, fuel tanks, and pipes). Includes
residual oil and undrainable fuel but no operational
equipment or payload.
Basin
See
Building
basin
Catch
basin
Catch
Pit
Catchment Basin
Basket case
An old car which probably does not run. Often many
engine and transmission parts have been removed and
are either missing or stored in the trunk or a basket
Basket coil
Coil with criss-cross layers, so designed to minimize
self-capacitance.
Bass boost
Amplifier circuit adjustment which regulates the
attenuation of the lowest frequencies in the audio scale,
usually to offset the progressive loss toward low
frequencies.
Bass compensation
Differential attenuation introduced into a soundreproducing system when the loudness of the
reproduction is reduced below normal, to compensate
for the diminishing sensitivity of the ear toward the
lowest frequencies reproduced.
Bass frequency
A frequency close to the lower limit in an audiofrequency signal or a channel for such, e.g., below 250
Hz.
Bastard
Something that is irregular, in between, or unusual.
Bastard file

Bastard File
A file (a tool) which has a coarse cut (as opposed to a
finishing file). It is one cut finer than a coarse file.
Files are classed as coarse, second cut, and smooth,
from coarsest to finest. Thus, a bastard file is a cut in
between a coarse and a second cut. The word
bastard functions here in its meaning as irregular or
neither coarse nor second cut.
Bastard thread
A screw-thread which does not conform to any
recognized standard dimensions.
Bastard title
The fly page before the full title page of a book. Often
wrongly called a half-title
Bat
1. A lump or collection of something.
2. Acronym for Battery
Also
See
Fiberglass
Batch
1. A number of things which are produced as a
group.
2. A mixture of natural and synthetic rubber with
other material such as fillers, chemicals, and
vulcanizing agents in the production of tires.
3. The mixture of raw materials from which glass is
produced in the furnace. A proportion of cullet is
either added to the mixture, or placed in the

furnace previous
charge.

to

the

charge.

Also

called

Batch box
See
Gauge box
Batch furnace
A furnace in which the charge is placed and heated to
the requisite temperature. The furnace may be
maintained at the operating temperature, or heated
and cooled with the charge. Distinguished from
Continuous furnace
Batch mill
Cylindrical grinding mill into which a quantity of
material for precise grinding treatment is charged and
worked until finished.
Batch number
A number which may be added to a serial number to
identify when the product was manufactured. In this
way, when a problem occurs to some products of the
same batch, action can be taken to correct or replace
others from the same batch.
Batch process
Any process or manufacture in which operations are
completely carried out on specific quantities or a limited
number of articles, as contrasted to continuous or
mass-production. In semiconductor manufacture, one
in which several wafers are treated simultaneously as
distinct from stages in which wafers are processed
singly.
Bath
1. A tub into which something is immersed.
2. A liquid solution used for cleaning, plating, or
maintaining a specified temperature.
Also
Anodizing
Galvanizing

See
bath
bath

Oil
bath
air
cleaner
Open
Bath
Primer
bath
Sealing
bath
Zinc bath
Bath air
See
Oil bath air cleaner
Bath air cleaner
See
Oil bath air cleaner
Bath lubrication
A method of lubrication in which the part to be
lubricated, such as a chain or gearwheel, dips into an
oil-bath.
BA thread
See
British Association screw-thread
Bath Suspension
See
Oil Bath Suspension
Bathtub
Bodywork resembling an upside-down bathtub used on
the rear of some Triumph motorcycles. It was
introduced in 1957 and dropped in the early 1960s. It
was also used on Nash cars of the 50's.
Bathtub combustion chamber

The volume in the cylinder above the piston that is


shaped like an inverted bathtub with the valves in the
bottom of the tub. Since all the valves can be arranged
in a single row, the valve-operating camshaft and/or
rocker gear are simple to design and operate. The long,
oval shape of the bathtub controls excessive
turbulence, and the flat areas where the piston comes
right up to the head surface supply the squish needed
to swirl the mixture. The wide cylinders and short
piston strokes in modern engines make it possible to
use large valves with bathtub heads for efficient gas
flow.
Also
See
Hemispherical
combustion
chamber
Wedge
combustion
chamber
Squish
combustion
chamber
Piston-crown combustion chamber
Battens
See
Cargo
Hatch battens
Batter level

battens

A form of clinometer for finding the slope of cuttings


and embankments
Battery

Click image to supersize


Battery
An Electrochemical device for producing electricity by
converting chemical energy. The typical automotive
lead-acid battery supplies the source of power for
Cranking the engine and also provides the necessary
electrical energy for the Ignition system. In addition,
it can (for a limited time) furnish Current when the
electrical demands of the vehicle exceed the
Alternator or Generator output. Also called the
storage battery.
Also
see
Accumulator
battery
Alkaline
battery
B-battery
Booster
battery
Buffer
battery
Cell
Battery
Charged
battery
Check
the
battery
Dead
battery
Discharged
battery
Disconnect
the
battery
Dry
battery
Dry
Cell
Battery
Dry
charged
battery

Energy
Flat
Gel
cell
High
energy
Isolate
the
Lead-acid
Lead
Acid
Rechargeable
Low-maintenance
Low
Maintenance-free
Ni-cad
Rechargeable
Primary
Rechargeable
Secondary
Sodium-Sulfur
Storage
Top up the battery Wet Cell Battery

Battery
battery
battery
battery
battery
battery
Battery
battery
battery
battery
Battery
battery
battery
battery
battery
battery

Battery acid
Electrolyte (usually sulfuric acid) in each of the battery
cells.
Battery acid tester

Battery Tester

A hydrometer for checking the strength of the acid


mixture in each cell of a battery. Fluid is sucked into
the instrument by squeezing and releasing the bulb.
The scale measures the acid.
Battery booster
A motor-generator set used for giving an extra voltage,
to enable a battery to be charged from a circuit of a
voltage equal to the normal voltage of the battery.
Battery brush

Battery Brush
A specially designed brush set which cleans the outside
terminals of the battery post as well as the inside of the
battery cable so that good contact is made.
Battery cap
Small caps which seal each battery cell.
Battery capacity
The amp-hour capacity.
Battery cell
Individual compartments in a battery which is filled
with electrolyte. Six-volt batteries have three cells, 12volt batteries have six cells.
Battery case

The box made of polypropylene holding several


chambers (cells) which have lead plates and filled with
electrolyte.
Battery charge
The condition or state of the amount of electricity in a
battery.
Battery charge indicator
An instrument which shows the state of charge in a
battery.
Battery charger

Click image to supersize


Battery Charger
An electric device which is plugged into an electrical
outlet (e.g., 110 volt AC) and connected to the two
terminals of the battery to restore the state of charge
in the battery. One of leads coming from the charger is
red and the other is black. The red lead is clamped on
the positive post of the battery while the other is
clamped on the frame of the vehicle.
Battery charging
The process of renewing the Battery by passing an
electric Current through the battery in a reverse
direction.
Battery charging station

With the advent of electric cars, there needs to be


places where their batteries can be recharged
periodically -- thus is born the battery charging station.
Also called a charging point.
Battery clamp
A hold down device which secures the battery from
moving around.
Battery coil ignition
High-tension supply for spark plugs in automobiles, in
which the interruption of a primary current from a
battery induces a high secondary emf in another
winding on the same magnetic circuit, the high tension
being distributed in synchronism with the contactbreaker in the primary circuit.
Battery compartment
A place in the vehicle where the battery is located. In
cars and trucks it may be found under the hood
(usually toward the front), under one of the seats, or in
the trunk. In motorcycles it is found in the middle of
the bike, under the seat.
Battery condition
See
Battery charge
Battery connector
A plug on battery-powered vehicles to connect the
batteries to the Charging station
Battery Council International
A group which makes decisions related to battery
composition and disposal.
Battery cover
The top of the Battery case. It has several holes
(covered with caps) for access to the battery cells.
Battery cut-out
An automatic switch for disconnecting a battery during
its charge, if the voltage of the charging circuit falls
below that of the battery.
Battery discharge controller

A device on a vehicle which is driven by an electrical


motor. It triggers a warning indicator when the battery
power drops below a certain level.
Battery discharge indicator
An instrument on a vehicle which is driven by an
electrical motor which indicates the percentage of the
maximum charge of the battery.
Battery earth
British term for Battery strap or Ground strap
Battery filler
A device with a long hollow tube with a rubber bulb at
one end. It is used for inserting into a container of
Battery acid and sucking up the acid, then inserting
into the battery cell to fill it. However, motorcycle
batteries arrive from the manufacturer with no
electrolyte (battery acid). Battery acid comes in a large
plastic container with a rubber hose to which a
metering clamp is attached. The container is usually
placed on a higher shelf so that it is fed into the battery
by gravity and regulated by the metering clamp.
Battery fill line
A horizontal line on the side of a translucent battery
case which indicates the level to which you fill it with
electrolyte. Usually there are two lines indicating a
minimum level and maximum level.
Battery fluid
See
Battery acid
Battery hold down clamp
See
Battery clamp
Battery ignition
Any system where the battery supplies the initial
voltage to power the starter motor and fire the spark
plugs.
Battery ignition system
See
Battery ignition

Battery is dead
The battery does not have enough electrical power to
start the car.
Battery is flat
The battery does not have enough electrical power to
start the car.
Battery load tester

Battery Load Tester


An instrument which is applied to the terminals of a
Battery. When first installed, the battery voltage
appears on the dial. By pressing a switch, the voltage is
channeled through a series of resistors. While a battery
may indicates 12 volts or more without a load, it may
not meet the amperage for which it is rated when
under load.
Battery Manufacturers
See
Association Of American Battery Manufacturers
Battery master switch
A control which cuts power from the battery to the
other components of the vehicle. Used to disable a
vehicle so that thieves have a harder time stealing the
vehicle.
Battery positive voltage

(B+) A term used to designate positive voltage at or


near the battery level.
Battery post
The terminal on a battery to which the cable is
attached. Older automobile batteries used a round post
which stood up from the top of the battery. To avoid
confusion, the positive post has a larger diameter than
the negative. On newer batteries the post may or may
not be abandoned in favor of a terminal on the side of
the battery. On motorcycle batteries, the posts are
usually flat with a hole for bolting the cables to them.
Battery regulating switch
A switch to regulate the number of cells connected in a
series in a battery.
Battery spear
A special form of spike used to connect a voltmeter to
the plates of the accumulator cells for battery-testing
under load. The voltmeter incorporates a low resistance
in shunt which simulates a heavy load on the battery,
thus testing its work capability. The heavy current
passed for this purpose necessitates special heavy duty
battery connectors.
Battery state indicator
See
Battery charge indicator
Battery strap
1. A wire cable or braided wire strap to transfer
electricity. It can be found between the engine
block and the Chassis because the engine is
isolated from the Chassis by rubber mounts. Also
called ground strap.
2. A rubber strap with metal hooks at each end and
is used to secure a battery in place, especially on
motorcycles.
Also
Ground wire
Battery terminal

see

1. A Battery post on the top of the battery or a lug


with a hole on the side of the battery.
2. The clamp at the end of a battery cable.
Battery tester

Battery Tester
1. A voltage meter or hydrometer for checking the
state of charge of a battery.
2. An instrument for checking the condition of the
battery cells
Also
Battery acid tester

see

Battery traction
An electric-traction system in which the current is
obtained from batteries (accumulators) on the vehicles.
Battery tray
A metal or plastic on which the battery sits.
Battery vehicle
See
Battery traction
Baudelot cooler

Heat exchanger in which water flows by gravity over


the outside of the tubes or plates.
Baudot code
Code in which five equal-length bits represent one
character; sometimes used for teleprinters where one
start and one stop element are added to each group of
five bits.
Baulk
See
Balk
Baulk ring
British spelling for Balk ring
Bay
1. Unit of racks designed to accommodate numbers
of standard-sized panels, e.g., repeaters or logical
units.
2. Unit of horizontally extended antenna, e.g.,
between masts.
Also
Engine bay
Bayonet bulb
See
Bayonet cap
Bayonet cap

Bayonet Cap

see

(BC) A cylindrical base of an electric bulb, usually with


two pins projecting on either side, which engage in Jshaped slots to lock the bulb securely in its socket.
Also
see
Center-contact
cap
Small bayonet cap
Bayonet fitting
An engineering fastening similar to a Bayonet cap
Also
see
Bayonet socket
Bayonet holder
See
Bayonet cap
Bayonet socket
A socket for receiving a Bayonet cap. It has two slots
on either side (usually J-shaped) to accommodate the
bulb's pins.

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ca"

Ca
Cb
Cc
Cd
Ce
Cf
Cg
Ch
Ci
Cj
Ck
Cl
Cm
Cn

Co
Cp
Cr

C
1. Abbreviation for Celsius or Centigrade.
2. Abbreviation for Coulomb.
3. Abbreviation for Comfort.
4. Abbreviation for Carbon
5. Symbol for the speed of light in a vacuum.
C-3
Acronym for Computer command control system
C3I
Acronym for Computer controlled coil ignition
C4H
A mixture of light hydrocarbons that have the general
formula C4Hn, where n is the number of hydrogen
atoms per molecule. Examples include Butane (C4H10)
and Butylene (C4H8).
C-4 system
Acronym
for
computer-controlled
catalytic
converter
C&C
Acronym for Cab and chassis
CA
1. An API classification for Diesel engine oil widely
used in the late 1940s and '50s that operated in
mild to moderate duty with high quality fuels;
occasionally has included gasoline engines in mild
service. Oils designed for this service provide
protection from bearing corrosion and ring-belt
deposits in some naturally aspirated diesel engines
when using fuels of such quality that they impose
no unusual requirements for wear and deposits
protection. It was replaced by CB designated oil in
1949.
2. Acronym for Cab/Axle describing the distance
from the rear of the cab to the rear axle.

CAA
1. Acronym for Clean Air Act
2. Acronym for Civil Aviation Authority
CAAA
Acronym for Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
CAAM
Acronym for China Association of Automobile
Manufacturers.
CAB
1. Acronym for Civil Aeronautics Board
2. Acronym for Controller, Anti-lock brake
Cab
1. A taxi or car for hire.
2. The closed part of a truck (or even a car) where
the Driver sits.
Also
See
Access
Cab
Cabover
Chassis
cab
Club
Cab
Crew
Cab
Double
Cab
Easy
Access
Cab
Extended
Cab
King
Cab
Quad
Cab
Regular Cab
Cab Aside Engine
(CAE) A truck where the driver's cab sits to one side of
the engine as seen on refuse trucks and some
construction equipment.
Cabbage
Trucker slang for a long steep incline in Eastern Oregon
as in "I jammed the brakes pullin' off of Cabbage"
Cab & chassis

The front of a tractor trailer unit


Cab and chassis
The front of a tractor trailer unit
Cab-Behind Engine
(CB) (CBE) Conventional style of a large truck which
has a hood and an engine in front of the cab.
Cab chassis
A
truck
Chassis
which
includes
the
driver
compartment.
Cab Forward
A truck that is similar to a cabover in that the cab is
positioned ahead of the engine. Most commonly seen
on refuse trucks and some construction equipment.
Cab-forward design
A car design in which the front end is short and the
footwells extended to the front axle. This design gave
more passenger space and pushed the windshield
further from the passengers
Cabin
A passenger compartment of an enclosed vehicle.
Cabin altitude
The normal pressure altitude maintained in the cabin of
a pressurized aircraft.
Cabin blower
An engine-driven pump, usually of displacement type,
for maintaining an aircraft cockpit or cabin above
atmospheric
pressure.
Also
called
cabin
supercharger.
Cabin differential pressure
The pressure in excess of that of the surrounding
atmosphere which is needed to maintain comfortable
conditions at high altitude. For an aircraft flying at
9000m this differential would be about 60 kNm-2.
Cabin forward
See
Cab-forward design
Cabin-forward design

See
Cab-forward design
Cabin supercharger
See
Cabin blower
Cable
A cord generally made of strands of thin wire. Electrical
cables are covered with a protective non-conducting
material. Control cables are housed within an outer
sleeve.
Also
See
Balanced-pair
Cable
Bowden
cable
Brake
cable
Clutch
cable
Control
cable
Derailleur
Cable
Gearchange
cables
Heavy
cable
Ignition
cable
Jumper
cables
Light
cable
Parking-brake
Cable
Shift
cables
Spark
plug
cable
Speedometer
cable
Starter
switch
control
cable
Stirrup
cable
Universal Cable
Cable activated
A device which is controlled by a cable. As a lever or
pedal is engaged, the device is correspondingly moved.
The longer the cable the less efficient is the system.
Cables tend to stretch and fray with use.
Cable-angle indicator
An indicator showing the vertical angle between the
longitudinal axis of a glider and its towing cable, also
its yaw and roll attitude relative to the towing aircraft.

Cable brake
A braking device which is activated by a cable
Cable buoy
A buoy attached to an anchor and serving to mark its
position.
Cablecar
A tram pulled by a moving underground cable, in the
same manner as the Cable railway.
Cable clamp
1. A device for securing a cable end to the point
where it connects.
2. A device which secures the outer sheath of a cable
Cable cover strip
See
Spark plug cable cover strip
Cable crimp
A small aluminum or plastic cap installed on the ends of
bicycle brake and shift inner cables to keep them from
fraying; also known as a cable end. The outer cable
sheath end is protected from fraying by a Ferrule
Cable cutter

Cable Cutter
A tool for severing a cable.
Cable ducts
Earthenware, steel, plastic, or concrete pipes
containing cables.
Cable end
A small aluminum or plastic cap installed on the ends of
bicycle brake and shift inner cables to keep them from

fraying; also known as a cable crimp. The outer cable


sheath end is protected from fraying by a Ferrule
Cable form
The normal scheme of cabling between units of
apparatus. The bulk of the cable is made up on a
board, using nails at the appropriate corners, each wire
of the specified color identification being stretched over
its individual route with adequate skinner. When the
cable is bound with twine and waxed, it is fitted to the
apparatus on the racks and the skinners connected, by
soldering, to the tag blocks.
Cable grip
A flexible cone of wire which is put on the end of a
cable. When the cone is pulled, it tightens and bites
into the sheath of the cable, and can be used to pull
the cable into a duct.
Cable guide
A tube which is secured in place to channel the cable
which runs through it
Cable Housing
See
Brake
Cable
Housing
Derailleur Cable Housing
Cable-laid rope
A rope formed of several strands laid together so that
the twist of the rope is in the opposite direction to the
twist of the strands.
Cable lock
A thick cable with a lock at one end and which can be
wrapped around a bicycle frame and a post to protect
the bike from being stolen.
Cable logging
A system of transporting logs from stump to landing by
means of steel cables and winch. This method is usually
preferred on steep slopes, wet areas, and erodible soils
where tractor logging cannot be carried out effectively.
Cable loom

See
Spark plug cable loom
Cable marker
See
Spark plug cable marker
Cable operated
An item which is controlled by a cable
Cable railway
Means of transport whereby carriages are pulled up an
incline by an endless overground or underground cable.
Cables
See
Cable
Cable separator
See
Spark plug cable separator
Cable-stayed bridge
A bridge type for medium spans in which the decking is
suspended by diagonal cables attached directly to the
supporting tower. Can be of fan or harp design. The
decking is always in compression and is self-supporting
during construction.
Also
See
Bridge
Cable-way
A construction consisting of cables slung over and
between two or more towers, so that skips suspended
from the cables may be moved often over long
distances. It is used for transport of ore etc. Also called
blondin.
Cabover

Cabover truck
A truck or tractor design in which the cab sits over the
engine on the chassis. The cabover is identified by the
windshield being located directly over the front bumper
and the driver is directly over the steering axle. Also
called flat-faced, butt-nosed, or Cab-over-engine
Cab-Over-Engine
(COE) A truck or tractor design in which the cab sits
over the engine on the chassis. The cabover is
identified by the windshield being located directly over
the front bumper and the driver is directly over the
steering axle. Also called flat-faced or butt-nosed.
Cab Plus
A type of pickup truck (by Mazda) which has a second
row of seating; but unlike a Crew cab (which has four
full size doors) it has a half-door that can be opened
only after the main door is opened. The seating is
usually a little more cramped than in a Crew cab. Also
called Club Cab, Extended Cab, King Cab, Xtracab,
Access Cab, Supercab
Cabriolet

Similar to the sport coup, it has a provision for


converting to an open-type body (i.e., Convertible). A
Rumble seat is a common on older vehicles, but not
mandatory feature. Mercedes-Benz distinguishes the
cabriolet from the roadster in that the former has a
soft-top which folds up while the roadster has a hardtop which is stored in the trunk. Also called a
Drophead coup.
CAC
Acronym for Charge Air Cooler
CACIS
Acronym for Continuous AC Ignition System
CAD
Acronym for computer aided design
Cadastral survey
Land survey, boundary delineation.
Caddy
An euphemistic name for Cadillac
Also
See
Plug caddy
Cadence
The speed your bicycle pedals turn. Professional bicycle
riders have cadence of over 100 rpm
Cadence braking
A braking method in which the driver rapidly depresses
and releases the brake pedal to bring a vehicle to an
emergency stop
Cadillac

The following Cadillacs are classic cars

All 1925-35 models


All 12-cylinder models
All 16 cylinder models
All 1938-41 60 Special models
All 1936-48 series #67, #70, #72, #75, #80,
#85, #90

For a history of Cadillac, see Cadillac History. Models


include the following:
Allant (1987-1993)
Brougham (1985-1992)
Calais (1965-1976)
Castilian Station Wagon (1975-1976)
Catera (1997-2001)
Cimarron (1982-1988)
commercial chassis (1935-83) used for funeral
cars and ambulances
Coupe de Ville (1949-93)
CTS (2003-current)
CTS-V (2004-current)
DeVille (1949-2005)
DTS (2006-current)
Eldorado (1953-2002)
Eldorado Biarritz (1956-64, 1976-91)
Eldorado Brougham (1957-60)
Eldorado Seville (1956-60)
Escalade (1999-current)
Escalade ESV (2003-current)
Escalade EXT (2002-current)
Fleetwood (1927-1996)
Fleetwood Eldorado (1965-2003)
Seventy-Five (1936-76)
Seville (1975-2004)
Sixty-one (1939-51)
Sixty-Two (1940-64)
Sixty Special (1938-1993)
SRX (2004-current)
STS (2005-current)

STS-V (2006-current)
XLR (2004-current)
XLR-V (2006-current)

Cadmium cell
A reference voltage standard, giving 1.0186 V at 20C.
Also called Weston standard cadmium cell.
Cadmium copper
A variety of copper containing 0.7 to 1.0% cadmium.
Used for trolley, telephone, and telegraph wires
because it gives high strength in cold-drawn condition
combined with good conductivity.
Cadmium photocell
A photoconductive cell using cadmium disulfide or
cadmium selenide as the photosensitive semiconductor.
Sensitive to longer wavelengths and infrared. It has a
rapid response to changes in light intensity.
Cadmium-plated
Something that is covered with a coating of cadmium.
It is usually used to protect aluminum and steel nuts
and bolts
Cadmium red line
Spectrum line formerly chosen as a reproducible
standard of length, wavelength 643.8496 nm.
CAE
1. Acronym for Computer Aided Engineering
2. Acronym for Cab Aside Engine seen on refuse
trucks and some construction equipment.
Caesium
British spelling for Cesium
CAFE
Acronym for Corporate Average Fuel Economy.
Under CAFE, which was enacted in 1975, a motor
vehicle manufacturer must place its U.S. automobile
and light truck fleet sales in one of two vehicle fleets,

either domestic or import, for fuel economy averaging


purposes.
Caf chop
Converting a stock motorcycle into a caf racer is
known as doing a caf chop on a bike
Caf racer
1. Motorcycle
modified
to
resemble
racing
motorcycles from the 1950s and 60s. They are
called caf racers because their owners
supposedly raced from caf to caf in London,
where the bikes first appeared in the 1960s
2. An early Sportbike motorcycle which originated in
Europe. They had a low Windshield and the rider
was bent forward to optimize the flow of air. Its
name came from those who raced from one
restaurant (caf) to another.
Cage
1. Any enclosure.
2. On a front Derailleur of a Bicycle, it is a pair of
parallel plates that push the Chain from side to
side; on a rear Derailleur, it is a set of plates in
which Pulleys are mounted to hold and guide the
Chain from Cog to cog.
3. Any device for holding or securing something,
e.g., a bottle cage on a Bicycle.
Also
Bottle Cage

see

4. When referring to bearings, it is the part which


holds the balls or Rollers in place. Usually called
Ball cage.
Also
Needle
Roller
Squirrel Cage

See
cage
cage

5. When referring to a vehicle, it is the safety


enclosure called a Roll cage.
Also
Differential
Integrated
Multi-reed cage

roll

See
cage
cage

6. The platform on which goods are hoisted up or


lowered down a vertical shaft or guides; in mines,
the steel box used to raise and lower workers,
materials, or tubs. May have two or three decks.
Cage pedal

Cage Pedal
A bicycle pedal that is surrounded by a cage. It is found
on all terrain bikes.
Cage rotor
A form of rotor, used for induction motors, having on it
a Cage winding. Also called squirrel-cage rotor.
Cage winding
A type of winding used for rotors of some types of
induction motors, and for the starting or damping
windings of synchronous machines. It consists of a
number of bars of copper or other conducting
materials, passing along slots in the core and welded to
rings at each end. Also called squirrel-cage winding.

Cailletet's process
A method for the liquefaction of gases based on the
free expansion of a gas from a higher to a lower
pressure.
CAJAD
Acronym for Canadian Association of Japanese
Automobile Dealers
Cake
The rectangular casting of copper or its alloys before
rolling into sheet or strip.
Cal
Abbreviation for Calorie
CAL
Acronym for Computer Aided Lighting
Calandria
Closed vessel penetrated by pipes so that liquids in
each do not mix. In evaporating plant the tubes carry
the heating fluid and in certain types of nuclear reactor,
e.g., CANDU reactors, the sealed vessel is called a
calandria
Calcination
A process in which a material is heated to a high
temperature without fusing, so that hydrates,
carbonates, or other compounds are decomposed and
the volatile material is expelled.
Calcium chloride
1. A chemical (salt) which is added to water in a
Liquid ballast.
2. A soluble compound produced from calcium
carbonate and hydrogen chloride generally used in
cold temperatures (18 - -10C) to deice roads or
to pre-wet salt before applying to roads.
Calcium magnesium acetate
A compound produced from limestone and acetic acid
used for anti-icing and deicing of roads. It is less
corrosive than salt, but more expensive.
Calcium sulfate

Chemical compound (CaSO4), which is used as a drying


agent or desiccant in liquid line driers
Also
see
Anhydrous calcium sulphate
Calcium tungstate screen
A fluorescent screen used in a cathode-ray tube; it
gives a blue and ultraviolet luminescence.
Calculation
See
Load distribution calculation
Calendering
A thin layer of rubber inside the Tire casing which
covers the carcass cords to protect them from moisture
and to protect the tube from chafing by the cord body.
In tubeless tires, calendering consists of a layer of air
proof Butyl rubber.
Caliber
Also spelled calibre
1. The internal diameter or bore of a pipe, esp. the
barrel of a fire-arm.
2. The arrangement of the various components of a
watch or clock.
Calibrate
1. As applied to test instruments it is the procedure
of adjusting the dial Needle to the correct zero or
load setting to determine accurate measurements.
2. Position
indicators
to
determine
accurate
measurements
Calibrated airspeed
(CAS) In automobiles, speed is calculated by the
rotation of the driving axle. In an airplane, however,
speed is determined by the amount of air rushing past
the plane. In a turn, air will rush past faster on one
side than the other. Calibrated airspeed makes
adjustment for this factor (called position error) and for

any error in the instrument. Also called rectified


airspeed
Calibration
Marking the measuring units on an instrument or
checking their accuracy
Calibration assembly
A memory module that plugs into an on-board
computer and contains instructions for engine operation
Calibration oil
Oil which is used in a tester for checking injection
nozzles, meeting SAE J967D specifications
Calibration Unit
See
Engine Calibration Unit
Calibre
See
Caliber
California Air Resources Board
(CARB) The state agency that regulates the air quality
in California. Air quality regulations established by
CARB are often stricter than those set by the federal
government.
California Low-Emission Vehicle Program
State requirement for automakers to produce vehicles
with fewer emissions than current EPA standards. The
five categories of California Low-Emission Vehicle
Program standards from least to most stringent are
TLEV, LEV, ULEV, SULEV, and ZEV.
California Pilot Program
Federal program, administered by the EPA under the
Clean Air Act, which sets lower emission standards
(relative to cars in the general U.S. market) for a set
number of new passenger cars and light trucks sold in
California. The program specified that at the beginning
of 1996, there would be the sale of 150,000 clean
vehicles in the state. Beginning in 1999, this was to
increase to 300,000 annually. California must mandate

availability of any fuel necessary to operate clean fuel


vehicles.
California Power Exchange
A State-chartered, non-profit corporation which
provides day-ahead and hour-ahead markets for energy
and ancillary services in accordance with the power
exchange tariff. The power exchange is a scheduling
coordinator and is independent of both the independent
system operator and all other market participants.
California wheel
A name given to a spoked wheel produced by particular
manufacturer. Although the wheel is popular in the East
and Midwest of United States, it is not common in
California or other Western states.
Caliper

1.
Caliper
The clamping device on Disc brakes which straddles
the rotating disc and by hydraulic action it presses
the pads against the disc to stop or slow the
vehicle.
Also
Brake
Floating
Fixed
Four
Low-drag
Single-piston
Sliding

caliper
Piston

disc

See
caliper
brake
Caliper
Caliper
Caliper
Caliper
Caliper

Pin
slider
Swinging caliper

caliper

disc

brake

2.
Bicycle Caliper
On Bicycles, the brake arms that reach around the
sides of a wheel to press Brake pads against the
wheel
rim.

3.
Caliper
(British spelling is calliper). An adjustable
measuring tool that is placed around (Outside
caliper) or within (Inside caliper) an object and
adjusted until it just makes contact. It is then
withdrawn and the distance measured between
the
contacting
points.
Also
Dial
Digital
Inside
Inside
Machinists'
Outside
Outside

spring
spring

See
caliper
caliper
Caliper
caliper
caliper
Caliper
caliper

Pocket
Pocket
Vernier caliper

slide

caliper
caliper

Caliper disc
See
Floating
caliper
disc
brake
Pin slider caliper disc brake
Caliper disc brake
See
Floating
caliper
disc
brake
Pin slider caliper disc brake
Caliper gauge
A Caliper (definition #3)
Caliper mounting bracket
The component that connects a brake caliper to the
steering knuckle, hub carrier, or rear axle
Calk
To fill seams in a wood deck with oakum or hammer the
adjoining edges of metal together to stop leaks. Also
spelled caulk
Calking
See
Caulking
Call
See
Close call
Call Distribution
See
Automatic Call Distribution
Calliper
Alternate spelling for Caliper
Cal-look
A style modification of small vehicles which first started
in California. Most of the chrome is removed and the

vehicle is painted a bright color like yellow, light blue,


and red.
Call-out
The mobilization of plow operators to initiate snow and
ice control activities
Calorescence
The absorption of radiation of a certain wavelength by a
body, and its re-emission as radiation of shorter
wavelength. The effect is familiar in the emission of
visible rays by a body which has been heated to
redness by focusing infrared heat rays onto it.
Calorie
Two different calorie units are used by scientists. The
calorie used by medical science is a small heat unit. It
equals the heat required to raise the temperature of
one gram of water one degree Celsius. The calorie used
by engineering science is a large heat unit. It is equal
to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature
of one kilogram of water one degree C. In the SI
system it is recommended that the Joule unit of
energy be used in place of the calorie
Calorific value
A measure of heating value of fuel. Amount of heat
produced by the complete combustion of a unit weight
of fuel. Usually expressed in calories per gram or BTU's
per pound, the latter being numerically 1.8 times the
former.
Calorimeter
An instrument to measure amount of heat given off by
a substance when burned
Also
see
Bomb Calorimeter
CAM
Acronym for Computer Aided Manufacturing
Cam
1. A designed bump on a shaft or Disc which causes
a rocking motion in an adjacent part.

Also
Camshaft

See

2. A metal Disc with irregularly shaped lobes used in


the Camshaft to activate the opening and closing
of the valves and in the Distributor, to force the
points to open.
3. A stepped or curved eccentric wheel mounted on a
rotating shaft. As a cam is turned, objects in
contact with it are raised or lowered.
4. The triangular piece of metal that fits between the
rollers on rollercam bicycle brakes and moves the
brake arms when the brake lever is squeezed
5. A colloquial name for the Camshaft.
6. A name for the Breaker cam.
Also
Adjuster
Adjusting
Barrel
Breaker
Closing
Distributor
Double
Exhaust
Face
Fast
Floating
Full
Inlet
Intake
Race
Semi-race
Single
Single-overhead
Three-quarter Cam
Cam-and-lever steering

overhead
idle

Overhead

See
cam
Cams
Cam
Cam
cam
cam
cam
cam
Cam
cam
cam
Cam
cam
cam
Cam
Cam
Cam
cam

A steering system in which a conical peg mounted on a


lever engages in a helically cut groove on a cylindrical
drum. Also called cam-and-peg steering
Cam-and-peg steering
See
Cam-and-lever steering
Cam-and-roller steering
A steering system in which a tapered disc or a set of
discs or rollers engage with a helically cut, tapered
groove on a cylindrical drum
Cam angle
See
Dwell
Camaro

Click image for books on


Camaro
A series of Pony cars from the Chevrolet division of
General Motors produced from 1967 to 2002. It is often
misspelled as Camero because of a mispronunciation.
It should be pronounced ka-MAH-roh, not ka-MERRoh. The 1967-69 SS/RS V-8 and Z-28 models are
Milestone cars.

Cam belt
See
Timing belt
Camber
1. The rise of a deck of a ship, Athwartship

2.
Camber
A wheel Alignment adjustment of the inward or
outward tilt on the top of the wheel when viewed
from the front of the vehicle. Tipping the top of
the wheel center line outward produces Positive
camber. Tipping the wheel center line inward at
the top produces Negative camber. When the
camber is positive, the tops of the tires are further
apart than the bottom. Correct camber improves
handling and cuts tire wear. Camber is measured
in degrees.

Cambered axle
An axle that has a slight arch which curves upward at
the center so that the wheels can tilt outward at the
top. In this way it is better than an axle which might
sag under load.
Camber thrust
The side force generated when a tire rolls with
Camber. Camber thrust can add to or subtract from
the side force a tire generates.
Cam bolt

A bolt fitted with an eccentric that will cause parts to


change position when the bolt is turned.
Cam chain
A Timing chain which controls the overhead camshaft.
Cam design
See
Cam profile
Camel
A padded fender to keep a vessel away from a pier or
quay to prevent damage to the hull or pier
Camelback
Uncured retread rubber in crescent shape, available in
various widths and depths according to size and type of
tire being retreaded.
Also
See
Die size
Camelbak

Camelbak

A brand name for a hydration pack that fits on the back


of a cyclist or hiker. It is filled with water and has a
tube placed within reach for supplying water for the
user.
Camel Grand Touring Prototype
(GTP) An International Motorsports Association's
(IMSA) premier racing category until 1993 when it was
replaced by the controlled cars World Sports Car
Championship. GTP cars were the most powerful and
the fastest on most road racing circuits in North
America at that time. Over the years, many
automakers fielded factory teams in this series
including Ford, Toyota, Jaguar, Nissan, and Porsche.
Cam engine
See
Overhead camshaft
Camera
Trucker slang for Police radar unit as in "There's a local
yokal with a camera just ahead."
Also
see
Boys
Camera
Automatic Camera
Camero
See
Camaro
Cam face
The surface of a cam lobe
Cam follower

Cam Follower
The unit that contacts the end of the Valve stem and
the Camshaft. The follower rides on the Camshaft
and when the Cam lobes move it upward, it opens the
valve. Also called Valve lifter or tappet.
Cam grind
1. A type of brake shoe arcing that produces a lining
thinner at its ends than at its center.
2. The intake and exhaust timing of a particular cam
profile.
Cam ground piston
See
Cam-ground piston
Cam-ground piston
A Piston with a Skirt that is ground slightly eggshaped or oval-shaped. The widest diameter of the skirt
is at right angles to the piston-pin axis. When it is
heated, it becomes round. The design allows for a
closer fit in the Cylinder so that there is a reduction of
Blowby gas, cylinder scuffing, and Piston slap.
Cam heel

The lowest point of a cam opposite the lobe. Also called


Base circle
Cam lobe
See
Cam lobes
Cam lobes
The bumps on a camshaft that contact and activate
such devices as the Lifters, which operate the valves,
and the Rubbing block, which causes the points to
open and close, as the cam spins with the Distributor
shaft.
Cam lubricator
A device, often in the form of a wick, for lubricating the
contact breaker cam in the distributor
Campaigning
Racing a particular vehicle for an entire season.
Camper

Camper
A structure which fits into a truck bed for camping
purposes. It usually has beds and possibly cooking and
washing facilities. Also called a Truck camper or
slide-in camper.
Also
See
Slide-in
Camper
Truck Camper
Camping
See
Folding camping trailer

Camping trailer
A trailer containing camping equipment.
Also
Folding
camping
Soft-top
Hard-top
Trailer
Cam profile
The shape of each lobe on a Camshaft. These
determine when the valves open or close.
Cam pulley holder

See
trailer
trailer
trailer
shapes

Click image to supersize


Cam Pulley Holder
A tool for
adjustments

securing
are

Cam/rocker
See
Opening cam/rocker
Cam/rocker

the

camshaft
being

when other
made.

See
Opening cam/rocker
Cam roller
Rotating wheel acting as a cam follower
Camry

Click image for books on


Camry
A model of automobile manufactured by Toyota
Camshaft

Camshaft
A shaft with Cam lobes (bumps) which is driven by
gears, a belt, or a Chain from the Crankshaft. The
lobes push on the Valve lifters to cause the valves to
open and close. The camshaft turns at half the speed of
the Crankshaft.
Also
See
Double-overhead
cam
Exhaust
camshaft
Inlet
camshaft
Intake
camshaft
Overhead
camshaft
Race
camshaft
Three-quarter
race
camshaft
Single
Overhead
Camshaft
Single-overhead
camshaft
Twin camshaft
Camshaft bearing
Usually a plain bearing which supports the camshaft
Camshaft drive

A connection between the crankshaft and camshaft by


means of gears, chain, drive belt, shaft, or eccentric
shaft to maintain the ratio of 12.
Camshaft drive belt
A Timing belt
Camshaft drive sprocket
A sprocket attached to a crankshaft (either at one end
or somewhere in the middle) which drives the camshaft
with the use of a chain
Camshaft end play
The amount of lateral movement of the camshaft once
it is installed
Camshaft engine
See
Twin camshaft engine
Camshaft gear
A gear that is used to drive the Camshaft.
Camshaft housing
That part of the engine which encloses the camshaft
and often other parts of the valve train.
Camshaft journal
That part of the camshaft that runs in one of its
bearings
Camshaft position sensor
(CMP) A sensor that signals to the (ECU) the rotational
position of the camshaft. This enables the computer to
more precisely time the fuel injection and ignition
system for faster starting of the engine.
Camshaft pulley
The pulley on the end of the camshaft for the camshaft
drive belt
Camshaft sensor
1. A sensor that signals to the (ECU) the rotational
position of the camshaft. This enables the
computer to more precisely time the fuel injection
and ignition system for faster starting of the
engine.

2. A trigger device found on some distributorless


ignition systems that synchronizes when the
proper ignition coil should be fired.
Camshaft sprocket
The sprocket on the camshaft which (through a chain)
is driven by the Camshaft drive sprocket
Camshaft timing
The relationship between the opening and closing of the
valves and the movement of the pistons must be
coordinated. The camshaft which operates the valves
must therefore turn in relation to the crankshaft by
means of a timing belt or timing chain.
Camshaft timing belt
The rubber belt that transfers power from the
crankshaft to the camshaft to operate it. The belt must
be installed so it maintains the relationship between the
camshaft and crankshaft so the valves for each cylinder
open and close at the right time for proper engine
operation, a factor called camshaft timing
Camshaft timing chain
The metal chain that transfers power from the
crankshaft to the camshaft to operate it. The chain
must be installed so it maintains the relationship
between the camshaft and crankshaft so the valves for
each cylinder open and close at the right time for
proper engine operation, a factor called camshaft
timing
Can
1. A tube in a canned motor pump which insulates
the motor winding.
2. A muffler.
3. A container for liquid or other substances.
Also
Safety
Tin
Oil can

See
Can
Can

Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement


(FTA) Implemented in January 1989 to eliminate all
tariffs on U.S. and Canadian goods by January 1998
and to reduce or eliminate many non-tariff barriers.
Canadian Automotive Repair and Service Council
(CARS) A not-for-profit organization established to
serve the human resource and training needs of the
Canadian car and truck repair and service industry.
Canadian cross border shopping
Cross border shopping describes the purchasing by
Canadian consumers of products in the United States.
Of particular interest is the decision by these buyers to
obtain their products in the U.S., even though similar
products are available in the Canadian market.
Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor
(CANDU) Uses heavy water or deuterium oxide (D2O),
rather than light water (H2O), as the coolant and
moderator. Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen that
has a different neutron absorption spectrum from that
of ordinary hydrogen. In a deuterium-moderatedreactor, fuel made from natural uranium (0.71 U-235)
can sustain a chain reaction.
Canadian Environmental Protection Act
(CEPA) act where the goal is pollution prevention and
protection of Canadians from toxic substances.
Canadian Gas Association
(CGA) A trade organization representing all segments
of the gas industry in Canada. Founded in 1907, it
specifically
represents
distributors,
transmission
companies,
producers,
pipeline
contractors,
manufacturers and allied service organizations. CGA set
up a standards writing, inspection and product
certification program in the mid 1950's at a time when
natural gas was being extended to Eastern Canada and
the West Coast. CGA has been accredited by the
National Standards Council of Canada to prepare
National Standards of Canada in the area of equipment
for use with natural gas and propane.

Canadian Standards Association (CSA)


The organization that sets safety standards for electric
motors and other electrical equipment used in Canada
Canadian Value Added
See
Auto Pact Canadian Value Added
Cancellation
See
Noise cancellation
Candela
(cd) A basic unit of luminous intensity. If, in a given
direction, a source emits monochromatic radiation of
frequency 540 x 1012 Hz, and the radiant intensity in
that direction is 1/683 watt per Steradian, then the
luminous intensity of the source is 1 candela.
Candle
See
Candle power.
Candle power
A measurement of the light producing ability of a light
Bulb.
Candlestick barriers
Plastic poles used to channel traffic. Normally used in
long-term traffic control in lieu of orange drums in tight
construction areas.
CANDU
Acronym for Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor
Candy apple paint
A bright color (usually red) paint (often with metal
flakes) with a transparent clear coat
Candy paint
A bright color (usually red) paint (often with metal
flakes) with a transparent clear coat
Candy store
An automobile dealership with lots of vehicle inventory.
Canister

A small metal box or can. Usually refers to a container


in an emission control system that contains charcoal to
trap fuel vapors from the fuel system
Also
See
Activated
carbon
canister
Charcoal canister
Canister air filter
A Centrifugal force air filter
Canister purge shut-off valve
(CPSOV) a vacuum-operated valve that shuts off
canister purge when the air injection diverter valve
dumps air downstream
Canister purge solenoid
An electrical solenoid that opens the canister purge
valve between the fuel vapor canister line and the
intake manifold when energized
Canister purge valve
Valve used to regulate the flow of vapors from the
evaporative canister to the engine
Canned motor pump
A glandless pump with a special type of submersible or
canned motor, whose stator winding is insulated from
the fluid pumped by a tube, the so-called can
Cannibalize
The action of removing good parts from one vehicle in
order to put them into another vehicle.
Canning
The insertion of the catalyst element into the converter
shell of a catalytic converter
Cannular combustion chamber
A gas turbine combustion system with individual flame
tubes inside an annular casing.
Canonical assembly
Term used in statistical thermodynamics to designate a
single assembly of a large number of systems
Canopy
1. The transparent cover of a cockpit.

2. The fabric (nylon, silk, or cotton) body of a


parachute, which provides high air drag. Usually
hemispherical, but may be lobed or rectangular in
shape.
CANP
Acronym for canister purge solenoid that opens the
fuel vapor canister to the intake manifold when
energized
Cant
Slope of rail or road curve whereby outer radius is
superelevated, to counteract centrifugal thrust of
traffic.
Cant beam
Beams supporting the deck plating in the overhanging
portion of the stern.
Canted deck
The flight deck of an aircraft carrier prolonged
diagonally from one side of the ship, so that aircraft
may fly off and land on without interference to or from
aircraft parked at the bows. The British term is Angled
deck
Cant frame
A frame connected at the upper end to the cant beams
Cantilever
An arm that projects from a source and supports
cables.
Also
See
Cantilever brake
Cantilever brake
1. A bicycle Rim brake with pivoting arms mounted
on Fork blades or Seatstays at or below rim
level. The two brake arms are connected by a
straddle cable with the brake cable attached to the
midpoint of the straddle cable.
2. A type of ATB brake characterized by having the
two brake arms connected by a straddle cable with
the brake cable attached to the midpoint of the

straddle cable. This type of brake was used on ATB


bicycles (as well as tandems, touring, and
cyclocross bicycles) before the invention of the VBrake
Cantilever brakes
See
Cantilever brake.
Cantilever bridge
A bridge formed of self-supporting projecting arms built
outward from the piers and meeting in the middle of
the span, where they are connected together.
Cantilever deck
A bridge where the deck slab is fixed above the main
beams or trusses and is cantilevered beyond the outer
beams or trusses.
Cantilever load
A load which tends to impose a radial force
(perpendicular to the shaft axis) on an electric motor or
gearmotor output shaft
Cantilever spring
1. A leaf spring which is mounted upside down and
attached to the vehicle at its mid-point. This
system is no longer in use in modern vehicles.
2. A Quarter-elliptic leaf spring
Cantrail
The Roof rail
Canvas top
The convertible top.
Canyon
A nuclear energy term for a long narrow space often
partly underground with heavy shielding for essential
processing of wastes from reactors.
Cap
1. A protective round cover which is secured to
something.
2. A covering over the bed of a truck.

3. The base of a light bulb which fits into a socket.


4. Cleaner air package system for reducing the
amount of unburned Hydrocarbons in the
automobile Exhaust.
Also
Battery
Bayonet
Bearing
Big-end
Car
Cold
Distributor
Double
cap
Dust
End
External
mix
Filler
Flip-top
filler
Fuel
Full
Gas
Hot
Hubcap
Idle
Limiter
Inner
cap
Insulating
Internal
mix
Net
cap
Oil
filler
Orifice
Outer
cap
Pile
Plug
Pressure
Pressure-vacuum
Radiator
Roto

air

air

See
cap
cap
cap
cap
cap
cap
cap
nut
cap
cap
cap
cap
cap
cap
cap
Cap
cap
Cap
nut
cap
cap
cost
cap
Cap
nut
caps
cap
cap
Cap
cap
cap

Spark
plug
cap
Spindle
cap
Top
cap
Valve
cap
Valve spring cap
Capable of being fueled
A vehicle is capable of being fueled by a particular
fuel(s) if that vehicle has the engine components in
place to make operation possible on the fuel(s). The
vehicle does not necessarily have to run on the fuel(s)
in order for that vehicle to be considered capable of
being fueled by the fuel(s). For example, a vehicle that
is equipped to operate on either gasoline or natural gas
but normally operates on gasoline is considered to be
capable of being fueled by gasoline and natural gas.
Capacitance (c)
1. The property which opposes any change in
Voltage in an electrical circuit. The property of a
nonconductor by which it stores electrical energy
when separated surfaces of the nonconductor are
maintained at a difference of Potential.
Capacitance is measured by the ratio of the
charge induced to the potential difference and is
proportional to the area of the conducting plates
and the dielectric constant of the nonconducting
material, and inversely proportional to the
separation of the plates (mks unit farad).
2. Property of a nonconductor (condenser or
capacitor) that permits storage of electrical energy
in an electrostatic field.
3. Of an isolated conductor, the ratio of the total
charge on it to its potential; C=Q/V.
Also
Farad
Capacitance bridge
An ac bridge network
capacitance.

See
for

the

measurement

of

Capacitance coupling
Interstage coupling through a series capacitance or by
a capacitor in a common branch of a circuit.
Capacitance grading
Grading of the properties of a dielectric, so that the
variation of stress from conductor to sheath is reduced.
The inner dielectric has the higher permitivity. Ideally,
the grading is continuous and the permittivity varies as
the reciprocal of the distance from the center.
Capacitance integrator
Resistance-capacitance circuit whose output voltage is
approximately equal to the time integral of the input
voltage.
Capacitative load
Terminating impedance which is markedly capacitative,
taking an ac leading in phase on the source emf, e.g.,
electrostatic loudspeaker.
Capacitative reactance
Impedance associated with a capacitor. Has a
magnitude in ohms equal to the reciprocal of the
product of the capacitance (in farads) and the angular
frequency of the supply (in rads s -1). Also introduces a
90 phase angle such that the current through the
device leads the applied voltage.
Capacities
See
Fluid capacities
Capacitive discharge
(CD) A type of Ignition system. It can be either allelectronic or Breaker point controlled. The primary
power is drawn from the engine's Battery and put into
the CD power supply, where it is changed from 12 volts
Direct current to about 300 volts of pulsating Direct
current that is stored in a Capacitor (Condenser).
The release of this energy through the Coil is governed
by a silicon-controlled Rectifier (SCR). When the SCR
switch is closed, the Voltage stored in the Capacitor
is supplied to the Coil, which acts as a voltage step-up

Transformer boosting firing voltage to around 30,000


volts to fire the plugs.
Capacitive reactance
The opposition or resistance to an alternating current
as a result of capacitance; expressed in ohms
Capacitor
1. A device which gives Capacitance, usually
consisting of conducting plates or foil separated by
layers of a dielectric. A Potential difference
applied across the plates induces a separation of
charge centers in the dielectric, thus storing
electrical energy.
2. Type of electrical storage device used in starting
and/or running circuits on many electric motors
3. A device that, when connected in an alternating
current circuit, causes the current to lead the
voltage in time phase. The peak of the current
wave is reached ahead of the voltage wave. This is
the result of the successive storage and discharge
of electric energy
Also
Absorption
Air
Blocking
By-pass
Ceramic
Condenser
Ignition
Motor Capacitor
Capacitor Condenser
See
Dry Capacitor Condenser
Capacitor controlled electronic ignition
See
Electronic
ignition
Capacitive discharge
Capacitor discharge ignition (CDI)

See
capacitor
Capacitor
Capacitor
Capacitor
Capacitor
capacitor

system

See
Capacitive discharge
Capacitor modulator
Capacitor microphone, or similar Transducer, which,
by variation in capacitance, modulates an oscillation
either in amplitude or frequency
Capacitor motor
Single-phase induction motor with an auxiliary starting
winding connected in series with a condenser
(capacitor) for better starting characteristics.
Capacitor-resistance law
(C-R law) Law relating to exponential rise or decay of
charge on capacitor in series with a resistor, and, by
extension, to signal distortion on long submarine
cables.
Capacitor start
Starting unit for electric motor using series capacitance
to advance phase of current.
Capacitor-start motor
Motor which has a capacitor in the starting circuit
Capacitron
See
Band ignitor tube
Capacity
1. The ability to contain or hold something.
2. Maximum production attainable under normal
conditions. With regard to normal conditions, the
company's operating practices are to be followed
with respect to the use of production facilities,
overtime, workshifts, holidays, etc.
3. The output of an electric motor or other electrical
equipment.
4. The volume of fluid which a pump can handle.
5. A measure of the theoretical maximum amount of
refrigeration-produced output, measured in tons
or BTUs per hour
6. Refrigeration rating system. Usually measured in
BTU per hour or watts.

7. Sometimes used to mean Capacitance

Also
See
Ampere
hour
capacity
Battery
capacity
Boiler
Capacity
Breaking
Capacity
Breathing
capacity
Bunker
Capacity
Carrying
capacity
Charge
Capacity
Energy
Engine
capacity
Fuse
Maximum
Regulation
Capacity
Net
capacity
Nominal
capacity
Oxygen
Storage
Capacity
Passenger
capacity
Ply
rating
Rated
capacity
Reserve
capacity
Seating
capacity
Specific
Heat
Capacity
Top
off
Work capacity
Capacity plan
A plan outlining the spaces available for fuel, Cargo,
ballast, fresh water, etc, with guides on weight and
volume for spaces at various drafts and displacements
Capacity rating
See
Rated capacity
Cap-and-pin type insulator
A special form of the Suspension insulator
Cap cost

See
Capitalized
Net cap cost

cost

Cap cost reduction


See
Capitalized cost reduction
Cape chisel
A metal cutting chisel shaped to cut or work in channels
or grooves
Capillarity
A phenomenon associated with surface tension, which
occurs in fine bore tubes or channels.
Capillary
A tube with a very small bore used for temperature
gauges
Capillary action
The property of a liquid to move into small spaces if it
has the ability to wet these surfaces
Capillary tube
A tube usually gas-filled, with a precisely calibrated
length and inside diameter, used to connect the remote
bulb or coil to the expansion valve or thermostat. A
tube with a very small bore used for temperature
gauges. Also called Pressure sensing line
Capitalized
See
Net capitalized cost
Capitalized cost
The total price of the vehicle, in effect, its purchase
price. In theory, the cap cost should equal the amount
you would pay for the vehicle if you were purchasing
the vehicle. When a lease is made, the dealer sells that
vehicle to the leasing company (for the cap cost), which
then leases the vehicle to you.
Also
See
Net capitalized cost
Capitalized cost reduction

A fancy name for a cash down payment, money you


pay up front that is applied to the final purchase price
of a lease. A large cap cost reduction will, of course
reduce the monthly payments, but it will also negate
one of the big advantages of leasing. However, if you
own your present car, you may be able to use it, as a
trade-in, to satisfy the cap cost reduction to start the
lease. Remember, you must pay sales tax on any cap
cost reduction you make. Another source of capital cost
reduction may be dealer or manufacturer participation.
Dealers and manufacturers will sometimes lower the
cap cost or offer a rebate that reduces the cap cost. A
dealer or manufacturer cap cost reduction does lower
your total out-of-pocket dollars, unlike a cap cost
reduction that you must pay.
Capital expenditures
Expenditures to acquire or add to capital assets that
will yield benefits over several accounting periods.
Included are cost of procuring, construction, installing
new durable plants, machinery and equipment where
for replacement, addition or for lease or rent to other
companies including subsidies.
Cap nut

Cap Nut
A threaded nut that is closed (blind) at one end often
with a dome or acorn-shaped top. It is used to protect
the projecting threads or to protect a person from
being hurt by the sharp edge of projecting threads.
Also called box nut or dome nut.
Also
See
Double
cap
nut

Inner
Outer cap nut

cap

nut

Capping
1. Installing a new tread on a tire carcass.
Also
Retread.

See

2. Door molding or capping

Cap screw
A screw with a hexagon head, slotted head, square
head, or socket head
Also
see
Button
socket
head
cap
screw
Socket head cap screw
Capstan
1. A stump with a vertical axis used for handling
mooring and other lines.
2. A vertical drum or spindle on which rope is wound,
it is rotated by manpower or by hydraulic or
electric motor.
3. Roller providing the constant speed drive in a
magnetic tape recorder.
Capstan-head screw
A screw having a cylindrical head provided with radial
holes in its circumference. It is tightened by a tommy
bar inserted in these holes.
Capstan lathe
A lathe in which the tools required for successive
operations are mounted radially in a tool-holder
resembling a capstan; by revolving this, each tool in
turn may be brought into position in exact location.
Capstan nut

A nut which is tightened in the same way as a


Capstan-head screw
Capstan screw
A screw or bolt with a round head and one or more
holes through it into which a bar may be inserted for
securing or removing it
Capstan winch
A winch, generally mounted on or just behind the front
bumper, usually run from an engagable extension to
the engine crankshaft. The active component is usually
a slowly revolving drum, about 15 cm in diameter,
round which a rope may be wound to effect a winching
operation. Has the advantage of being powered by the
engine at idling speed and being a very low-stress unit
that may be used all day without overheating or high
electrical load.
Capstat
A wax-type thermostat at the base of the jet of a SU
carburetor, which expands and reduces fuel flow when
the underhood temperature rises.
Also
See
Temperature compensator
Capsule
See
Altitude
Correction
Capsule
Vacuum capsule
Captive
Something that is permanently located in the desired
position
Captive balloon
A balloon anchored or towed by a line. Usually the term
refers only to spherical balloons. Special shapes (e.g.,
for stability) are called kite balloons
Captive finance company
A Leasing or finance company which is affiliated with
an automobile manufacturer or distributor.
Captive import

An imported motor vehicle or part manufactured by


another automaker usually for sale under the brand
name of the importer.
Captive nut
A nut which fits into a cage and is welded in place. This
is done where the nut is not easily accessible.
Captive refinery MTBE plants
MTBE production facilities primarily located within
refineries. These integrated refinery units produce
MTBE from Fluid Cat Cracker isobutylene with
production dedicated to internal gasoline blending
requirements.
Captive refinery oxygenate plants
Oxygenate production facilities located within or
adjacent to a refinery complex.
Captive screw

Captive screw
A screw where the threads are a larger diameter than
the shoulder
Capture
Any process in which an atomic or nuclear system
acquires an additional particle. In a nuclear radiative
capture process there is an emission of electromagnetic
radiation only, e.g., the emission of gamma rays
subsequent to the capture of a neutron by a nucleus.
Cap wrench

Cap wrench
A cup-shaped tool used to fit on one end of an oil filter
in order to install or remove the filter.
Car
1. A wheeled vehicle such as an automobile, a
section of a train, or a streetcar. The word is an
abbreviation of Carriage -- a device to carry
people or goods.
2. In an airship, the part intended for the carrying of
the load (crew, passengers, goods, engines, etc.).
It may be suspended below, or may be inside the
hull of envelope.
Also
49-state
Bubble
Champ
City
Classic
Collector
Compact
Company
Competition
Concept
Cult
Cycle

See
car
car
car
car
car
car
car
car
car
car
car
car

Donor
Dream
Edwardian
Electric
Estate
Executive
Family
Fleet
Formula
Forty-nine
Full-size
Funny
Ghost
Hybrid
Intermediate
Kit
Large
Luxury
Mass-produced
Mid-size
Milestone
Milestone
Motor
Multi-storey
New
Open
Pace
Parts
Passenger
Passenger
Pony
Production
Program
Recycling
Shopping
Solar
Sports
Stock

state

Passenger

Car
car
car

car

car
car
car
car
car
car
car
car
Car
car
car
car
Car
car
car
car
Car
car
car
car
Society
cars
car
park
dealer
car
car
car
wheel
car
car
car
cars
car
car
car
car
car

Street
car
Sun
car
Super
car
Touring
car
Town
car
Veteran
car
Vintage
car
Volume car
Car accident
A collision between two or more vehicles (or between a
vehicle and a stationary object), whether the vehicles
are cars or trucks. Some are minor like a Fender
bender while others are Totalled.
Also
See
Written off
Car alarm
A chime, bell, siren, or horn that sounds when a
problem exists (e.g., door ajar, seat belt undone, lights
on after engine is off, key left in ignition switch,
unauthorized entry)
Caravan
1. A
group of vehicles (belonging to one
organization) which follows after one another.
2. A British term for camping trailer or a mobile
home.
3. The name of a minivan produced by Chrysler
(Daimler-Chrysler) from 1983.
Also
see
Hard-sided
Caravan
Motor Caravan
Caravanning
A British term for traveling with a camping trailer
Carb
An abbreviation for Carburetor.
CARB
Acronym for California Air Resource Board -- The
state agency that regulates the air quality in California.

Air quality regulations established by CARB are often


stricter than those set by the federal government.
Car banger
A British term for a person or organization which fakes
a Car accident in order to defraud an insurance
company
Car banging
The act of faking a Car accident in order to defraud an
insurance company
Carbide
A binary compound of metals with carbon. Carbides of
group IV to VI metals (e.g., silicon, iron, tungsten) are
exceptionally hard and refractory. In group I and II,
calcium carbide (ethynide) is the most useful.
Also
See
Cementite
Silicon carbide
Carbide blade
A snowplow blade composed of a carbon compound
that generally wears longer and requires less frequent
changes than steel blades
Carbide precipitation
Carbon that breaks loose from its bond within the
stainless solution when material is heated between
427 - 760C. Under severe corrosive conditions, it
can result in extra oxidation and surface corrosion.
Carbide tools
Cutting and forming tools used for hard materials or at
high temperatures. They are made of carbides of
tungsten, tantalium, and other metals held in a matrix
of cobalt, nickel, etc., and are very hard with good
compressive strength.
Carb kit
A collection of gaskets, O-rings, jets, etc. to rebuild a
carburetor
Car blind
A curtain or pull-down covering for the backlight (i.e.,
rear window) to obscure the bright headlights of a

following vehicle. Some are also used for side windows


for privacy. It is generally illegal to use them on the
driver's side window or the windshield.
Carbon
1. The hard or soft, black deposits found in the
Combustion chamber, on the plugs, under the
rings, on and under the Valve heads, etc.
Although it is not a metal, it is a good Conductor
of electricity.
2. An element which forms various kinds of steel
when combined with iron. In steel, it is the
changing carbon content which changes the
physical properties of the steel. Adds strength to
stainless steel, but also lowers corrosion
resistance. The more carbon there is, the more
chromium must be added, because carbon offsets
17 times its own weight in chromium to form
carbides, thus reducing the chromium available for
resisting corrosion.
3. Carbon is used in a solid form as an electrode for
arc welding, as a mold to hold weld metal, or for
motor brushes.
Also
See
Activated
carbon
Degradable
Organic
Carbon
Elemental
Carbon
High
carbon
steel
Low
carbon
steel
Medium
carbon
steel
Total Carbon
Carbon arc
An arc between carbon electrodes, usually limited to
pure carbon rather than flame carbon electrodes
Carbon-arc lamp
Obsolete light source from the arc between carbon
electrodes.
Carbon-arc welding

Arc welding carried out by means of an arc between a


carbon electrode and the material to be welded.
Carbonate Fuel Cell
See
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
Carbon black
A by-product of the petroleum industry used as a
pigment and to give body in the manufacture of rubber
products, both natural and synthetic. Carbon is the
black residue from burning petroleum.
Carbon brush
A block of carbon to which a copper wire (or braided
cable) is attached at one end and the other end rubs
against a commutator, collector ring, or slip ring to
transmit electricity
Carbon brush spring
See
Brush spring
Carbon build-up
A deposit of burned oil which collects in the combustion
chamber on the top of the piston and the head. Too
much carbon build-up can lead to an inefficient engine
and sticky valves.
Carbon button
See
Carbon microphone
Carbon canister
See
Activated carbon canister
Carbon contact
In a switch, an auxiliary contact designed to break
contact after and to make contact before the main
contact to prevent burning of the latter; it is of carbon
and designed to be easily removable.
Carbon-core leads
High tension wire going from the distributor to the coil
or the spark plugs. Each wire has a core of carbon or
graphite rather than copper wire to conduct the

electricity. Carbon-core wire is not recommended for


most small engines such as motorcycle engines.
Carbon dating
Dating method which uses the fact that atmospheric
carbon dioxide contains a constant proportion of
radioactive C14, formed by cosmic radiation. Living
organisms absorb this isotope in the same proportion.
After death it decays with a half-life of 5.57x10 years.
The proportion of C12 to the residual C14 indicates the
period elapsed since death. Also called radiocarbon
dating
Carbon deposits
The residue of carbon from burning fuel, which can clog
grooves in pistons, combustion chambers, and valves,
and cause engine hesitation and other operational
problems
Carbon dioxide
(CO2) A colorless, odorless, non-toxic gas which is a
product of breathing and the combustion process.
Sometimes used as refrigerant. (Identified as
Refrigerant #R-744)
Carbon dioxide equivalent
The amount of carbon dioxide by weight emitted into
the atmosphere that would produce the same
estimated radiative forcing as a given weight of another
radiatively active gas.
Carbon dioxide laser
Laser in which the active gaseous medium is a mixture
of carbon dioxide and other gases. It is excited by
glow-discharge and operates at a wavelength of 10.6
m. Carbon dioxide lasers are capable of pulsed output
with peak power up to 100 MW or continuous output up
to 60 kW.
Carbon-dioxide welding
Metal arc welding using CO2 as the shielding gas.
Carboned up
Covered with a thick deposit of carbon. In Britain it is
called coked up

Carbon fiber
1. A high-tech material favored in many motorcycle
and bicycle applications because it is extremely
strong, light and expensive. The distinctive look of
carbon fiber has become trendy.
2. Threadlike strands of pure Carbon that are strong
and flexible. Carbon fiber can be bound in a plastic
Resin matrix to form a strong Composite. It is
light-weight and stronger than steel. Can also be
spelled carbon fibre.
Carbon fibre
A high-tech material favored in many motorcycle
applications because it is extremely strong, light and
expensive. The distinctive look of carbon fiber has
become trendy.
Also
See
Carbon fiber.
Carbon filter
An air filter using activated carbon as a cleansing agent
Carbon fouling
The situation that occurs when the two electrical
terminals of the spark plug are coated with carbon
causing a reduction in efficiency leading to intermittent
firing or complete failure.
Carbon gland
A type of gland used to prevent leakage along a shaft.
It consists of carbon rings cut into segments and
pressed into contact with the shaft by an encircling
helical spring or Garter spring
Carbon intensity
The amount of carbon by weight emitted per unit of
energy consumed. A common measure of carbon
intensity is weight of carbon per British thermal unit
(Btu) of energy. When there is only one fossil fuel
under consideration, the carbon intensity and the
emissions coefficient are identical. When there are
several fuels, carbon intensity is based on their

combined emissions coefficients weighted by their


energy consumption levels.
Carbonitriding
A process of case hardening
Carbonization
The steeping of wool in a dilute solution of sulfuric acid,
or its treatment by hydrochloric acid gas (dry process).
This converts any cellulosic impurities into carbon dust
and thereby facilitates their removal.
Carbonize
Building up of Carbon on objects such as Spark
plugs, Pistons, Heads, etc.
Carbonized filament
Thoriated tungsten filament coated with tungsten
carbide to reduce loss of thorium from the surface.
Carbonizing
Another term for Carburizing or reducing
Carbon knock
When there is a build-up of carbon in the combustion
chamber, uncontrolled ignition will take place causing a
knocking noise.
Carbon microphone
A microphone in which a normally DC energizing
current is modulated by changes in the resistance of a
cavity filled by granulated carbon which is compressed
by the movement of the diaphragm. The diameter of
the cavity is frequently very much less than that of the
diaphragm, and it is then known as a carbon button.
Carbon monoxide
(CO) A deadly, colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas
found in the engine Exhaust. Toxic even in relatively
small concentrations. Formed by incomplete burning of
Hydrocarbons. Thus at its greatest with a rich
mixture.
Carbon pile voltage transformer
Variable electrical resistor made from disks or plates of
carbon arranged to form a pile.
Carbon pin

A thin cylinder of carbon located in the distributor cap


to transfer high tension electricity from the coil to the
rotor to the high tension leads going to the spark plugs.
Carbon resistor
Negative temperature coefficient, non-inductive resistor
formed of powdered carbon with ceramic binding
material. Used for low-temperature measurements
because of the large increase in resistance as
temperature decreases.
Carbon Sequestration
1. The absorption and storage of CO2 from the
atmosphere by the roots and leaves of plants; the
carbon builds up as organic matter in the soil.
2. The fixation of atmospheric carbon dioxide in a
carbon sink through biological or physical
processes.
Carbon steel
A steel whose properties are determined principally by
the amount of carbon present and contains no other
deliberate alloying ingredient except those necessary to
ensure deoxidation and physical quality. Also called
plain carbon steel.
Also
See
High
carbon
steel
Low
carbon
steel
Medium
Carbon
Steel
Steel
Carbon tetrachloride
A liquid often used in fire extinguishers. The fumes are
toxic -- avoid inhaling.
Carbon tracking
A trace of carbon found inside the distributor cap which
leads away some electricity, thus causing the engine to
misfire.
Carbon tracks

Fine lines from burned carbon (such as from oil film)


that may be found in a distributor cap. Carbon tracks
may cause engine misfire
Carbonyl powders
Metal powders produced by reacting carbon monoxide
with the metal to form the gaseous carbonyl. This is
then decomposed by heat to yield powder of high
purity.
Carborundum
Trade name for Silicon carbide abrasives.
Carborundum wheel
See
Grinding wheel
Carboy
Large, narrow-necked container, usually of balloon
shape, having a capacity of 201 or more.
Carbs
Abbreviation for Carburetors.
Also
See
Dual carbs
Carburation
British term for Carburetion
Carburetion
The mixture of vaporized fuel and air in the proper
proportions for combustion in an engine
Also
see
Closed-Loop Carburetion
Carburetor

Click image to supersize


Carburetor
(Carb) Optionally spelled carburetter or carburettor.
A device that Vaporizes fuel and mixes it with air in
proper quantities and proportions to suit the varying
needs of the engine. A Filter screens the air which is
drawn into the carburetor. Here the Gasoline mixes
with the air and this fuel vapor enters the Combustion
chamber through the Intake valve where it is
compressed and burned.
Also
See
Air
valve
carburetor
Compound
carburetor
Double-barrel
carburetor
Downdraft
carburetor
Downdraught
Carburetor
Dual
carbs
Dual
carburetors
Feedback
carburetor
Fixed-choke
carburetor
Fixed-jet
carburetor
Flood
the
carburetor
Four-barrel
carburetor
HIF
carburetor
Non-staged
Carburetor
Sidedraft
carburetor
Sidedraught
Carburetor
Single-barrel
carburetor
Slide
carburetor
Staged
Carburetors
Starting
carburetor
Stromberg
carburetor
SU
carburetor
Tamperproof
carburetor
Twin-choke
carburetor
Twin
barrel
carburetor
Twin
carburetors

Two-stage
Updraft
Variable-venturi
Weber Carburetor

carburetor
carburetor
carburetor

Carburetor Actuator
See
Feedback Carburetor Actuator
Carburetor adapter
An adapter that is used to fit or place one type of
Carburetor on an Intake manifold that may not be
originally designed for it. Also used to adapt four-barrel
Carburetors to two-barrel manifolds.
Carburetor air horn
See
Air horn
Carburetor barrel
The tube-like part of the vehicle through which air flows
and is mixed with Vaporized fuel. The Choke
butterfly valve is located at the top of the Carburetor
barrel, and the Throttle valve is located at the
bottom. Midway through, the barrel narrows, and this
part is called the Venturi. Carburetors can have one,
two, or four barrels.
Carburetor base
The lower part of the carburetor in which the throttle
plate is located
Carburetor circuit
A series of passageways and units designed to perform
a specific function Idle circuit, full power circuit, etc.
Carburetor circuits
See
Carburetor circuit
Carburetor cleaner
A petroleum solvent for cleaning the carburetor
Carburetor engine

A combustion engine which uses a carburetor instead of


fuel injection.
Carburetor fuel bowl
A small fuel storage area in the carburetor, located at
the carburetor fuel inlet. Also called the Float bowl
because it contains the carburetor float
Carburetor fuel bowl vent
A vent on the Float bowl. It typically is connected to
an Carbon canister, which absorbs vapors when the
engine is off, and it also may be vented to the
atmosphere when the engine is running.
Carburetor fuel filter

Carburetor Fuel Filter


A filter made of pleated paper or sintered bronze that is
mounted into the body of the carburetor at the float
bowl fuel inlet. It is held in place by the fuel hose/pipe
fittings. On some cars, a small In-line filter is screwed
directly into the carburetor's fuel inlet. Also called an
integral
fuel
filter.
Carburetor fuel inlet

A threaded fitting on the side of the carburetor to which


tubing from the Fuel pump is connected. Fuel enters
the carburetor at this point.
Carburetor icing
The formation of ice on the Throttle plate or valve
during certain atmospheric conditions. As the fuel
Nozzles feed fuel into the Air horn it turns to a vapor.
This robs heat from the air and when weather
conditions are just right (fairly cool and quite humid)
ice may form.
Also
See
Icing
Carburetor kit
A collection of gaskets, O-rings, jets, etc. to rebuild a
carburetor. Also called a carb kit.
Carburetor throat
See
Venturi
Carburetor venturi
See
Venturi
Carburetter
British spelling for Carburetor.
Carburettor
See
Carburetor
Car burglar
A person who steals object from a car, but does not
steal the car itself.
Also
See
Car thief
Carburization
The process of creating carbon steel by increasing the
carbon content of steel to reach the desired degree of
hardness
Carburizing

1. A carburizing flame in welding terms is an oxygenfuel gas flame with a slight excess of the fuel gas.
2. A method of Case-hardening low carbon steel in
which the metal component is heated above its
ferrite-austenite
transition
in
a
suitable
carbonaceous atmosphere. Carbon diffuses into
the surface and establishes a concentration
gradient. The steel can subsequently be hardened
by quenching either directly or after re-heating to
refine the grain structure. It is usually lightly
tempered afterwards, producing a hard case over
a tough core.
Car cap
A waterproof cover which encloses just the
Greenhouse (i.e., the roof, windshield, side glass, and
Backlight)
Car care product
One of several items for taking care of the outward
finish of the car (i.e., cleaners, polish, wax, preservers)
as well as the interior pieces (e.g., dash cleaners,
upholstery cleaners and sealers)
Carcass
The primary structure of a tire body with its cords,
plies, rim wires, etc. apart from the tread itself.
Structurally the carcass should hold air and provide
strength to the tire, but would not wear well without
the tread.
Carcinogens
Chemicals and other substances known to cause
cancer.
Car Club of America
See
Classic Car Club of America
Car cover
A cover which encloses the entire vehicle to protect the
finish from the elements.
Car crash

A Car accident
Card
The graduated dial or face of a magnetic compass to
which the card and needle are firmly connected.
See
File card brush
Cardan
See
Cardan joint.
Cardan joint

Cardan Joint
A type of Universal joint named after the Italian
Cardan who developed the concept in the 16th century.
In the 17th century, Robert Hooke of England
developed and patented the conventional universal
joint. Sometimes it is called the Cardan universal or
the Hooke universal. It has two Yokes at right angles
to
each
other.
Cardan mount

Type of gimbal mount used for compasses and


gyroscopes.
Cardan shaft
A shaft with universal joints at each end
Cardan universal
See
Cardan joint
Card brush
See
File card brush
Car dealer
See
New
car
dealer
Used Car Dealer
Cardinal planes
In a lens, planes perpendicular to the principal axis,
and passing through the cardinal points of the lens.
Cardioid
A
heart-shaped
curve
with
polar
equation
r=2a(1+cos). An epicycloid in which the rolling circle
equals the fixed circle.
Cardioid directivity
Special shape of a directivity. It is produced by
superimposing the fields of a monopole and a dipole,
and has the shape of a cardioid.
Care product
See
Car care product
Car-floor contact
A contact attached to the false floor of an electrically
controlled lift; it is usually arranged to prevent
operation of the lift by anyone outside the car while a
passenger is in the lift.
Cargo
See
Bulk
cargo
General cargo
Cargo area

The space within a station wagon or van for carrying


goods or the bed of a pickup truck for carrying goods
Cargo battens
Strips of wood fitted inside the frames to keep cargo
away from hull steelwork. Also called sparring
Cargo Body Style Auto Carrier
A truck cargo body typified by the multi-decked auto
carrier trailer and/or power unit.
Cargo Body Style Bottom Dump
Dry bulk truck bodies which empty by means of gravity
alone through the bottom.
Cargo Body Style Dump
A truck body with a hydraulic, electric, or mechanical
lifting mechanism that tilts to unload cargo. Dump
includes side dumps, walking dumps, flatbed dumps,
and dump trucks with snow plows or blades.
Cargo Body Style Flatbed
A cargo truck body style typified by a flat cargo area.
Includes angle beds, rollback beds, and ramp hoists,
which are flatbeds that tilt down to the ground so
vehicles can be driven onto the bed.
Cargo Body Style Flatbed with Sides
A cargo truck body style typified by flatbeds with sides
to hold and protect cargo.
Also
see
stake body
Cargo Body Style Flatbed with Equipment
This cargo truck body style is typified by flatbeds with
permanent cranes, loaders, pumps, winches, or other
significantly heavy and large apurtenances.
Cargo Body Style Garbage
A cargo body style typified by garbage trucks that often
have hydraulic packing mechanisms or hydraulic arms
for lifting dumpsters. Included are roll-offs, vehicles
used for transporting refuse containers. Roll-offs have
rails or a flat bed and a hoist for loading and unloading
the refuse container.
Cargo Body Style Livestock Carrier

A cargo truck body style typically with slotted or slatted


sides. Trailers may have a double deck. Livestock
trailers sometimes have "possum belly" compartments
in the bottom for holding smaller animals.
Cargo Body Style Low Boy
Gooseneck flatbed trucks slung very low to the ground.
Often the gooseneck is detachable so that equipment
can be loaded from the front. Sometimes ramps are at
the rear. Typically about 12" off the ground.
Cargo Body Style Open Top Van
A totally enclosed cargo area but without a permanent,
fixed, solid top.
Cargo Body Style Pole Logging
Pole trailers with a set of axles with a cradle to hold
logs and a long, sometimes adjustable pole attached to
the rear of a power unit. Others are framed with
support stakes. Some have double decks. Most will
have cradle-like features called bunks to hold the logs
in place.
Cargo Body Style Refrigerated Van
A cargo body style with a totally enclosed box with a
refrigeration unit.
Cargo Body Style Tank Dry
A truck used exclusively for hauling dry bulk material.
Cargo is emptied pneumatically. Also called air can
trailer
Cargo Body Style Tank Liquid or Gas
A cargo body truck style characterized by tankers which
can carry only liquids or gases in bulk.
Cargo Body Style Van
A totally enclosed cargo area truck. Included are
beverage vans, or bay vans, and sealed shipping
containers mounted on a special bodiless chassis.
Cargo box

Cargo Box
A type of container mounted on the roof of a vehicle
Cargo net

Cargo Net
A type of Bungee net usually found in the Trunk of a
car to secure packages from moving around; but also
found
behind
or
beside
a
seat.
Cargo port
Opening in a ship's side for loading and unloading
cargo.
Cargo shifting
Movements or changing positions of cargo from one
place to another which can easily endanger the
seaworthiness of the ship
Cargo ship
See
Dry cargo ship
Cargo trailer

Cargo Trailer
A

trailer

with

sides.

Cargo Weight
The combined weight of all loads, gear, and supplies on
a vehicle.
Car Guide
See
NADA Used Car Guide
Carina

Click image for books on


Toyota Carina
A model of automobile manufactured by Toyota
Car insurance

An insurance policy (mandatory in most states and all


of Canada) to cover possible damage to the vehicle or
property or passengers, etc. Sometimes basic
insurance is abbreviated PL&PD (public liability and
property damage). Also called motor insurance
Car jacker
A person who steals a car at gunpoint.
Car jacking
A process of stealing a car while the driver is still in it.
The car may be stopped at a traffic light when a car
jacker appears with a gun and demands that the driver
get out, then he drives away with the car. If it happens
to you, give him the car -- your life is worth more than
the vehicle.
Car key
An unlocking device for the ignition switch, doors,
trunk, gas cap, etc.
Car lot
A place where vehicles are sold by an independent
dealer
Car mechanic
See
Mechanic
Carnot cycle
An ideal heat engine cycle of maximum thermal
efficiency. It consists of isothermal expansion, adiabatic
expansion, isothermal compression, and adiabatic
compression to the initial state.
Carnot's theorem
Theorem stating that no heat engine can be more
efficient than a reversible engine working between the
same temperatures. It follows that the efficiency of a
reversible engine is independent of the working
substance and depends only on the temperatures
between which it is working.
Car park
A parking area usually located within a building.

Also
See
Multi-storey car park
Carpeting
The action of covering the passenger compartment
floor (and sometimes the trunk floor) with a formfitting rug or carpet.
Car phone
A telephone that is installed in a vehicle, but has
recently been replaced by personal cell phones.
Also
See
Cellular phone
Car polish
A product which enhances the shine of the paintwork of
a vehicle
Car radio
A radio receiver which is installed (usually in the dash)
in a vehicle
Carrene
Refrigerant in Group One (R-11). Chemical combination
of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine
Carriage
1. A horse-drawn vehicle for people to ride in.
2. A railroad vehicle for passengers.
Also
Hackney
Invalid-carriages
Carriage bolt

Carriage Bolt

see
Carriage

A bolt that has a smooth dome head (like a mushroom)


so that no Screwdriver or wrench can remove it from
the dome-side, a square neck under the head, and a
unified thread pitch. The square neck is designed to
keep the bolt from turning as a nut is tightened.
Also
see
Fin
neck
carriage
bolt
Square Neck Carriage Bolt
Carriage spring
See
Laminated spring
Carriage-type switchgear
See
Truck-type switchgear
Carriageway
A British term for that part of the road on which
vehicles travel in one direction.
Also
see
Dual carriageway
Carrier
1. A thin substance that helps another substance to
reach its goal. For example, a spray grease may
have a carrier which transports the grease to its
destination. Then the carrier dries up leaving the
grease behind.
2. A real or imaginary particle responsible for the
transport of electric charge in a material. In oxide
ceramics, electrons hopping between ions,
diffusing oxygen ions and mobile cations can also
transport charge.
Also
Carriers

See

3. A device for conveying the drive of a face-plate of


a lathe to a piece of work which is being turned

between centers. It is clamped to the work and


driven by a pin projecting from the face-plate.
4. A frame for holding a negative in an enlarger or
slides in a projector.
5. Non-active material mixed with, and chemically
identical to, a radioactive compound. Carrier is
sometimes added to carrier-free material.
6. A vehicle for communicating in formation, when
the chosen medium itself cannot convey the
information but can convey a carrier, on to which
the information is impressed by Modulation.
7. In radio transmission, the output of the
transmitter before it is modulated.
Also
Frequency modulation

See

8. The frequencies chosen for sending many signals


simultaneously along a single communication
channel
Also
Auto
Barge
Bent-tail
Bicycle
Bulk
Carrier
Common
Contract
Differential
Exempt
For-Hire
Front
Hub
Jet
Livestock
LNG

Wheel

See
Carrier
carriers
Carrier
carrier
carrier
bearing
Carrier
carrier
carrier
Carrier
Carrier
Carrier
carrier
carrier
Carrier
carrier

LTL
Carrier
Luggage
carrier
Minority
Carrier
Motor
Carrier
Ore-bulk-oil
carrier
Ore
carrier
Pinion
carrier
Planet
carrier
Private
Carrier
Product
carrier
Spare
tire
carrier
TL
Carrier
Top Carriers
Carrier bearing
The bearings upon which the Differential case is
mounted.
Carrier bearings
See
Carrier bearing.
Carrier mobility
The mean drift velocity of the charge carriers in a
material per unit electric field.
Carrier noise
Noise which has been introduced into the carrier of a
transmitter before modulation.
Carrier, pinion
See
Pinion carrier.
Carrier, planet
See
Planet carrier.
Carrier power
Power radiated by a transmitter in absence of
modulation.
Carriers
In a crystal of semiconductor material thermal agitation
will cause a number of electrons to dissociate from
their parent atoms; in moving about the crystal they

act as carriers of negative charge. Other electrons will


move from neighboring atoms to fill the space left
behind, thus causing the holes where no electrons exist
in the lattice to be transferred from one atom to
another. As these holes move around they can be
considered as carriers of positive charge.
Also
See
Barge
carriers
Top carriers
Carrier Transmission
See
Quiescent Carrier Transmission
Carrier wave
An unmodulated radio wave produced by a transmitter
on which information is carried by amplitude or
frequency modulation.
Carrosserie
French term for Coachwork.
Carrozzeria
Italian term for Coachwork.
Carrying capacity
The maximum load that a tire is allowed to carry with a
particular wheel and rim. Also called load capacity.
CARS
Acronym for Canadian Automotive Repair and
Service Council
Car society
See
Milestone Car Society
Car sponge
A large sponge for washing the exterior of a vehicle
Car stands
Pedestal-type supports for holding up a car once the
car has been raised.
Car stereo
A listening device in an automobile which usually has
an AM/FM radio and often a cassette player, CD player,

and/or CD changer. It also includes at least a pair of


speakers.
Cart
See
Tool cart
Cartage company
A company that provides local pick-up and delivery
within a town, city, or municipality.
Car tax
A government imposed tax which is added to the price
of a new car. Some governments charge a road-use tax
and call it a car tax.
Car test
A test of a vehicle's roadworthiness, reliability, and
performance.
Car theft
Unauthorized removal (i.e., stealing) of a car or the
items in or on a car.
Also
See
Car jacking
Car thief
A person who steals a car. If someone steals just the
objects from a car, he is a Car burglar.
Also
See
Car jacker
Car tire
An automotive tire which is used exclusively on a
passenger car, not a light truck, etc.
Cartography
The preparation and drawing of maps which show,
generally, a considerable extent of the Earth's surface.
Cartridge
See
Burst
Cartridge
Can
Filter
cartridge
Oil
filter
cartridge
Quarter-inch Cartridge

Cartridge bottom bracket


A Bottom bracket with protective seals to keep water
and grime from penetrating to the bearings. Also called
sealed bottom bracket
Cartridge brass
Copper-zinc alloy containing approximately 30% zinc.
Possesses high ductility; capable of being heavily coldworked. Widely used for cold pressings, cartridges,
tubes, etc.
Also
see
Copper alloy.
Cartridge starter
A device for starting aero-engines in which a slowburning cartridge is used to operate a piston or turbine
unit which is geared to the engine shaft.
Cart spring
A leaf spring used in small trailers.
Carvac
A small, hand-held vacuum cleaner which is either
battery-operated or which is plugged into the accessory
outlet or cigarette lighter socket.
Car wash
1. A place where you can get your car cleaned. Some
are automatic (you drive through and large
brushes clean the car) while others provide a bay
with spray wands and brushes for you to do the
labor.
Also
Automatic car wash

See

2. A product like soap which is added to water for the


purpose of cleaning a vehicle.
Car wax
A polish which may be in a paste or a cream and used
in protecting the finish of a car.
Car wheel

See
Passenger car wheel
CAS
1. Acronym for cleaner air system
2. Acronym for crank angle sensor
Cascade
The arrangement of stages in an enrichment or
reprocessing plant in which the products of one stage
are fed either forward to the next closely similar or
identical stage or backward to a previous stage,
eventually resulting in two more or less pure products
at each end of the cascade. The classic examples are
gaseous or centrifugal enrichment plants. An ideal
cascade is the arrangement of stages in series and in
parallel which gives the highest yield for a given
number of units (e.g., centrifuges) and a given
separation factor.
Cascade generator
High-voltage generator using a series of voltagemultiplying stages, esp. when designed for X-ray tubes
or low-energy accelerators.
cascade particle
Particle formed by a cosmic ray in a Cascade shower
Cascades
Fixed airfoil blades which turn the airflow around a
bend in a duct, e.g., in wind tunnels or engine intakes.
Cascade shower
Manifestations of cosmic rays in which high-energy
mesons, protons, and electrons create high-energy
photons, which produce further electrons and positrons,
thus increasing the number of particles until the energy
is dissipated. Also called air shower.
Cascade systems
Arrangement in which two or more refrigerating
systems are used in series; uses evaporator of one
machine to cool condenser of other machine. Produces
ultra-low temps

Cascading of insulators
Flashover of a string of suspension insulators; initiated
by the voltage across one unit exceeding its safe value
and flashing over, thereby imposing additional stress
across the other units, and resulting in a complete
flashover of the string.
Case
1. That part near the surface of a ferrous alloy which
as been so altered as to allow case-hardening.
2. One of the two clam-shell-like halves in the
bottom end of the engine surrounded by a metal
shell
Also
See
Basket
case
Battery
case
Chaincase
Converter
case
Differential
case
Open
Display
Case
Splitting
The
Cases
Top
case
Transfer case
CASE
Acronym for Cranking Angle Sensing Error
Case harden
The action of hardening the surface of iron or steel so
that the outer portion or case is made substantially
harder than the inner portion or core. Typical
processes used for case hardening are carburizing,
cyaniding,
carbonitriding,
nitriding,
induction
hardening, and flame hardening.
Casehardened
A piece of steel that has had the outer surface
hardened while the inner portion remains relatively
soft.
Casehardening

The action of adding carbon to the surface of a mild


steel object and heat treating to produce a hard
surface.
Cases
The two clam-shell-like halves in the bottom end of the
engine surrounded by a metal shell
Cash register
Trucker slang for Toll booth as in "I'm comin' up on a
cash register at highway 88"
Cash and carry
Kerosene, fuel oil, or bottled gas (tank or Propane)
purchased with cash, by check, or by credit card and
taken home by the purchaser. The purchaser provides
the container or pays extra for the container.
Cash value
See
Actual cash value
Casing
1. The Tire casing.
2. The outside shell of something such as the shell of
an alternator or starter motor.
Also
See
Axle
casing
Differential
casing
Tire
Casing
Turbine
casing
Volute casing
Casing factor
That portion of the load supported by Tire casing
stiffness instead of air pressure.
Casing head gasoline
A term used to describe the lighter parts of petroleum
products, which were obtained from natural gasoline by
condensing natural gas from an oil well
Cask
See
Flask

Casket
See
Flask
Cassette
1. A type of bicycle gear cluster that slides on a
freehub rather than threads on it. The freehub
body is attached to the rear hub.
2. A cartridge containing magnetic tape that can be
inserted into a player for listening or viewing (e.g.,
an audio cassette or video cassette).
Cassette cogs
The individual cogs that make up a bicycle cassette.
Cassette compartment
A storage place for audio cassettes
Cassette Deck
See
Radio cassette Deck
Cassette hub
More recent type of rear hub designed to accept the
cassette type of gear cluster. The cassette hub has the
rotating, ratcheting freehub body attached to the hub
for the cassette to slide onto and be secured by a
lockring.
Cassette player
A unit which plays (but does not record) audio
cassettes and is often linked with a stereo unit in an
automobile
Cassette size
The size of a bicycle cassette is described by the
number of teeth on the smallest cog and the number of
teeth on the largest cog. An example of a common size
for road racing would be 12 x 21.
Cast
1. To shape molten metal by pouring it into a mold.
2. A model or result made by pouring metal into a
mold.

Also
Cast
Casting
Die cast
Cast Aluminum wheel

See
iron

Cast Aluminum Wheel


See
Alloy wheel
Castellate
Formed to resemble
Castellated nut
Castellated
See
Castellated nut.
Castellated nut

castle

battlement

e.g., a

Castellated Nut
A nut with several lugs protruding from one end making
it look like the turrets on the top of the wall of a castle.
This nut is used on a shaft with a hole drilled in it. It is

secured to the shaft by passing a Cotter pin through


an opening in the nut and through the shaft hole.
Caster
1. A small wheel at the front of a wheelchair or
shopping cart that swivels and is tilted at an
angle.
Also
Swivel caster

See

2.
Caster
A wheel Alignment adjustment that positions the
wheels like the casters on a chair or shopping cart,
so the tires follow naturally in a forward straight
line. In a truck or older car, the top of the Kingpin
is either forward (Negative) or toward the rear of
the vehicle (Positive). On a turn, the wheels will
tend to straighten out when the Steering wheel
is released. If the car has independent front
suspension, the upper ball joint is set forward or
rearward in relation to the lower ball joint. Caster
is measured in degrees.
Also
Negative

See
Caster

Positive
Caster
Trail distance
Caster action
The self-centering action which causes a caster wheel
to move into a straight-ahead position.
Caster angle
The inclination or angle that a wheel makes when
measuring the distance between the vertical post and
the offset of the wheel placement.
Caster offset
The distance on the ground between where the vertical
post would touch the ground if it were extended and
the point where the wheel touches the ground. Also
called caster trail
Caster trail
The distance on the ground between where the vertical
post would touch the ground if it were extended and
the point where the wheel touches the ground. Also
called caster offset
Caster wobble
A condition generally produced in the front wheels
when they are attached to the ends of a Beam axle. It
is particularly noticeable on rough roads and the
Shimmy at the Steering wheel makes it difficult to
control the vehicle. You have probably seen this
condition in a shopping cart that has caster wheels that
wiggle or fluctuate back and forth and will not roll in a
straight line.
Cast holes
Holes made in cast objects by the use of cores, in order
to reduce the time necessary for machining, and to
avoid metal wastage.
Casting

Click image to supersize


Casting
1. A process technology that delivers a liquid molten
metal into a purpose-built mold. After cooling, the
solid metal surface has the shape of the mold
cavity.
2. Pouring metal into a Mold to form an object.
3. A metallic article cast in the shape required, as
distinct from one shaped by working.
Also
Blown
Die
Lost-foam
Malleable
Monobloc
Sand
Steel
Thin-wall casting
Casting copper

casting

See
Casting
casting
process
castings
casting
casting
Casting

Metal of lower purity than Best selected copper.


Generally contains about 99.4% of copper.
Casting ladle
A steel ladle, lined with refractory material, in which
molten metal is carried from the furnace to the mold in
which the casting is to be made.
Casting number
The number cast into a block, head, or other
component when the part is cast. Casting numbers can
be helpful when identifying an engine or its parts, but
they are not completely accurate, because castings are
sometimes machined differently
Casting process
See
Lost-foam casting process
Castings
Metallic forms which are produced by pouring molten
metal into a shaped container or mold.
Also
See
Malleable castings
Casting wheel
Large wheel on which ingot molds are arranged
peripherally and filled from stream of molten metal
issuing from furnace or pouring ladle.
Cast-in-situ concrete piles
A type of pile formed by driving a steel pipe into the
ground and filling it with concrete, using the pipe as a
mold, or by a similar method.
Cast iron
1. An Alloy of iron and more than 2% Carbon. It is
used for engine Blocks and Transmission and
Differential cases because it is relatively cheap
and easy to Mold into complex shapes.
2. Any iron-carbon alloy in which the carbon content
exceeds the solubility of carbon in austenite at the
eutectic temperature. Widely used in engineering
on account of their high fluidity and excellent

casting characteristics. Carbon content usually in


the range of 2-2.3%. Some kinds are brittle and
others difficult to machine.
Also
Alloy
Ductile
Grey
Spherulitic graphite cast-iron
Cast-iron
See
Cast iron
Castle
See
Castellated nut.
Castle nut

see
Cast-iron
cast-iron
iron

Castle nut
A Castellated nut -- a six-sided nut in the top of
which six radial slots are cut. Two of these line up with
a hole drilled in the bolt or screw, a split pin can be
inserted to prevent turning. Also called hex slotted
nut
Castle section
A panel with humps or ribs which strengthen the panel.
They are called castle because from the end they look
like the turrets of a castle
Castor
British spelling of Caster.
Cast silicon
Crystalline silicon obtained by pouring pure molten
silicon into a vertical mold and adjusting the

temperature gradient along the mold volume during


cooling
to
obtain
slow,
vertically
advancing
crystallization of the silicon. The polycrystalline ingot
thus formed is composed of large, relatively parallel,
interlocking crystals. The cast ingots are sawed into
wafers for further fabrication into photovoltaic cells.
Cast silicon wafers and ribbon silicon sheets fabricated
into cells are usually referred to as polycrystalline
photovoltaic cells.
Cast spoke assembly
That part of the vehicle consisting of the brake drum
and wheel spider, having 3, 5 or 6 spokes.
Cast spoke wheel
1. A type of dual mounting wheels where two
demountable rims are mounted directly on the
spoke wheel and drum assembly held apart by a
spacer band and locked in place by clamps and
nuts which attach to studs in the spoke face.
2. A wheel with five or six spokes originating from a
center hub. The spoked portion, usually made of
cast steel, is bolted to a multiple-piece steel rim
Also
see
Demountable
Rim
Disc Wheel
Cast steel
Shapes that have been formed directly from liquid by
casting into a mold. Formerly applied to wrought
objects produced by working steel made by the crucible
process to distinguish from that made by cementation
of wrought-iron, but both of these methods are long
obsolete.
Cast welded rail joint
A joint between the ends of two adjacent rails made in
position using the thermite process in which aluminum
powder and sodium peroxide are ignited causing the
rails to weld together.
Cat

An abbreviation for Catalytic converter


Catadioptric
An optical system using a combination of refracting and
reflecting surfaces designed to reduce aberrations in a
telescope.
Catalan process
Reduction of haematite to wrought-iron by smelting
with charcoal.
Catalog
See
Parts catalog
Catalyst
1. A substance that changes the rate of a chemical
reaction without itself being used up. Catalysts are
used in many processes in the chemical and
petroleum industries. Emission control catalysts
are used to promote reactions that change
exhaust pollutants from internal combustion
engines into harmless substances. After the
reaction it can potentially be recovered from the
reaction mixture chemically unchanged.
2. A special agent which is added to a plastic body
filler or resin or paint to speed up the hardening
process.
Also
See
Diesel
Oxidation
Catalyst
Lean
NOx
Catalyst
Metal
catalyst
Oxidizing
catalyst
Particulate
catalyst
Pellet-type
catalytic
converter
Reducing
catalyst
Three-way catalyst
Catalyst bed
A layer of catalyst-coated material such as pellets or
ceramic in a catalytic converter through which the
gases pass.

Catalyst charge
A catalyst-coated material such as pellets or ceramic in
a catalytic converter.
Catalyst coated membrane
(CCM) Term used to describe a membrane (in a PEM
fuel cell) whose surfaces are coated with a catalyst
layer to form the reaction zone of the electrode.
See
also
Membrane Electrode Assembly
Catalyst coating
A Catalytic layer
Catalyst container
A housing of a catalytic converter. Also called a
converter shell
Catalyst contamination
A reduction of efficiency because of impurity deposits
Catalyst degradation
A reduction of efficiency because of impurities or
overheating. Also called catalyst deterioration
Catalyst deterioration
A reduction of efficiency because of impurities or
overheating. Also called catalyst degradation
Catalyst efficiency
See
Catalytic efficiency
Catalyst indicator
A light on the instrument panel which glows when a
prescribed distance has passed in order to remind the
driver to have the catalytic converter replaced.
Catalyst loading
The amount of catalyst incorporated in the fuel cell per
unit area.
Catalyst substrate
A base material which carries the Catalytic layer or
coating. Also called catalyst support
Catalyst support
A base material which carries the Catalytic layer or
coating. Also called catalyst substrate

Catalytic
See
Catalytic
converter
Dual-bed
catalytic
converter
Mini
catalytic
converter
Open-loop
catalytic
converter
Pellet-type
catalytic
converter
Primary
catalytic
converter
Three-way catalytic converter
Catalytic activity
The rate a catalytic converter purifies the exhaust
system
Catalytic converter

Catalytic converter
1. A pollution-control device found on the Exhaust
system of all cars since its introduction in 1974
which acts like an Afterburner to reburn
unburned gas in the Tail pipe. It looks like a
small Muffler and is usually made of stainless
steel. It contains Platinum, rhodium, or palladium
which is a catalyst for the chemical reaction
needed to burn off any unburned Hydrocarbons
and Carbon monoxide by turning them into
water vapor, carbon dioxide and other less toxic
gases.
2. A device containing a Catalyst for converting
automobile
exhaust
into
mostly
harmless
products.

Also
Dual-bed
catalytic
Lean
burn
Mini
catalytic
Open-loop
catalytic
Pellet-type
catalytic
Primary
catalytic
Single-bed
3-way
catalytic
Three-way catalytic converter

See
converter
engine
converter
converter
converter
converter
converter

Catalytic cracking
The refining process of breaking down the larger,
heavier, and more complex hydrocarbon molecules into
simpler and lighter molecules. Catalytic cracking is
accomplished by the use of a catalytic agent and is an
effective process for increasing the yield of gasoline
from crude oil. Catalytic cracking processes fresh feeds
and recycled feeds.
Catalytic efficiency
The effectiveness of a catalyst in purifying exhaust
gases
Catalytic Fines
Hard, abrasive crystalline particles of alumina, silica,
and/or alumina silica that can be carried over from the
fluidic catalytic cracking process of residual fuel stocks.
Particle size can range from sub-micron to greater than
sixty (60) microns in size. These particles become more
common in the higher viscosity marine bunker fuels.
Catalytic hydrocracking
A refining process that uses hydrogen and Catalysts
with relatively low temperatures and high pressures for
converting middle boiling or residual material to high
octane gasoline, reformer charge stock, jet fuel, and
/or high grade fuel oil. The process uses one or more
Catalysts, depending on product output, and can
handle
high
sulfur
feedstocks
without
prior
desulfurization.

Catalytic hydrotreating
A refining process for treating petroleum fractions from
atmospheric or vacuum distillation units (e.g.,
naphthas, middle distillates, reformer feeds, residual
fuel oil, and heavy gas oil) and other petroleum (e.g.,
cat cracked naphtha, coker naphtha, gas oil, etc.) in
the presence of Catalysts and substantial quantities of
hydrogen. Hydrotreating includes desulfurization,
removal of substances (e.g., nitrogen compounds) that
deactivate Catalysts, conversion of Olefins to
paraffins to reduce gum formation in gasoline, and
other processes to upgrade the quality of the fractions.
Catalytic layer
A thin layer of catalyst such as platinum and supported
by a ceramic or metal carrier material
Catalytic Reduction
See
Selective Catalytic Reduction
Catalytic reforming
A refining process using controlled heat and pressure
with Catalysts to rearrange certain hydrocarbon
molecules,
thereby
converting
paraffinic
and
naphthenic type hydrocarbons (e.g., low octane
gasoline boiling range fractions) into petrochemical
feedstocks and higher octane stocks suitable for
blending into finished gasoline. Catalytic reforming is
reported in two categories. They are:
Low Pressure. A processing unit operating at less
than 225 PSIG measured at the outlet separator.
High pressure. A processing unit operating at
either equal to or greater than 225 PSIG
measured at the outlet separator.
Catamaran
A double hulled vessel
Cataphoretic painting
A process of applying the first coat of paint to the body
of a vehicle by positively charging the paint particles

and then dunking the metal into the paint. A current is


turned on so that the positively charged paint is
attracted to the negative metal panel. Also called
cathodic electropainting
Catapult
an accelerating device for launching an aircraft in a
short distance. It may be fixed or rotatable to face the
wind. It is usually used on ships which have no landing
deck, having been superseded on aircraft carriers by
the Accelerator. During World War II, fighters were
carried on (catapult armed merchant ships) for defense
against long-range bombers. Land catapults have been
tried but have been superseded by RATOG and STOL
aircraft.
Catback
A performance exhaust system upgrade which consists
of new pipes from the catalytic converter to the Tail
pipe which increases horsepower. These new pipes are
larger, thus, more exhaust can exit the system. The
faster the exhaust can exit, the more horsepower you
gain.
Catch
See
Safety catch
Catch basin
An opening in the road surface with grated lid to allow
water into a storm drainage system.
See
Catch pit
Catcher
The element in a velocity-modulated ultrahigh
frequency or microwave beam tube which abstracts, or
catches, the energy in a bunched electron stream as it
passes through it.
Also
see
Buncher
Catcher foil

Aluminum sheet used for measuring power levels in


nuclear reactor by absorption of fission fragments.
Catching diode
Diode used to clamp a voltage or current at a
predetermined value. When it becomes forward-biased
it prevents the applied potential from increasing any
further.
Catchment area
The area from which water runs off to any given river
valley or collecting reservoir. Also called Catchment
basin
Catchment basin
The area from which water runs off to any given river
valley or collecting reservoir. Also called Catchment
area
Catch net
A mesh construction that is electricaly grounded and
placed below high-voltage transmission lines that cross
over a road or railway. In the event that the lines
break, they will fall into the net. Also called a cradle
Catch pit
A small pit constructed at the entrance to a length of
sewer or drain pipe to catch and retain matter which
would not easily pass through the pipes. Also called
catch basin.
Also
see
Sump
Catch plate
A disk on the spindle nose of a lathe, driving a carrier
locked to the work.
Catch points
A section of a railroad track which is activated when a
train is supposed to be going uphill, but starts to slide
back. The catch points prevent the train from rolling
back any farther.
Catch-water drain

A drain to catch water on a hillside, with open joints or


multiple perforations to take in water in as many places
as possible.
Cat Cracker
A large refinery vessel for processing reduced crudes or
other feed-stocks in the presence of a Catalyst, as
opposed to the older method of thermal cracking, which
employs heat and pressure only. Catalytic cracking is
generally preferred since it produces less gas and other
highly volatile byproducts. It produces a motor fuel of
higher octane than the thermal process.
Cat E
Category E damage to an aircraft; equivalent to a total
loss or write off.
Catenary construction
A method of construction used for overhead contact
wires of traction systems. A\ wire is suspended, in the
form of catenary, between two supports, and the
contact wire is supported from this by droppers of
different lengths, arranged so that the contact wire is
horizontal.
Cathead
1. The sheave assembly on the top of crane jib.
2. A lathe accessory consisting of a turned sleeve
having four or more radial screws at each end;
used for clamping on to rough work of small
diameter and running in the Steady while
centering. Also called spider
Cathetometer
An optical instrument for measuring vertical distances
not exceeding a few decimeters. A small telescope, held
horizontally can move up and down a vertical pillar. The
difference in position of the telescope when the images
of the two points whose separation is being measured
are lined up with the cross-wires of the telescope, is
obtained from the difference in vernier readings on a

scale marked on the pillar. Also called reading


microscope and reading telescope
Cathode
1. In an electric circuit, the Negative terminal.
Electrons leave from this terminal.
2. In an electronic tube or valve, an electrode
through which a primary stream of electrons
enters
the
inter-electrode
space.
During
conduction, the cathode is negative with respect
to the anode. Such a cathode may be cold,
electron emission being due to electric fields,
photo-emission, or impact by other particles, or
thermionic, where the cathode is heated by some
means.
3. In a semiconductor diode, the electrode to which
the forward current flows.
4. In a thyristor, the electrode by which current
leaves the thyristor when it is in the ON state.
5. In a light-emitting diode, the electrode to which
forward current flows within the device.
6. In electrolytic applications, the electrode at which
positive ions are discharged, or negative ions
formed.
7. The electrode at which reduction occurs. In an
electrochemical cell, oxidation occurs at the
Anode and reduction at the cathode.
Cathode coating
A low-work function surface layer applied to a
thermionic or photocathode in order to enhance
electron emission or to control spectral characteristics.
The cathode coating impedance is between the base
metal and this layer.
Cathode copper
The product of electrolytic refining, after which the
cathodes are melted, oxidized, poled, and cast into
wire-bars, cakes, billets, etc.
Cathode efficiency

Ratio of emission current to energy supplied to


cathode. Also called emission efficiency
Cathode follower
A valve circuit in which the input is connected between
the grid and ground, and the output is taken from
between the cathode and ground, the anode being
grounded to signal frequencies. It has a high input
impedance, low output impedance, and unity voltage
gain.
Cathode glow
Glow near the surface of a cathode, its color depends
on the gas or vapor in the tube.
Cathode luminous sensitivity
Ratio of cathode current of photoelectric cell to
luminous intensity.
Cathode modulation
Modulation produced by signal applied to cathode of
valve through which carrier wave passes.
Cathode poisoning
Reduction of thermionic emission from a cathode as a
result of minute traces of adsorbed impurities.
Cathode ray
A stream of negatively charged particles (electrons)
emitted normally from the surface of a cathode in a
vacuum or low-pressure gas. The velocity of the
electrons is proportional to the square root of the
accelerating potential, being 6x105ms-1 for one volt.
They can be deflected and formed into beams by the
application of electric or magnetic fields, or a
combination of both, and are widely used in
oscilloscopes and TV (in cathode-ray tubes), electron
microscopes and electron-beam welding, and electronbeam tubes for high frequency amplifiers and
oscillators.
Cathode-ray oscillograph
An oscillograph in which a permanent (photographic or
other) record of a transient or time-varying
phenomenon is produced by means of an electron

beam in a cathode-ray tube. Deprecated term for


Cathode-ray oscilloscope
Cathode-ray oscilloscope
(CRT) Device for displaying electronic signals by
modulating a beam of electrons before it impinges on a
Fluorescent screen
Cathode ray tube
A sealed tube on which graphs or pictures are displayed
like a TV screen
Cathodic electropainting
A process of applying the first coat of paint to the body
of a car by positively charging the paint particles and
then dunking the metal into the paint. A current is
turned on so that the positively charged paint is
attracted to the negative metal panel. Also called
cataphoretic painting
Cathode spot
Area on a cathode where electrons are emitted into an
arc, the current density being much higher than with
simple thermionic emission
Cathodic chalk
A coating of magnesium and calcium compounds
formed on a steel surface during Cathodic protection
in sea water
Cathodic etching
Erosion of a cathode by a glow discharge through
positive-ion
bombardment,
in
order
to
show
microstructure
Cathodic protection
1. The
action
of
protecting
metal
from
electrochemical corrosion by using it as the
cathode of a cell with a Sacrificial anode.
2. In ships and offshore structures, corrosion can be
prevented by passing sufficient direct current
through the sea water to make the metal hull a
cathode.
3. The method of preventing corrosion in metal
structures that involves using electric voltage to

slow or prevent corrosion. It is used along natural


gas pipelines, as well as in certain bridges or other
large metal structures that need to resist corrosion
over an extended period of time. It is also used in
some devices for a vehicle to prevent rusting.
Cathodoluminescence
The emission of light, with a possible afterglow, from a
material when irradiated by an electron beam, such as
occurs in the phosphor of a cathode-ray tube
Cathodophone
Microphone utilizing the silent discharge between a
heated oxide-coated filament in air and another
electrode. The discharge is modulated directly by the
motion of the air particles in a passing sound wave.
Also called ionophone
Catholyte
See
Catolyte
Cation
Ion in an electrolyte which carries a positive charge and
which migrates toward the cathode under the influence
of a potential gradient in electrolysis. It is the
deposition of the cation in a primary cell which
determines the positive terminal.
Catolyte
That portion of the electrolyte of an electrolytic cell
which is in the immediate neighborhood of the cathode.
Also called catholyte
Catoptric element
A component of an optical system that uses reflection,
not refraction, in the formation of an image
Cauchy's dispersion formula
=
A
+
(B/2)
+
(C/21)
+
...
An empirical expression for the relation between the
refractive index of a medium and the wavelength of
light; A, B, and C are the constants for a given
medium.

Cattle guard
A series of pipes or bars spaced a few inches apart and
placed across the road to discourage animals from
entering or leaving a particular area. Similar to a
Texas gate except a Texas gate always uses round
pipes not flat bars.
Catwalk
1. A raised walkway running fore and aft from the
midship.

2.
Catwalk
An obsolete term for the section between the fender
and the hood. On modern cars, this section does
not exist at all. But on older cars (like the 1937
Cadillac), the fender was spaced a little way apart
from the hood. The headlights were mounted
toward the front of the catwalk or above it.

Caulk
To fill seams in a wood deck with oakum or hammer the
adjoining edges of metal together to stop leaks. Also
spelled calk
Caulking
The process of closing the spaces between overlapping
riveted plates or other joints by hammering the
exposed edge of one plate into intimate contact with

the other. A filler material is also used esp. for closing


(e.g., deck planking). Also called calking
Also
see
Weather Caulking
Caulking tool
A tool, similar in form to a cold chisel but having a
blunt edge, for deforming the metal rather than cutting
it.
Causality
The principle that an event cannot precede its cause.
Caustic curve
A curve to which rays of light are tangential after
reflection or refraction at another curve
Caustic embrittlement
The intergranular corrosion of steel in hot alkaline
solutions, e.g., in boilers
Caustic etching
The removal of metal by dipping aluminum parts in
caustic soda
Caution
A period in racing in which track conditions are too
hazardous for racing due to an accident or debris on
the racing surface. The cars remain in their racing
positions behind the pace car until it is determined that
it is safe to resume the race.
Caved
Dented inward as in When the car hit me, it caved in
the door.
Cavitation
A condition in which a partial Vacuum forms around
the blades or Impeller wheels of a Pump, reducing
the pump's output because part of the pump blades
lose contact with the liquid. It can be a problem in fuel
and water pumps, fluid couplings, and torque
converters. When severe, it can result in the erosion
of the pump blades and other internal surfaces.
Cavity

1. An empty space in a body structure, either in a


box section or a double-skinned area.
2. A holder and contact for fuses
Cavity sealant
A product made of oil, wax, and rust inhibitors which is
painted or sprayed into a cavity to prevent rust and
corrosion.
DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Da"
Da
Db
Dc
Dd
De
Df
Dg
Dh
Di
Dj
Dk
Dl
Dm
Dn
Do
Dp
Dr
Ds
Dt
Du
Dv
Dw
Dy

D
1. Abbreviation for diesel.
2. Abbreviation for drive.

3. A mark on the output (live) terminal on a


generator (contrasts with F)
Dab
A bicycle maneuver in which the rider puts a foot down
in order to catch his balance on a difficult section of
trail as in, "You will be disqualified if you dab on this
course."
DAB
1. Acronym for Digital Audio Broadcast.
2. Acronym for Delayed Accessory Bus
Daewoo

Daewoo
A South Korean automobile manufacturer which
produced Lanos (1999-2002), Nubira (1999-2002),
Leganza (1999-2002).
Dagmar

Virginia Ruth Egnor


"Dagmar"

1955 Cadillac "Dagmar" bumper


1. Large bullet-shaped protrusion on Bumpers of
cars in the 1950s. It was named after the
nickname of a buxom television star, Virginia Ruth
Egnor (1921-2001).
2. Dagmar is an automobile of which only the 25-70
models of 1925-1948 are Classic cars.

Daihatsu

Daihatsu

A brand of automobile from the Daihatsu Motor Co.,


Ltd. which began in 1951 and included the following
models Rocky (1987-98), Charade (1977-2000)
Daimler
Also called Austro-Daimler. A vehicle brand of which
the 1925-1948 models with required application are
Classic cars. The 1949-53 DE-36 Custom Built models
are Milestone cars. The 1949-53 2.5 Special Sport
Convertible models are Milestone cars.
Dalton's law
Vapor pressure created in a container by a mixture of
gases is equal to sum of individual vapor pressures of
the gases contained in mixture.
Dam
See
Air
dam
Heat dam
Damage
See
Accident
damage
Center
section
damage
Direct
damage
Ecological
damage
Engine
damage
Frame
damage
Impact
damage
Indirect
damage
Internal
damage
Stone chip damage
Damp
1. To reduce the oscillations of spring, carburetor
piston, etc.
2. To reduce the vibration in a crankshaft
Dampening belt

A rubber belt wound around the outside of a brake


drum or rotor prior to machining the drum or rotor. The
belt dampens out vibrations that might affect the
quality of the finished surface.
Damper

Damper
1. A Friction device sometimes called a Shock
absorber. Used for controlling and damping
spring Oscillations. The springs actually absorb
road shocks; the dampers convert the energy
imparted to the springs into thermal energy (by
friction), which is dissipated to the atmosphere or
the
vehicle's
Chassis.
Dampers
are
distinguishable by the type of friction involved,
mechanical or Hydraulic but most modern cars
used tubular-shaped Hydraulic shock absorbers.
Because they affect up and down wheel motions,
dampers are an important link in tuning a vehicle's
ride and handling.
2. A movable plate which permits or restricts the flow
of liquids or gasses.

Also
Gas
Harmonic
Mass
Piston
Pulsation
Steering
Torsional
Vibration damper

vibration

See
damper
balancer
damper
damper
damper
damper
damper

Damper piston
A piston in a cylinder whose movement is restricted by
a liquid or gas, which thus also restricts the movement
of another member to which it is connected.
Damper settings
See
Spring and damper settings
Damper springs
Springs in a clutch plate providing a cushion against
sudden loads due to abrupt engagement
Damper strut
A suspension strut whose hub carrier is attached to the
spring element rather than to the damper tube.
Compare Macpherson strut
Damping
1. Cushioning of force.
2. The action of suspension to control the speed of
movement through its travel, usually by a piston
running through oil and thus gives a smoother
ride. It vastly improves that smoothness of ride
offered.
Also
See
Compression
damping
Rebound Damping
Damping force
The amount of cushioning applied by a shock absorber

Damping rate
The amount of cushioning applied by a shock absorber
Damping restriction
The bore of a small cross section in the fuel distributor
of the K-Jetronic type system. It dampens sensor plate
movement in the air flow sensor during high load and
low rpm conditions
Dark 30
Trucker slang for nighttime as in "I am shutting this rig
down right at dark 30."
Darktime
Trucker slang for nighttime as in "I am shutting this rig
down right at darktime."
Darracq
A vehicle manufacturer in which only the 8-cyl. cars
and 4-liter, 6-cyl. cars of 1925-1948 are Classic cars.
Dash
See
Dashboard
Dash board
See
Dashboard
Dashboard
That part of the body containing the driving
instruments, switches, etc. Also called the Instrument
panel or dash panel or just dash.
Dashboard gearchange
British term for Dash shifter
Dashboard plaque
1. A metal or plastic plate which is mounted to the
dash to indicate the brand, model, or series of
vehicle.
2. A metal plate which is mounted to the dash to
indicate an award for attending or winning a rally
or other automotive event.
Dash design

See
Wrapround
dash
design
Wraparound Dash Design
Dash panel
1. A structural panel with bracing across the width of
the car on the inside of the bulkhead below the
windshield that provides the mounting locations of
the dashboard. Also called the fire wall because it
is
the
partition
between
the
passenger
compartment and the engine compartment.
2. The Bulkhead
Dash plaque
1. A metal or plastic plate which is mounted to the
dash to indicate the brand, model, or series of
vehicle.
2. A metal plate which is mounted to the dash to
indicate an award for attending or winning a rally
or other automotive event.
Dashpot
A unit using a Cylinder and Piston or a Cylinder and
Diaphragm with a small vent hole, to Retard or slow
down the movement of some part.
Also
see
Anti-stall Dashpot
Dash-pot
(DP) a diaphragm that controls the rate at which the
throttle closes
Dash shifter
A shift lever and indicator which is located on the
instrument panel either as a short lever or push
buttons
Data
See
Radio Data System
Data Center

See
Alternative Fuels Data Center
Data Interchange
See
Electronic DataInterchange
Data link connector
Connector(s) providing access and/or control of the
vehicle
information,
operating
conditions,
and
diagnostic information.
Data Sheet
See
Material Safety Data Sheets
Data System
See
Radio Data System
Date Code
See
Build Date Code
Datsun

A model of automobile manufactured by Nissan


Datsun Truck

A model of truck manufactured by Nissan


Datsun Z

A model of automobile manufactured by Nissan


Davit
A crane arm for handling lifeboats, stores, etc.
Day Cab
A truck or tractor without a sleeper birth. Typically used
for day trips or local routes.
Daylighting controls
A system of sensors that assesses the amount of
daylight and controls lighting or shading devices to
maintain a specified lighting level. The sensors are
sometimes referred to as photocells.
Day-night mirror
A mirror which adjusts to prevent the glare from the
headlights of following cars. The British term is
dipping mirror.
Days' supply
Number of days needed to sell all vehicles in inventory,
based on the previous month's sales rate.
Daytime running lights
(DRLs) A safety-oriented lighting system in which the
headlights or other front lights are constantly on even
during the day. They help to prevent possible accidents
because oncoming traffic can be seen. December 1,
1989, Canada became the second country after Norway
to require daytime running lights on all new passenger
vehicles. In other countries the implementation of DRLs
has had mixed response.
Dazzle
The glare from the headlights of oncoming traffic which
can momentarily blind a driver.

Dazzle mirror
See
Dimming mirror

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ea"


Ea
Eb
Ec
Ed
Ee
Ef
Eg
Eh
Ei
Ej
El
Em
En
Eo
Ep
Eq
Er
Es
Et
Eu
Ev
Ew
Ex
Ey
Ez

E
Abbreviation for Economy Gear
E10

(Gasohol) Ethanol/gasoline mixture containing 10%


denatured Ethanol and 90% gasoline, by volume.
E4OD
Acronym for Electronic 4-Speed Overdrive
E85
A fuel containing a mixture of 85 percent Ethanol and
15 percent gasoline
E93
A fuel mixture containing 93% Ethanol, 5% Methanol
and 2% Kerosene, by volume.
E95
A fuel containing a mixture of 95 percent Ethanol and
5 percent gasoline
EAC
Acronym for Electronic Air Control -- replaced by
AIR
EACV
Acronym for Electronic air control valve. A valve
used in fuel-injection system, usually computer
controlled, that controls the amount of air bypassing
the throttle during idle. The more air that bypasses the
throttle, the higher the idle speed
EAC Valve
An acronym for Electric air control valve. This is the
GM version of a diverter air gulp valve, providing three
functions in a single valve
the normal diverter valve function, i.e., it diverts
air on rapid increase in manifold vacuum;
it relieves pressure by diverting air to the air
cleaner when the air injection system pressure
exceeds a certain set level;
being solenoid-controlled, it allows air to be
diverted under any desired operating mode
Also
EAS valve
Eagle

See

Click image for books on


Eagle
A brand of automobile which was a carry-over from the
AMC Eagle and later produced by Chrysler. It included
the following models:
Wagon (1988)
Medallion (1988-1989)
Premier (1988-1992)
Vista (1988-1992)
Summit (1989-1996)
Talon (1990-1998)
2000GTX (1991-1992)
Vision (1993-1997)

EAIR
Acronym for Electronic Secondary Air Injection
EAMA
Acronym for Egyptian Automobile Manufacturers
Association.
Ear
A projection in the shape of an ear, usually as a lug or
support for other components such as the brackets
which are part of the fork cover and to which the
headlight is mounted on a motorcycle. It is also a
spoiler behind the rear windows to improve stability in
side winds.
Also
See
Fork ear

EAR
Acronym for estimated additional resources
Earles forks
Long leading-link motorcycle forks, i.e., front
suspension has a pivoting fork controlled by twin shock
absorbers. Designed by Ernie Earles, they were used by
many manufactures of motorcycles in the 1950s
Early fuel evaporation system
(EFE) A system that heats the inlet manifold to provide
a warm air/fuel mixture, reducing condensation and
improving fuel evaporation, thus improving cold engine
operation and reducing exhaust emissions. An EFE
system operated by engine exhaust gas responds
quicker to engine heat-up than systems heated by
engine coolant; some EFE systems use an electric
heater in the intake duct
Early termination
A vehicle's depreciation is highest in the first few
months after it leaves the dealer's lot. Since a lessee
pays for depreciation in equal monthly payments,
lessees who end a lease early have almost always used
up more of a car's value than they've paid for.
Therefore, lease contracts generally include penalties
for early termination. Be aware of these penalties
before you sign the lease contract and consider your
ability to fulfill the contract.
Earnings
See
Average weekly earnings
Ears on
Trucker slang for CB is turned on as in "Any smokeys
out there with their ears on?"
Earth
British term for Ground
Earth connection
British term for ground connection
Earth electrode
British term for ground electrode

Earthmover
See
A-2 tire
Earth return
British term for Ground return
Earth strap
British term for Ground strap
Earth wire
British term for Ground wire.
Earthwork
Excavating,
ditching,
trenching,
backfilling,
embankment construction, grading, leveling, borrow,
and other earth-moving work required in the
construction of the project.
EAS
Acronym for Electronic air suspension. Introduced in
the 1993 model year on certain Range Rover models
further to enhance standards of road noise insulation,
ride and handling, the system substitutes air bags and
a live-line pneumatic system, (i.e., an electrically driven
compressor, air pressure reservoir and associated
controls) for the steel coil springs used on the rest of
the Land Rover model range. Logic- controlled by an
electronic control unit, height sensors and driver
controls, the system maintains front and rear selfleveling in the five height modes listed below. These
notes show the versatility of the system and the
purpose for which it was designed. However, for the
casual driver, new to the vehicle, no prior knowledge or
expertise is required; FAS will cycle automatically
through appropriate modes according to prior
programming. The driver need not even know EAS is
fitted. On engine start-up EAS assumes the last
selected ride height.
Easement
Allows another person the right to use private land for
a specific purpose. The most usual easements are
those granted to public utility companies to run lines on

or under private property. Other common easements


are for storm drainage pipes and ditches, for walkways,
and for access roads.
Ease up on the accelerator
The action of releasing the accelerator partially or
completely in order to reduce the amount of fuel
entering the engine and thus slow down the speed of
the vehicle. Opposite of Depress the accelerator or
Step on the accelerator.
Ease up on the gas pedal
The action of releasing the gas pedal partially or
completely in order to reduce the amount of fuel
entering the engine and thus slow down the speed of
the vehicle. Opposite of Depress the gas pedal or
Step on the gas pedal..
Ease up on the throttle
The action of releasing the twist-grip or throttle lever
partially or completely in order to reduce the amount of
fuel entering the engine and thus slow down the speed
of the vehicle. Opposite of Engaging the throttle or
Cranking on the throttle..
Ease up on the throttle pedal
The action of releasing the throttle pedal partially or
completely in order to reduce the amount of fuel
entering the engine and thus slow down the speed of
the vehicle. Opposite of Depress the throttle pedal
or Step on the throttle pedal..
Easing fluid
Penetrating oil
Easton
American developer of high quality aluminum and
carbon fiber Bicycle products.
East-west layout
Transverse positioning of the engine across the car
from left to right, found in many front-wheel drive
designs. Also called Transverse engine. The opposite
is North-south layout.
EAS Valve

The valve in an emission control system governing the


airflow from the air pump in connection with the EAC
valve. When its solenoid is energized, air is directed
into the exhaust ports to increase oxidation and
accelerate catalytic converter heat-up to operating
temperature, and when its solenoid is de-energized, it
switches airflow between the converter beds to help the
oxidizing catalyst to decrease the CO and HC levels
Easy access cab

Easy access cab


A regular cab pickup with an extra fold-out section
behind the door to allow you to have access to the
things behind the front seat. Unlike an Extended cab,
there is no seating behind the front seat.
Easy out
A brand name for a Screw extractor.
Easy-out
A brand name for a Screw extractor.
Eat
To corrode and remove the metal from a body panel
which has been subject to excessive rust
Eat away

The effect of excessive rust which has seriously


corroded a body panel so that there is almost no
original metal left
Eat-em-up
Trucker slang for Truck stop Cafe as in "It's been so
long since I stopped at the eat-em-up that my stomach
thinks my throat's been slashed."

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Fa"


Fa
Fb
Fc
Fd
Fe
Ff
Fg
Fh
Fi
Fl
Fm
Fn

F
1. Abbreviation for Fahrenheit.
2. Acronym for Field
3. Acronym for Field terminal
F4WD
Acronym for Full Time Four Wheel Drive
Fabric
Material made from textile or man-made fibers
Fabricate
To make, usually by a relatively complex process or
from several parts
Fabric body

A simple form of lightweight bodywork in which a


waterproof, cloth-backed material is stretched over a
wooden framework popular around 1930 and still used
later by DKW and even after WWII by Lloyd.
Fabric fatigue
A term used with tires where the fabric degrades and
results in tire cord breakdown due to repeated flexing
and heat.
Fabric hood
A British term for the fabric top of a convertible.
Fabric top
A soft top for a convertible made from a textile (such
as canvas) as opposed to vinyl
Face
1. To shave the outer edges of a Bottom bracket
shell or the upper and lower ends of a Head tube
to make them parallel with one another and
square to the tube's centerline.
2. To machine a flat surface perpendicular to the axis
at rotation on a lathe.
3. To remove metal from the end of a shaft or the
face of a larger part, e.g., flywheel.
4. The front, visible, or working surface of a part
(such as a valve) or a tool (such as a hammer).
Also
Bearing
Cam
Concave
Door
Full
Grille
Inner
Mechanical
Mixer
Open
Valve

weld
face
face
attachment
face
face

See
face
face
face
face
helmet
panel
face
seal
Face
helmet
face

Valve
seat
face
Weld face
Face cam
A cam system in which the eccentrics are situated on
the face of a rotating disc
Faced
See
Spot Faced
Face hammer
See
Soft face hammer
Face helmet
See
Full
face
helmet
Open face helmet
Facelift
Minor styling modifications made by the manufacturer
to a car model which may be approaching the end of its
useful life, intended to improve the appearance and
thus boost sales with minimum cost, including such
features as restyled Headlights, larger tail lights,
added trim, altered grille, and spoilers
Facel Vega
A vehicle brand of which the 1954-64 V-8 models are
Milestone cars.
Face of weld
The exposed surface of the Weld.
Face panel
See
Grille face panel
Face seal
See
Mechanical face seal
Facia
A front protective panel. Also spelled fascia.
Facing
See
Clutch
facing

Hinge
Lock facing

facing

Fact
Abbreviation for factory.
Factor
See
Blade
Activity
Factor
Bulking
Factor
Casing
factor
Chill
Factor
Consumer
factors
Dead
freight
factor
Form
Factor
Horsepower-weight
factor
Lagging
Power
Factor
Leading
Power
Factor
Money
factor
Pitting
factor
Power
Factor
Quality
Factor
Reactivity
Adjustment
Factor
Safety
factor
Service Factor
Factory adjusted
Something that is set by the manufacturer when the
vehicle was built and is not intended to be changed
Factory options
Optional features which may be installed by the
manufacturer upon request. Aftermarket options are
those which are installed by a garage or consumer after
the vehicle has been built and delivered to the selling
dealership.
Factory primer
A Primer coat applied to new body panels in the
factory for protection during storage, which in some
cases has to be removed prior to painting because of
paint compatibility problems
Factory racers

Racing machines built and operated by the


manufacturer
Fade
A gradual reduction in efficiency.
Also
See
Brake
fade
Gas
fade
Heat
fade
Lining
fade
Mechanical
fade
Water fade
Fader
A device which adjusts the sound balance of front and
rear speakers in a four-speaker layout
Fading
1. A loss of brightness or color in a paint finish.
2. Brake fade
Fahrenheit
Thermometer on which the Boiling point of water is
212 degrees and the freezing point is 32 degrees above
zero. To convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius, subtract 32
then multiply the result by 5 and divide by 9. To
convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply by 9, then
divide by 5. Now add 32 to the result.
Fahrenheit scale
On a Fahrenheit thermometer, under standard
atmospheric pressure, boiling point of water is 212
degrees and freezing point is 32 degrees above zero.
Fail-safe control
Device which opens a circuit when the sensing element
loses its pressure.
Failsafe system
A system which remains safe even when part of it fails,
such as a Dual-circuit brake system.
Failure
See
Brake
failure

Intercoat
Secondary failure

adhesion

failure

Fair
1. To add a Fairing to a body.
2. A vehicle in restorable condition needing only
minor work to get all components working
Fairing
1. A protective shell or enclosure at the front of a
motorcycle which may house the Headlights and
signal lights. It is designed to improve the
aerodynamic performance of the machine and/or
provide rider comfort and protection from the
elements. These range from simple Plexiglas
shields to complex, encompassing body panels.
2. The plastic shield mounted on the front of a roof
rack of a vehicle which is designed to reduce wind
noise and improve fuel economy.
Fairlane

Click image for books on


Ford Fairlane
A model of automobile manufactured by Ford
Fairmont

A model of automobile manufactured by Ford

FAK
Acronym for Freight of All Kinds describing mixed
general freight in the back of a truck or trailer.
Also
see
LTL
Falcon

A model of automobile manufactured by Ford


False air
Any air leak that introduces unmeasured air into the
intake system between the airflow meter and the intake
valves is false
False neutral
When you fail to engage gears and the transmission
behaves as though it is in neutral, even though it is not
False flat
An illusion where the operator or passengers in a motor
vehicle or on a bicycle or motorcycle suppose that the
road is flat, but in reality there is a slight climb.
Falsework
A temporary supporting framework for a structure
during construction or demolition.
Family car
A car suitable for transporting a family, usually a fourdoor sedan, Hatchback, or Station wagon. It is
becoming more popular for families to obtain a
Minivan instead of a station wagon.
Fan

Fan
1. A fan is a rotating device with curved blades like a
propeller. The primary fan in a vehicle is generally
located behind the Radiator. Some electric fans
may be placed in front of the radiator. It draws air
through the radiator so that the Coolant loses its
heat through the fins of the radiator. It is
especially needed when the vehicle is idling or
moving slowly. When the vehicle moves quickly,
there may be no need for the fan. In some cases,
the fan is automatically disengaged under those
circumstances. Non-electric fans may be activated
by a Fan belt driven by the engine, while electric
fans are powered by the electrical system
independent of the engine itself.
2. Other fans are located throughout the vehicle to
push air from one location to another, especially
for heating and Ventilation.
3. Radial or axial flow device used for moving or
producing flow of gases.

4. The pattern emitted by a paint spray gun.


Also
Blower
Booster
Cooling
Evaporator
Heater
Radiator
Radiator fan motor

See
Fan
Fan
fan
Fan
fan
fan

Fan belt
A flexible rubber belt that connects various
Components in the engine compartment, i.e.,
Alternator, Water pump, Emission controls,
Power steering pump, and Air conditioner
Compressor. Also called Drive belt or Serpentine
belt
Fan blade
A part of the fan projecting at an angle from the central
hub, which draws the air through the radiator
Fan clutch
A Viscous (fluid) drive coupling device connected to
the center of the fan to permit variable engine fan
speeds in relation to engine speeds. The Clutch
engages and disengages the fan according to the
engine temperature through a thermostat
Fan-cooled enclosure
An electric motor housing that includes an integral fan
to blow cooling air over the motor. It may be Totally
enclosed or Explosion-proof
Fan cooling
A type of air cooling where a blower is responsible for
transporting the amount of air required for the cooling
of the engine past the cooling fins, which in turn
dissipate the heat stored in them to the current of air
flowing past them

Fangled Nut
See
Headset Star Fangled Nut
Fan motor
See
Radiator fan motor
Fanning
The use of air pressure through a spray gun to speed
up the drying of Primer or paint -- this is not
recommended
Fan pulley
A pulley on the hub of the radiator fan on which its
driving belt runs
Farad
Unit of electrical capacity; capacity of a condenser
which, when charged with one coulomb of electricity,
gives difference of potential of one volt.
Faraday experiment
Silver chloride absorbs ammonia when cool and
releases it when heated. This is basis on which some
absorption refrigerators operate.
Farewell tour
A year-long tribute or celebration for a retiring driver
and his racing fans.
Farman
A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models with
required application are Classic car.
Farm gasoline
Gasoline that has been mixed with an identifying dye
(usually purple) and sold for less in order to help
farmers. In most places where this is practiced, it is
illegal to use farm gasoline in non-farm vehicles. Also
called purple gas
Farm out
An action by a repair shop to send some repair work to
a specialty shop. For instance you might bring your car
to the shop for an engine tune-up and to replace a

broken windshield. The shop can handle the tune-up,


but will farm out the windshield repair to a glass shop.
Farm Products cargo
Truck content of unprocessed items which were grown
in or produced from agricultural activity on a farm or in
a garden, nursery, or orchard. Articles manufactured or
processed from these commodities are not included in
this category.
Farm Tractor
A low-speed high-torque vehicle used in farming.
Typically with two small front wheels and two large rear
wheels. Designed to pull other components in farming.
In contrast with a Truck tractor
Farm use
Petroleum products sales for use on the farm including
use in tractors, irrigation pumps, other agricultural
machinery, etc.)
FARS
Acronym for Fatality Analysis Reporting System
operated by the NHTSA
Fatality Analysis Reporting System
(FARS) operated by the NHTSA
Farthing
See
Penny-farthing
FAS
Acronym for free alongside ship
Fascia
Also spelled facia.
1. A front protective panel usually located below the
Bumper.
2. In Britain it is the instrument panel.
Fast
See
Light-fast
Fastback

Fastback
A design of car where the roof gently slopes to the rear
end of the car. Any automobile with a long, moderately
curving, downward slope to the rear of the roof. This
body style relates to an interest in streamlining and
aerodynamics and has gone in and out of fashion at
various times. Some (Mustangs for one) have grown
quite popular. Others have tended to turn customers
off. Certain fastbacks are, technically, two-door sedans
or pillared coupes. Four-door fastbacks have also been
produced. Many of these (such as Buick's late 1970s
four-door Century sedan) lacked sales appeal.
Fastbacks may or may not have a rear-opening hatch.
Also
See
Two-door fastback
Fast charger
A battery charger which can charge a battery at a rate
of 40 amps or more, used by garages and battery
suppliers
Fastener
Also
Lift-the-dot
Nylon
Snap fastener
Fastener length
See
Length of Fastener
Fast food freezing
Method that uses liquid nitrogen or carbon
turn fresh food into long lasting frozen food.

See
fastener
fastener

dioxide to
It is often

referred to as cryogenic food freezing and freeze


drying.
Fast idle
When the engine is cold, it needs to run faster to keep
it from stalling. A cam on the Carburetor forces the
Throttle open a little more when the Choke is
engaged.
Fast idle cam
A cam in a Carburetor which opens the throttle
slightly when the choke is brought into operation,
either automatically or mechanically
Fast idle screw
A screw on a Carburetor for adjusting the speed of the
fast idle
Fast idle solenoid
A Solenoid operating in conjunction with an automatic
choke to open the throttle slightly when the choke is in
operation
Fast lane
The outside lane (far left lane in North America, etc. or
the far right lane in Britain, Australia, etc.). Also called
the passing lane
FAS value
Acronym for Free alongside ship value. The value of
a commodity at the port of exportation, generally
including the purchase price plus all charges incurred in
placing the commodity alongside the carrier at the port
of exportation in the country of exportation.
Fathom
A measure of length, equivalent to 6 linear feet, used
for depths of water and lengths of anchor chain
Fatigue
A condition of a material, especially a metal, causing
loss of elasticity and tendency to fracture after long or
repeated stress, even though the stress may be less
than that which would cause failure under static
conditions.

Also
See
Fabric
fatigue
Metal fatigue
Fatigue corrosion
A condition caused by repeated stress in a corrosive
atmosphere.
Fatigue life
When a metal component is subjected to repeated
bending or service action it will eventually break. The
number of bends is its fatigue life.
Fatigue limit
The maximum stress that a material can endure for an
infinite number of stress cycles without breaking
Fatigue resistance
The maximum stress that a material can endure for a
given time without breaking
Fatigue strength
1. The maximum stress that a material can endure
for a given time without breaking
2. The stress to which a metal can be subjected for a
specified number of cyclic changes of stress.
3. The endurance of a fastener showing the load it
can accept without breaking under repeated load
cycles.
Fatigue test
A test on a material to determine the range of stress it
will stand without failing, by subjecting it to rapidly
varying stresses to establish its fatigue limit
Fat load
Trucker slang for overload, carrying more weight than
local state law allows as in "Better not be running at fat
load, cause the coops are open and checking ground
pressure this morning."
Fault
A defect which is either inherent in the vehicle as built
(manufacturing fault) or which occurs during running.

Also
See
Intermittent
fault
No fault insurance
Fault codes
See
Trouble code
Fault diagnosis
The tracing of faults or error codes which can be
determined by the in-built diagnostic system and an
engine analyzer
Fault insurance
See
No fault insurance
Fault memory
A part of the electronic control unit and of the
diagnostic system that stores error codes to assist the
mechanic in diagnosing problems.
Fault reader
A device used in conjunction with the vehicle's
diagnostic system, providing a read-out of status of the
various components
Faying surface
The inner mating or contacting surfaces of a joint;
common area of two surfaces that are bonded together
with an Adhesive
DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ga"

Ga
Gc
Gd
Ge
Gh
Gi
Gl
Gm
Gn

Go
Gp
Gr
Gs
Gt
Gu
Gv
Gw
Gy

g
A unit of measurement for Lateral acceleration, or
road-holding. One g is equivalent to 981 cm (32.2
feet) per second every second, the rate at which any
object accelerates when dropped at sea level. If a car
were cornering at 1.0 g -- a figure that very few
production cars are able to approach -- the driver's
body would be pushing equally hard against the side of
the seat as against the bottom of it. Most fast sedans
accelerate about 0.8 g.
G7
Seven industrial countries consisting of the United
States, Japan, Germany, France, the United Kingdom,
Italy and Canada, whose leaders have met at annual
economic summits since 1975 to coordinate economic
policies.
GA
Acronym for Gage or Gauge
Gage
A standard SAE designation of wire sizes, expressed in
AWG (American Wire Gage). The larger the gage
number, the smaller the wire. Metric wire sizes are
expressed in cross-sectional area, which is expressed in
square millimeters. Sometimes the spelling gauge is
also used to designate wire size. However, it is
becoming standard to use gage for wire size and
gauge for instruments. Americans often use gage for
instruments.

Gage tubing
See
Plain gauge tubing
Gain
See
Available
Power
Gain
Processing
Gain
Steering gain
Gain Control
See
Automatic
Gain
Control
Automatic Quiet Gain Control
Gaiter
A dust boot
Gal.
Abbreviation for gallon. A US gallon (3.78543 liters)
(231 cubic inches) is 20% smaller than an Imperial
gallon (4.54609 liters).
Galaxie

GALFAN
A trademark for a special type of hot-dip galvanized
steel sheet with a coating consisting of a zinc alloy
containing 5% aluminum and rare earths
Gallery
A Channel or tube usually found within the engine
block for the transfer of fluid or gas.
Also
see
Engine
Oil
Gallery
Oil Gallery
Galling

A condition that takes place when two metals or


fasteners stick together and cannot be easily loosened.
In tightening fasteners, for example, pressure builds on
threads as metals rub against each other, and the
passive film preventing corrosion on stainless may not
form due to lack of oxygen. Also called Seizing
Gallon
A US gallon (3.785 liters) is 20% smaller than an
Imperial gallon (4.546 liters).
Also
see
Imperial
Gallon
Miles
Per
Gallon
Standard
U.S.
Gallon
U.S. Petroleum Gallon
Galvalume
Trademark for a special type of hot-dip galvanized steel
sheet with a coating consisting of 55% aluminum,
43.4% zinc and 1.6% silicon
Galvanic
Concerned with an electrical current
Galvanic action
Wasting away of two unlike metals due to electrical
current passing between them. The action is increased
in the presence of moisture.
Galvanic cell
Cell which converts chemical energy into electrical
energy by irreversible chemical reactions
Galvanic corrosion
1. Corrosion due to the action of a galvanic cell.
2. An accelerated degree of corrosion occurring when
two different metals are in contact with moisture,
particularly sea water. All metals have what is
termed a specific electric potential, so that low
level electric current flows from one metal to
another. A metal with a higher position in the
galvanic series will corrode sacrificially rather than
one with a lower position, meaning stainless, for
example, will corrode before gold. The further

apart the metals on the chart, the more electric


current will flow and the more corrosion will occur.
No serious galvanic action will occur by combining
the same metals, only dissimilar ones. To prevent
galvanic corrosion, use insulation, paint, or
coatings when separating dissimilar metals; or put
the metal to be protected next to a metal which is
not important in the assembly, so it can corrode
sacrificially. Metals listed first will corrode due to
galvanic reaction before those at end of
paragraph: magnesium, zinc, aluminum 1100,
cadmium, aluminum 2024, steel and iron, lead, tin
brass, copper, bronze, monel, 304 and 316
stainless (passive), silver, titanium, graphite, gold.
Also
see
Bimetallic corrosion
Galvanize
The action of plating with zinc and/or lead by hot
dipping or Electrodeposition to protect from rust.
Also
See
Hot-dip galvanize
Galvanized body
See
Fully galvanized body
Galvanized coating
Zinc or zinc based coating applied by galvanizing
Galvanize differentially
The action of obtaining different coating thicknesses on
the two sides of the sheet of iron.
Galvanizing
The application of zinc coatings on the surface of a
metal, by hot dipping or Electrodeposition.
Also
See
Cold
galvanizing
Dry
galvanizing
Electrolytic
galvanizing
High-build
galvanizing

Mechanical
plating
Rack
galvanizing
Spin
galvanizing
Wet galvanizing
Galvanizing bath
A bath for hot-dip galvanizing or Electrogalvanizing
Galvannealing
A thermal process which gives improved adhesion to
hot-dip galvanized steel sheets
Galvanometer
An instrument used to measure the pressure, amount
of, and direction of an electric Current.
Also
see
Ballistic Galvanometer
Gamma layer
Part of the zinc-iron alloy layer on hot-dip galvanized
iron and steel containing 21-28% iron
Gangway
A narrow hanging staircase used by persons entering or
leaving a vessel from the pier or boat
Gantry

Gantry
1. A structure with an overhead beam, used for
lifting out an engine. Compare Engine hoist.
2. Overhead steel structures across the highway to
hold up a traffic sign

Gap
1. The

distance between the center terminal


(Electrode) and the outer terminal (Electrode)
through which the Spark must travel in a Spark
plug.
Also
Spark
Air gap.

See
gap

plug

2. The

distance between
Breaker points.

the

points

Also
Point gap.

in

contact
See

3. The distance between two vehicles traveling down


the road as they go in the same direction.
Generally a safe distance is a minimum of two
seconds behind the vehicle in front.
4. The distance between the two ends of Piston
rings.
Also
Air
Alignment
Annular
Band
Buncher
Contact
Door
Electrode
Piston
Point
Points
Ring

breaker
ring

end

See
gap
Gap
gap
Gap
Gap
gap
gap
gap
gap
gap
gap
gap

Spark
air
gap
Spark
gap
Spark
plug
gap
Surface gap
Gap bridging
A formation of carbon or other deposits across the
Spark plug gap which shorts out the plug
Gap coil tester
See
Spark gap coil tester
Gap insurance
This covers you against additional losses not covered
by your auto insurance in the case of an accident in
which the vehicle is totaled. Most auto insurance will
cover the actual cash value of the vehicle and what is
owed on the lease contract, including early termination
fees. Gap insurance is most important in the early
years of a lease when the difference between the value
of the car and what is owed are greatest. Some
manufacturers now include Gap insurance in their
leases.
Gapper
A device for determining the distance between two
metal contacts.
Also
See
Feeler gauge.
Gapping
Adjusting the distance between the Electrodes of a
Spark plug or the points of contact Breaker points.
Also
See
Plug gapping.
Gap spark plug
See
Surface gap spark plug
Gap style
The arrangement or shape of the spark plug electrodes
Garage
1. A building in which a motor vehicle is kept.

2. The premises on which motor vehicles are


repaired or serviced and/or where fuel is sold.
3. To keep in a garage
Garaged
A reference to a vehicle which is kept in a garage, as in
My car is always garaged. The abbreviation in
advertisements is gar'd.
Garage jack
A powerful hydraulic jack used in garages
Garages
See
Morris Garages
Garbage
Trucker slang for produce (bananas, lettuce etc.) as in
"I sure am glad I'm not takin' this load of garbage to
Hunt's Point."
Garbage truck
A cargo body style often with hydraulic packing
mechanisms or hydraulic arms for lifting dumpsters.
Included are roll-offs, vehicles used for transporting
refuse containers. Roll-offs have rails or a flat bed and
a hoist for loading and unloading the refuse container.
Also called refuse truck
Garbage wagon
A scornful term used by some outlaw bikers to describe
a Touring motorcycle
Garboard strake
The strake of bottom shell plating adjacent to the keel
plate.
Gar'd
An abbreviation used in classified advertisements for
garaged
Garden gate
A nickname for the plunger-sprung frames used on
Norton motorcycles from the late 1930s
Garnish molding

The upper molding on a door panel used to retain the


door trim panel to the door assembly
Also
see
Door Garnish Molding
Garter spring
A long, thin coil spring with ends joined to form a ring.
Gas
1. A vapor having no particles or droplets of liquid. In
physics, a gas is a substance which possesses
perfect molecular mobility and, unlike a liquid or a
solid, the ability to expand indefinitely
2. A non-solid material. It can be compressed. When
heated, it will expand; and when cooled, it will
contract (such as air.)
Also
Hot
Inert gas system

See
welding

gas

3. A common term for Gasoline. The British term is

petrol.
Also
Unleaded gas

See

4. A term for LPG or Propane.

Also
Bottled
Compressed
Oxygen-LP
Oxyhydrogen gas

See
gas
gas
flame

natural
gas

5. A term referring to the Exhaust gases.

Also
Exhaust
End
Exhaust

gas

See
emissions.
gas
recirculation

Exhaust
Exhaust
Exhaust
Raw
Spent gas

gas

gas
purification
exhaust

analyzer
system
gas
gas

6. A non-solid, non-liquid combustible energy source


that includes natural gas, coke-oven gas, blastfurnace gas, and refinery gas.
7. Fuel gas, such as natural gas, undiluted liquefied
petroleum gases (vapor phase only), liquefied
petroleum gas-air mixtures, or mixtures of these
gases.
8. To apply the throttle.
Also
Depress
the
gas
Ease
up
on
the
gas
Pumping the gas pedal
Also
Associated-Dissolved
Natural
Biomass
Delivered
Dry
Natural
Exhaust
Flash
Greenhouse
Hot
Landfill
Liquefied
Natural
Liquefied
Petroleum
Liquefied
Refinery
Low
BTU
Manufactured
Native
Natural
Nonassociated
Natural

See
pedal
pedal
see
Gas
Gas
Gas
Gas
Gases
Gas
Gases
Gas
Gas
Gas
Gas
Gases
Gas
Gas
Gas
Gas
Gas

Noncondensable
Nonhydrocarbon
Non-Methane
Organic
Processed
Radiatively
Active
Refinery
Reformate
Residual
Exhaust
Residue
Salable
Natural
Sour
Still
Sweet
Synthetic
Natural
Unprocessed
Vent
Wet Natural Gas
Gas Act
See
Natural Gas Act
Gasahol
See
Gasohol
Gas-Air Mixture
See
Lp Gas-Air Mixture
Gas analyzer
See
Exhaust gas analyzer
Gas-arc
See
Inert gas-arc welding
Gas-arc welding
See
Inert gas-arc welding
Gas Association
See
Canadian Gas Association

Gas
Gases
Gases
Gas
Gases
Gas
Gas
Gases
Gas
Gas
Gas
Gas
Gas
Gas
Gas
Gases

Gas Baffle
See
Load-Bearing
Flue
Gas
Baffle
Non-Load-Bearing Flue Gas Baffle
Gas burner
Competition vehicle with engine set up to operate on
standard pump gasoline instead of an Alcohol, nitro,
etc., mixture. Also called gasser.
Gas-burner System
See
Atmospheric Gas-burner System
Gas Bypass
See
Hot Gas Bypass
Gas cap

Gas cap
A vented covering on the top of the tube leading to the
fuel tank. Also called fuel cap.
Gas chamber
A pressure chamber of a single-tube shock absorber
Gas Check Valve
See
Exhaust Gas Check Valve

Gas cleanup
Removal of a contaminant from gaseous feed streams
by a mechanical or chemical process.
Gas damper
A gas shock absorber
Gas Defrost
See
Hot Gas Defrost
Gas discharge headlight
A motor vehicle Headlight with a gas discharge lamp
Gas discharge lamp
A discharge lamp in which light is generated by gas
discharge
Gas discharge light
A discharge light in which light is generated by gas
discharge
Gas-driven generator
A generator which turned by a gas engine.
Gaseous
Referring to gas
Gaseous discharge lamp
A gas discharge lamp
Gaseous discharge headlight
A Gas discharge light
Gases
See
CFC
gases
Exhaust
gases
Greenhouse
gases
Residual exhaust gases
Gases in Bulk cargo
Pressurized tanker item. Examples: Aerosol propellant,
butane, CO2, LPG, nitrogen, and propane.
Gas fade
Brake fade caused by hot gases and dust particles that
reduce friction between the brake linings and drum or
rotor under hard, prolonged braking
Gas filter

Gas
Gas
Gas
Gas

Gas
Gas
Gas

Gas
Gas

A device for screening the Gasoline to remove the


impurities.
Also
See
Fuel filter.
flame
See
Oxygen-LP gas flame
flow
The flow of the air/fuel mixture or the exhaust gases in
an engine
Forced-air
See
Heat Pipe Gas Forced-air
forced-air heat pipe
High efficiency gas furnace that uses vertical liquid
filled pipes. The pipes are heated by a burner at their
base, and the liquid boils and vaporizes within the pipe.
The furnace blower circulates air over the pipes for
heating.
Furnace
See
High Efficiency Gas Furnace
gage
See
Gas gauge.
gauge
An instrument, usually located on the Dashboard or
center console, which indicates the amount of fuel in
the Fuel tank. Most gauges have a Needle which
fluctuates between E (empty) and F (full). Others show
a digital readout of how many gallons or liters left in
the tank. Also called fuel gauge.
guzzler
A vehicle which uses a lot of gasoline per distance
traveled.
Hydrates
See
Natural Gas Hydrates

Gasification
A method for converting coal, petroleum, biomass,
wastes, or other carbon-containing materials into a gas
that can be burned to generate power or processed into
chemicals and fuels.
Gasket

Gasket
A material made of Asbestos, cardboard, cork, paper,
rubber, or soft metal placed between two metal parts to
insure proper sealing.
Also
See
Base
gasket
Blown
head
gasket
Foam
Gasket
Head
gasket
Hollow-tube
Gasket
Liquid
gasket
Magnetic
Gasket
Oil
pan
gasket
Reservoir
Diaphragm
Gasket
Rocker
cover
gasket
Shim-type
Head
Gaskets
Valve cover gasket
Gasket, foam

Joint sealing material made of rubber or plastic foam


strips.
Gasket kit
A collection of gaskets required to overhaul an engine
or part of an engine.
Also
See
Bottom
end
gasket
kit
Carburetor
kit
Top end gasket kit
Gasket punch
A tool used to cut out holes in a sheet of gasket
material to shape a gasket to size.
Gasket scraper

Gasket scraper
A scraper with a sharp chisel edge for removing old
gasket material from a surface before installing a new
gasket\
Gas Liquids
See
Natural Gas Liquids
Gas metal-arc welding
Welding using a continuously fed consumable electrode
and a shielding gas. Also called sigma welding.
Gas, noncondensable
Gas which will not form into a liquid under the
operating pressure-temperature conditions.
Gasohol
A blend of Gasoline and ethanol Alcohol or methanol
that usually is 90 to 94.3% Gasoline and 5.7 to 10%
ethanol. This term was used in the late 1970s and early
1980s but has been largely replaced by terms such as
E10, Super Unleaded Plus Ethanol or Unleaded Plus

Ethanol. Ethanol is the Alcohol found in intoxicating


beverages. It may attack rubber and plastic parts of
Fuel systems not designed to handle alcohol-blended
fuels, but it is not poisonous to human beings like wood
alcohol or Methanol.
Gas oil
European and Asian designation for No. 2 heating oil
and No. 2 diesel fuel.
Also
see
Automotive
Gas
Oil
Light Gas Oils
Gasoil
Designation for No.2 heating oils and diesel fuels. A
clean distillate fuel oil.
Gasoline
A Hydrocarbon fuel used in an Internal combustion
engine. Gasoline is refined from crude oil which is
made up of fossilized plant and animal remains. In
Britain it is called petrol.
Also
See
Aviation
Gasoline
Casing
Head
Gasoline
Ethyl
gasoline
Lead-free
gasoline
Leaded
gasoline
Leaded
Premium
Gasoline
Midgrade
Gasoline
Motor
Gasoline
Natural
Gasoline
Oxygenated
gasoline
Premium
gasoline
Pump
gasoline
Purple
Gasoline
Reformulated
gasoline
Regular
gasoline
Regular
Grade
Gasoline
Unleaded
gasoline
Unleaded
Midgrade
Gasoline

Unleaded
Premium
Gasoline
Unleaded Regular Gasoline
Gasoline And Isopentane
See
Natural Gasoline And Isopentane
Gasoline Blending
See
Motor Gasoline Blending
Gasoline blending components
Naphthas which will be used for blending or
compounding into finished aviation or motor gasoline
(e.g., straight-run gasoline, Alkylate, Reformate,
Benzene,
Toluene,
and
Xylene).
Excludes
oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), Butane, and Pentanes
plus
Also
see
Motor Gasoline Blending Components
Gasoline grades
The classification of gasoline by octane ratings. Each
type of gasoline (conventional, oxygenated, and
reformulated) is classified by three grades - Regular,
Midgrade, and Premium. Note: Gasoline sales are
reported by grade in accordance with their classification
at the time of sale. In general, automotive octane
requirements are lower at high altitudes. Therefore, in
some areas of the United States, such as the Rocky
Mountain States, the octane ratings for the gasoline
grades may be 2 or more octane points lower.
1. Regular gasoline: Gasoline having an antiknock
index, i.e., octane rating, greater than or equal to
85 and less than 88. Note: Octane requirements
may vary by altitude.
2. Midgrade gasoline: Gasoline having an antiknock
index, i.e., octane rating, greater than or equal to
88 and less than or equal to 90. Note: Octane
requirements may vary by altitude.

3. Premium gasoline: Gasoline having an antiknock


index, i.e., octane rating, greater than 90. Note:
Octane requirements may vary by altitude.
Gasoline Injection
See
Electronic Gasoline Injection
Gasoline Prices
See
Retail Motor Gasoline Prices
Gasoline pump
A device which pulls fuel from an underground storage
tank into a vehicle's Gas tank.
Gas Oxygen Sensor
See
Exhaust
Gas
Oxygen
Sensor
Heated Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor
Gas pedal
The device actuated by the operator's foot for
increasing or decreasing the amount of fuel entering
the Combustion chamber. Also called throttle pedal
or accelerator.
Also
See
Accelerator
Depress
the
gas
pedal
Ease
up
on
the
gas
pedal
Pumping
the
gas
pedal
Step
on
the
gas
pedal
Take foot off the gas pedal
Gas pockets
Cavities in weld metal caused by trapped gas.
Gas Policy Act Of 1978
See
Natural Gas Policy Act Of 1978
Gas pressure regulator
A device for controlling a selected outlet gas pressure.
Gas prop

A gas-assisted strut like a hatch strut, hood strut, or


tailgate strut
Gas pump

Gas pump
A device at a Service station which pulls gasoline
from a storage tank (usually located underground) into
the vehicle's Gas tank. Commercial units also record
the amount of fuel dispensed as well as the cost.
Gas purification
See
Exhaust gas purification system
Gas Purification System
See
Exhaust Gas Purification System
Gas recirculation
See
Exhaust gas recirculation
Gas Recirculation System
See
Exhaust Gas Recirculation System
Gas Recirculation Valve
See
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve

Gasser
A vehicle which burns normal Gasoline instead of
racing fuel.
Also
See
Gas burner.
Gas shock
A gas-assisted shock absorber
Gas shock absorber
A gas-assisted shock absorber
Gassing
The small hydrogen bubbles rising to the top of the
Battery Electrolyte during Battery charging.
Gas spring
A pressurized, nitrogen-filled sphere, used in Hydragas
and hydropneumatic suspension systems
Gas station
A place where gasoline is dispensed.
Gas system
See
Inert gas system
Gas tank

Gas tank
The container for holding or storing fuel. Also called
Fuel tank.
Gas-tight
Sealed to prevent the passage of gas
Gas to liquid

(GTL) A process that combines the carbon and


hydrogen elements in natural gas molecules to make
synthetic liquid petroleum products, such as diesel fuel.
Gas Tube System
See
Perimeter Hot Gas Tube System
Gas tungsten-arc welding
Welding using a tungsten electrode and a shielding gas.
Gas turbine

Gas Turbine
An internal-combustion rotating engine with one main
moving part the Rotor with pinwheel-like blades
attached. Air is compressed by the first rows of blades
and delivered to the combustion chambers, from which
the exhaust is directed to pass the remaining blades
and to generate the power. Power is extremely smooth
due to the absence of explosions and Reciprocating
parts.
Gas turbine Engine
See
Gas turbine
Gas valve
Device in a pipeline for starting, stopping, or regulating
flow of gas.
Gas Vehicle

See
Natural Gas Vehicle
Gas vent
A passageway, composed of listed factory-built
components assembled in accordance with the terms of
listing, for conveying flue gases from gas utilization
equipment or their vent connectors to the outside
atmosphere.
Gas welding
A welding process widely used in body repair shops
(now being gradually replaced by MIG welding). Also
called oxyacetylene welding.
Also
See
Hot
gas
welding
Metal Inert Gas Welding
Gate
1. The slotted guide for the Gearshift of an
Internal combustion engine.
2. The slotted guides in a shift drum.
3. A Tailgate.
Also
See
Anchor
Gate
Balance
Gate
Garden
Gate
J
gate
transmission
shifter
Shift
gate
Texas
gate
Waste gate
Gate transmission
See
J gate transmission shifter
Gate transmission shifter
See
J gate transmission shifter
Gating
A device that permits a wave to pass another wave in a
circuit in specific intervals

GATT
Acronym for General Agreement on Tariffs and
Trade.
Gauge
This is the British and Canadian spelling while in the
United States it is sometimes spelled without the u
(gage). It is becoming standard to use gage for wire
size and gauge for an instrument.
1. An instrument or meter that registers the quantity
of a substance
Also
Ammeter
Auxiliary
Boost
Bowden
Fuel
Gas
Hydrostatic
In-dash
Low-pressure
Low
Side
Oil
Oil
level
Oil
pressure
Oil
temperature
Outdoor
Temperature
Outside
temperature
Pounds
Per
Square
Inch
Temperature
Turbo
Vacuum
Voltmeter
Water temperature gauge
2. A

See
Gauge
gauge
Gauge
gauge
gauge
Gauge
gauge
Gauge
Gauge
gauge
gauge
gauge
gauge
Gauge
gauge
Gauge
gauge
gauge
gauge

tool for measuring Clearances, pressures,


sizes, etc.

Also
Adjusting
B
&
S
Beta
Thickness
Birmingham
Birmingham
Wire
Bridge
Standard
Wire
Broad
Brown
and
Sharpe
Buckley
Caliper
Compression
Compression
Depth
Dial
Disc
brake
Draft
Feeler
Frame
High-pressure
Ignition
Micron
Pressure
Screw
pitch
Sighting
point
Spark
plug
Step
Feeler
Throttle
Tire
Tire
pressure
Tram
Tread
depth
Vernier
Wheel alignment gauge
3. A measurement of tubing.

Wire

See
gauge
gauge
Gauge
Gauge
Gauge
Gauge
Gauge
Gauge
Gauge
Gauge
gauge
gauge
tester
gauge
gauge
gauge
Gauge
gauge
gauge
Gauge
gauge
Gauge
Gauge
gauge
gauge
gauge
Gauge
gauge
gauge
gauge
gauge
gauge
gauge

Also
Plain gauge tubing

See

Gauge box
A container which measures a known quantity of
material such as cement, sand, or rocks for testing or
making mixtures
Gauge, compound
Instrument for measuring pressures both above and
below atmospheric pressure.
Gauge, high-pressure
Instrument for measuring pressures in range of 0 psia
to 500 psia (101.3 kPa to 3600 kPa).
Gauge, low-pressure
Instrument for measuring pressures in range of 0 psia
to 50 psia 10 kPa to 350 kPa.
Gauge, manifold
1. Chamber device constructed to hold both
compound and high-pressure gauges. Valves
control flow of fluids through it.
2. The one essential diagnostic tool required for
every air conditioner service procedure. A typical
gauge set includes high and low side gauges and
valves for checking, measuring and controlling
pressure and vacuum, and a third valve for
controlling discharging, evacuation and charging
procedures. Also called gauge set
Gauge port
Opening or connection provided for a service technician
to install a gauge.
Gauge, pressure
Reading in pounds per square inch (psi) above
atmospheric pressure.
Gauge set
See
Gauge, manifold
Gauge tubing

See
Plain gauge tubing
Gauge, vacuum
Instrument used to measure pressures below
atmospheric pressure.
Gauntlet
A long-sleeved leather glove used by motorcyclists to
prevent wasps from flying up the sleeve, as one did to
me.
GAWR
Acronym for Gross Axle Weight Rating -- Maximum
weight an axle is rated to carry by the manufacturer.
Includes both the weight of the axle and the portion of
a vehicle's weight carried by the axle.
Gaylord
A vehicle brand of which the 1955-57 models are
Milestone cars.
DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ha"
Hz

H
1. A letter rating for tires to indicate that they are
theoretically rated for Speeds up to 210 kph (130
mph), as in P185HR13. The next higher rating is
V and the one lower rating is T.
2. Systme International (SI) symbol for Henry
3. Symbol for Hydrogen
H2O

Acronym for Water


Habits
See
Driving habits
HAC
Acronym for High Altitude Compensator
Hackney Carriage

Black taxis in London.


Hacksaw

Hacksaw
A tool for cutting metal, with a narrow blade attached
to a frame
HAI
1. Acronym for Heated air inlet system
2. Acronym for hot air intake
Hair
See
Helmet hair
Hairline crack
A tiny stress crack which forms due to strains in the
material or extreme temperature differences; as
opposed to crazing, a single crack of this type will often
occur alone
Hair pin

Hair pin
A roadway with several sharp turns usually on an hill.
Hair pin cotter

Hair pin cotter


A securing device shaped somewhat like a U in which
the legs have a series of waves or bends. Insert one leg
into the hole of a rod so that the bent leg will encircle
the rod.
Also
See
Hitch pin clip where one leg is straight

Hairpin valve spring


A valve spring formed from a wire or metal strip bent to
form two levers emanating from a half-loop or coil;
used on some classic cars and motorcycles
HAIS
Acronym for Heated Air Intake System (Chrysler)
Half
See
Crankcase half
Half dog point
The same as a dog point but half as long; used on
short screws for the same purposes as the dog point,
but in a shallower hole or slot.
Half dog point socket set screw
A headless socket set screw threaded the entire
length. It has a hexagonal drive at one end and a
protruding tip with a flat surface at the other end.
Half-life
See
Biological Half-life
Half link

Half link
Every Chain has Rollers which are connected by side
plates or Keepers. When counting the number of links
in a length of Chain, it is easiest to count the number
of side plates on one side of the Chain and multiplying
the number by two. When a Chain needs to be an odd
number, a half link is included. The term half link is a
misnomer. It should be called a single link. The side

plate on a half link is not flat but has a step down


shape. For this reason, it is called an offset link.
Half moon key
See
Half-moon key.
Half-moon key

Half-moon key
A driving key serving the same purpose as the regular
key but it is shaped somewhat like a half circle. Also
called a Woodruff key.
Half-moon slip joint pliers
A multiple-slip joint pliers with groove joint
Half-round body file
A body file with domed file surface for working reversecrowned panels
Half-round file
A special file that's flat on one side and convex on the
other
Half shaft
A rotating shaft that transmits power from the final
drive unit to one side of the drive wheels, but usually
refers to the two shafts that connect the road wheels to
the final drive with Independent rear suspension or
Front-wheel drive as opposed to the axle shafts of a
live rear axle. Also called an Axleshaft
Half step gearing
See
Half-step gearing.

Half-step gearing
A Gearing system of a Bicycle in which a shift
between Chainrings in a double chainring set is
equivalent to half a gear step on the Freewheel.
Halftrack

Halftrack
Vehicle with caterpillar tracks over the rear wheels to
provide motive power but steered by normal front
wheels
Half wave rectifier
See
Rectifier.
Half-wave rectifier
See
Rectifier.
Halide Lamp
See
Metal Halide Lamp
Halide refrigerants
Family of refrigerants containing halogen chemicals.
Halide torch
Type of torch used to safely detect halogen refrigerant
leaks in system.
Hall effect
In electrical conductors where electric current flows
perpendicular to a magnetic field, a so-called Hall

voltage is produced perpendicular to the direction of


current flow and to the magnetic field
Also
see
Quantum Hall Effect
Hall-effect ignition system
Transistorized ignition with Hall generator
Hall-effect sensor
A Hall generator
Hall-effect switch
A Hall vane switch
Hall element
A pulse generator that makes use of the Hall effect and
consists of a rotor with vanes, a conductive element
with a permanent magnet and the Hall IC. Also called
Hall generator. When the air gap is unobstructed, a
Hall voltage is generated; when a vane stands in the air
gap, the magnetic flux cannot reach the Hall IC. Hall
generators used as ignition pulse generators have as
many vanes and Hall windows as the engine has
cylinders, dwell being determined by the width of the
vanes. Hall generators used in electronic-map ignition
systems to provide the engine starting signal have only
one Hall window
Hall generator
A pulse generator that makes use of the Hall effect and
consists of a rotor with vanes, a conductive element
with a permanent magnet and the Hall IC. Also called
Hall element.
Also
See
Transistorized ignition with Hall generator
Hall IC
A solid state device with the actual Hall generator and
integrated circuits for voltage amplification and
potential reversal, producing the pulses for the control
unit
Hall module
A Hall IC
Hall sensor

A Hall generator.
Also
See
Transistorized coil ignition with Hall sensor
Hall vane switch
A switch that makes use of the Hall effect. When the
air gap is free, a magnetic field acts on the Hall IC and
the Hall voltage reaches its maximum (high). When a
rotor vane obstructs the air gap, shielding the Hall IC
from the magnetic flux, the Hall voltage reaches its
minimum (low). The signal produced is a square wave
Hall voltage
See
Hall effect
Halogen
One of the chemical elements fluorine, chlorine,
bromine, iodine, or astatine.
Also
See
Quartz halogen bulb
Halogenated substances
A volatile compound containing halogens, such as
chlorine, fluorine or bromine.
Halogen bulb
A bulb containing a trace of a halogen, such as iodine.
A halogen bulb gives off a brighter light.
Also
See
Quartz halogen bulb
Halogen headlamps
Tungsten-halogen bulb used in sealed beam unit or as
separate bulb in composite headlamp
Halogen headlight
High intensity reflector with inner halogen bulb,
precision lens, and 3-prong attachment. Don't touch
the glass of a halogen bulb with your fingers. The oil
left on the glass will cause the glass to break or reduce
the life of the bulb. If the glass is accidentally touched,
it may be cleaned with methylated spirits or rubbing
alcohol on a soft cloth
Halogen lamp

A type of Incandescent lamp that lasts much longer


and is more efficient than the common incandescent
lamp. The lamp uses a halogen gas, usually iodine or
bromine, that causes the evaporating tungsten to be
redeposited on the filament, thus prolonging its life.
Halogens
Substance containing fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and
iodine.
Hamlin switch
A suspended-mass-type sensor used in new air bag
systems; avoids the ecological problems associated
with the earlier mercury-type switches
Hammer
1. To hit with a hammer.
2. To ride hard and fast.
3. Someone who rides hard and fast.
4. Trucker slang for the accelerator pedal as in
"When we get past this parking lot we can really
hit the hammer."
5. A hand tool with a head (usually metal) and a
handle. It is used to force one item against or
through another. Several types of hammers are
available
Also
Air
Ball-pane
Ball
Ball
Blacksmith
Body
Boilermakers
Brass
Bricklayer
Bumping
Chipping
Claw
Club

peen
pien

See
hammer
Hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
Hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer

Copper-faced
Curved
pein
and
finishing
Fender
bumping
Finish
Grooving
Machinists'
Nail
Nylon
Panel
Peen
Pein
Pick
and
finishing
Pick
Planishing
Prospector's
Reverse
curve
panel
Ripping
Riveting
Rotary
Rubber
Shingler's
Shrinking
Sledge
Slide
Soft
face
Tack
Tile
setter
Tinner's
Two-way
Water
Welding
Wide-nose
peen
Wing
bumping
Wood mallet

hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
pick
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
mallet
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer
Hammer
hammer
hammer
hammer

Hammer down
Trucker slang for driving fast as in "We got a
southbound smokey with the hammer down".

Hammer drill
Electric hand drill that hammers as well as rotates
Hammerform
A shaped wooden block used in panel beating, on which
a desired form is produced by hammering
Hammer welding
Metalworking technique that includes gas welding,
preferably without the use of filler rod, followed by
hammer and Dolly work on the welded joint to smooth
out any remaining imperfections
Hand
See
Left
hand
gear
lever
Left
hand
monkey
wrench
Left
hand
thread
Right
hand
thread
Right
hand
turn
signal
Third hand
Handbook
A manual which gives instructions or information.
Also
See
Owner's
handbook
Owner's manual
Handbrake
A brake operated by a hand lever. It may also refer to
the Parking brake.
Handbrake turn
180 turn achieved by applying the handbrake (acting
on the rear wheels) hard when the vehicle is starting to
turn
Handbrake warning light
A light on the instrument panel that illuminates when
the handbrake is applied; on most new cars it has been
superseded by a multifunction brake warning light
Hand controls
An auxiliary set of components to allow disabled people
to operate a vehicle.
Hand Crafted

Something that is built by hand rather than in an


assembly line (i.e., mass produced).
Hand crank
Before Cadillac invented and first produced electric
Starters, engines were started by means of a handle
which was inserted into the front of the engine and
rotated manually. After 1930 it became obsolete.
Hand cycle

Hand cycle
A human powered cycle that is propelled by rotating
the crank with your hands rather than your feet.
Usually there is one wheel up front and two (often
smaller) in the back. It is designed for people who are
unable to use their legs.
Hand drill

Hand drill
A power-driven device for boring holes or (with the
correct attachment) removing or securing screws and
bolts
Handed
Something that is made for a specific side of a unit. For
example, left hand arm rests are not interchangeable
with right hand arm rests.
Hand file
A flat File for shaping metal, with a rectangular cross
section, constant blade width and one smooth edge
Hand gear
See
Left hand gear lever
Hand gear lever
See
Left hand gear lever
Hand lapped valves
A process of grinding valves by hand so that there is a
perfect match between the valve and its seat.
Handle
1. The reaction of a vehicle under a particular
circumstance, especially regarding cornering,
roadholding, and maneuvering.
2. To deal with or to cope with (e.g., "the tires can
handle 50 psi" means the tires can withstand
pressure up to 50 psi).
3. A CB user's code name.
Also
Boot
Brake
Door
Drive
File

See
handle
Handle
handle
handle
handle

Flexible
drive
handle
Grab
handle
Offset
handle
Pull-out
door
handle
Ratchet
handle
Spinner
handle
Starting
handle
Trunk handle
Handlebar
A steering device found on Bicycles and Motorcycles.
Grips, brake levers, and shifters, etc. are attached to
the handlebar.
Also
see
Bullhorn handlebar
Handlebar bag

Handlebar bag
A container, usually leather and nylon, which mounts on
the front of a bicycle's handlebars.
Handlebar riser
A bracket which lifts the base of the handlebar up
higher.

Handler
See
Air Handler
Handling
The relative ability of a vehicle to negotiate curves and
respond to road conditions. It is a factor of the weight
of the vehicle, the suspension, tires, air flow, etc.
Also
See
Neutral
handling
Performance handling system
Handling system
See
Performance handling system
Hands
See
Glad hands
Hands-free
A car cell phone that allows the driver to dial and talk
on the phone without handling the phone.
Handshaker
A colloquial term for a passenger car with a manual
transmission
Hand shield
An eye and face protector held in the hand. It enables a
person to look directly at the electric arc through a
special lens without being harmed.
Hand thread
See
Left
hand
thread
Right hand thread
Hand turn
See
Right hand turn signal
Hand turn signal
See
Right hand turn signal
Hang a left
To make a left-turn

Hang a right
To make a right-hand turn
Hang a U-ey
To make a U-turn
Hanger
1. A flexible ring or strap to hold a pipe, e.g., an
exhaust pipe.
2. A mounting bracket, e.g., a Spring hanger for a
Leaf spring.
3. A component of sighting point gauges, used to
install the gauge at the vehicle chassis.
4. Device attached to walls or other structure for
support of pipe lines.
Also
Ape
Bridge
Derailleur
Dropout
Replaceable
Spring Hanger
Hanger Bolt

Derailleur

See
Hangers
Hanger
Hanger
hanger
Hanger

Hanger bolt
A fastener where one end is gimlet pointed and has a
wood screw thread. The other end consists of a coarse
machine screw thread. The center section is
unthreaded.
Hangover
A modification of custom cars with separate chassis,
e.g., pick-ups, which raises the floorpan and lowers the

body, to give the impression that the body has been


pulled down over the chassis right down to street level
Hard aground
A ship which has gone aground and is not able to move
under her own power.
Hard anodic coating
Hard, wear-resistant, oxide layer produced in an anodic
oxidation process
Hard anodizing
A special type of anodizing adapted to the production of
thick, hard, abrasion-resistant films
Hardboard
A board-like building material made of compressed
wood chip fibers and sawdust
Hard chromium plating
An electrolytic deposition of a hard, wear-resistant,
chromium layer
Hard code
A type of trouble code that causes the ECU to
disengage the ABS and not re-engage it until the
problem is repaired
Hard-dry
The condition of paint when it is hard enough to polish
Harden
1. The action of turning from a liquid to a solid.
2. To set or to cure.
3. The action of making the surface a metal tougher.
Also
See
Case harden.
Hardenability
In a ferrous alloy, the property that determines the
depth and distribution of hardness induced by
quenching.
Hardened
See
Case-hardened
Chrome-hardened

Strain
Work hardened

hardened

Hardened pushrods
Specially treated pushrods designed for use with
pushrod-guided rocker arms
Hardener
Chemical added to plastic filler to induce hardening as
used in auto body repair.
Hardening
1. The process of paint, epoxy, or glue becoming
hard. The drying or hardening of paint film goes
through several stages. The first stage is called
dust-free; at this stage, the paint has hardened
sufficiently to prevent dust from becoming
embedded in the paint film. The second stage is
called touch-dry; at this point, the paint film can
actually be touched with light finger pressure. The
third and final stage is referred to as hard-dry; at
this point, the paint film is hard enough to polish.
2. A method of heat treating metals by heating to a
temperature within, or above, the critical range,
holding at that temperature for a given time, and
then cooling rapidly, usually by quenching in oil or
water.
Also
See
Age-hardening
Flame
hardening
Induction Hardening
Hardening media
A liquid into which steel is immersed in order to harden
the steel. Usually involves cold water, brine, oil, and
special polymers.
Hardness
1. The toughness of the surface of a metal. Normally
stated in terms of Rockwell or Brinell scale of
measurement, hardness shows resistance of a

fastener to rough marks and abrasions, can


indicate yield strength and brittleness, and has a
direct relationship to tensile strength in alloy steel
fasteners. However, for stainless, brass, and
silicon bronze, the correlation between hardness
and tensile or yield is tenuous with no definite
relationship. Case-hardening uses surface heat
treatment on ferrous material to cause a harder
outside surface than the center. Throughhardening hardens the entire fastener. Bright
hardening calls for heat treatment without oxygen,
so no oxides are formed on the material surface.
2. Resistance to plastic deformation by indentation,
penetration, scratching or bending.
Also
See
Abrasion
hardness
Brinell
hardness
Indentation
hardness
Rockwell
hardness
Shore
hardness
Work Hardness
Hard pedal
A loss in braking efficiency so that an excessive amount
of pressure is need to actuate brakes
Hard rubber
See
Ebonite
Hard-sided caravan
A British term for a trailer with foldable, hard wall
panels
Hard-sided trailer
A trailer with foldable, hard wall panels
Hard shoulder
A part of the road that is divided by broken or
continuous yellow lines from the rest of the road and
should be used only by certain road users in certain
situations

Hard solder
Uniting two pieces of metal with a material having a
melting point higher than soft solder e.g., silver
soldering
Hard spots
Shiny bluish/brown glazed areas on a brake drum or
disc friction surface, caused by extreme heat. Excessive
heat has changed their molecular structure. Hard spots
can usually be removed by resurfacing
Hard stop
Hard braking, but not necessarily with locked wheels
Hardtail
A term for a bike (motorcycle or bicycle) which has no
rear suspension
Hardtop

Hardtop
A two-door or four-door vehicle without a center door
post, i.e., no B-post. It gives the impression of
uninterrupted glass along the side of the car. The term
is derived from Hardtop convertible. Other generic
names have included sports coupe, hardtop coupe, or
pillarless coupe. In the face of proposed rollover
standards, nearly all automakers turned away from the
pillarless design to a pillared version by 1976-77.
Also
See
Colonnade
Hardtop
Formal
Hardtop
Four-door
Hardtop
Four-door
Pillared
Hardtop
Two-door hardtop
Hardtop convertible

An automobile with a fixed roof that does not retract


into the Trunk, but gives the appearance of being a
Convertible
Hardtop stand
A foldable stand that holds a detached hardtop in a
vertical position when stored
Hard-top trailer

Hard-top trailer
A vacation trailer with a hard top and (most often)
canvas sides.
Hard trim
Instrument panel moldings, center consoles and similar
plastic trim
Hardy disc
A disc-style flexible coupling
Hardy-Spicer joint
A type of universal joint commonly used with prop
shafts
Hardy-Spicer universal joint
A type of universal joint commonly used with prop
shafts
Harley-Davidson

A motorcycle manufacturer

Harm
See
Bodily harm
Harmful
See
Ecologically harmful
Harmonic balancer
Also called Vibration damper. It usually is a solid
Crankshaft Fan belt Pulley that has a weight ring
bonded by rubber to the inner crankshaft-mounted
ring. The outer ring absorbs and cancels out
Crankshaft vibrations that otherwise might cause the
Crankshaft to break. Formerly, two gearwheels
carrying an unbalanced weight, mounted in bearings
below the middle main crankshaft bearing, driven at
twice engine speed and rotating in opposite directions
to counterbalance the secondary vibrations in a fourcylinder reciprocating engine.
Also
See
Crankshaft
pulley
Damper
Harmonic balance wheel
A grooved wheel attached to the front end of the
crankshaft which is connected by accessory belts to the
fan, alternator, power steering pump, water pump, air
conditioning compressor, and other devices so that the
rotating crankshaft can drive these other parts as well.
The crankshaft pulley usually has timing marks located
on it, and these are necessary for checking and
adjusting timing with a timing light.
Harmonic Distortion
See
Total Harmonic Distortion
Harmonic voltage
A voltage whose frequency is a multiple of the
fundamental frequency.

Harness
1. A belt system used with child seats and in cars,
consisting of two shoulder belts and two lap belt
portions fastened by a central buckle.
2. A bundle of electrical wires. For convenience in
handling and for neatness, all wires going to
certain part of the vehicle are bundled together
into a harness. A Wiring harness.
Also
See
Four-point
Racing
Harness
Brinell
hardness
Wiring harness
Harness Connector
See
Wiring Harness Connector
Harness ties
Self-tightening nylon straps used to bundle wires into
harnesses. Once tightened, they can't be removed
unless they are cut
Harness wrap
One of several materials used to bundle wires into
manageable harnesses
Also
See
Loom
Split
loom
Loom
tape
Harness ties
Harvey wallbanger
Trucker slang for a reckless driver as in "That 4-wheeler
is a real harvey wallbanger."
Hat
The portion of a detachable brake disc that comes in
contact with the wheel hub
Also
see
Rotor Hat
Hatch

1. The rear opening of a vehicle which allows


passage into its cab.
2. A Hatchback.
3. A Tailgate.
4. An opening in a deck through which cargo and
stores are loaded or unloaded.
Also
Cross-hatch
Hot hatch
Hatchback

See

Hatchback
A car design in which the rear Trunk and lid are
replaced by a rear hatch that includes the Backlight
(i.e., rear window). Usually the rear seat folds down to
accommodate more luggage. Originally a hatch was a
small opening in the deck of a sailing ship. The term
hatch was later applied to airplane doors and to
passenger cars with rear liftgates. Various models
appeared in the early 1950s, but weather-tightness was
a problem. The concept emerged again in the early
1970s, when fuel economy factors began to signal the
trend toward compact cars. Technology had remedied
the sealing difficulties. By the 1980s, most
manufacturers produced one or more hatchback
models, though the question of whether to call them
two-door or three-door never was resolved. Their
main common feature was the lack of a separate trunk.
Liftback coupes may have had a different rear-end
shape, but the two terms often described essentially
the same vehicle.
Also
See
Five-door
hatchback

Four-door
Liftback station wagon

hatchback

Hatchback coupe

Hatchback coupe
Originally a small opening in the deck of a sailing ship,
the term hatch was later applied to airplane doors and
to passenger cars with rear liftgates. Various models
appeared in the early 1950s, but weather-tightness was
a problem. The concept emerged again in the early
1970s, when fuel economy factors began to signal the
trend toward compact cars. Technology had remedied
the sealing difficulties. By the 1980s, most
manufacturers produced one or more hatchback
models, though the question of whether to call them
two-door or three-door never was resolved. Their
main common feature was the lack of a separate trunk.
Liftback coupes may have had a different rear-end
shape, but the two terms often described essentially
the same vehicle.
Also
See
Three-door
hatchback
coupe
Two-door hatchback coupe
Hatch battens
Flat bars which are wedged against hatch coamings to
secure tarpaulin
Hatch beam
Portable beam across a hatch to support hatch covers
Hatch coaming

The vertical plating bounding a hatch for the purpose of


stiffening the edges of the opening and resisting water
entry
Hatched marking
Chevron markings on the road which help separate
traffic lanes
Hatchway
An opening in a deck through which cargo and stores
are loaded or unloaded
Hat section
See
Top hat section
Haul
See
Long-haul
Haul Distance
See
Average Haul Distance
Hauling
See
Compensated
Intracorporate
Hauling
Intracorporate Hauling
Hauling snow
The loading, removing, and disposing of snow piles
after snowplowing operations
Haul road
See
access road
Hawse pipe
Tube through which anchor chain is led overboard from
the windlass on the deck
Hawser
Strong rope or steel cable used for securing or mooring
ships
Hazard
Anything that could be a source of danger on the road
See
Road hazard

Hazard flasher switch


A switch (usually located on the steering column below
the steering wheel) which makes all the signal lights
flash simultaneously, to warn other vehicles that your
car is disabled or going very slowly down the road. Also
called 4-way warning light switch.
Hazardous location
Any area or space where combustible dust, ignitable
fibers, or flammable, volatile liquids, gases, vapors or
mixtures are or may be present in the air in quantities
sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures.
Hazardous wastes
Automotive wastes that are on the EPA's list of
hazardous materials or that have one or more
hazardous characteristics
Hazard warning flasher
Actuates warning system of flashing front and rear turn
signal lamps
Hazard warning switch
A switch (usually located on the steering column below
the steering wheel) which makes all the signal lights
flash simultaneously, to warn other vehicles that your
car is disabled or going very slowly down the road. Also
called 4-way warning light switch.
Hazmat
Hazardous materials, as classified by the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Transport of
hazardous materials is strictly regulated by the U.S.
Department of Transportation.
DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ia"

Ia
Ib
Ic
Id
Ie
If

Ig
Ih
Ii
Il
Im
In
Io
Ip
Ir
Is
It
Iu
Iv
Iz

i
Short form for injection indicating that the engine is
fuel-injected, e.g., GTi, EFi, 1.6i, SSEi
I2R Loss
Power loss due to the current (I) flow through the
resistance (R) of a conductor.
IA
Acronym for Intake Air
IAC
Acronym for Idle air control valve
IACV
Acronym for Idle Air Control Valve
I & C systems
Acronym for instrumentation and control systems
IAR
Acronym for Integral alternator/Regulator
IAS
Acronym for Inlet Air Solenoid (Ford)
IASCA
Acronym for International Auto Sound Challenge
Association.
IAT
Acronym for Intake Air Temperature

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ja"


Ja
Jb

Jack
1. To lift a vehicle off the ground in order to effect
repairs
2. To steal a vehicle
3. A characteristic of swing-axle Rear suspensions.
Cornering forces can act on these suspensions
to lift the body of the vehicle so that the outer
wheel tucks or jacks under the vehicle. When
carried to the extreme, jacking forces could tip the
vehicle over.
4. A device for lifting the vehicle, or part of the
vehicle, off the ground to facilitate repairs.
Also
See
Body
jack
Bottle
jack
Bumper
jack
Floor
jack
Garage
jack
Hi-lift
jack
Hydraulic
jack
Jib-jack
Scissors
jack
Tire
jack
Tower
jack
Tripod
jack
Trolley jack
Jacker
See
Car jacker
Jacket
The enclosure on a water heater, furnace, or boiler.

See
Japanese
lantern-type
jacket
tube
Water jacket
Jacket tube
See
Japanese
lantern-type
jacket
tube
Shaft Jacking
Jacking
See
Car
jacking
shaft jacking
Jack knife
1. The action of a vehicle (tractor) with a trailer in
which the trailer and the vehicle form a V instead
of normally being pulled in a straight line. Usually
this is the result of a Skid in which the trailer
swings around dangerously and tries to overtake
the cab.
2. Skidding of an articulated vehicle sometimes
results in rotation at the articulation (hitch) point
so that the tractor is rotated against the trailer in
a manner similar to the closing of a jackknife.
3. To place the trailer at a very sharp angle to the
tractor.
Jackshaft
See
Intermediate shaft
Jackson Head
A machine screw with a small oval head.
Jack stand

Jack stand
A safety device that keeps the vehicle from falling to
the ground if the lifting jack is removed or faulty. Most
jobs require two jack stands for safety. Also called an
Axle stand or Safety stand
Jack up
To raise using a Jack
Jacking point
A strengthened place on the underbody to put the jack.
Small cars have one point on each side but larger cars
may have two
Jaguar

A vehicle brand produced by Jaguar Cars Limited of


which the 1932-1940 SS models except 4-cyl. are
Classic cars. The 1957-64 3.4/3.8 Sedans are
Milestone cars. Includes 1 Litre saloon (19351949), 2 Litre saloon (1935-1948), 3 Litre saloon
(1937-1948), 240 (1966-1968), 340 (1966-1968), 420

(1966-1968), 420G (1966-1970), E-Type (1961-1974),


Mark 1 (1955-1959), Mark 2 (1959-1967), Mark V
(1948-1951), Mark VII (& VIIM) (1951-1957), Mark
VIII (1957-1959), Mark IX (1959-1961), Mark X (19611970), S-type (1963-1968, 1999-2008), Vanden Plas
(2002-05), X-type (2001-current), XF (2008-current),
XJ (X350) (2003-current), XJ6 Series 1, 2 & 3 (19681987), XJ6 (XJ40) (1986-1994), XJ6 (X300 & X301)
(1995-1997), XJ8 (X308) (1997-2002), XJ8 (19982007), XJ12 (1972-1992), XJ12 (XJ81) (1993-1994),
XJ12 (X300 & X301) (1995-1997), XJR (1995-2007),
XJR-S (1993), XJ-S (1975-1996), XJ Sport (2002-03),
XJ Super (2002-07), XK8 (1997-2006), XK (X100)
(1997-2005), XK (X150) (2006-current), XK120 (19481954), XK140 (1954-1957), XK150 (1957-1961), and
XKR (2000-06)
Jaguar Drophead
A vehicle brand of which the 1951 Mark V Drophead is
a Milestone car.
Jaguar E-type

A model of automobile manufactured by Jaguar in


England. The 1961-67 E-Type models are Milestone
cars.
Jaguar Mark

A model of automobile manufactured by Jaguar in


England. The 1946-48 models with 2.5 Litre, 3.5 Litre

Mark
Mark
cars.
cars.
cars.

IV (not 4-cyl.) are Classic cars. The 1951-54


VII and '54 Mark VII M models are Milestone
The 1956-57 Mark VIII models are Milestone
The 1958-61 Mark IX models are Milestone
The 1962-64 Mark X models are Milestone cars.

Jaguar XJ

A model of automobile manufactured by Jaguar in


England
Jaguar XK

A model of automobile manufactured by Jaguar in


England. The 1945-54 XK 110 models are Milestone
cars. The 1954-57 KX 140 models are Milestone cars.
The 1958-61 XK 150 models are Milestone cars.
Jake brake
A device which shuts off the Exhaust valves manually
so that in the Exhaust stroke, the burned gasses
cannot escape through the Exhaust valves. Instead
they press against the Head of the piston and causes
the Piston to slow down. When the Intake valve
opens, some of the exhaust escapes out the intake
valve and gives a distinctive loud rapping noise. Jake
brakes are used in large truck engines to assist in
slowing the vehicle. Many municipal bylaws prohibit the
use of jake brakes because of the excessive noise. The

most common type is called a Jake Brake because the


predominant manufacturer is Jacobs Vehicle Equipment
Co. Other types of retarders include exhaust retarders,
transmission-mounted hydraulic retarders and axlemounted electromagnetic retarders. Also called a
retarder.
Jalopy
A worn-out old car
Jam
See
Traffic jam
JAMA
Acronym for Japan Automobile Manufacturers
Association
Jamb switch
A push-button light switch located in a door jamb (e.g.,
for courtesy lights, trunk light)
Jam nut
1. A second nut (usually thinner) on a screw or bolt
which locks against the first nut (i.e., jams against
it) so that the nut won't come loose.
2. A self-locking nut
Jam on the brakes
The action of quickly depressing the brake pedal
(pulling the brake lever on a motorcycle or bicycle)
especially in an emergency situation.
Jam the brakes
The action of quickly depressing the brake pedal
(pulling the brake lever on a motorcycle or bicycle)
especially in an emergency situation.
JAP
English engine manufacturer. Founded in 1903 by John
A. Prestwich, the company was bought by Villiers in
1957
Japanese lantern-type jacket tube
A web-type jacket tube of a steering column which, on
impact, folds like a Japanese lantern

Japanese Motorcycle
See
Universal Japanese Motorcycle
JAS
Acronym for Jet Air System: (Mitsubishi)
Javelin

An automobile manufactured by AMC


Jaws
See
Ratchet
Towing jaws

Jaw

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ka"

Kadenacy effect
When a port of a two-stroke engine opens abruptly, as
is the case with a rectangular exhaust port, the cylinder
pressure gives rise to a positive pressure wave
transmitted down the exhaust pipe at the speed of
sound
KAIDA
Acronym for Korea Automobile Importers and
Distributors Association.
Kaiser

A vehicle brand of which the 1954 Darrin 161 is a


Milestone car. The 1951-52 Deluxe and Deluxe
Virginian are Milestone cars. The 1951-53 Dragon
models are Milestone cars. The 1954-55 Manhattan
models are Milestone cars. The 1949-50 Vagabond
models are Milestone car. The 1949-50 Virginian
(Hardtop) models are Milestone cars.
Kaizen Activities
Activity through which continuous improvement is
sought.
KAM
See
Keep alive memory
KAMA
Acronym for Korean Automotive Manufacturers
Association
Kamm back
It was once thought that a long tapered end in the
shape of a vehicle would give it the most aerodynamic
configuration. W. Kamm discovered that the length of
the end would have to be so long as to make the
vehicle impractical. There would also be an increase in
surface area which would also create its own
FrictionDrag. He found that if he cut the theoretically
long tail in half he would have both good
Aerodynamics and minimal surface Drag. This
sharply cut off rear end is named after him.
Kamm tail
It was once thought that a long tapered end in the
shape of a vehicle would give it the most aerodynamic

configuration. W. Kamm discovered that the length of


the end would have to be so long as to make the
vehicle unpractical. There would also be an increase in
surface area which would also create its own
FrictionDrag. He found that if he cut the theoretically
long tail in half he would have both good
Aerodynamics and minimal surface Drag. This
sharply cut off rear end is named after him.
Kangarooing
A colloquial term for moving forward in a succession of
sudden jerks as a result of improper use of the clutch,
(a characteristic of beginner drivers or those not used
to standard shifting)
Kaplan turbine
A type of turbine that that has two blades whose pitch
is adjustable. The turbine may have gates to control
the angle of the fluid flow into the blades.
KAPWR
Acronym for Direct Battery Power
Karosserie
German term for Coachwork.
Kata thermometer
Large-bulb alcohol thermometer used to measure air
speed or atmospheric conditions by means of cooling
effect.
Kawasaki
A motorcycle manufacturer

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "La"

La
Lb
Lc

Ld
Le
Lf
Lh
Li
Lj
Ln
Lo
Lp
Lr
Ls
Lt
Lu
Lv
Lw
Ly

L
1. Low gear in an automatic transmission.
2. Designation for luxury or Luxe
3. The symbol for Inductance
4. Acronym for Liters
l/100 km
This is the metric measurement of fuel consumption or
Fuel economy. The lower the number the more
economical the vehicle. Thus a vehicle that gives 7
l/100 km is better than one that gives 8 l/100 km. A
vehicle that gives 7.3 l/100 km is giving 32.2 mpg US
and 38.7 mpg Imperial.
L4
Acronym for Four Cylinder Inline Engine
LAADA
Acronym for Latvian Authorized Automobile
Dealers Association.
Label
See
Safety Compliance Certification Label

Labeling Act
See
American Automobile Labeling Act
Labor
An engine which is struggling to keep turning due to
lack of revs or the use of too high a gear
Laboratories
See
Underwriters Laboratories
Laboratory Horsepower
See
Gross Laboratory Horsepower
Laboring
An engine that is Lugging because it has difficulty in
turning over.
Lack of parallelism
A measurement of brake rotor thickness variation at
various points around a rotor.
Lacquer
1. A fast drying automotive body pyroxylin paint.
2. A glossy coating made by dissolving cellulose
derivatives in a rapidly evaporating solvent.
3. Protective coating or finish which dries to form a
film by evaporation of a volatile (easily goes from
liquid to gas) constituent.
Also
See
Clear
lacquer
General purpose lacquer thinner
Lacquer thinner
See
General purpose lacquer thinner
Ladder
See
Sand ladders
Ladder bars
A rigid triangular suspension devices used to locate an
axle front to rear. These are used almost exclusively in

drag race cars due to the fact that they bind when
cornering. A panhard rod or a watts link is used to
locate the axle side to side.
Ladder chassis
See
Ladder frame
Ladder diagram
Electrical diagram that indicates order of electrical
devices in a specific electrical circuit.
Ladder Form Electrical Diagram
See
Schematic Ladder Form Electrical Diagram
Ladder frame

Ladder Frame
A type of Frame design which has two long parallel
sections which run from the front to the rear of the
vehicle. In various places there are shorter sections
which connect the long sections. The result looks like a
ladder.
The
connecting
pieces
hold
various
Components such as the engine. This design is not
used today because it is too heavy and lacks rigidity.
Also called ladder chassis
Laden
Vehicle carrying some or full payload.
Laden weight
See
Gross vehicle weight.
Lading
The load or freight that a vehicle carries.
Also
Bill of lading

See

Ladies' frame
The type of Frame in which the Top tube is replaced
by a second Down tube to make mounting and
dismounting the bike easier.
Ladle
See
Casting Ladle
Lag
Delay in response.
Also
See
Heat
Lag
Ignition
lag
Injection
Lag
Lead
and
lag
Turbo lag
Lag bolt

Lag bolt
A full-bodied fastener with hex head or a square head,
spaced coarse-pitch threads and gimlet or cone point.
Designed for insertion in wood or other resilient
materials and producing its own mating thread. Also
called lag screw.
Lagging
The process of covering hot fluid lines with a nonconducting material in order to maintain its
temperature.
Lagging power factor
A designation of the relative instantaneous direction of
the currents to the voltages: (angle is 0 to +90)
Lago

See
Talbot Lago
Lagonda
A vehicle brand of which all 1925-48 models except
Rapier are Classic cars. The 1948-49 V-12 models are
Milestone cars.
Also
see
Lagonda club
Lagonda Drophead
A vehicle brand of which the 1949-53 2.5 Liter
Drophead Coupes are Milestone cars.
Lag screw
See
Lag bolt
Lake pipes
Nonfunctional side pipes attached along the lower sides
of a vehicle for decorative purposes only. Also called
Lakes pipes or lakers
Laker
A type of ship which trades only in the Great Lakes of
North America. The cargo is usually grain and ore.
Lakers

Lakers
Nonfunctional side pipes attached along the lower sides
of a vehicle for decorative purposes only. Also called
lake pipes or Lakes pipes
Lakes pipes
Nonfunctional side pipes attached along the lower sides
of a vehicle for decorative purposes only. Also called
lake pipes or lakers
Lakes ship
See
Great Lakes ship
Lambda
1. Eleventh letter of the Greek alphabet. Upper
case= (looks like A without the cross bar), lower
case= (looks like an up-side-down y).
2. Bosch's term for oxygen
Also
see
K-jetronic with Lambda
Lambda control
Bosch's term for a closed loop system that adjusts the
air-fuel ratio to lambda-1, based on sensing the
amount of excess oxygen in the exhaust
Lambda control valve
See
Frequency valve
Lambda probe
See
Oxygen sensor
Lambda sensor
See
Oxygen sensor
Lambda-sond
A device that senses if the fuel mixture is rich or lean
and adjust the control units Lambda regulator

accordingly so that the catalytic converter can operate


most effectively
Lambda valve
In Bosch CIS, a device that regulates pressure in the
lower chamber of the differential-pressure valve, in
response to a signal from the lambda (oxygen) sensor.
Also called Frequency valve or a Timing valve
Lambda window
A narrow range (where lambda = 1), which yields the
lowest emission values for CO, NOx, and HC
Lamborghini

A model of automobile manufactured in Italy


LAMBSE
Acronym for Short Term Fuel Trim
Laminate
1. To build up or construct out of a number of thin
sheets
which
are
bonded
together.
The
MagnetoCoil has a laminated Core.
2. A sheet of material made of several different
bonded layers.
Also
Balanced
Sandwich construction
Laminated
Something made up of many layers.
Laminated spring

See
Laminate

Laminated spring
A series of curved or flat spring steel used to support
suspension. Also called leaf spring
Laminated contact
The contacts of a switch with several layers so that as
you apply more and more pressure the resistance is
reduced and more voltage is permitted.
Laminated glass
A sandwich-type construction of two or more panes of
glass laminated together with an extremely tough,
crystal-clear plastic film; on severe impact, laminated
glass will crack, but not shatter like ordinary glass, nor
craze over like toughened glass
Laminated iron core
The core of an ignition coil consisting of pieces of soft
iron laminations, insulated from one another
Laminated windshield
Older safety Windshields were made of Tempered
glass which is heat treated so that the surface is very
tough. When a vehicle with tempered glass is involved
in an accident, the windshield shatters into a spider
web of little crystals. Its adhesive property is greatly
diminished so that an object (your body) can easily be
ejected through the windshield. Laminated windshields,
however, are made with two sheets of glass with a thin
layer of rubbery plastic in between. When your head
hits the windshield, the windshield bows out without
being punctured. The plastic sandwich prevents the
glass from splintering. The plastic sandwich can also

contain a tint to reduce heat in the passenger


compartment and protect the eyes from glare (like
sunglasses). Compare Toughened windshield
Laminated windshield glass
See
Laminated windshield.
Laminating
Covering sheets with a particular layer or covering
molded parts with a specific plastic film
Lamination
1. The act of laminating. The process of bonding two
or more layers or plies of material together with
an adhesive
2. A thin layer.
3. A structure made up of thin layers
Lamp
1. A device for giving off light without being
consumed itself.
2. Artificial light. The term is often used when
referring to a bulb or tube.
Also
Automatic
Auxiliary
Ballast
Blowlamp
Carbon-arc
Clearance
Dome
Driving
Gas
Gaseous
Headlight
Headlight
Infrared
Inspection
Low-Pressure

Arc
driving

discharge
discharge
retractor

indicator
Sodium

See
Lamp
lamp
Lamp
Lamp
lamp
lamp
lamp
lamp
lamp
lamp
Lamp
lamp
Lamp

Marker
lamp
Mercury
Vapor
Lamp
Metal
Halide
Lamp
Numberplate
lamp
Parking
lamp
Puddle
lamp
Quartz-iodine
Lamp
Rear
fog
lamp
Rear
lamp
cluster
Rear
license
plate
lamp
Repeater
lamp
Retractor
Indicator
Lamp
Side
marker
lamp
Strobe
lamp
Tail
lamp
Test
lamp
Warning lamp
Lamp aperture
An opening in a sheet metal panel for mounting the
headlight or taillight
Lamp blackening
The blackening of a light bulb; gradual blackening of
conventional, i.e., non-halogen light bulbs, occurs as a
result of metal vapor deposition on the glass envelope
which reduces light emission; severe blackening
indicates imminent bulb failure
Lamp cluster
A group of lights behind a cover; the rear lights of most
cars are grouped together in clusters.
Also
See
Rear lamp cluster
Lamp panel
A panel that encloses part or all of the headlight or
taillight cutout and may extend across the width of the
car to include both cutouts; in the latter case, it forms
an additional panel to be joined to the smaller front or
rear valances
Lamp socket

A device which holds a light bulb and provides


electricity to the bulb. The British term is Bulb holder
Lamp unit
A sealed light unit with reflector and lens all-in-one
Lanchester
A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models with
required application are Classic cars.
Lancia

A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models with


required application are Classic cars. The 1959-64
Flaminia Zagato models are Milestone cars. The
1961-63 Flaminia GT Two Passenger Coupe or
Convertible are Milestone cars. The 1962-66 Flavia
Coupe are Milestone cars. The 1951-59 Aurelia B.20
and B.2O Coupe are Milestone cars. The 1953-59
Aurelia B.24 Spyder and Convertible are Milestone
cars.
Lancing
See
Wax lancing
Land
The smooth, open area of a grooved surface, such as
the bands of metal between the grooves in a piston
which carry the piston rings. The metal separating a
series of Grooves.
Also
See
Head
land

Piston
Land
Piston lands
Landau
A closed-type body on the sides, it has provision for
opening or folding the fabric top over the rear quarter.
This precludes the use of rear quarter windows. Landau
irons are fairly common but not a mandatory feature.
Landau bar
See
Landau bars.
Landau bars
S-shaped bars or irons on the C-post. On
Convertibles, they are functional; but decorative on
other body styles.
Landaulet
A classic car style characterized by the fact that only
the rear seats were protected by a hard or convertible
top, whereas the driver was exposed to the open air in
order to be more aware of road and weather
conditions; an imitation landaulet style is still found on
some American sedans. Also called Landau
Landaulet sedan
This body style is similar to the landau Sedan in
appearance, but with a stationary rear quarter. Landau
irons are mounted on the rear quarter but are nonfunctional.
Landfill gas
Gas that is generated by decomposition of organic
material at landfill disposal sites. The average
composition of landfill gas is approximately 50 percent
methane and 50 percent carbon dioxide and water
vapor by volume. The methane percentage, however,
can vary from 40 to 60 percent, depending on several
factors including waste composition: (e.g. carbohydrate
and cellulose content). The methane in landfill gas may
be vented, flared, combusted to generate electricity or
useful thermal energy on-site, or injected into a
pipeline for combustion off-site.

Landing
See
Hood
landing
panel
Log
deck
landing
Quarter-space Landing
Landing Gear
The retracting legs which support the front of a
semitrailer when it is not coupled to a tractor.
Also
see
Bogie Landing Gear
Landing panel
See
Bonnet
landing
panel
Hood landing panel
Landing section
See
Fender
landing
section
Wing Landing Section
Landline
Slang for telephone as in "It is hard to find a landline
when you need one."
Land management
See
Bureau of land management
Land Rover

An SUV built in England including Defender 90 (199497), Defender 110 (1993), Discovery (1994-2004),
Discovery Series II (1999-2002), Freelander (2002-05),
LR3 (2005-07), Range Rover (1970-2007), and Range
Rover Sport (2006-07)
Lands

The Piston metal between the Ring grooves.


Also
see
Piston lands
Land tractor
Commonly called "an agricultural tractor," or "farm
tractor" -- these vehicles are designed to work on land
in connection with agricultural, forestry or land
drainage-type operations and are driven on a public
road only when proceeding to or from the site of such
work
Lane
1. A narrow road, often in the country.
2. A track on a road, defining lines of traffic.
Also
See
Auxiliary
lane
Bike
lane
Crawler
lane
Fast
lane
High
Occupancy
Vehicle
lane
Non-Car
lane
Outer
lane
Passing
lane
Runaway
Lane
Single
lane
Splitting
lanes
Traffic lane
Lane mile
A measure of road length that reflects the number of
miles in each driving lane. For example: Three miles of
a four-lane highway equals twelve lane miles.
Lane splitting
Riding between lanes of traffic on a freeway (i.e.,
straddling the white line)
Langley
A unit or measure of solar radiation; 1 calorie per
square centimeter or 3.69 Btu per square foot.
Language

See
Query Language
Lantern-type jacket tube
See
Japanese lantern-type jacket tube
Lanyard

Lanyard
A line (made of rope, nylon, etc.) which is attached at
one end to a frame or large item while the other end is
attached to a smaller piece that might get lost. The
picture shows a lanyard attached to a hitch pin.
Lap
1. One complete trip around a race track or route laid
out for racing.
2. To fit two surfaces together by Coating them with
Abrasive and then rubbing them together (e.g.,
to lap valves into valve seats).
3. The upper surface of the human body from waist
to knees when seated.
4. A rotating disc covered with fine abrasive for
polishing.
Also
Pace
Turn a lap
Lap belt

See
lap

A 2-point belt pulled across the hips, or lap belt portion


of a combined lap/shoulder belt; mostly only on the
rear center seat, on some models on all rear seats.
Also
see
Submarining
Lap joint
1. A piston ring gap in which the two ends of the ring
are shaped like the letter L.
2. A welding term describing a union in which the
edges of the two metals to be joined overlap one
another.
Lapped Valves
See
Hand Lapped Valves
Lapper
See
Valve lapper
Lapping
Smoothing a metal surface to high degree of
refinement or accuracy using a fine abrasive.
Lapping compound
See
Valve grinding compound
Large passenger car
A passenger car with more than 120 cubic feet of
interior passenger and luggage volume.
Large pickup truck
A pickup truck weighing between 4,500-8,500 lbs gross
vehicle weight: (GVW).
Large SUV
Long wheelbase sport utility vehicle based on a pickup
truck chassis. Some examples are the Chevrolet
Suburban, Chevrolet Tahoe, Ford Expedition, GMC
Yukon, Nissan Armada, and Toyota Sequoia.
Also
see
Premium large SUV

LaSalle
A vehicle brand of which the 1927-1933 models are
Classic cars.
Laser
See
Carbon Dioxide Laser
Lash
1. The amount of free motion between two
components (e.g., two gears). The British term is
free play.
2. Acronym for Lighter Aboard Ship a ship
designed to carry floating containers or Lighters.
Also
See
Backlash
Hot
Lash
Valve
lash
Whiplash
Last station memory
An audio and video term describing the circuit which
ensures that when the unit is turned on, the tuner
automatically tunes to the station that was received
before the unit was turned off
Latch
A fastening device for a door or panel. It consists of a
small metal bar, either mounted on the movable part
(always on doors and on some tailgates), or on the car
body (always on hoods and trunks), which engages
with a striker on the opposite part.
Also
See
Door latch
Latching pillar
See
B-pillar
Latching Type valve
A manual gas valve which requires at least two
separate actions or movements to turn on the valve, as
for example, pushing in on the valve handle to unlatch

the valve before the valve handle can be rotated to turn


on the fuel.
Latch pillar
See
B-pillar
Late braking
Braking later into the turn, thus moving the entry point
and axis of the vehicle
Latent heat
The heat absorbed or radiated during a change of state
(i.e., melting, vaporization, fusion) at constant
temperature and pressure. Called latent cause it is
hidden -- cannot be felt or measured with a
thermometer
Latent heat of condensation
The amount of heat given off when a substance
changes from a vapor to the liquid without changing
temperature
Latent heat of evaporation
The amount of heat required to change a liquid into a
vapor without raising the temperature of the vapor
above that of the original liquid
Latent heat of vaporization
Amount of heat required, per pound of substance, to
change its state from a liquid to a vapor (gas).
Lateral
Relating to the side.
Lateral acceleration
The acceleration created when a vehicle corners that
tends to push a vehicle sideways. Because of
Centrifugal force, the vehicle is pushed outward. For
this reason, you need to accelerate a little as you reach
the Apex of the curve to pull you through the curve. An
inexperienced Driver may panic in a curve as the
lateral acceleration pushes his vehicle into the left lane.
He might hit the brakes to slow the motion only to find
that the problem actually increases. The proper way to
take a sharp corner is to slow down before the curve,

then accelerate at the Apex of it to bring the vehicle


around. To increase your frustration, try following an
inexperience Driver as he drives on mountain roads.
He maintains his Speed to the corner and brakes at the
Apex.
Also
See
Acceleration
Lateral acceleration sensor
A device that signals the ECU when the vehicle is being
subjected to high g-force from a turn; the signal
voltage varies according to the amount of g-force
Lateral acceleration switch
Similar to a lateral acceleration sensor, but the switch
provides a simple on-off signal, rather than the variable
voltage signal provided by the sensor
Lateral air passage
A passage at the nozzle of a spray gun for shaping the
spray pattern to a long or elongated oval
Lateral arm
A suspension member connecting the upright to the
chassis.
Also
see
Transverse arm.
Lateral atomization orifice
An additional passages at the nozzle of a spray gun for
supplying additional air to break up the paint into
smaller droplets
Lateral clearance
The smallest distance laterally between the tire and the
nearest fixed point of the vehicle.
Lateral grip
The ability of a tire to maintain its course, or remain
under normal steering control, while being subjected to
directionally disturbing influences
Lateral impact
A side crash
Lateral link

A Suspension link that is aligned to resist sideways


motions in a wheel.
Lateral run-out
1. Amount of side (i.e., side-to-side) movement of a
rotating wheel, tire, or the rotor from the vertical.
2. A tire assembly that does not run true to its plane;
i.e., a damaged wheel moving in a wobbling, side
to side manner.
3. A measurement of the lateral change in position of
the disk-brake-rotor surface during one revolution.
Lateral runout
See
Lateral run-out
Lateral stability
Limiting side movement. (1) Tread grooves running
circumferentially around the tire resist side forces for
maximum traction on sums. (2) Stabilizing tread plies
limit side to side movement of the tread ribs caused by
the expansion and contraction of tread areas as
sidewalls flex. Also called Lateral grip
Lateral stiffness
The resistance of a vehicle body structure to lateral
impact
Lateral tire clearance
The distance between the tire sidewall and the nearest
point on the vehicle, reduced by any increase in rim
offset and 1/2 any increase in tire section from the
existing tire.
Latex
An artificial rubber compound used in tires, tubes, etc.
Latex tube
An bicycle inner tube for tires because of its lighter
weight. Can be hard to repair, must be reinflated for
each ride.
Lathe

A device for shaving the metal from the outside or


inside of a Cylinder.
Also
See
Bar
Lathe
Brake
drum
lathe
Brake
Lathe
Capstan Lathe
Lathe-cut
A process of cutting rubber seals to a precise shape on
a rotating drum.
Law
See
Ampere's
Law
Babos
Law
Barbas
Law
Biot-Savart
Law
Boyle's
Law
Capacitor-resistance
Law
Charles's
Law
Dalton's
Law
Joule's
Law
Newton's
law
Ohm's
Law
Pascal's law
Law Of Absorption
See
Bouguer Law Of Absorption
Law Of Thermodynamics
See
First
Law
Of
Thermodynamics
Second Law Of Thermodynamics
Lay-by
A British term for a rest stop, i.e., a place at the side
of a road where drivers can stop (to rest)
Layer
A certain weld metal thickness made of one or more
passes.

Also
See
Barrier
Layer
Boundary
Layer
Catalytic
layer
Gamma
layer
Zinc-iron alloy layer
Layer Control
See
Boundary Layer Control
Layering
This occurs in tanks when a high density fuel is mixed
with a low density fuel.
Layer Noise
See
Boundary Layer Noise
Layer of pure zinc
The top layer on hot-dip galvanized steel which, in
contrast to zinc-iron alloy layers, almost completely
consists of zinc
Layer thickness
A coating thickness (indicated in micrometers or
millimeters)
Laying the bike down
A crash where you slide down on one side of the bike
Laying up
The process of adding several layers of fibreglass mat
and resin to form a GRP shell
Layout
See
Drive
layout
East-west
layout
Engine
layout
North-south layout
Layrub coupling
A universal joint using four molded rubber inserts
mounted on a round steel plate
Layshaft

A British term for a Countershaft -- the intermediate


shaft between and parallel to the input and output
shafts, carrying the two pairs of gearwheels which
provide the required changes in gear ratio
Lay-up resin
The resin substance used to laminate GRP parts. The
resin available on the do-it-yourself market for
fibreglass mat repairs also belongs to this category
Lazy tongs
1. Any device with extensible arms (often in the form
of a series of crossed, hinged bars) for handling
objects at a distance.
2. A specific type of pop rivet gun with such arms

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ma"

M100
100% (neat) Methanol
M85
85% Methanol and 15% unleaded Gasoline by
volume, used as a motor fuel in FFVs.
M+S
Acronym for mud and snow, as in M+S tire. A tire
with a tread design (usually large lugs with wide spaces
between them) which gives the maximum traction in
mud and snow.
M+S tire

Mud and snow tire


Acronym for mud and snow tire, as in M+S tire. A
tire with a tread design which gives the maximum
traction in mud and snow.
MAC
Acronym for motor assisted bicycle -- usually an
electric motor
Machine
See
Air-cooled
Machine
Automatic
Screw
Machine
Automatic
Screw
Machine
Balancing
Machine
Bolt-making
Machine
Boring
Machine
Injection
molding
machine
Milling
machine
Perpetual
motion
machine
Picture
Machine
Wheeling machine
Machineability
1. Relative ease or difficulty in forming.
2. The malleable characteristics of metal when
cutting or forming on screw machines. Same as
free machining
Machine drive
The direct process end use in which thermal or electric
energy is converted into mechanical energy. Motors are
found in almost every process in manufacturing.
Therefore, when motors are found in equipment that is
wholly contained in another end use: (such as process
cooling and refrigeration), the energy is classified there
rather than in machine drive.
Machined surface

A smooth surface of metal such as the top of a cylinder


block.
Machine patch
A new layer of asphalt is placed on sections of the road,
perhaps leaving some gaps depending on condition.
First a layer of liquid asphalt or tack coat is sprayed on
the road. Next, fabric may be placed on any badly
broken areas for added strength. Finally hot asphaltic
concrete is applied, raked and rolled to a prescribed
density. Work moves quickly and you can drive on the
new asphalt as soon as the rolling is complete. The
work must be done when the ground is dry and
reasonably warm.
Machine room
Area where commercial and industrial refrigeration
machinery -- except evaporators -- is located.
Machinery cargo
See
Heavy Machinery cargo
Machinery spaces
See
Unmanned machinery spaces
Machine screw
1. A screw with thread running the length of the
shank and available with a variety of different
heads
2. A straight shank fastener for binding metal to
metal by going through a pre-tapped hole or nut.
Its head may be one of four common shapes:
o flathead
o ovalhead
o roundhead machine screw
o fillister-head machine screw
Also
Sems
Structure Machine Screws
Machining

see
screw

An operation which shapes metal parts by carving away


excess material as chips produced in a sequential
process of turning, milling and grinding operations.
Machinists' caliper
A measuring tool with two curved arms for inside or
outside measurement; the reading taken with the arms
is transferred to a steel rule or micrometer to attain the
exact value
Machinists' hammer
A Ball pien hammer
MacPherson strut

Click image to supersize


A Suspension piece which employs a Coil spring and
Shock absorber attached to the lower A-arms and
the top of the front body structure. Originally it had a
Lateral link with an Anti-roll bar instead of the lower
A-arm. It was first invented by a Ford of England
engineer, Earle S. MacPherson.
MacPherson strut tower

A sheet metal panel surrounding the upper mount of


the MacPherson strut at the side panels of the engine
compartment; it may be a separate panel fitted by
spot-welding or a deep-drawn section of the side panel
shaped to take the upper strut end. Also called
suspension leg turret
MacPherson suspension
A suspension layout incorporating Macpherson struts
Macromolecule
Any very large molecule, such as a synthetic polymer
used in the manufacture of plastic
Macromolecular
With very large molecules
Made available
A vehicle is considered Made available if it is available
for delivery to dealers or users, whether or not it was
actually delivered to them. To be Made available, the
vehicle must be completed and available for delivery;
thus, any conversion to be performed by an OEM
Vehicle Converter or Aftermarket Vehicle Converter
must have been completed.
MAF
Acronym for Mass airflow meter. A sensor used to
measure the amount of intake air entering the engine
on some fuel injection systems
MAF RTN
Acronym for Mass Airflow Sensor Ground
MAFTS
Acronym for manifold air/fuel temperature sensor
MAG
Swiss engine makers, the initials stand for Motosacoche
Acacias Geneva. The company also produced complete
Motosacoche motorcycles
Mag
1. Abbreviation for Magneto.
2. Abbreviation for magnesium wheel, or Mag
wheels

Mag alloy
Magnesium alloy, a strong lightweight metal used for
many components, particularly wheels
Magnaflux
1. A special chemical process, used to check parts for
cracks.
2. A magnetic method of determining surface and
subsurface defects in metals.
Magnesium acetate
See
Calcium magnesium acetate
Magnesium chloride
A soluble compound in liquid form produced from
magnesium carbonate and hydrogen chloride used to
deice road or pre-wet salt before applying it to roads. It
works like anti-freeze by lowering the freezing
temperature of water, preventing ice from forming a
strong bond to the road.
Magnesium wheel
An alloy wheel.
Also
see
Mag wheel
Magnet
1. A piece of magnetized steel that will attract all
ferrous material. The Permanent magnet does
not need electricity to function and will retain its
magnetism over a period of years. Often shaped
into the letter U.
2. The part of the electric actuating mechanism,
which when energized is attracted to the
armature, creating a controlled force to apply the
brake(s).
Also
Alnico
Ball-ended
Bar

See
magnet
Magnet
magnet

Blowout
Magnet
Brake
Magnet
Permanent magnet
Magnetic
See
Clutch
Magnetic
Flux
Magnetic
North
Pole
Magnetic
South Pole Magnetic
Magnetically controlled electronic ignition
See
Electronic ignition system.
Magnetic blowout
A device which extinguishes an electric arc. A
magnetized coil moves one terminal to a cool surface or
stretches out the arc.
Magnetic clutch
1. A coupling device used to turn the compressor off
and on electrically.
2. Clutch built into automobile air conditioning
compressor flywheel and is operated magnetically
which allows the pulley to revolve without driving
compressor when the refrigerating effect is not
required.
Also
See
Electromagnetic clutch
Magnetic core
Magnetic center of a magnetic field.
Magnetic drain plug
A plug or bolt fitted in the sump or oil pan to collect
metal filings
Magnetic Electric Brake
See
Spot Magnetic Electric Brake
Magnetic field
The area encompassed by the magnetic lines of force
surrounding either a bar Magnet or electromagnet.

The flow of magnetic force between the opposite poles


of a magnet.
Also
See
Field
Primary magnetic field
Magnetic flux
Lines of force of a magnet.
Magnetic gasket
Door-sealing material which keeps door tightly closed
with small magnets inserted in gasket.
Magnetic materials
An object made of certain pure metals (esp. iron and
nickel) or an alloy of them such that when it encounters
a magnetic field it is demonstrates an attraction or
repulsion.
Magnetic north pole
End of magnet Out of which magnetic lines of force
flow.
Magnetic permeability
A test that determines the level of magnetism.
Magnetic pick-up
1. A pulse generator consisting of a stator with a
permanent magnet and a rotor, which induces an
AC voltage in the inductive winding by the periodic
change of the air gap between stator and rotor.
Magnetic pick-ups attached to the distributor for
ignition triggering have as many teeth on the pole
piece (stator) and on the trigger wheel (rotor) as
the engine has cylinders. Some magnetic pick-ups
have a bowl-like rotor with ferrite rods inserted in
the walls. Magnetic pick-ups on the crankshaft
flywheel act as reference mark sensors.
2. A tool with flexible or rigid shaft and magnetic tip
used to retrieve dropped nuts, bolts, and other
metal parts from hard-to-reach places.

Also
See
Pick-up
tool
Transistorized ignition with magnetic pick-up
Magnetic pick-up assembly
A pulse generator consisting of a stator with a
permanent magnet and a rotor, which induces an AC
voltage in the inductive winding by the periodic change
of the air gap between stator and rotor. Magnetic pickups attached to the distributor for ignition triggering
have as many teeth on the pole piece (stator) and on
the trigger wheel (rotor) as the engine has cylinders.
Some magnetic pick-ups have a bowl-like rotor with
ferrite rods inserted in the walls. Magnetic pick-ups on
the crankshaft flywheel act as reference mark sensors
Magnetic pick-up tool
A tool with flexible or rigid shaft and magnetic tip used
to retrieve dropped nuts, bolts, and other metal parts
from hard-to-reach places.
Also
See
Pick-up tool
Magnetic plug
A plug or bolt fitted in the sump or oil pan to collect
metal filings
Magnetic screwdriver
1. A Screwdriver with a magnetized shank.
2. A screwdriver tool with hexagon socket end to
accept and operate hex bits and hold them
securely by magnetism. Some also have a hollow
handle for storing the bits
Magnetic south pole
The part of a magnet into which magnetic flux lines
flow.
Magnetism
1. A field of force which causes a magnet to attract
materials made of iron, nickel-cobalt or other
ferrous material.

2. As related to stainless fasteners, 300 series


stainless is non-magnetic in its raw material
condition. Cold working can sometimes induce
traces of magnetism in 300 series, depending on
the severity of cold working and chemical
composition of the stainless. A rise in magnetism
is related to an increase in tensile strength and
work hardening caused by the heat and friction of
cold forming and does not reduce corrosion
resistance or cause any molecular change in
austentic raw material. A higher portion of nickel
can increase stability in stainless, thus decreasing
work
hardening
and
any
possibilities
of
magnetism. Brass and silicon bronze are nonmagnetic.
Also
see
Induced Magnetism
Magnetization
See
Amperes Theory Of Magnetization
Magnetized
Made magnetic
Magneto
An electrical device which generates electrical Current
when it is rotated by an outside source of power. It
needs no outside source of power such as a Battery. It
may produce either low or high tension Current.
Also
See
Flywheel magneto
Magneto file
A tool for filing ignition points and other small objects
Magneto ignition
A compact assembly of a magneto generator, an
ignition coil, and a distributor. Ignition voltage is
induced within the magneto by the movement of a coil
relative to the poles of a permanent magnet. Because it

needs no battery, the system is particularly suited for


small engines, e.g., motorcycles, outboard engines, etc.
Magnetomotive force (mmf)
The magnetic energy supplied with the establishment of
flux between the poles of a magnet
Magneto puller
A tool which screws into the center of the magneto to
force the magneto away from the shaft on which it
rides.
Magnet sensor
See
Hall vane switch
Mags
See
Mag wheel.
Mag wheel

Mag wheel
Lightweight, sporty wheels made of magnesium. The
term mag is often applied to Aluminum and aluminum
and steel combination wheels.
Also
See
Alloy wheels
Main
British term for household AC voltage.
See
Blast
Four
Bolt
Two Bolt Main
Main bar

Main
Main

The bar on a convertible top which carries the main


load when the top is raised and taut, and defines the
hinge point for the folding motion. Also called main
bow
Main beam
British term for High beam
Main beam indicator
British term for High beam indicator
Main bearings
The bearings in the engine block that support the
Crankshaft.
Main bearings
See
Main bearing
Main bearing support
A steel plate that is installed over the main bearing
caps to increase their strength for racing purposes.
Main bearing supports
See
Main bearing support.
Main bow
The bar on a convertible top which carries the main
load when the top is raised and taut, and defines the
hinge point for the folding motion. Also called main
bar
Main burner
A device or group of devices essentially forming an
integral unit for the final conveyance of fuel or a
mixture of fuel and air to the combustion zone, and on
which combustion takes place to accomplish the
function for which the equipment is designed.
Also
see
Individual Valve Main Burner
Main combustion chamber
With diesel engines, the fuel may be injected in three
different locations in the prechamber, the swirl
chamber, or the main combustion chamber (for direct
injection engines), depending on the process used

Main deck
The continuous deck of a ship running from fore to aft.
The freeboard is measured from this deck.
Main jet
The primary, large fuel orifice in a carburetor through
which most of the fuel flows.
Mainline pressure
See
Line pressure
Main member
The primary chassis rail
Main metering circuit
The cruising circuit or the high speed circuit. It supplies
the correct air/fuel mixture to the engine during
cruising and high-speed conditions. Also called Main
metering system
Main mixing well
Main well main nozzle Main delivery tube
Main mixture discharge nozzle
The jet through which the gasoline and air is fed into
the carburetor barrel where it becomes the air/fuel
mixture
Main petal
The primary petal of a dual-stage reed valve. The
opposite is Subsidiary petal. In dual-stage reed
valves, the subsidiary petal opens first
Main pressure
See
Line pressure
Main regulating system
The carburetor components are divided into the fuel
intake control, the main regulating system, the idle
system, and the staring aids. The main regulating
system includes the main jet, jet needle, needle jet,
and throttle valve, whose purpose it is to provide an
appropriate amount of fuel and air to the carburetor
Mains
The caps which secure the crankshaft.

See
Bolt
Mains
Four bolt mains
Main Seal Bearing
See
Split-lit-type Rear Main Seal Bearing
Main shaft
The transmission Output shaft
Main sun visor
In dual visor systems, the main visor is moved
sideways and the secondary visor is flipped down, thus
shielding the driver from the sun from both the front
and side
Maintenance
The work undertaken by a car owner to keep his vehicle
in good working order; typically checking the tires,
lights, oil and coolant levels, windscreen wipers, and
seat belts. Compare Service
Maintenance-free
Something that requiring no work in order to be kept
operational
Maintenance-free battery
A battery with a permanently sealed top, thus requiring
no topping-up
Maintenance manual
A book of instructions detailing routine maintenance
Maintenance Reporting Standards
See
Vehicle Maintenance Reporting Standards
Main triangle
See
Front triangle.
Main Valve Shutoff
See
Manual Main Valve Shutoff
Main venturi
Large venturi cast into the carburetor main body
Main well

The reservoir in which fuel for the main system is


stored. The main well is located in the main body
casting. It is connected to the venturi area by the
discharge nozzle
Main-well tube
A perforated tube which extends from an air bleed in
the top of the air horn down into the main well. Admits
air from the air bleed into the main well to emulsify the
fuel in the main well. Improves idle response and
stability when the engine is hot and prevents fuel
percolation and general hot-starting problems. Also
improves response in the main metering circuit during
part throttle conditions. Also called Emulsion tube
Major diameter
1. On a bolt or screw, the diameter measured from
the crest of a thread to the corresponding crest on
the opposite side of the bolt or screw
2. Largest or outside diameter of the screw threads.
3. On a straight thread, the diameter of the coaxial
cylinder which would pass through the crests of an
external thread or the roots of an internal thread.
Make
Brand name of a car or truck (i.e., Chevrolet, Ford,
Dodge, Honda).
Make-and-break Switch
See
Quick Make-and-break Switch
Maker
See
Automatic
Ice
Cube
Maker
Solid-state Controlled Ice Maker
Male end
A plug, pin, or protrusion which fits into a receptacle
(female end).
Make the trip?
Trucker slang for cb signal reception as in "Did my
signal make the trip?"

Male thread
Something with external threads like a bolt or screw.
Female threads are found in nuts.
Malfunction
Problem in system that affects normal operation
Malfunction indicator light
(MIL) an electric circuit between the computer and the
check engine or service engine soon light on the
dash panel of a computer equipped vehicle
Malibu Hybrid
A Chevrolet midsize Hybrid sedan similar to the
Saturn Aura Green Line that uses a Belt Alternator
Starter hybrid system.
Malleable castings
1. Cast forms of metal which have been heat-treated
to reduce their brittleness.
2. A casting which has been toughened by annealing
Mallet
See
Bossing
mallet
Rubber
mallet
Wood mallet
Man
Short form for Manual transmission
Management
See
Bureau
Of
Land
Management
Thermal
Management
Total
Energy
Management
Total Quality Management
Management Control System
See
Energy Management Control System
Management District
See
Air Quality Management District

Management system
See
Engine management system
Mandrel
A round shaft used to mount a stone, cutter, saw, etc.
Maneuver
To drive or steer a vehicle around obstacles, change
direction, or moving in a confined space.
Maneuverability
The ease with which a vehicle can be steered around
objects
Manganese
A non-magnetic metal which improves strength and
hardness to steel and bronze
See
Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl
Manganese bronze
An alloy of copper, zinc, and manganese
Manganese phosphate coating
A phosphate coating with added manganese to increase
resistance to wear and fatigue
Manganese Tricarbonyl
See
Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl
Manhattan
See
Frazer.
Manhole
A hole or opening in a street, with a removable cover,
through which an underground structure, such as a
sewer or conduit, can be entered for repair or
inspection.
Manifold
1. A pipe or number of pipes connecting a series of
holes or outlets to a common opening.
2. A device which controls refrigerant flow for system
test purposes by means of hand valves which can
open or close various passageways connected

together inside the manifold. Used in conjunction


with manifold gauges and service hoses
3. The conduit of an Appliance that supplies gas to
the individual burner.
Also
See
Air
injection
manifold
Dry
Manifold
Exhaust
manifold
Gauge
Manifold
High-rise
manifold
Inlet
manifold
Intake
manifold
Log
manifold
Ram
intake
manifold
Service
Manifold
Split
manifold
Variable
intake
manifold
Wet Manifold
Manifold absolute pressure
(MAP) manifold pressure measured on the absolute
pressure scale, an indication of engine load. At sea
level, MAP = 1 bar (14.5 psi)
Manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP)
1. A sensor which monitors the engine's intake
manifold pressure and transmits the data to the
engine controller. A pressure-sensitive disk
capacitor used to measure air pressure inside the
intake manifold. The Map sensor sends a signal to
the computer which uses this information to
determine load conditions so it can adjust spark
timing and fuel mixture. Also called Manifold
pressure sensor or Pressure differential
sensor
2. A sensor that measures absolute air pressure in
the intake manifold.

Also
see
Barometric And Manifold Absolute Pressure
Sensor
Manifold air temperature sensor
(MAT sensor) sensor that monitors the temperature of
the air entering the intake manifold
Manifold charge temperature sensor
(MCT) same as the air charge temperature sensor
(ACT)
Manifold control valve
(MCV) a thermostatically operated valve in the exhaust
manifold for varying heat to the intake manifold with
respect to the engine temp. Also called exhaust heat
control valve
Manifold gauge set
A complete, testing assembly consisting of a high side
gauge, a low side gauge and a high side gauge, a test
manifold, and a set of service or charging hoses. Also,
can be used to discharge refrigerant, evacuate air and
moisture, and charge air conditioning system with
refrigerant
Manifold heat control valve
A valve placed in the Exhaust manifold, or in the
Exhaust pipe, that deflects a certain amount of hot
gas around the base of the Carburetor to aid in
warmup.
Manifold heater
A system used to improve the cold start behavior of an
engine, consisting of heating ducts incorporated into
the intake manifold that are connected to the water
cooling system of the engine; alternatively, an electric
heater may be used.
Also
See
Intake manifold heater
Manifold pressure controlled
(MPC) a fuel injection system which determines engine
load based on intake man pressure
Manifold pressure sensor

A sensor that reads pressure changes in the intake


manifold in relation to barometric pressure. Also known
as Manifold vacuum sensor, Manifold absolute
pressure sensor, Pressure differential sensor, or
Vacuum sensor
Manifold runners
Single passage in a manifold from one cylinder to the
major manifold opening
Manifold, service
Chamber equipped with gauges and manual valves,
used by service technicians to service refrigerating
systems.
Manifold surface temperature sensor
A sensor that provides information on the surface
temperature of the intake manifold
Manifold vacuum
As the Pistons move down on the Intake stroke, they
create a suction or Vacuum in the Intake manifold.
This vacuum reading can be used to determine how
well the engine is running.
Manifold vacuum sensor
(MVS) A sensor that reads pressure changes in the
intake manifold in relation to barometric pressure. Also
known as Manifold pressure sensor, Pressure
differential sensor, or Vacuum sensor
Manifold vacuum zone switch
A type of manifold vacuum sensor (MVS) that
dramatically changes the sensor output signal level
upon reaching a preselected level or zone of manifold
vacuum.
Manoeuvrability
British spelling of Maneuverability
Manoeuvre
British spelling of Maneuver
Manometer
1. A device for measuring a vacuum, consisting of a
U shaped tube partially filled with fluid. One end
of tube is open to air, the other is connected to a

chamber in which vacuum is to be measured. A


column of mercury 30 in. high equals 14.7 psi,
which is atmospheric pressure at sea level.
Readings are given in inches of mercury (Hg)
2. Instrument for measuring pressure of gases and
vapors. Gas pressure is balanced against column
of liquid, such as mercury, in U-shaped tube.
Manual
1. Originally something done by hand, but later has
come to mean something that is done without
power assistance. For instance, manual brakes on
a car are operated by the driver's foot, not hand;
but if the brakes are power assisted, they are no
longer manual brakes.
2. A colloquial term for a vehicle with manual
transmission.
3. A book of instruction.
Also
See
Flat
rate
manual
Maintenance
manual
Manual
choke
Manual
steering
Manual
transmission
Owner's
manual
Repair
manual
Service manual
Manual adjuster
A type of brake adjuster that must be adjusted from
time-to-time, with the use of a hand tool
Manual bleeding
A technique for bleeding hydraulic brakes that requires
two people. One pumps the brakes, and the other
opens and closes the bleeder screw.
Manual choke

A Linkage system which begins with a knob on the


Dash which can be pulled to activate and pushed to
de-activate. The knob is attached to a cable and the
other end of the cable is attached to a the Butterfly
valve on the Carburetor. Because many Drivers had
difficulty knowing when to use the choke knob,
manufacturers developed the Automatic choke
system which decides this information for the Driver.
Manual-crank window
See
Manually operated window
Manual frost control
Manual control used to change operation of
refrigerating system to produce defrosting conditions.
Manual gearbox
See
Manual transmission
Manual hydraulic brake system
A hydraulic-type brake system that uses unassisted
driver effort.
Manual Main valve shutoff
A manually operated valve in the fuel line for the
purpose of completely turning on or shutting off the
fuel supply to fuel utilization equipment, except to a
pilot provided with independent shutoff valves.
Manually operated window
A window (usually a side windo) operated by turning a
lever by hand. Compare Electric window
Manual panel cutter
Cutting tool drawn manually across a panel surface to
cut to the desired shape
Manual steering
A Steering system that does not have a Power
booster to reduce the effort of steering changes
especially during slow movements such as parallel
parking.
Manual transmission

(MT or M/T) A Transmission system in which gears


are selected by the Driver by means of a handoperated Gearshift and a foot-operated Clutch. In a
Motorcycle the Clutch is hand-operated and the
gearshift
is
foot-operated.
Contrasts
with
an
Automatic transmission. Also called a standard
transmission.
Manual valve
(MV) A control in an automatic transmission which
distributes Line pressure to the various control valves
and pistons which operate the multi-plate or band
brakes or the clutches; operated by the driver via the
selector lever
Manual valve shutoff
A manually operated valve in a fuel line for the purpose
of completely turning on or shutting off the fuel supply
to fuel utilization equipment.
Manual version
A passenger car with a manual transmission
Manufactured gas
A gas obtained by destructive distillation of coal or by
the thermal decomposition of oil, or by the reaction of
steam passing through a bed of heated coal or coke.
Examples are coal gases, coke oven gases, producer

gas, blast furnace gas, blue: (water) gas, carbureted


water gas. Btu content varies widely.
Manufacturer
See
Automobile
manufacturer
Original Equipment Manufacturer
Manufacturers And Traders
See
Society Of Motor Manufacturers And Traders
Manufacturers Association
See
National Electrical Manufacturers Association
Manufacturer discounts
In some leases, particularly subvented leases, the
manufacturer reduces the MSRP which lowers the
purchase price of the vehicle, which the lease is based
on. This is a form of capitalized cost reduction.
Manufacturer's performance ratings
The performance data as specified by the car
manufacturer
Manufacturer's suggested retail price
(MSRP) The suggested retail price the dealer is asking.
Generally the same as the sticker price. Dealers
typically sell at a discount to this price.
Manufacturer Vehicle
See
Original Equipment Manufacturer Vehicle
Manufacturing
1. Process
technology
(i.e.,
metal
forming,
machining, injection molding, blow molding, die
casting, forgings, electronics/electrical, assembly,
coating/plating); capacity utilization (in percent);
production volumes; strategic alliances (e.g., joint
ventures, technology agreements).
2. An energy-consuming subsector of the industrial
sector that consists of all facilities and equipment
engaged in the mechanical, physical, chemical, or
electronic transformation of materials, substances,

or components into new products. Assembly of


component parts of products is included, except
for that which is included in construction.
Manufacturing division
One of ten fields of economic activity defined by the
Standard
Industrial
Classification
Manual.
The
manufacturing division includes all establishments
engaged in the mechanical or chemical transformation
of materials or substances into new products. The other
divisions of the U.S. economy are agriculture, forestry,
fishing, hunting, and trapping; mining; construction;
transportation, communications, electric, gas, and
sanitary services; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance,
insurance, and real estate; personal, business,
professional, repair, recreation, and other services; and
public administration. The establishments in the
manufacturing division constitute the universe for the
MECS: (an EIA survey).
Manufacturing establishment
An economic unit at a single physical location where
mechanical or chemical transformation of materials or
substances into new products are performed.
MAP
1. Acronym for Manifold absolute pressure
2. Acronym for manifold air pressure sensor
Map
A pictorial representation of a series of data points
stored in the memory of the control unit of system with
complete engine management. The control unit refers
to the map to control variables such as fuel injection
pulse width and ignition timing
Also
See
Characteristic
map
Dwell-angle
map
Engine
map
Ignition map

Map-controlled ignition
A microprocessor-controlled ignition system with
electronic ignition timing by means of an ignition map
stored in the control unit memory. The engine speed is
sensed by Hall generators at the distributor or magnetic
pick-ups on the crankshaft, the load signal being given
by pressure sensors which measure the air mass or air
per unit of time
Map light
An interior light to facilitate, for example, map reading.
Also
See
Gooseneck map light
MAPP
A stabilized methyl acetylene-propadiene fuel gas. It is
a Dow Chemical Co. product.
Mapped ignition
A microprocessor-controlled ignition system with
electronic ignition timing by means of an ignition map
stored in the control unit memory. The engine speed is
sensed by Hall generators at the distributor or magnetic
pick-ups on the crankshaft, the load signal being given
by pressure sensors which measure the air mass or air
per unit of time
Mapping
See
Characteristic map
MAP sensor
Manifold absolute pressure system sensor tells
computer how much pressure is in the intake manifold
Maquila
Mexican assembly plant located near the U.S.-Mexican
border where most production is exported to the United
States.
Maquiladora
Mexican assembly plant located near the U.S.-Mexican
border where most production is exported to the United
States.
Marbling

A special decorative painting effect with rotating


brushes
Margin
The return an intermediary achieves on the selling price
of the article. That is, if the intermediary buys a
product for $1 and sells it for $1.50, the margin is
calculated. For example, .50 (i.e., $1.50 - $1) divided
by $1.50, or 33%.
Also
See
Gross
margin
Valve margin
Margin bracket
A bracket connecting a side frame to the margin plate
at the bilge
Margin line
A line, not less than 3 inches below the top of the
bulkhead deck at side, defining the highest permissible
waterplane in the final condition of sinkage, trim and
heel
Marine Diesel Oil
(MDO) Marine Diesel oil is a middle distillate fuel oil
which can contain traces often percent: (10%) or more
residual fuel oil from transportation contamination
and/or heavy fuel oil blending. The MDO does not
require heated storage.
Marine freight
Freight transported over rivers, canals, the Great
Lakes, and domestic ocean waterways.
Mark
See
Beach
Marks
Burn
Mark
Draft
marks
Jaguar
Mark
Reference
mark
sensor
Skid
mark
Swirl
marks
Timing
mark

Tracking
mark
Witness mark
Marker
See
Mile
Markers
Pavement
markers
Spark
Plug
Cable
Marker
Spark Plug Wire Marker
Marker lamp
A light which is mounted on the extreme edges of the
roof of a truck to show the maximum height and width
of a vehicle. Also called clearance lamp.
Also
see
Side marker light
Marker light
A Side marker light
Market
See
Aftermarket
Do-it-yourself
market
Grey
market
Mechanic
installed
market
Replacement
market
Gray Market Vehicles
Market share
The percentage of total sales represented by an
individual manufacturer/importer, make or nameplate.
Market Vehicles
See
Gray Market Vehicles
Marking
See
Hatched
marking
Pavement
markings
Size
marking
Tire
Size
Markings
Water
marking
Wheel marking

Mark sensor
See
Reference mark sensor
Mark-up
The return an intermediary achieves on the cost price
of an article. Using the same example described above,
mark-up is .50 divided by $1, or 50%.
Marles steering
A form of cam-and-roller steering
Marmon
A vehicle brand of which all 16-cyl.; 1925 74; 1926 74;
1927 75; 1928 E75; 1930 Big 8; 1931 88 and Big 8
models are Classic cars.
Marque
A particular brand name of a vehicle. Also spelled
marquee
Marquee
A particular brand name of a vehicle. Also spelled
marque
Martensitic
Named for Robert Martens, a German metallurgist,
martensitic grades of stainless steel (types 410, 416,
and 420) have a high carbon content which reduces
corrosion resistance, but allows a sharp increase in
tensile strength after heat treatment. Because of its
high tensile strength, martensitic stainless is used for
highly stressed parts such as control rod mechanisms,
valves, shafts, pump parts under high stress.
Martensitic stainless is magnetic, contains no nickel,
loses toughness in very cold temperatures, and may
have tendency to become brittle. Used in approximately
5% of stainless fasteners. Its corrosion resistance is
not as good as austentic or ferritic stainless, so
martensitic fasteners are used in mild atmospheres.
Martin
See
Aston Martin.
MAS

Acronym for mixture adjust screw


Mascot
See
Emily
Maserati

Click image for books on


Maserati
A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models with
required application are Classic cars. The 1957-64
3500/3700 GT models are Milestone cars.
Masher
A cyclist who habitually pedals hard in a high gear, at a
slow cadence. The opposite of a spinner.
Mask
To cover the surrounding area when paint spraying to
protect it from splashes
Masking
See
Aural Masking
Masking tape
An adhesive tape used to cover surfaces that border an
area to be painted, so as to protect them
Mass

The quantity of matter a body contains. Mass is


measured in kilograms (and often incorrectly called
weight). The mass of a body does not change if, for
example, it is moved to the Moon where the force of
gravity is less.
Also
See
Relative
Atomic
Mass
Sprung
weight
Unsprung
weight
Weight
Mass airflow meter
(MAF) device for measuring the mass flow of air into an
engine.
Also
See
Air
flow
sensor
Hot-wire airflow meter
Mass damper
A device which reduces or prevents vibrations or
oscillations, usually a weight which counteracts
(balances) undesirable motions; used on drive shafts of
some FWD cars
Mass Flow
See
Air Mass Flow
Mass Meter
See
Air Mass Meter
Mass-produced car
A car which is manufactured in great numbers to a
standard pattern and with extensive mechanization
Mass Sensor
See
Air Mass Sensor
Mass tone
The tone of a paint as it appears from the color of the
paint in the can; this is required for formulating the
ingredients of a paint tone.

Also
See
Tint tone
Mass transit system
A system designed to transport large numbers of
people or goods
Mast
A tall vertical or raked structure, usually of circular
section, located on the centerline of a ship and used to
carry navigation lights, radio antennas and cargo
booms
Master
The primary or controlling device. A secondary or
dependent device is called a slave.
Also
See
Brake
master
cylinder
Tandem
master
cylinder
Master link
Master brake cylinder
See
Brake master cylinder.
Master con rod
In a two-stroke dual piston engines, the connecting rod
that is articulated directly on the crankshaft.
Also
See
Slave con rod
Master cylinder
1. The primary component for pressurizing fluid in a
hydraulic system. Used in the braking system, it
supports a reservoir for holding brake fluid and is
activated each time the driver depresses the brake
pedal.
2. The device that converts mechanical pressure
from the brake pedal into hydraulic pressure that
is routed to the wheels to operate the friction
assemblies.
Also
Brake

master

See
cylinder

Dual
Master
Cylinder
Single
Master
Cylinder
Slave
cylinder
Tandem
master
cylinder
Vacuum-powered Master Cylinder
Master cylinder pushrod
The rod that transmits the movement and force of the
driver from the brake pedal lever to the master cylinder
piston.
Master Gauge
A thread-plug gauge which represents the physical
dimensions of the nominal or basic size of the part. It
clearly establishes the minimum size of the threaded
hole and the maximum size of the screw at the point at
which interference between mating parts begin.
Master link
A special link on a Chain that can be opened by flexing
a plate, removing a screw, or some other means
besides driving out a Rivet. The retaining spring clip is
shaped like a fish with a round head and twin tails. This
illustration helps to determine the position of the clip
because the fish moves in the direction of Chain
movement. When installed in reverse, the clip may
come off.
Master model
The first precision model of an automobile based on a
clay model or CAD-data; essential for the manufacture
of prototypes
Master pattern
The first precision model of an automobile based on a
clay model or CAD-data; essential for the manufacture
of prototypes
Master switch
See
Battery master switch
Master vac
See
Vacuum brake booster

Master vac servo unit


See
Vacuum brake booster
Masthead light
A white light situated on the fore and aft centerline of a
ship
Mastic
Any heavy-bodied adhesive of such a consistency that
it must be applied by notched trowel, gob, or by
buttering methods
Mastication
The reduction of rubber to a pulp preparatory to
making tires
Mastic seam sealant
Soft waterproof sealant for joints
Mat
1. A dull, not shiny, paint finish. Also spelled matt.
2. A covering.
3. Acronym for Manifold Air Temperature
Also
Bead
Fiberglass
Floormat
Matador

seat

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Matador
An automobile manufactured by AMC
Matching

See
mat
mat

See
Paint color matching
Mate
To fit together
Material
See
Active
Material
American
Society
For
Testing
Materials
Base
material
Bearing
material
Bridges
And
Materials
Friction
Material
Metallic
Friction
Material
Molding
material
Moulding
Material
Noncombustible
Materials
Organic
Friction
Material
Performance
characteristics
of
materials
Piston
material
Soundproofing
material
Viscoelastic
materials
Waste Materials
Material safety data sheets
Sheets that contain information on the handling of
hazardous wastes, the use of protective equipment and
the procedures to follow in case of an accident
Mating
Fitting together; matching
Mating gears
Gears which mesh together
Mating surface
A surface which interacts perfectly with another
Mating thread
A thread which engages with a corresponding thread,
such as the male and female threads of a nut and bolt
MAT sensor
Acronym for Manifold air temperature sensor
Matter

See
Particulate
Polycyclic
Organic
Total
Particulate
Volatile Matter
Matrix
That portion of the mold which surrounds
transferring heat to the uncured rubber and
the tread pattern.
Matt
A dull, not shiny, paint finish. Also spelled mat
Maxima

matter
Matter
Matter
the tire
forming

A model of automobile manufactured by Nissan in


Japan
Maximum brake power
The maximum power of an engine as measured by a
dynamometer
Maximum diameter brake drum
The largest diameter to which a brake drum can be
machined or worn before it becomes unsafe. This
dimension is usually stamped or cast into the drum
near the hub. Typically, this is 0.060" over original
diameter.
Maximum ignition Time
The maximum allowable time for the specified function
of any device.
Maximum Material Limit
The maximum limit of size of an external dimension or
the minimum limit of size of an internal dimension.

Maximum operating pressure


(MOP) The steady-state or transient gauge pressure at
which a part or system operates. It shall not exceed the
allowable working pressure, and it is usually kept at a
suitable level below the setting of pressurelimiting/relieving devices to prevent their frequent
functioning.
Maximum power
The maximum power of an engine as measured by a
dynamometer
Maximum regulation capacity
The high limit of flow below which is found acceptable
regulating characteristics.
Maximum trailer weight
Also known as towing capacity; the heaviest trailer the
vehicle is rated to tow. Towing capacity is typically
based on the vehicle plus a driver of 150 pounds. The
weight of additional passengers and/or cargo should be
deducted from the maximum trailer weight.
Maybach
A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models are
Classic cars.
Mays
See
Raymond-Mays
Mazda

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Mazda

A model of automobile manufactured in Japan by the


Mazda Motor Corporation. It includes 323 (1980-94),
626 (1983-2002), 929 (1981-95), B2200 (19__-93),
B2300 (1994-2007), B2500 (1998-2001), B2600
(19__-93), B3000 (1994-2007), B4000 (1994-2007),
CX-7 (2007), CX-9 (2007), MAZDA3 (2004-08),
MAZDA5 (2006-07), MAZDA6 (2003-08), Mazdaspeed3
(2007), MAZDASPEED6 (2006-07), Miata MX-5 (19902008), Millenia (1995-2002), MPV (1989-2006), MX-3
(1992-95), MX-6 (1988-97), Navajo (1991-94), Protege
(1990-2003), Protege5 (2002-03), RX-7 (1993-95),
RX-8 (2004-07), and Tribute (2001-06)
Mazda RX

A model of automobile with a Rotary engine


manufactured in Japan by the Mazda Motor
Corporation. It began with the R100 and included the
RX2, RX3, RX4, RX5, RX7, and RX8.
DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Na"

Na
Nc
Nd
Ne
Ng
Nh
Ni

Nl
Nm
No
Np

N
1. A gear selection indication for Neutral
2. Symbol for Nitrogen
N2O
Short for nitrous oxide
NAAMSA
Acronym for National Association of Automobile
Manufacturers of South Africa
NAAQS
Acronym for National Ambient Air Quality
Standards
NACA duct
This is an air opening which was named after the
National Advisory Committee for Aerodynamics. It was
the American organization which developed the kinds of
designs for low Drag air ducts for jet engines. NACA
ducts are used on cars to force air for engine
Breathing and cooling, for forcing air through the
Radiators, and for providing fresh air for the
passenger compartment.
Nacelle
A plastic or metal covering. A headlight nacelle on a
Motorcycle is the bucket surrounding the Headlight.
NADA
Acronym
for
National
Automobile
Dealers
Association
NADA Used Car Guide
A listing of current car prices, based on age, condition,
and optional equipment; published by National
Automobile Dealers Association
NAFTA
Acronym for North American Free Trade Agreement
on http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/SSG/am00635e.html.

N.A.G.
A vehicle brand of which these models, with required
application, are Classic cars.
NAICS
Acronym
for
North
American
Industrial
Classification System. A coding system developed
jointly by the United States, Canada, and Mexico to
classify businesses and industries according to the type
of economic activity in which they are engaged. NAICS
replaces the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
codes.
Nail hammer
A hammer designed to hit the head of nails and usually
has a claw device which allows for the removal of nails.
Nail Point
A sharp pyramidal point of approximately 30 degrees or
45 degrees included angle.
Nail punch
See
Drift punch
Naked bike
A motorcycle without any type of fairing
Nameplate
A metal tag attached to a machine or appliance that
contains information such as brand name, serial
number, voltage, power ratings under specified
conditions, and other manufacturer supplied data.
Also
see
Import nameplate
NAPA
Acronym for National Automotive Parts Association
Naphtha
An artificially produced petroleum or coal tar fraction
with a volatility between Gasoline and Kerosene. It is
colorless and has an approximate boiling range
between 50C and 204C. Used primarily as paint
solvent, cleaning fluid, and blendstock in Gasoline

production, to produce motor gasoline by blending with


straight-run gasoline.
Also
see
Petrochemical
feedstock
Special Naphthas
Naphtha-type jet fuel
A fuel in the heavy naphtha boiling range having an
average gravity of 52.8 degrees API, 20 to 90 percent
distillation temperatures of 143C to 243C, and
meeting Military Specification MIL-T-5624L (Grade JP4). It is used primarily for military turbojet and
turboprop aircraft engines because it has a lower freeze
point than other aviation fuels and meets engine
requirements at high altitudes and speeds. Note:
Beginning with January 2004 data, naphtha-type jet
fuel is included in Miscellaneous Products.
Naphthenes
One of three basic hydrocarbon classifications found
naturally in crude oil. Naphthenes are widely used as
Petrochemical feedstock.
NAQS
Acronym for National Air Quality Strategy in the UK
Narrow width chain
A chain used on multi-speed bicycles with a cassette of
8 or more sprockets.
Also
see
Derailleur Chain Narrow Width
NAS
Acronym for National Aerospace Standards
NASCAR
Acronym for National Association for Stock Car
Auto Racing or North America Stock Car Auto
Racing or
NAS Drawings and Specifications
Dimensional and material standards for aircraft
fasteners developed by the National Aerospace
Standards Committee. All drawings and specifications
are prefixed by NAS.

Nash

A vehicle brand of which the 1930 Twin Ignition 8;


1931 Series 900; 1932 Series 990, Advanced 8, and
Ambassador 8 with required application are Classic
cars. The 1951-54 Healey models are Milestone cars.
Also
See
Frazer Nash.
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
(NAAQS) Ambient standards for criteria air pollutants
specifically regulated under the CAA. These pollutants
include ozone, CO, NO2>, lead, particulate matter, and
SOx. Urban areas are required to achieve attainment in
regard to ambient concentrations of these criteria
pollutants.
National Automotive Technical Education Foundation
A consortium of automotive education experts which
has established a steering committee to administer the
CHAMP certification process at educational institutions.
National coarse thread
(NC) A standard for the threads of nuts and bolts in
which the number of threads per inch is much fewer
than a fine (NF) nut or bolt. Observe the difference in
the number of threads per inch (TPI) of the NF and NC
in the following chart. Also called Unified National
Coarse thread (UNC)
WIDTH NF TPI NC TPI
#10
32
24
#12
28
24
1/4
28
20
5/16
24
18

3/8
24
16
7/16
20
14
1/2
20
13
9/16
18
12
5/8
18
11
3/4
16
10
7/8
14
9
1
14
8
1-1/8
12
7
1-1/4
12
6
1-3/8
12
6
1-1/2
12
5
1-3/4
n/a
4
2
n/a
4.5
2-1/4
n/a
4.5
2-1/2
n/a
4
2-3/4
n/a
4
3
n/a
4
National electrical code (NEC)
A code for the purpose of practical safeguarding of
persons and property from the hazards arising from the
use of electricity. It is sponsored by the National Fire
Protection Institute. It is used to serve as a guide for
governmental bodies whose duty is to regulate building
codes
National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)
An organization which establishes certain voluntary
industry standards relating to electric motors. These
standards refer to the operating characteristics,
terminology, basic dimension, ratings, and testing
National Environmental Policy Act
(NEPA) The National Environmental Policy Act requires
federal agencies to integrate environmental values into
their decision-making processes by considering the
environmental impacts of their proposed actions and
reasonable alternatives to those actions.

National fine thread


(NF) A standard for the threads of nuts and bolts in
which the number of threads per inch is much greater
than a coarse (NC) nut or bolt. Also called Unified
National Fine thread (UNF). Observe the difference
in the number of threads per inch (TPI) of the NF and
NC in the following chart
WIDTH NF TPI NC TPI
#10
32
24
#12
28
24
1/4
28
20
5/16
24
18
3/8
24
16
7/16
20
14
1/2
20
13
9/16
18
12
5/8
18
11
3/4
16
10
7/8
14
9
1
14
8
1-1/8
12
7
1-1/4
12
6
1-3/8
12
6
1-1/2
12
5
1-3/4
n/a
4
2
n/a
4.5
2-1/4
n/a
4.5
2-1/2
n/a
4
2-3/4
n/a
4
3
n/a
4
National flag
The flag flown by a ship to show her nationality.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
(NHTSA) A US regulatory body which determines the
regulations for vehicles.

National Low-Emission Vehicle


A light-duty passenger car or truck up to 6,000 lb
GVWR that meets the National Low-Emission
Vehicle Program standards.
National Low-Emission Vehicle Program
(NLEV) Still under development, this program creates
voluntary requirements which automakers can adopt in
lieu of compliance with other vehicle emission control
measures. The program applies to the manufacture of
new light-duty vehicles and new light-duty trucks up to
6,000 lb GVWR. Vehicle exhaust emission standards
have been established for the 13 northeastern states of
the Ozone Transport Commission, applicable on and
after the 1997 model year. Standards are extended to
the rest of the U.S., except California, on and after the
2001 model year. In general, the standards lie between
levels established for the federal Tier I Program and the
California LEV Program. Automakers can use a
manufacturer's effective average standard to meet the
non-methane organic gas standard. Vehicles are
certified with California test procedures.
National Off-Road Bicycle Association
(NORBA) The US governing body for off-road racing
National Petroleum Council
(NPC) An advisory body of appointed members whose
purpose is to advise the Secretary of Energy.
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
(NPDES) The part of the U.S. federal Clean Water Act,
which requires point source discharges to obtain
permits.
National priorities list
The Environmental Protection Agency's list of the most
serious uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste
sites identified for possible long-term remedial action
under the Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The list is
based primarily on the score a site receives from the
Environmental Protection Agency Hazard Ranking

System. The Environmental Protection Agency is


required to update the National Priorities List at least
once a year.
National Traffic Safety Administration
(NHTSA) Under the U.S. Department of Transportation,
NHTSA is responsible for reducing deaths, injuries and
economic losses resulting from motor vehicle crashes.
NHTSA investigates safety defects in motor vehicles,
sets and enforces fuel economy standards, helps states
and local communities reduce the threat of drunk
drivers, promotes the use of safety belts, child safety
seats and air bags, investigates odometer fraud,
establishes and enforces vehicle anti-theft regulations
and provides consumer information on motor vehicle
safety topics.
National Transportation Safety Board
(NTSB) An independent Federal agency charged by
Congress with investigating every civil aviation accident
in the United States and significant accidents in the
other modes of transportation -- railroad, highway,
marine
and
pipeline
-and
issuing
safety
recommendations aimed at preventing future accidents.
Native gas
Gas in place at the time that a reservoir was converted
to use as an underground storage reservoir in contrast
to injected gas volumes.
NATO towing hook
Large, robust, four-bolt attachment towing pintle with
top-closure and, usually, 360 rotational capability
about the longitudinal axis originally specified for NATO
7.5 tonne military vehicles. Suitable for off-road
towing.
Natural convection
1. Movement of a fluid caused only by temperature
differences (density changes).
2. Circulation of a gas or liquid due to difference in
density resulting from temperature differences.

Natural frequency
The frequency at which an object, circuit, or system
oscillates or vibrates when set in free vibration. Large
heavy objects have low natural frequencies and small
light objects have high natural frequencies.
Natural gas
(NG) A gaseous mixture of hydrocarbon compounds,
the primary one being Methane and occurs naturally in
the earth. The Energy Information Administration
measures wet natural gas and its two sources of
production, Associated-dissolved natural gas and
Nonassociated natural gas, and Dry natural gas,
which is produced from Wet natural gas. As an
alternative, environmentally friendly fuel, it can be
stored under pressure in the trunk of a vehicle as
Compressed natural gas (CNG).
Also
See
Associated-Dissolved
Natural
Gas
Dry
Natural
Gas
Liquefied
natural
gas
Nonassociated
Natural
Gas
Salable
Natural
Gas
Synthetic
Natural
Gas
Wet Natural Gas
Natural Gas Act
The Natural Gas Act was passed in 1938, giving the
Federal Power Commission (now the Federal Energy
Regulatory Commission or FERC) jurisdiction over
companies engaged in interstate sale or transportation
of natural gas. The act instituted federal oversight of
rates
charged
by
interstate
gas-transmission
companies, and also limited certification authority.
Nobody was allowed to build an interstate pipeline to
deliver gas into a market already served by another gas
pipeline without first obtaining a Federal Power
Commission certificate. The principle aims of the
Natural Gas Act were to: 1) provide a stable financial
and regulatory environment for the financing and

construction of interstate gas pipelines; and 2) prevent


the "naturally monopolistic" pipelines from engaging in
undue discrimination and other feared abuses,
including those attendant on their control by utility
holding companies or major oil and gas producers.
Natural gas hydrates
Solid, crystalline, wax-like substances composed of
water, methane, and usually a small amount of other
gases, with the gases being trapped in the interstices of
a water-ice lattice. They form beneath permafrost and
on the ocean floor under conditions of moderately high
pressure and at temperatures near the freezing point of
water.
Natural gas liquids
(NGL) Those hydrocarbons in natural gas that are
separated from the gas as liquids through the process
of absorption, condensation, adsorption, or other
methods in gas processing or cycling plants. Generally
such liquids consist of Propane and heavier
hydrocarbons and are commonly referred to as lease
condensate, natural gasoline, and liquefied petroleum
gases. Natural gas liquids include natural gas plant
liquids (primarily ethane, Propane, Butane, and
Isobutane; see Natural Gas Plant Liquids) and lease
condensate (primarily pentanes produced from natural
gas at lease separators and field facilities; see Lease
Condensate).
Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978
(NGPA) Signed into law on November 9, 1978, the
NGPA is a framework for the regulation of most facets
of the natural gas industry. The gas market before
1978 was drastically different than the one currently
existing in the United States. The changes in the
market since the 1970's have come partially from
increasing technology, but also largely from changes in
natural gas regulation. The Natural Gas Policy Act was
one of the first efforts to deregulate the gas industry.
Congress intended to allow the supply, demand, and

thus the price of natural gas to be dictated by market


forces, rather than regulation. Other deregulation bills
include Order 636.
Natural Gas Vehicle
(NGV) A natural gas vehicle is a new breed of car, bus
or truck that is powered by a natural gas, either in
compressed or liquefied form, rather than the
traditional gasoline or diesel fuel. These vehicles offer
an extremely clean, safe and efficient alternative to
traditional transportation. With the passage of the
Clean Air Act Amendments and the Energy Policy Act of
1992, these alternative fuel vehicles are expected to
proliferate in the later 1990's. Already, major car
manufacturers are offering natural gas vehicles, and
there are over 700 fueling stations nationwide.
Natural gasoline
A term used in the gas processing industry to refer to a
mixture of liquid hydrocarbons (mostly pentanes and
heavier hydrocarbons) extracted from natural gas. It
includes isopentane.
Natural Gasoline and Isopentane
A mixture of hydrocarbons, mostly pentanes and
heavier, extracted from natural gas, that meets vapor
pressure, end-point, and other specifications for natural
gasoline set by the Gas Processors Association.
Includes isopentane which is a saturated branch-chain
hydrocarbon, (C5H12), obtained by fractionation of
natural gasoline or isomerization of normal pentane.
Naturally aspirated engine
A conventional engine that takes in air at normal
pressure, i.e. not turbocharged or supercharged. The
opposite is forced-induction engine
Natural oxide film
A transparent film which forms naturally on an
aluminum surface due to oxidation
Natural oxide skin
A transparent film which forms naturally on an
aluminum surface due to oxidation

Natural rubber
(NR) An elastomer produced from latex, a milky sap,
obtained from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)
and other plants. An elastic and porous form of rubber.
Also
See
Synthetic rubber
Natural weathering
A corrosion test by means of which the corrosion
resistance of a material is tested in the open air
Nautical Mile
The Knot is the unit of measurement for water speed.
It is nearly equivalent to miles per hour for land. It is
also used to measure wind speeds over water.
Naval brass
A corrosion resistant metal containing 60 per cent
copper, 39 1/4 per cent zinc and 3/4 per cent tin.
See
Tobin bronze
Naval bronze
Basic brass with a small addition of tin for added
corrosion resistance against salt water. Also called
naval brass
Nave
A wheel hub
Nave plate
A hub cap
Navigating bridge
The command post of a ship.
Navigator
See
Electronic navigator
DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Oa"
O2
Acronym for Oxygen
O2S-11

Acronym for Oxygen Sensor Signal (Bank 1)


O2S-21
Acronym for Oxygen Sensor Signal (Bank 2)
O2 sensor
A device that detects the amount of oxygen in the
exhaust stream and sends that information the ECM.
Also called an Oxygen sensor or an Exhaust oxygen
sensor
O3
See
Ozone
OAC
Acronym used by car dealers to indicate on approval
of credit.
OASIS
Acronym
for
Ford
Motor
Company
Online
Automotive Service Information System
DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Pa"
p
1. A tire designation for Passenger, as used in
rating tires such as P185R13.
2. A tire designation for speeds up to 150 kph (95
mph) as in P195PR78 (the first P is passenger, but
the second P is the Speed rating.
3. The designation for park on the gear selector of
an automatic transmission.
Also
PRNDL
PA
1. Acronym for Pressure Air (Honda)
2. Acronym for Power antenna.
P/a
An abbreviation for Power-assisted
P&D

see

Acronym for Pickup and delivery


Pace car
A vehicle which leads the pack of racers during the first
part of the race (usually one lap) so that the racers can
warm up their engines, etc. The pace car never runs
the actual race. They also lead during parade, pace lap,
caution periods, and restarts.
Pace lap
The warm-up part of the race before the actual race
begins.
Pacer

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Pacer
An automobile manufactured by AMC
Pack
See
Blister
Pack
Glass
pack
muffler
Hydration
Pack
Rectifier pack
Package
See
Accessory
package
Equipment
package
Trailer-towing package
Package units
Complete refrigerating system including compressor,
condenser, and evaporator located in refrigerated
space.

Packard

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Packard
A vehicle brand of which all sixes and eights 1925-34;
all 12-cyl. models; 1935 Models 1200-1208; 1936
Models 1400-1408; 1937 Models 1500-1508; 1938
Models 1603-1608; 1939 Models 1703-1708; 1940
Models 1803-1808; 1941 Models 1903-1908; 1942
Models 2004-2008 plus 2023; 1946-47 Models 2106
and 2126; all Darrin-bodied with required application
are Classic cars. The 1953-56 Caribbean models are
Milestone cars. The 1946-50 Clipper and Custom
Eight are Milestone cars. The Pacific sedan and
convertible for 1954 are Milestone cars. The 1954
Panther Daytona is a Milestone car. The Patrician 400
for 1951 to 56 are Milestone cars.
Packed gland
A cylindrical recess that accommodates a number of
rings of packing around the shaft or shaft sleeve of a
Pump. Pumps used for high-temperature fluids are
provided with jacketed, water-cooled packed glands.
Also called stuffing box.
Packing
Sealing device consisting of soft material or one or
more mating soft elements. Reshaped by manually
adjustable compression to obtain or maintain a leakproof seal.
Also
See
Stuffing-box packing
Pack muffler

See
Glass
Steel pack muffler

pack

muffler

PAD
Acronym for Program Associated Data.
Pad
A common term for a brake shoe used in disc brakes
Also
See
Backing
pad
Brake
pad
Ceramic
brake
pad
Disc
Brake
Pad
Door
Pad
Door
Trim
Pad
Pillion
pad
Sintered
metal
brake
pad
Skid pad
PADD
Acronym for Petroleum Administration for Defense
Districts
Padding disc
An insert in the crankcase area designed to reduce the
internal volume of the crankcase and thus to increase
the precompression ratio; this helps to increase the
output of a two-stroke engine
Paddle
See
Solder
paddle
Stirring paddle
Paddling
See
Foot Paddling
Paddling the lead
The act of filling repair areas by smoothing the body
lead layer until a smooth surface is achieved
Pad retainer
A pin which locates the brake pad in a disc brake
Pad retainer pin

A pin which locates the brake pad in a disc brake


Pad Sets
See
Hybrid Pad Sets
Pad wear indicator
Mechanical or electrical devices which warn the driver
when the lining material on the brake pads has worn to
the point that they should be replaced.
Also
See
Brake pad wear indicator
PAFS
Acronym for Pulse Air Feeder System (Chrysler)
Pagoda roof
An unusual roof design, introduced on the MercedesBenz SL Hardtop, which was slightly lower in the center
than at the sides
Pagoda-style roof
An unusual roof design, introduced on the MercedesBenz SL Hardtop, which was slightly lower in the center
than at the sides
PAH
1. Acronym for Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
2. Acronym for polyaluminum hydroxide
3. Acronym
for
Polynuclear
Aromatic
Hydrocarbons
Paid value
See
Duty paid value
Paige
See
Graham-Paige
Paint
1. A liquid or paste consisting of a suspension of a
Pigment in oil or water, etc. When spread over a
surface, it dries to form a hard, thin covering
colored by the pigment. The primary purpose of

paint is to help in the preventing of rusting. A


secondary purpose is to provide a variety of color.
2. The act of spray painting a surface.
Also
Acrylic
Barrier
Bituminous
Candy
apple
Candy
Coach
Dust-free
Finishing
Flame
Heavy
Light
Liquid
Low-bake
Metallic
Nitrocellulose
Overlay
Polyurethane
Pyroxylin
Refinishing
Soft
Solder
Solid
Tire
Two-pack
Two-tone
Zinc-rich paint
Paint booth
A closed area where coats of paint are applied
Paint chip book
A Color chart
Paint color matching

See
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint
paint

The process of determining the correct paint shade with


the aid of color charts and special mixing devices and
through spectral analysis
Paint film
The actual thickness of the paint on a surface.
Paint gun
See
Spray gun
Painting
See
Cataphoretic
painting
Electrophoretic
painting
Electrostatic
painting
Off-line
painting
On-line painting
Painting line
The route taken by the bodywork of a newly
manufactured vehicle on its way through the paint shop
Painting robot
A robot used for paint application
Paint refinishing
The various steps involved in repainting a secondhand
car
Paint shop
1. The
production
stage
in
an
automobile
manufacturing plant during which the bodywork is
treated with paint.
2. A separate paint repair shop, usually near a body
repair shop (i.e., for damaged vehicles)
Paint stripper
A liquid paint remover
Paint system
The sum of all coats of paint on a work
Paintwork
The overall result of painting; the paint coating or finish
PAIR
Acronym for Pulsed Secondary Air Injection

PAIR system
See
Pulse air system
Palladium
A white, ductile, malleable, noble metal of the platinum
family; atomic number 46, atomic weight 106.4;
resembles platinum and together with other platinum
metals is used as a catalyst in automotive exhaust
converters. Compare Platinum metals
Palletized construction
The process of building a vehicle where the workers
assemble a complete Chassis at a comfortable
workbench height, in a well-lighted area, away from the
main line -- not underneath a moving body. Working
conditions and product quality are vastly improved.
Palm spinner

Palm spinner
A device which is attached to a steering wheel to allow
disabled people to insert a hand into its bracket in
order to steer a vehicle.
Pan
A thin stamped Cover that is bolted to the bottom of
the Crankcase, it forms a Sump for the engine oil and
keeps dirt, etc. from entering the engine.

Also
See
Floor
pan
Oil pan
Panamax
A water-borne vessel (i.e., ship) designed small enough
for passage through the Panama Canal
Pancake engine
An engine in which the Cylinders are on a horizontal
plane, this reduces the overall height and enables them
to be used in spots where vertical height is restricted.
Also
see
Flat engine.
Pan drain plug
See
Oil pan drain plug
Pane
A sheet of window glass
Panel
1. A flat piece of metal that is stamped to create a
body Component such as a door panel.
2. A plastic molding; e.g., interior trim of doors.
Also
A-panel
Access
Aperture
Back
Body
Bonnet
Closing
Cluster
Corner
Cowl
Cowl
Dashboard
Dash
Deck
Door

See

landing

side

panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel

Front
Full
Grille
Grille
Header
Headlight
High
Hinge
Hood
Inner
Instrument
Kick
Lamp
Low
Lower
Manual
Off-the-dolly
On-the-dolly
Parent
Patch
Pattern
Pressed
Quarter
Quarter
Quarter
Radiator
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Replacement
Rocker
Roof
Scuttle
Scuttle
Seat
Shelf
Side

face
mounting
crown
landing
fender

crown
Back
panel
panel
panel

light

filler

window
filler
support
corner
deck
Quarter

side
bumper

panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panels
panel
panel
panel
panel
Panel
cutter
beating
beating
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
Panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
panel
well
panel
panels

Side
panel
Solar
Thermal
Panels
Splash
panel
Squab
panel
Straightened
panel
Sunroof
aperture
panel
Trim
panel
Under
sill
panel
Wheel
house
panel
Wheel
panel
Windshield
corner
panel
Windshield
header
panel
Windshield panel
Panel beater
1. A person who beats out the dented bodywork of a
damaged vehicle.
2. A Panel hammer
Panel beating
Beating out the dents in damaged bodywork.
Also
See
Off-the-dolly
panel
beating
On-the-dolly panel beating
Panel bonding
A new repair process using a special adhesive to glue
body panels in place instead of spot-welding them
Panel contour
The normal shape of a new, undented body panel as
produced by the factory
Panel cutter
An air-operated tool used to cut out old panels. It is a
relatively coarse tool and is thus suited mainly for
cutting sheet metal in areas where minor distortion
along the cutting lines does not matter.
Also
see
Manual panel cutter
Panel file

See
Body file
Panel flanger
See
Joggler
Panel hammer
A special hammer for metalworking that has two
different fly-shaped heads for different purposes, e.g.,
cross-pein and shrinking hammer.
Also
see
Curved
pein
and
finishing
hammer
Pick
and
finishing
hammer
Planishing
hammer
Reverse
curve
panel
hammer
Shrinking hammer
Paneling
1. A combination of separate sheet metal panels to
form a complete assembly, e.g., the outer panels
of the body or even the panels surrounding the
engine
2. A plastic molding; e.g., interior trim of doors.
Also
See
Cladding
Underside paneling
Panel picking
The act of straightening very fine indentations or marks
of very small diameter on a panel surface with a pick
hammer
Panel puller

Slide Hammer Dent Puller


A tool with a slide hammer and hook or self-threading
screw tip to pull dented doors, fenders, and other sheet
metal panels back into place. After drilling a hole in the
deepest part of the dent, the hook or screw tip is
inserted to pull out the dent by means of slide hammer
impact. Also called Knocker
Panel release tool
See
Trim panel release tool
Panel repair
A type of repainting job involving an entire panel but
not the entire vehicle
Pan gasket
See
Oil pan gasket
Pan guard

See
Oil pan guard
Panhard
A vehicle brand of which the Dyna for 1946-67 models
are Milestone cars.
Panhard rod
A rod or Linkage on the axle which runs from side to
side. Usually one end is attached to the body and the
other end is connected to the axle. Also called a track
bar.
Panhard rod mounting box
Box section used to mount the Panhard rod of the
rear axle
Panhead
Harley-Davidson's second generation overhead-valve
Big Twin, introduced in 1948.
Pan head
A type of screw with a dome shaped head. Flat top
surface rounded into cylindrical sides, and a flat bearing
surface. The recessed pan head has a rounded top
surface blending into cylindrical sides and a flat bearing
surface.
Pannier
A luggage bag used in pairs and fastened alongside one
or both wheels of a motorcycle or bicycle.
Also
see
Saddlebag.
Panniers
Luggage bags used in pairs and fastened alongside one
or both wheels of a motorcycle or bicycle.
Also
see
Saddlebags.
Panoramic windshield
A windshield style popular in the 1950s and '60s that
featured recessed screen pillars, giving a wide,
unobstructed view of the road; entry for the front
passengers was awkward, since the screen pillar
comers projected into the door opening

P. ant
Abbreviation for Power antenna.
Pantechnicon
A British term for a large van or truck, especially one
for moving furniture
Pantera

Click image for books on


Pantera
A model of automobile manufactured in Italy
Panting
The pulsation in and out of the bow and stern plating as
the ship alternately rises and plunges deep into the
water
Panting frame
The frames in the forward and after portions of the hull
framing to strengthen against shell Panting
Paper
See
Abrasive paper
Paper air cleaner
An Air cleaner that makes use of special paper
through which the air to the Carburetor is drawn.
PAR
Acronym for a parabolic aluminized reflector lamp

Parabolic dish
A high-temperature (above 82C) solar thermal
concentrator, generally bowl-shaped, with two-axis
tracking.
Also
see
Solar Thermal Parabolic Dishes
Parabolic reflector
An old headlight reflector in the shape of a parabola,
now replaced by ellipsoidal reflectors
Parabolic spring
A leaf spring tapered in the shape of a parabola. Also
called tapered leaf spring
Parabolic trough
A high-temperature (above 82C) solar thermal
concentrator with the capacity for tracking the sun
using one axis of rotation.
Also
see
Solar Parabolic Trough
Parachute
See
Automatic
Parachute
Brake Parachute
Paraffin
1. A British term for Kerosene a solvent for
removing grease
2. A light-colored, wax-free oil obtained by pressing
paraffin distillate.
3. The wax removed from paraffin distillates by
chilling and pressing. When separating from
solutions, it is a colorless, more or less
translucent, crystalline mass, without odor and
taste, slightly greasy to touch, and consisting of a
mixture of solid hydrocarbons in which the paraffin
series predominates.
Paraffinic hydrocarbons
Straight-chain hydrocarbon
general formula CnH2n+2.

compounds

with

the

Paraffins
Group of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, including
Methane, ethane, Propane and Butane and noted by
the suffix -ane.
Parallel
1. The same distance apart at every point.
2. Two or more electrical components each receiving
the same voltage resistors connected in parallel.
Opposite to Series.
3. To connect in parallel
Also
see
Circuit Parallel
Parallel action locking pliers
A locking pliers with parallel action jaws, e.g., for
pinching off hoses when servicing cooling systems
Parallel circuit
1. An electrical circuit with two or more Resistance
units so wired as to permit Current to flow
through both units at the same time. Unlike the
Series circuit, the Current in the parallel circuit
does not have to pass through one unit to reach
the other. A method or pattern of connecting units
in an electrical circuit so that they are connected
negative-to-negative and positive-to-positive. In a
parallel circuit, current can flow independently
through several components at the same time.
2. Arrangement of electrical devices in which the
current divides and travels through two or more
paths and then returns through a common path.
Also
see
Series-parallel circuit
Parallel connection
A way of joining photovoltaic cells or batteries by
connecting positive leads to positive leads to keep the
voltage output the same, but increase the amperage.
Some 12-volt vehicles running two batteries to give

more winter starting power must connect the batteries


in parallel. If they were Connected in series the
output would be 24 volts and fuses would blow or
components would burn out.
Parallelism
The same thickness of brake discs all the way around.
The relationship between one friction surface of a brake
disc and the other.
Also
See
Axle
parallelism
Lack Of Parallelism
Parallel key
See
Feather key
Parallel middle body
The amidships portion of a ship in which the contour of
the underwater hull form is unchanged
Parallelogram steering
See
Parallelogram steering linkage
Parallelogram steering linkage

Parallelogram steering linkage


A Steering system using two short Tie rods
connected to the Steering arms and to a long center
link. The link is supported on one end on an Idler arm

and the other end is attached directly to the Pitman


arm. The arrangement forms a parallelogram shape.
Parallelogram steering system
See
Parallelogram steering linkage
Parallelogram suspension
See
Double wishbone suspension
Parallel parking
The action of bringing a vehicle to a stop behind
another vehicle (or between two vehicles) so that your
front bumper is right behind the rear bumper of the
vehicle in front of you. The technique of parallel parking
involves driving beside the other vehicle and then
backing up while turning the steering first to the right
and then at the correct time turning it to the left. It is
one of the testing requirements for obtaining a license.
Parallel trailing link suspension
A front suspension layout used primarily by Volkswagen
on rear-engined cars
Parallel twin
A type of engine usually found on two-cylinder
motorcycles where the cylinders are beside each other
and on the same side of the crankshaft. An Opposed
twin has two cylinders that are on either side of the
crankshaft.
Parallel-twin engine
A two-cylinder engine with its cylinder placed side-byside in an upright position
Parallel valves
The intake and exhaust valves with parallel valve stems
Parameters
See
Engine parameters
Parapet
Concrete rails on a bridge.

Parent panel
The panel left in place on the car to which a new panel
is welded after all the rusted metal has been cut out
Parison
A short length of glass
Park
(P)
1. One of the positions of the gear selector for an
automatic gearbox; when engaged (after the
vehicle has come to a complete standstill) the
driving wheels are locked.
2. To leave a vehicle in a particular place.
3. A Parkade.
Also
See
Car
park
Multi-storey car park
Parkade
A place where vehicles can be parked on one of several
levels.
Also
See
Car
park
Multi-storey car park
Park and Ride
Provision of long stay parking areas at the edge of a
built up area which are linked by frequent bus (or other
public transport) services to the City center and
potentially other locations.
Park Avenue

Click image for books on


Park Avenue
A model of automobile manufactured by the Buick
division of General Motors
Park brake
See
Parking brake
Park brake extension

Park brake extension


A device which is attached to the parking brake to help
disable people to operate the parking brake more
easily.
Parkbrake warning light
A light on the instrument panel that illuminates when
the parkbrake is applied; on most new cars it has been
superseded by a multifunction brake warning light
Parking
The action of placing a vehicle at a full stop out of the
flow of traffic.
Also
See
Angle
parking
Attendant
parking
Echelon
parking

Parallel
parking
Self-parking
Valet parking
Parking brake
1. Hand or foot operated brake which prevents
vehicle movement while parked by locking rear
wheels, or Transmission Output shaft. One
type applies the rear Brake shoes by mechanical
means and the other type applies a Brake band
to a Brake drum installed in the Drivetrain.
2. The secondary brake system used to hold a
stationary vehicle from moving. The system is
applied with a hand or foot lever, and operates on
only two wheels.
3. The mechanically actuated portion of a drum
brake or disc brake caliper, used to prevent the
vehicle from rolling when it is parked, applied by a
lever, pedal, or rod
Also
See
Auxiliary
Drum
Parking
Brake
Emergency brake
Parking-brake cable
Cables that transmit brake actuating force in the
parking-brake system.
Parking brake console
The reinforcing member incorporated in the center
tunnel area of the floorpan to provide the mounting
support for the handbrake
Parking-brake equalizer
A device to equalize pull between the parking-brake
actuator and two wheels.
Parking brake lever
1. A lever inside the drum brake which spreads the
brake shoes outward; the long end is connected to
the parking brake cable, the opposite end to one
brake shoe and to a push bar which acts on the
other shoe.

2. A lever inside the passenger compartment


attached to the end of the parking brake rod and
which activates the parking brake cable.
Parking brake lever strut
A push bar between the shoes in a drum brake
Parking brake pedal
Foot-operated pedal for the parking brake
Parking brake warning switch assembly
A unit used to actuate a warning device indicating the
parking brake application mechanism is not in the fully
released position.
Parking disc
A marker displayed on the inside of a parked car
showing time of arrival or latest permitted time of
departure in a British parking lot
Parking heater
An air heating system which operates independently of
the engine
Parking interlock
See
Parking lock
Parking lamp
An energy-saving vehicle illumination mode on British
cars for long-term roadside parking; includes only one
front sidelight and one taillight; the parking light can be
switched to illuminate the left side or the right side
Parking light
An energy-saving vehicle illumination mode on British
cars for long-term roadside parking; includes only one
front sidelight and one taillight; the parking light can be
switched to illuminate the left side or the right side
Parking lock
(PL) A lock gear and pawl that lock the transmission
mechanically
Parking lot

A ground level, outdoor area where vehicles can be left


temporarily.
Parking lot stencil
A printing device which is placed on the ground so that
information like handicap parking signs can be made.
Parking meter
A coin-operated timing device that indicates how long a
vehicle may legally remain parked
Parking space
A parking place reserved for a particular vehicle
Parking ticket
A written fine for a parking offence, especially where a
vehicle has exceeded the time limit for parking
Park light
A low intensity light which is often incorporated into the
front signal lights. The park lights are to be illuminated
when the vehicle is still running, but pulled off the road.
However, many people drive with them on -- an action
which is illegal in some parts of North America.
Park safety switch
A switch which allows the starter to be engaged only
when the automatic shift lever is in either park or
neutral
Part
A component of a vehicle.
Also
See
Aftermarket
part
Integral
Part
Molded
part
New-old-stock
part
Spare
part
Structural part
Partial flow filter
A Bypass filter
Partial oxidation
Fuel reforming reaction where the fuel is partially
oxidized to carbon monoxide and hydrogen rather than
fully oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. This is

accomplished by injecting air with the fuel stream prior


to the reformer. The advantage of partial oxidation over
steam reforming of the fuel is that it is an exothermic
reaction rather than an endothermic reaction and
therefore generates its own heat.
Partial oxidation burner
Heat source for the partial oxidation reactor.
Partial pressures
Condition where two or more gases occupy a space and
each one creates part of the total pressure.
Partial respray
A respraying of only part of the bodywork, opposite to
Full respray or Complete respray
Participation
See
Dealer participation
Particulate
A small, discrete mass of solid or liquid matter that
remains individually dispersed in gas or liquid
emissions. Particulates take the form of aerosol, dust,
fume, mist, smoke, or spray. Each of these forms has
different properties.
Also
See
Diesel
particulate
filter
Particulates
Particulate catalyst
A Pellet catalyst
Particulate emission
An emission of solid particles of carbon and unburnt
hydrocarbons from the exhaust system
Particulate emission limit
The weight of particulate emissions in the exhaust of
diesel engines, specified in grams per mile
Particulate filter
See
Diesel particulate filter
Particulate ignition temperature

In diesel filtration tests, the exhaust gas temperature


at which there is an equilibrium between particulate
burn-off and deposit build-up
Particulate matter
(PM)
1. Suspended solids of carbon and unburnt
hydrocarbons from the exhaust system
2. A generic term for a broad class of chemically and
physically diverse substances that exist as discrete
particles (liquid droplets or solids) over a wide
range of sizes. A NAAQS pollutant.
3. Particles formed by incomplete combustion of fuel.
Compression ignition (diesel) engines generate
significantly higher PM emissions than spark
ignited engines. The particles are composed of
elemental carbon, heavy hydrocarbons (SOF), and
hydrated sulfuric acid (sulfate particulates).
Also
see
Diesel
Particulate
Matter
Total Particulate Matter
Particulates
1. (PM) Suspended solids of carbon and unburnt
hydrocarbons from the exhaust system
2. Small pieces (particles) of matter; dust is a
common particulate.
Particulate Trap
Diesel vehicle emission control device that traps and
incinerates diesel particulate emissions after they are
exhausted from the engine but before they are expelled
into the atmosphere.
Part-load
The throttle opening between idle and fully open
Part-load enrichment

Extra fuel injected during throttle opening to enrich the


mixture during transition. Usually occurs during closedloop operation
Part-load operation
The operation of systems and components under
conditions below full load
Partnership
Business owned by at least two people
Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles
(PNGV) established in 1993, this partnership, between
the United States Federal Government and the
Automotive industry, was founded to establish global
technical leadership in the development and production
of affordable, fuel-efficient, low emission vehicles that
meet today's performance standards.
Part number
(p/n, PN) A reference number attributed to a particular
part. Each company uses its own system of numbering
the parts.
Part out
To dismantle a vehicle and sell the parts. British term is
break up
Part panel
See
Patch panel
Parts car
A vehicle that has been damaged beyond repair or
Restoration, or that has deteriorated badly. It is useful
only as a source of parts. It may be Driveable though
unsafe, but it usually is not in driveable condition.
Parts catalog
A directory listing available parts for a particular
product
Parts per million
(ppm) Unit of concentration of one element in another.
Parts store
See
Auto parts store

Part Throttle
See
Adjustable Part Throttle
Part-throttle operation
Driving without using full throttle
Part-time four-wheel drive
A manually selectable four-wheel drive
PAS
1. Acronym for Power-assisted steering
2. Acronym for Passive Anti-Theft System
Pascal (pa)
SI measurement of pressure, it equals one newton per
square meter.
Also
see
Kilopascal
Pascal's law
A principle which states that when pressure is exerted
on a confined liquid, it is transmitted undiminished. The
law is particularly valid for Hydraulic systems.
Discovered by Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
PA sensor
Acronym for Atmospheric pressure sensor
Pass
1. The act of overtaking a vehicle which is traveling
in the same direction you are.
2. The act of going past a vehicle which is traveling is
the opposite direction from you.
3. Weld metal created by one progression along the
weld.
4. Acronym for Personalized Automotive Security
System
Also
Bypass
Passage
See
Lateral

see

air

passage

Oil
Bleed
Passage
Oil
passage
Scavenging
passage
Transfer
passage
Water passage
Passenger capacity
The maximum number of people that a vehicle can
carry.
Passenger car
A four-wheeled motor car powered by an engine and
designed for passengers and/or their luggage.
Also
see
Large Passenger Car
Passenger car wheel
A one-piece wheel made of sheet steel. The rim and
disc are welded together or made of light-alloy (cast or
forged), and designed for tubeless tires. Rims for
passenger cars are almost exclusively designed as 5
drop center rims incorporating a safety bead seat
(double hump and combination hump are most
common; flat hump designs are less common) and a Jflange. The B-flange type is reduced in height and
used on passenger cars with small rim diameter and
rim width
Passenger cell
That part of the vehicle in which the driver and
passengers sit
Passenger compartment
That part of the vehicle in which the driver and
passengers sit
Passenger-miles traveled
The total distance traveled by all passengers. It is
calculated as the product of the occupancy rate in
vehicles and the vehicle miles traveled.
Passenger ship
A ship authorized to carry more than twelve
passengers.
Passenger-side air bag

An air bag restraint system designed to protect the


front passenger; introduced on some cars in the early
1990s, it usually occupies the space normally provided
for a glove compartment
Passenger vehicle
Four wheeled motor vehicle that also includes minivans and sport utility vehicles.
Passer
See
Slow Passer
Passing
1. The action of overtaking another vehicle going in
the same direction you are.
2. The action of going past another vehicle which is
going in the opposite direction you are.
Passing gear
An Automatic transmission gear that shifts a vehicle
into a lower gear for a short burst of extra power to
pass other cars on the highway. The gear is engaged by
sharply depressing the Gas pedal. When the pedal is
released, the vehicle returns to normal to normal
driving gear.
Also
see
Forced downshift.
Passing lane
The outside lane (far left lane in North America, etc. or
the far right lane in Britain, Australia, etc.). Also called
the fast lane
Passivate
1. To reduce the reactivity of a chemically active
metal surface by electrochemical polarization or by
immersion in a passivating solution
2. A process of surface treatment for neutralizing
stainless steels. An oxydizing solution, such as
nitric acid is applied to the surface. This
strengthens the normal protective film which helps

in resisting corrosion. It also removes any foreign


substance which might cause local corrosion.
Passivating
1. Technical definition: a process of dipping a metal
object into a nitric acid solution to rapidly form a
chromium oxide on the surface of the material,
creating a passive film that protects stainless from
further oxidation called a passive film. The
purpose of passivating is to remove both grease
left from manufacturing and traces of steel
particles
which
may
have
rubbed
off
manufacturing tools onto the object. Contrasts
with commercial definition of cleaning.
2. Commercial definition: cleaning. A wide range of
cleaning methods using different mixtures
containing nitric, phosphoric and other acids or
simply exposing cleaned stainless objects to air for
a period of time will result in a "passivated"
condition. For metal objects that have been
properly cleaned, it is impossible to determine the
method of cleaning or passivation that was used.
Passive film
The major characteristic of stainless steel is its ability
to form a thin layer of protection, called a "passive
film," on its outside surface. This film results from a
continual process of low-level oxidation, so oxygen
from the atmosphere is needed for the passive film to
exist. Once formed, it prevents further oxidation or
corrosion from occurring. Even if chipped or scratched,
a new passive film on stainless will form.
Passive restraint system
See
Airbag restraint system.
Passive safety
Any device which automatically provides protection for
the occupants of a vehicle such as the bumpers, Seat

belt, padded dash, Laminated windshield, head


restraints, collapsible steering column, air bags, etc. In
contrast with Active safety.
Passive safety features
Items in a vehicle which do not require action on the
part of the driver to avoid a hazard, e.g., crumple
zones, bumpers, side impact beams, and roll-over bars.
Also
see
Passive safety.
Passive solar heating
A solar heating system that uses no external
mechanical power, such as pumps or blowers, to move
the collected solar heat.
Passive state
A state for the fuel cell internal components normally
entered when the power plant is purged with steam, air
or nitrogen, or per the manufacturer's instructions
when the power plant is turned off or prior to when the
power plant is turned on (initialization).
Passport

Click image for books on


Honda Passport
A model of automobile manufactured by Honda
Paste
See
Glass
reinforced
filler
Grinding paste
Patch
1. To repair a component.

paste

2. The added part used to repair a component, e.g.,


a rubber disc glued to a tube to cover a nail hole.
3. The footprint of a tire in its contact with the
ground.
Also
See
Contact
patch
Balance
patch
Machine
patch
Plug
patch
Tire Contact Patch
Patching
1. A repair method for welding up local corrosion
damage by using smaller panels made up from
sheet metal.
2. A repair method for gluing a rubber patch to a
tube which has a hole in it.
Patch panel
A small sheet metal panel that is usually made up
specially to repair minor rust holes
Path
See
Heat path
Pathfinder

Click image for books on


Pathfinder
A model of SUV manufactured by Nissan in Japan

Patter
See
Wheel patter
Pattern
See
Bitter
Pattern
Contact
pattern
Heavy
side
pattern
Herringbone
Pattern
Ignition
pattern
Master
pattern
Primary
pattern
Reference
ignition
pattern
Secondary
pattern
Spray
pattern
Tread
pattern
Wear pattern
Pattern Nuts
Special nuts usually furnished in plain or chamfered
face unless otherwise specified, and threads are unified
Coarse or unified Fine, Class 2B. (also small and extra
small)
Pattern panel
A body panel made by somebody other than the
original manufacturer, usually for repair purposes; this
also includes panels remanufactured after the factory
has discontinued making and supplying those parts.
Pattern percentage
See
Tread pattern percentage
Pattern snips
See
Straight pattern snips
Pavement
See
Bare pavement

Pavement markers
Three-dimensional markers, reflectorized or nonreflectorized, epoxied onto pavement.
Pavement markings
Traffic markings such as lines, arrows, bicycle symbols,
and words like "only" and "school".
Paving
See
Spot
Paving
Tactile
paving
True and Level Paving
Pawl
1. A bar, pin, or Stud that can be moved, pivoted, or
slid into engagement with teeth cut on another
part, such as the parking pawl on the Automatic
transmission that can be slid into contact with
teeth on another part to lock the rear wheels.
2. A catch at the bottom of a lever which connects
with a toothed rack to hold the lever in position
(e.g., with a handbrake lever or in ratchets).
3. An arm pivoted so that its free end can fit into a
notch, slot, or groove at certain times in order to
hold a part stationary
Payload
1. The actual weight of cargo being carried, including
packaging, etc. (GVW -- Unladen weight =
payload).
2. The revenue-earning cargo of a commercial
vehicle.
Also
Interior payload
Payment
See
Monthly payment

see

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Qa"


Q_
Qb
Qc
Qd
Qe
Qf
Qg
Qi
Qm
Qp
Qua
Que
Qui
Quo
Qs
Qt
Qv
Qw

Q
1. The letter on the sidewall of a tire denoting the
maximum speed for which it is designed (160 kph
or 100mph).
2. A symbol for throughput.
3. A symbol for the quantity of water discharged,
usually in m3s-1.
4. A symbol of merit, often called the Q-factor, for an
energy-storing device, resonant system, or tuned
circuit.
5. A symbol for Charge.
Also
see
Speed rating
QAM
Acronym for Quadrature amplitude modulation

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ra"


Ra
Rb
Rc
Rd
Re
Rf
Rh

R
1. Letter designation for tires to indicate that they
are Radial as in P185R13 tire.
2. Reverse.
3. A letter on a fuel gauge indicating low fuel; when
first illuminated it indicates that there is
approximately five liters left in reserve.
4. Symbol for Resistance
Also
see
Speed rating.
R-11
(trichloromonofluoromethane) Low pressure, synthetic
chemical refrigerant which is also used as a cleaning
fluid.
R-12
(dichlorodifluoromethane) Popular refrigerant known as
Freon 12.
R-22
(monochlorodifluoromethane)
Low
temperature
refrigerant with boiling point of -40.5C at atmospheric
pressure.
R-113
(trichlorotrifluoroethane) Synthetic chemical refrigerant
which is nontoxic and nonflammable.
R-160
(ethyl chloride) Toxic refrigerant now seldom used.
R-170
(ethane) Low temperature application refrigerant.

R-290
(propane) Low temperature application refrigerant.
R-500
Refrigerant which is an azeotropic mixture of R-12 and
R-152a.
R-502
Refrigerant which is azeotropic mixture of R-22 and R115.
R-503
Refrigerant which is azeotropic mixture of R-23 and R13.
R-504
Refrigerant which is azeotropic mixture of R-32 and R115.
R-600
(butane) Low-temperature application refrigerant; also
used as a fuel.
R-611
(methyl formate) Low pressure refrigerant.
R-717
(ammonia)
Popular
refrigerant
for
industrial
refrigerating systems; also a popular absorption system
refrigerant.
RABS
Acronym for Rear-wheel Anti-lock Brake System
(Ford)
RAC
Acronym for the Royal Automobile Club.
Race

Bearing Race
1. The inner or outer ring that provides a contact
surface for the balls or Rollers in a bearing.
2. A competition (usually based on Speed) between
two vehicles.
3. To run an engine at high speed when not in gear.
Also
Ball
Bearing
Drag
Inner
Race camshaft

See
Race
race
race
Race

Race cam
A type of camshaft for race car engines which increases
lift of valve, speed of valve opening and closing, length
of time valve is held open, etc. Also called Full cam,
Three-quarter cam, or Semi-race cam, depending
upon design.
Race camshaft
A Camshaft, other than stock, designed to improve
engine performance by altering Cam profile. Provides
increased lift, faster opening and closing, earlier

opening and later closing, etc. Race camshafts are


available as semi-race or street grind, Three-quarter
race camshaft or full race. Grinds in between these
general categories are also available.
Also
see
Three-quarter Race Camshaft
Racer
See
Boy
racer
Cafe
racer
Factory
Racers
Sports Racer
Racing
See
Banger
racing
Cyclo-Cross Racing
Racing Green
See
British Racing Green.
Racing harness
See
Four-point Racing Harness
Racing start
A start on a normal street, e.g., at traffic lights, using
excessive throttle resulting in wheelspin and screeching
tires.
Rack
1. A long, toothed bar.
2. Removable wood or metal wall sections attachable
to flatbed trailers to make sides for confining
loads.
Also
Headache
Hitch
Luggage
Roof

See
Rack
Rack
rack
rack

Steering
Trunk rack
Rack and pinion
See
Rack and pinion gearbox.
Rack and pinion gearbox

rack

Rack and pinion gearbox


A type of Steering system with a Pinion gear on the
end of the Steering shaft. The pinion engages a long
rack (a bar with a row of teeth cut along one edge).
When the Steering wheel is turned, the pinion turns
and moves the rack to the left or right. This movement
is carried through Tie rods to the Steering arms at
the wheels.

Rack and pinion steering

Rack and pinion steering


The pinion gear rotates with the steering shaft, moving
the rack from side to side. Several full turns of the
pinion are required to shift the rack from lock to lock.
Because there are so few parts in the steering linkage,
rack and pinion is a very precise and responsive
steering system and is often used in sports cars.
Also
See
Rack and pinion gearbox
Rack-and-pinion steering
See
Rack and pinion steering
Rack galvanizing
A galvanizing method for objects which can be placed
on a rack.
Rad
Abbreviation for Radiator.
RAD
Acronym for radiator temperature switch
Radar detector
A device which will sense the presence of a radar
device which law enforcement officers might be using
to spot speeders.

Radial
See
Radial
engine
Radial
tire
Steel Belted Radial
Radial bearing
A bearing designed to absorb the radial forces acting on
a pump. Compare Thrust bearing
Radial clearance
See
Radial play.
Radial commutator
Electrical contact surface on a rotor which is
perpendicular or at right angles to the shaft center line.
Radial compressor
A compressor with pistons radiating out from the
centerline of the compressor. The Harrison (Frigidaire)
is a typical example.
Radial cooling fins
Brake drum cooling fins that are parallel to the
centerline of the axle.
Radial cracking
Cracking of sidewall rubber running perpendicular to
the tire beads. May result from underinflation or
exposure to ozone.
Radial discharge nozzle
Booster venturi with four spokes or arms which carry
fuel to the outer circumference of the booster before
discharging it from tiny holes in the ends of the spokes.
Used only on the Corvair Model H carburetor.
Radial engine

Radial Engine
An internal combustion engine with a number of
Cylinders arranged in a circle around the Crankshaft
center line. As the crankshaft turns, the pistons are in
various stages of the strokes (i.e., intake, exhaust,
compression, power). A design often used for aircraft
engines.
Radial-flow pump

Radial-flow pump
An end-suction centrifugal pump with the liquid flowing
perpendicular to the pump shaft. The liquid enters at

the center of the impeller and is directed out along the


impeller blades in a direction at right angles to the
pump shaft.
Radial load
A load perpendicularly applied to the axis of rotation.
Radial play
A bearing clearance in the radial direction.
Radial ply

Radial ply
The ply or plies used in tire in which the cords run at
right angles to the bead and parallel to the tire radius.
Also
see
Radial tire.
Radial ply tire
A type of tire construction in which sidewall structural
plies run radially out towards the tread instead of crisscross diagonally. With their thinner, more flexible
sidewalls, radial tires have lower rolling resistance than
cross-ply tires (yielding better fuel consumption) as
well as giving longer tread life. They can accommodate
the use of low inflation pressures without overheating,
due to their flexible sidewalls, but are sometimes more
prone to sidewall damage when operating in rocky or
stony conditions. Because radial tires invariably also

have a braced tread area of great dimensional stability,


they "track-lay" the tread (like a bulldozer), do not
suffer from "tread shuffle" and so achieve more traction
in limiting off-road conditions.
Radial runout
1. A tire assembly that does not form a true circle;
the radii of the circle are not equal. Most usual
causes are bent wheel (out of round) or tire not
mounted properly (beads not seated). This is one
of the main causes of vehicle vibration.
2. A variation in the diameter of a brake disc, wheel,
or tire from a specified amount.
Radial shaft seal
A typical seal design used to prevent leaks between
stationary parts and rotating shafts and to exclude
foreign matter. A lip seal, typically of neoprene, is held
in a metal retainer and applies a sealing pressure to a
rotating shaft, the pressure being provided by an
annular garter spring winch surrounds the sealing lip;
radial shaft seals are used wherever a shaft penetrates
a casing, such as on crankshafts, camshafts, water
pump shafts, etc.
Radial tire

Radial tire

A type of tire construction which has the main carcass


Plies or cords which run at right angles to the bead
and parallel to the radius. By itself, this construction is
very weak because when the Bias angle is smaller, the
structure is stiff. However, the radial tire has a very
large Bias angle. In order to strengthen the tire, a belt
surrounds the circumference. This belt is made of lowangle plies (usually about 15 degrees). In this way, the
Tread area is stiff and the Sidewalls are flexible. In
this way the sidewalls can act independently of each
other. In a P185/80R13 tire, R indicates a radial tire.
Also
See
Steel belted radial tire
Radiant barrier
A thin, reflective foil sheet that exhibits low radiant
energy transmission and under certain conditions can
block radiant heat transfer; installed in attics to reduce
heat flow through a roof assembly into the living space.
Radiant drier
See
Infrared radiant drier.
Radiant energy
Energy that transmits away from its source in all
directions.
Radiant heating
Heating system in which warm or hot surfaces are used
to radiate heat into the space to be conditioned.
Radiation
1. The transfer of heat from one object to another
when the hotter object sends out invisible rays or
waves that upon striking the colder object, cause
it to vibrate and thus heat.
2. The process by which energy (such as heat) is
emitted by one body, as particles or waves,
transmitted through an intervening medium or
space (like air), and absorbed by another body.

Also refers to the energy transferred by this


process
3. The transfer of heat through matter or space by
means of electromagnetic waves.
Also
See
Background
Radiation
Beta
Radiation
Black-body
Radiation
Quantity
Of
Radiation
Solar
Radiation
Thermal radiation
Radiation shield
A separate panel or panels interposed between surfaces
and jackets to reduce heat losses through radiation.
Radiative forcing
A change in average net radiation at the top of the
troposphere (known as the tropopause) because of a
change in either incoming solar or exiting infrared
radiation. A positive radiative forcing tends on average
to warm the earth's surface; a negative radiative
forcing on average tends to cool the earth's surface.
Greenhouse gases, when emitted into the atmosphere,
trap infrared energy radiated from the earth's surface
and therefore tend to produce positive radiative forcing.
Also
see
Greenhouse gases
Radiatively active gases
Gases that absorb incoming solar radiation or outgoing
infrared radiation, affecting the vertical temperature
profile of the atmosphere.
Also
see
Radiative forcing
Radiator

Radiator
A device that cools the liquid in the Cooling system by
allowing it to circulate through a series of water
Channels, which are exposed to air Ducts.
Also
See
Crossflow
radiator
Downflow
radiator
Heat
exchanger
Rodding the radiator
Radiator cap

Pressure cap
1. A Pressure cap at the top of the radiator.
2. A high pressure cap used in radiators to allow
operation at high temperature. Higher pressure
raises the boiling point of the coolant.

Radiator drain cock

Radiator drain cock


A radiator tap; unlike the Radiator drain plug, tools
are not required to drain the coolant from a radiator
with a drain cock.
Radiator drain plug
A threaded closure plug located at the underside of a
radiator used to drain the coolant; usually equipped
with a hex or Allen head.
Radiator fan
Two types are used on automobiles a crankshaft-driven
fan connected by a temperature-sensitive viscous
coupling, or a fan driven by an electric motor.
Radiator fan motor
An electrically operated motor responsible for driving
the radiator fan. An electric motor allows much more
freedom in radiator location and engine bay design and
permits aftercooling of the engine with the engine
switched off most engines mounted crosswise at the
front (as on most front-wheel-drive subcompacts) use
electric radiator fans which also lead to reduced power
losses, since the vehicle's engine is not also required to

drive the radiator fan also. The problem with them,


however, is that even with the engine off, the fan may
start up unexpectedly for the person inspecting the
engine bay.
Radiator fill hole
An opening at the top of the Radiator through which
new water and Coolant can be added when the engine
and radiator is cool. In modern vehicles, an overflow
reservoir is the location for topping off the radiator fluid
since opening a hot radiator cap can be dangerous. The
Pressure cap seals the fill hole.
Radiator grille
The grating that admits cooling air to the radiator.
Radiator grille surround
The sheet metal panel for mounting the radiator grille;
often combined with the front apron to form a single
front panel.
Radiator guard
See
Side radiator guard.
Radiator hose
The rubber pipe connecting the radiator to the cylinder
block.
Radiator hose shark tooth pliers
A special automotive tool for removing and installing
radiator and heater hoses; round and toothed jaws
securely grip the hose while the handles provide
leverage to twist the hose free.
Radiator overflow tank

Radiator overflow tank


A small bottle that acts as a reservoir for liquid expelled
from the Cooling system through the Overflow pipe
and returns the liquid to the system when it cools
down. A special Radiator Pressure cap is also part of
the kit. It is also called a Closed Cooling System
when it is part of the Original equipment.
Radiator pressure cap
See
Pressure cap.
Radiator shell

Radiator shell
A metal or plastic enclosure which surrounds the
outside perimeter of the radiator and mounts to the
frame of the vehicle. In modern motorcycles, it is
usually chromed.
Radiator support panel
A panel located behind the radiator grille surround
which provides a mounting for the radiator and
connects the mudguard skirts at their front edge.
Radiator tank
A reservoir containing the coolant in a radiator. Early
units were made from sheet metal, typically brass or
aluminum. Newer versions used advanced polymer
technology and injection molding processes have made
it
possible
to
produce
radiator
tanks
from
thermoplastics. Since all modern cars use forced
circulation systems, there is no need for a vertical flow
through the radiator. Thus most radiators are mounted
horizontally. Also called Radiator Overflow Tank
Radii adapter
A mounting device that is used to center a drum or
rotor on the arbor of a lathe. A radii adapter centers

the drum or rotor through contact with the bearing


races.
Radio
A device which receives radio signals (either AM, FM, or
both) and plays the sound through the speakers.
Automobile radios began to appear in vehicles in 1928.
Even in the mid-1960s, many cars came without radios.
Also
See
Car
radio
CB
radio
Citizens
band
radio
DIN
radio
Mobile two-way radio
Radio/cassette deck
(r/c) A combined radio and tape deck.
Radio choke
An electric coil used to prevent static in the radio
caused by opening and closing of the contact points in
the instrument voltage regulator.
Radio Data System
(RDS) A system which interrupts a radio broadcast with
the latest information on e.g., traffic problems.
Radio frequency interference
(RFI) interference generated by the ignition system and
other
electrical
apparatus;
counteracted
by
suppressors.
Radiograph
A photograph obtained by passing X-rays or gamma
rays through the object to be photographed and
recording the variations in density on a photographic
film.
Radius
See
Buffered
radius
Crown
radius
Free
radius
Loaded
radius
Radius
rods

Rolling
radius
Scrub
radius
Turning radius
Radius arm
An additional suspension link in a beam axle layout
providing fore-and-aft location of the axle.
Radius rod
An additional suspension link in a beam axle layout
providing fore-and-aft location of the axle.
Radius rods
Rods or arms which are part of the Suspension,
usually a live rear axle. They are attached to the axle
and pivoted on the Frame. They are used to keep the
axle at right angles to the Frame (i.e., prevent lateral
movement) and yet permit an up and down motion. On
some cars like the Triumph Spitfire, they are used to
help locate the Swing axles.
Radius seat
A spherical seat that provides positive centering of the
wheel bolt head in the wheel.
Radon
A naturally occurring radioactive gas found in the
United States in nearly all types of soil, rock, and water.
It can migrate into most buildings. Studies have linked
high concentrations of radon to lung cancer.
RAF
Acronym for Reactivity Adjustment Factor
Raft
See
Suspension Raft
Rag
See
Tack rag.
Rage
See
Road rage.
Ragtop
Colloquial term for Convertible.

RAI
Acronym for Nederlandse vereniging de Rijwiel-enAutomobiel Indusrie (Netherlands).
Rail
1. A Dragster built around a relatively long pipe
Frame. The only body panels used are around the
Driver's cockpit area.
2. A common pressure accumulator.
Also
See
Bull-headed
Rail
Common
Rail
Injection
Drip
rail
Fender
rail
Fuel
rail
Light
Rail
Oil
rail
Roof
rail
Running
on
rails
Seat
rail
Shift rails
Rail console
See
Seat rail console.
Railer
See
RoadRailer
Rail job
A vehicle that has been transformed into a dragster
built around a long pipe frame with minimal body
panels.
Rail Joint
See
Cast Welded Rail Joint
Railroad locomotive
Self-propelled vehicle that runs on rails and is used for
moving railroad cars.
Railton

A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models, with


required application, are Classic cars.
Railway
See
Cable Railway
Railway Container
A cargo container that can be loaded or stacked on a
railroad flat car.
Rain
See
Acid rain.
Rain grooves
Channels cut into a road's surface to help water run off
the road during a rainstorm
Raising
The action of beating a rounded shape out of a flat
panel by starting in the center and working outward in
a spiral to the edge; the metal is shrunk around the
edge but remains about the same in the center.
Rake
1. The angle at which a rod is attached.
2. The fore-and-aft inclination from the vertical.
Also
see
Back
Rake
Fork rake
Raked
A vehicle which has the Ground clearance or body
altered so that either the front or rear of the vehicle is
increased or lowered, thus giving the vehicle a tilted
appearance.
Rake the leaves
Trucker slang for the last vehicle in a string as in "Looks
like I get to rake the leaves tonight."
Rally
See
Iron Butt Rally
RAM

Acronym for Random Access Memory -- memory that


serves as a temporary storage place for data from the
sensors.
Ram air
1. In a ram air system, carburetors get fresh air to
be mixed with the gasoline via forward facing
ducts. The idea is that as the vehicle moves faster,
more air is forced or rammed into the carburetors
resulting in improved performance.
2. A term referring to the air forced through the
condenser coils by vehicle movement or fan
action.
Ram induction
Using the forward Momentum of vehicle to scoop air
and force it into Carburetor via a suitable passageway.
Ram intake manifold
An Intake manifold that has very long passageways
that at certain Speeds aid the entrance of fuel mixture
into the Cylinders.
Ramp
1. Equipment used to support a vehicle's front or
rear for underbody work.
2. A device used to raise a vehicle in the air.
Also
see
Head
Ramp
Runaway Truck Ramp
Ramp angle
A measure of vehicle under-belly clearance or the
ability to drive over a sharp ridge or ramp without
touching the underside of the vehicle on the obstacle.
The ramp angle is the angle measured from the lowest
part of the chassis at mid-wheelbase down to the
periphery of front and rear wheels. Obviously a short
wheelbase vehicle with large wheels will have the
smallest ramp angle and best under-belly clearance.
Ramp breakover angle

See
Ramp angle
Ramp-over angle
An indication of how high a hump the vehicle can
negotiate without scraping the undercarriage or
becoming high-centered; that is, stuck with the center
of the vehicle on the hump and the wheels in the air.
Ram pressure
The pressure generated by the deflection of the fluid
flow due to the curvature of the stator blades, resulting
in a momentum acting on the turbine.
Ram tube
A tube of a specific length and shape in the intake
manifold that promotes performance at certain engine
speeds by ramming air into the cylinders.
R&D
Acronym for Research & Development.
Random access memory
(RAM) A type of volatile memory that is used to store
information for either short or long term usage. This
type of memory can be written to. If energy is removed
from the RAM device, the contents in memory are
destroyed.
Also
see
Non-volatile Random Access Memory
Randonne
A long bicycle touring ride of 160 to 1200 kilometers
made up of several controls (checkpoints).
Randonneur
A male long-distance cyclist.
Also
see
Randonneuse
Super Randonneur
Randonneur 5000
One of the most prestigious awards a Randonneur can
earn. To be one of the recipients, a randonneur must do
a full series of 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1000km
Brevets, a Paris-Brest-Paris randonneur event, a

Flche team ride, and the remaining distances ridden


on sanctioned brevets for a total of 5000 kilometers.
The qualifying events must all be completed within a
four-year period.
Randonneuring
Long distance bicycle riding within a specified length of
time. First developed in France in 1891 a few years
before the Tour de France which later spun off from
randonneuring. It is not considered a race but a ride.
Everyone who completes the ride within the time limit
is awarded the same medal regardless of how quickly
he/she rides the distance.
Randonneurs Mondiaux
An umbrella organization of national randonneuring
groups. Its primary functions are to organize foreign
(i.e., France, Spain, United Kingdom, Holland, Belgium,
Australia, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Austria,
Germany, Russia, South Africa, Canada, and the United
States) participation in Paris-Brest-Paris and other
1200-kilometer Brevets, encourage the exchange of
information of interest to randonneurs, and reward
clubs' and individuals' participation in long-distance
randonnes with various medals and trophies.
Randonneuse
1. A female long-distance cyclist.
2. A bicycle specifically designed for randonneuring.
Range
Pressure or temperature settings of a control; change
within limits.
Also
See
Bonding
Range
Dual-range
transmission
Gear
range
Heat
range
Heat
range
reserve
Load
range
Mid-range

Product
Rev
Spark
Plug
Tack Range
Range-change
The transfer gearbox lever
Also
Auxiliary gearbox.
Range gearbox
See
High/low range gearbox.
Range gearing
See
Wide range gearing.
Range reserve
See
Heat range reserve.
Range Rover

Heat

Click image for books on


Range Rover
A model of SUV manufactured in England
Range transmission
See
High/low range transmission.
Rank
See
Taxi rank.
Rankine cycle

range
range
Range

see

The thermodynamic cycle that is an ideal standard for


comparing performance of heat-engines, steam power
plants, steam turbines, and heat pump systems that
use a condensable vapor as the working fluid. Efficiency
is measured as work done divided by sensible heat
supplied.
Rankine cycle engine
The Rankine cycle system uses a liquid that evaporates
when heated and expands to produce work, such as
turning a turbine, which when connected to a
generator, produces electricity. The exhaust vapor
expelled from the turbine condenses and the liquid is
pumped back to the boiler to repeat the cycle. The
working fluid most commonly used is water, though
other liquids can also be used. Rankine cycle design is
used by most commercial electric power plants. The
traditional steam locomotive is also a common form of
the Rankine cycle engine. The Rankine engine itself can
be either a piston engine or a turbine.
Rankine scale
Name given the absolute (Fahrenheit) scale. Zero (0R)
on this scale is -460F
RAP
Acronym for Retained Access Power
Rapid Transit
See
Light Rapid Transit
Rash
See
Road rash.
Rasp
1. A tool like a file with coarse teeth used to prepare
a tire for Section repair and for Buffing prior to
Retreading.
2. The action of using a rasp tool.
Ratchet

1. A feature of a special wrench which allows you to


turn the handle in one direction to tighten a nut or
bolt, but turning it in the opposite direction does
nothing but position the handle back where you
started and leaves the wrench on the nut or bolt.
Likewise you could set the wrench to loosen a nut
or bolt.
2. A drive handle with ratchet mechanism, usually
called a Socket wrench.
3. A toothed Rack or wheel which is engaged by a
lever to permit motion in only one direction.
Also
See
Air
ratchet
Tap ratchet
Ratchet adapter
A device which converts a torque wrench or drive
handle without a ratchet mechanism into a reversible
ratchet tool.
Ratchet handle
A Ratchet tool.
Ratchet jaw
Trucker slang for a non-stop talker as in "He sure was a
ratchet jaw."
Ratchet screwdriver
A screwdriver with a ratchet mechanism.
Rate
See
Base
interest
rate
Buy
Rate
Charging
rate
Conversion
rate
Damping
rate
Deflection
rate
Discharge
rate
Door
rates
Flat
rate
Flat
rate
manual

Flow
rate
Net
interest
rate
Progressive
rate
spring
Reaction
Rate
Spark
rate
Spring
rate
Turn-in rate
Rated capacity
The quantity of electricity which can be drawn from a
fully charged battery for 20 hours by a constant
discharging current until cutoff voltage of 1.75 volts per
cell is reached.
Also
see
Ampere-hour capacity.
Rated horsepower
See
SAE horsepower.
Rated power
1. The power output of an engine as horsepower or
kilowatt.
2. The value stated on the generator nameplate. It is
the power available at the output terminals of a
component or piece of equipment that is operated
in
compliance
with
the
manufacturer's
performance specifications.
Rated pressure
A nominal pressure rating applied to vehicle parts.
Rated voltage
The voltage given for electrical equipment or devices
which refers to specified operating conditions.
Rate manual
See
Flat rate manual.
Rate spring
See
Progressive
rate
spring

Single
rate
spring
Variable rate springs
Rate suspension
See
Rising rate suspension.
Rat Hole Service
Drilling rigs.
Rating
See
Amp
Hr
Rating
Amperage
rating
Cetane
rating
Gross
axle
weight
rating
Gross
Combined
Weight
Rating
Gross
Vehicle
Weight
Rating
Load
rating
Manufacturers
Performance
Ratings
Octane
rating
Ply
rating
Rated
capacity
Speed
rating
Tow rating
Ratio
A fixed relationship between things in number, quantity
or degree. For example, if the fuel mixture contains one
part of gas for fifteen parts of air, the ratio would be 15
to 1.
Also
See
Air-fuel
ratio
Air
ratio
Aspect
ratio
Axial
Ratio
Bore-stroke
ratio
Braking
ratio
Breeding
Ratio
Bypass
Ratio
Compression
ratio
Economy
ratio

Equivalence
Ratio
Final
drive
ratio
Fuel-air
ratio
Gear
ratio
Overall
gear
ratio
Oxygen-To-Carbon
Ratio
Pedal
Ratio
Power-to-weight
ratio
Primary
compression
ratio
Rear
axle
ratio
Seasonal
Energy
Efficiency
Ratio
Speed
ratio
Stall
torque
ratio
Steam-To-Carbon
Ratio
Steering
overall
ratio
Steering
ratio
Stoichiometric ratio
Ratio Adapter Controller Module
See
Digital Ratio Adapter Controller Module
Rationalization
An industrial reorganization primarily aimed at a more
cost-effective and time-saving production process.
Ratio steering
See
Variable ratio steering.
Rat-tail file
A Round file.
Rattle
See
Body
rattle
Death
rattle
Diesel rattle
Rattle spring
See
Spreader spring.
Rattrap

The type of Bicycle pedals that have thin metal plates


with jagged edges running parallel on each side of the
pedal Spindle.
RAVE valve
A device used on Two-stroke engines which
automatically alters or varies the Exhaust port size. It
stands for Rotax adjustable variable exhaust.
Ravigneaux planetary gear set
A system which is composed of two sun gears of
different diameters, one internal gear, and several
planet pinions.
Raw exhaust gas
The exhaust gas upstream of any emission control
device, e.g., before it passes through a catalytic
converter.
Raw rubber
Natural rubber that has not been vulcanized.
Ray
See
Beta
Rays
Cathode
Ray
Infrared
Rays
Ultraviolet Rays
Rayleigh frequency distribution
A mathematical representation of the frequency or ratio
that specific wind speeds occur within a specified time
interval.
Raymond-Mays
A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models with
required application are Classic cars.
Rayon
A synthetic fiber.
Ray Tube
See
Cathode Ray Tube
DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Sa"

S
1. A letter rating for tires to indicate that they are
theoretically rated for speeds up to 180 kph (110
mph), as in P220SR15. The next higher rating is
T.
2. Abbreviation for Special or Sport, indicating
better performance than a standard car model.
S2000
A model of automobile manufactured by Honda
S4WD
Acronym for Selectable Four Wheel Drive
SA
An API classification for straight mineral oil used in
early gasoline and diesel engines which are operated
under such mild conditions that the protection of
compounded oils is not required. This category has no
performance requirements, and oils in this category
should not be used in any engine unless specifically
recommended by the equipment manufacturer. It was
replaced by the obsolete SB. Modern gasoline engines
should use oil that meets the SM classification.
Saab

A model of automobile manufactured in Sweden and


includes 9-2X (2005-06), 9-3 (1999-current), 9-5

(1999-current), 9-7X (2005-07), 900 (1978-98), and


9000 (1985-98)
Sacco panels
See
Side bumper panels
Sacrificial anode
An electropositive metal coating, such as aluminum or
zinc, that protects the steel of a car body by corroding
first when attacked by electrolytic action
Sacrificial protection
See
Cathodic protection
Saddle
1. Seat on a Bicycle
2. Metal piece on a centerpull brake.
3. Upper main bearing seat
Also
Anatomic
Gel
Yoke
Saddlebag

see
saddle
saddle

Saddlebag
A large bag or one of a pair which hangs down from the
saddle or straddles the rear wheel of a bicycle or
motorcycle. Also called panniers
Saddle gel
A gelatin substance that is inserted into a bicycle or
motorcycle saddle beneath the leather cover to provide
more cushioning.
Saddle tank
1. A fuel tank mounted above the rear axle.
2. A fuel tank that fits over the top tube of the frame
of a motorcycle
Saddle valve

Saddle valve
A device that is silver brazed or clamped on a tubing
line or pipe where a spike punctures the line or a hole
is drilled in the line to provide a secondary outlet of the
liquid in the line. Also called tap-a-line
SAE
Acronym for Society of Automotive Engineers. It
publishes automotive research papers and defines
various automotive standards of measurement.
SAE gross bhp
An older unit of engine power. In the SAE gross bhp
test, a bare engine is used, i.e., an engine equipped
with only those accessories that are necessary for its
operation, such as the oil pump and fuel pump; but
water pump, alternator, exhaust system, etc. are not
used; this results in a higher power rating than
achievable by the same engine under real operating
conditions
SAE gross horsepower

A production engine's actual power available at the


flywheel or output shaft (usually crankshaft) as
tested with an absorption dynamometer. It differs
from SAE net horsepower in that many of the
accessories (such as alternator, water pump, etc.)
are not attached. Engines before 1973 were primarily
measured with these "gross" numbers. Since 1973, net
figures were published. This confusion caused many
people to suppose that their engine had been seriously
de-tuned when they saw that the same engine in 1972
had 400 hp but in 1973 had only 235 hp. (This example
is from the Cadillac 500 cubic inch engine). Compare
SAE net horsepower.
Also
See
Brake
horsepower
Horsepower
SAE horsepower
A simple formula of long standing is used to determine
horsepower. The formula is (bore diameter) squared
times (number of cylinders) divided by 2.5. This
formula is used primarily for licensing purposes and is
not very accurate for determining actual brake
horsepower. Also called rated horsepower. Compare
SAE gross horsepower and SAE net horsepower.
Also
see
Horsepower.
SAE net bhp
A newer unit of engine power. A fully-equipped engine
(as when installed in a vehicle) is used to determine
SAE net bhp figures; as a rough guideline, SAE net is
about 70-85 percent of SAE gross
SAE net horsepower
The brake power (power available at the flywheel or
output shaft -- usually the crankshaft) of a fully
equipped engine fitted with all the accessories
necessary to perform its intended functions unaided. In
1973, automobile manufacturers began publishing their
engine specifications in net horsepower and net

torque instead of gross figures. In many cases the


published numbers were significantly lower in 1973
than in 1972. Some of the decrease was attributed to
the addition of pollution equipment, the lowering of
compression, and the use of regular unleaded
gasoline instead of premium leaded fuel. However
most of the decrease in number was a switch to net
figures. Compare SAE gross horsepower.
Also
See
Brake
horsepower
Horsepower
SAE Specifications
Standards developed by the Society of Automotive
Engineers, Inc.
SAE Standard Screw Threads
The SAE Screw Thread Standard, as revised in 1954,
conforms with the Unified and American Standard.
SAE steels
A numerical index used to identify composition of SAE
steel
Safe headway
A safe distance between two vehicles on the road
Safe stop wheel
A Run-on tire
SAFETEA-LU
Acronym for Safe, Accountable, Flexible, and
Efficient Transportation Equity Act - a Legacy for
Users
Safety
See
Active
safety
Driveshaft
safety
strap
Experimental
Safety
Vehicle
Insurance
Institute
For
Highway
Safety
Integrated
child
safety
seat
Integrated
safety
belts
Motor
Vehicle
Safety
Act

Park
safety
switch
Passive
safety
features
Passive
safety
Safety
factor
Safety
hub
Safety
rim
Safety valve
Safety Act
See
Motor Vehicle Safety Act
Safety, active
See
Active safety.
Safety Administration
See
National
Traffic
Safety
Administration
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Safety bead seat
A general term for a safety contour on the rim bead
seat preventing the tire bead from sliding into the rim
well especially during cornering maneuvers
Safety belt
See
Seat
belt
Integrated safety belts
Safety Board
See
National Transportation Safety Board
Safety can
1. Approved container of not more than 5-gal.
capacity. It has a spring-closing lid and spout
cover. It is designed to relieve internal pressure
safely when exposed to fire.
2. An approved container of not more than two
gallons capacity having a spring-closing lid and
spout cover and so designed that it will safely
relieve internal pressure when subjected to fire
exposure.

Safety catch
A secondary latch usually located under the front edge
of the hood, near the center, which prevents accidental
release of the hood if the main cable-operated hood
lock is activated by mistake
Safety chains

Safety chains
Two, crossed chains linking the trailer and vehicle frame
as a safeguard if the towing hitch fails
Safety Compliance Certification Label
(SCC) An American label which must be attached to the
lower half of the left-hand front door lock facing;
specifies the VIN and other relevant information
Safety control
1. Device to stop the operation of a unit if unsafe
pressure,
temperatures,
and/or
dangerous
conditions are reached.
2. Automatic controls and interlocks (including
relays, switches, and other auxiliary equipment)

which are intended to prevent unsafe operation of


the controlled equipment.
Also
see
Primary Safety Control
Safety-control circuit
A circuit or portion thereof involving one or more safety
controls aimed at preventing unsafe operation of the
controlled equipment due to grounding, opening or
shorting of any part of the circuit.
Safety Cutout
See
Head
Pressure
Safety
Cutout
Low
Pressure
Safety
Cutout
Oil Pressure Safety Cutout
Safety Data Sheets
See
Material Safety Data Sheets
Safety factor
1. Providing strength beyond that needed, as an
extra margin of insurance against part failure.
2. Degree of strength above normal requirements
which serves as insurance against failure
Safety features
See
Passive safety features
Safety glass
See
Laminated glass
Safety goggles

Safety goggles
A close-fitting glasses or mask to protect the eyes
(e.g., during welding)
Safety harness
See
Harness
Safety hub
A device that is installed on the rear axle to prevent the
wheels from leaving the vehicle in the event of a
broken axle.
Safety hubs
See
Safety hub.
Safety ledge
A raised area (hump) around the circumference of the
bead seat area of passenger wheels. Its function is to
prevent the tire beads from becoming unseated during
hard cornering or while running with low air pressure. A
must with tubeless passenger tires. Also called Special
ledge
Safety motor control
Electrical device used to open circuit to motor if
temperature, pressure, and/or current flow exceed safe
conditions.
Safety pin

Safety pin
A securing device

Safety plug
Device which will release the contents of a container
before rupture pressures are reached.
Safety pressure cap
See
Pressure cap.
Safety reflector
See
Warning triangle
Safety relief valve
A spring-loaded valve designed to open and relieve
excessive pressure in a device when it exceeds a
predetermined safe point
Safety rim
A rim having two safety ridges, one on each lip, to
prevent the tire beads from entering the drop center
area in the event of a blowout. This feature keeps the
tire on the rim.
Safety seat
See
Baby
seat
Integrated child safety seat
Safety shutdown
The action of shutting off all fuel and ignition energy to
the fuel utilization equipment by means of a safety
control or controls such that restart cannot be
accomplished without manual reset.
Safety shutoff device
A device that will shut off the fuel supply to the
controlled burner in the event the source of ignition
fails. This device may interrupt the flow of fuel to the
main burner only, or to the pilot and main burner under
its supervision.
Safety stand

Safety stand
A device that can be securely locked at a choice of
heights, so it can be placed under a specific part of the
vehicle underbody to support the weight of the vehicle
that has been raised with a jack, and keep the vehicle
safely in place. Usually used in pairs. Also called jack
stand or axle stand
Safety steering column
See
Collapsible steering column
Safety strap
See
Driveshaft safety strap
Safety switch
See
Neutral
safety
switch
Park safety switch
Safety valve
1. A valve designed to open and relieve the pressure
within a container when container pressure
exceeds a predetermined level.

2. Self-operated, quick opening valve used for fast


relief of excessive pressures.
Safety valve shutoff
A valve that is automatically closed by the safety
control system or by an emergency device. Such valve
may be of the automatic or manually opened type.
Safety Vehicle
See
Experimental Safety Vehicle
Safety wheel
A general term referring to either a wheel with a safety
bead seat or a wheel with run flat properties
SA-FV
Acronym for Separator assembly-fuel Vacuum
Sag
1. To bend or droop under weight or pressure. As a
result of a front or rear end collision, the frame
may develop a sag in the middle, much like a
hammock.
2. To fail to meet projected sales.
3. A paint problem.
Also
see
Pump
Sag
Sags
Sagging
1. An aggravated condition of paint where a band of
paint runs down the side of a vertical area of the
body. It may be caused by excessive build-up of
paint, thinners which are too slow-acting, or
excessively slow movement of the spray gun.
2. The straining of a ship that tends to make the
middle portion lower than the bow and stern
Sagging door
A door that sits too low in the door opening which is
often indicated by an uneven door gap that widens

towards the rear bottom and front top of the door but
narrows down at the rear top and front bottom. This
condition may be caused by faulty setting of the door
hinges and lock/striker assembly. On convertibles, it
often pinpoints structural damage, because the chassis
may be bending in the middle
Sags
An aggravated condition of paint where a band of paint
runs down the side of a vertical area of the body. It
may be caused by excessive build-up of paint, thinners
which are too slow-acting, or excessively slow
movement of the spray gun
Sag wagon
A support vehicle for touring bicycles or motorcycles to
provide food, repairs, or a ride home.
SAI
Acronym for Steering axis inclination
Sailing
See
Plane sailing
Sainte Claire
See
Wills Sainte Claire
SAIR
Acronym for Secondary Air Injection System
Salable natural gas
Natural gas marketed under controlled quality
conditions.
SALA suspension
Acronym for Short arm/long arm suspension
Sales
Total automotive product sales (vehicles, automotive
parts, including OE and aftermarket).
Also
See
Bulk
Sales
Fleet
Sales
Net
sales
value
Yard Sale

Sales value
See
Net sales value
Salient pole
An electric motor has salient poles when its stator or
field poles are concentrated into confined arcs and the
winding is wrapped around them (as opposed to
distributing them in a series of slots)
Saloon
A British term for Sedan
Salt
See
Bechgaard
Salt
Blueing Salts
Salt brine recycling
Collecting brine runoff and reusing it as a pre-wetting
agent for salt
Salt flat
Salt marsh of very unreliable consistency and bearing
strength found in desert regions and characterized by a
top crust of varying thickness and strength with soft
salt mud of great depth beneath it.
Salt fog testing
See
Salt spray testing
Salt spray chamber
A test chamber for Salt spray testing
Salt spray testing
Spray tests with sodium chloride solutions
Salt water splash
An open-air corrosion test facility
Salvaged
A vehicle totaled in an accident and then repaired.
There is no guarantee of street worthiness for a
salvaged vehicle. It may look good, but be hazardous
to drive.
Sam Browne

A wide strap, made of reflective material, worn around


the waist with a strap diagonally over the right shoulder
Sampler
See
Bomb Sampler
Sampling
See
Constant-volume sampling.
Sand
1. To smooth or clean a surface by rubbing with
sandpaper. Sanding usually refers to hand tools
such as sandpaper and block, while grinding
always refers to power tools such as angle
grinders.
2. A term popularly applied to loose, unconsolidated
accumulations of detrital sediment, consisting
essentially of rounded grains of quartz. In the
mechanical analysis of soil, sand, according to
international classification, has a size between .06
and 2.0 mm.
3. To apply a thin layer of sand or sand and salt to an
icy road surface to increase traction.
Also
see
Black
Sand
Silica sand
Sand blast
Cleaning by the use of sand propelled at high speeds in
an air blast.
Sand blaster

Sand blaster
A metal box into which a rusty or dirty object is placed.
Compressed air and sand or grit are forced through a
nozzle and is directed at the object in order to remove
the dirt, paint, or rust.
Sandblasting
The cleaning of a surface with a jet of sand (or grit)
under air or steam pressure
Sand casting
The formation of shapes by pouring molten metal into a
cavity shaped in sand in a molding flask
Sand channels
Open face tubes or planks (sometimes articulated) with
a rough inner surface with ridges used to put under the
driving wheels to assist in gaining traction when the
vehicle is stuck in soft sand.
Also
see
Sand
ladders

pierced
steel
planking
Sand tracks
Sander
A power-driven tool with a rotating abrasive disc for
smoothing and cleaning surfaces.
Also
See
Belt
sander
Disc
sander
Ground-oriented
sander
Orbital sander
Sanding
See
Block
sanding
Wet sanding
Sanding block
A block of rubber or plastic to which the sandpaper is
fastened, offering the operator a good grip. The block
should be used for most sanding jobs because it
distributes the pressure evenly and gives a more
uniform surface.
Sand ladders
A pair of aluminum ladders, about 170 cm long,
specially made with rungs closer than normal, to lay
beneath the vehicle wheels in soft sand to give grip and
flotation.
Also
see
Sand
channels
pierced
steel
planking
Sand tracks
Sandpaper
An abrasive paper coated with sand for smoothing and
cleaning. Compare Glasspaper
Sand recycling
Collecting road sand used one winter and processing it
for reuse the next winter or for other applications
Sand scratch
See
Sand scratches.

Sand scratches
The marks left in metal or in the old finish by
abrasives. They may also show in the finish coat due
to lack of filling or sealing.
Sand scratching
A paint fault characterized by the paint film appearing
low in gloss and showing primer and metal
imperfections in the top coat; may be caused by
excessively coarse sanding and too thin a paint coat
Sand scratch swelling
Solvents present in surface scratches that cause the
old finish to swell.
Sand tires
An off-road tire designed for desert sand and beach
sand. Usually with smooth tread blocks rather than the
sharp, bold blocks of a mud tire.
Sand tracks
Generic name sometimes given to any item fulfilling the
role of a sand ladder. May be pierced steel planking
Also
see
Sand
channels
Sand ladders
Sandwich construction
A composite construction of alloys, plastics, and other
materials consisting of a foam or honeycomb layer and
glued between two hard outer sheets. Also called
Sandwich laminate
Sandwich laminate
See
Sandwich construction
SAP
See
AIA-SAP
SAS
1. Acronym
for
Scandinavian
Automotive
Suppliers
2. Acronym for speed adjusting screw

SASE
Acronym for self-addressed stamped envelope.
Often used in advertisements where the seller will
provide information if potential buyers will send a SASE
enclosed in their query letter.
Also
see
SSAE.
Satellite
A block of controls near the steering wheel rim.
Also
see
Global Positioning Satellite
Saturated vapor
Vapor condition which will result in condensation into
droplets of liquid if vapor temperature is reduced.
Saturation
Condition existing when substance contains all of
another substance it can hold for that temperature and
pressure.
Saturation period
The length of time the breaker points are closed and
current is flowing through the primary windings of the
coil.
Saturn

A make of automobile manufactured by General Motors.


Includes Aura (2007-current), Ion (2003-07), L100
(2001-02), L200 (2001-03), L300 (2001-05), LS
(2000), LS1 (2000), LS2 (2000), LW1 (2000), LW2
(2000), LW200 (2001-03), LW300 (2001-03), Outlook
(2007), Relay (2005-07), SC (1991-92), SC1 (1993-

02), SC2 (1993-2002), SKY (2007-current), SL (19912002), SL1 (1991-2002), SL2 (1991-2002), SW1
(1993-99), SW2 (1993-2001), and VUE (2002-07)
Saturn Aura Green Line
A midsize Hybrid sedan produced by General Motors
similar to the Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid that uses a
Belt Alternator Starter (BAS) hybrid system.
Saver spare
See
Space saver spare
Saver wheel
See
Space saver spare wheel
Saving tire
See
Space saving tire
SAVM
Acronym for Spark Advance Vacuum Modulator
SAW
Acronym for Spark Angle Work
Saybolt Furol viscosity
A viscosity test similar in nature to the Saybolt
Universal viscosity test but one more appropriate for
testing high-viscosity oils. Certain transmission and
gear oils, and heavy fuel oils are rated by this method.
The results obtained are approximately 1/10th the
viscosity which would be shown by the Saybolt
Universal method.
Saybolt viscometer
An instrument used to determine the fluidity or
viscosity of an oil.
DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ta"

A letter rating for tires to indicate that they are


theoretically rated for speeds up to 190 kph (118 mph),
as in P220TR15.The next higher rating is H and the
one lower rating is S
TA
Acronym for Temperature Air (Honda)
Tab
1. A small projecting part as on a tab washer, or on a
gasket where it engages with another seal.
2. Not a continuous flange as provided at the top
mounting of a fender, but a short flange section to
provide localized fitting of one panel to another
TAB
Acronym for Thermactor Air bypass solenoid
Table
See
Lining
Table
Load
and
inflation
table
Tray table
Tab washer
A washer with a projection that may be hammered
against a flat side of a nut, or into a hole in the surface,
or over an edge, in order to secure the nut to the
surface on which it bears
TAC
1. Acronym for Thermostatic air cleaner
2. Acronym for Throttle Actuator Control
Tach
Abbreviation for Tachometer.
Tacho
Colloquial term for Tachograph
Tachograph
Instrument to record, on a graph, vehicle trip
information such as speed, rpm, distance, time
traveled, stop and go periods. It is used on transport
trucks.

Tachometer
(tach)
1. A device used to indicate the speed of the engine
in rpm. The tachometer is mounted on or near the
Dashboard (some even appear on the Hood and
others in a heads-up display on the Windshield).
It helps the Driver to know the optimum rpm for
changing gears on a vehicle with Manual
transmission. A tachometer is also a diagnostic
device which a mechanic uses to determine Idle
speed and other Carburetor and running
settings. Also called a rev counter
2. A small generator normally used as a velocitysensing device. Tachometers are typically attached
to the output shaft of DC servo motors requiring
close speed regulation. The tachometer feeds its
signal to a control which adjusts its output to the
DC motor accordingly (called closed loop
feedback control)
Tack
1. A term used to describe the sticky quality of a
rubber compound.
2. The sticky quality of an adhesive film, either while
wet or after the film has set. Technically it is the
pull resistance (measured in dynes) exerted by a
material completely adhering to two surfaces
being pulled apart.
Also
See
Rear
tack
strip
Surface tack
Tack cloth
A special cloth used to wipe sanded panels prior to
spraying in order to remove even minute dust particles
and other foreign substances from the panel surface
Tack coat

The first Coat of Enamel that is allowed to dry until


tacky usually about 10-30 minutes, depending on the
amount of Thinner used. The surface is tacky when it
will not stick to the finger when light pressure is
applied.
Tack hammer
A special hammer with a magnetic head for inserting
small nails or tacks
Tackiness
The stickiness of the adhesive film while in the stage of
drying.
Tacking
Attaching a panel provisionally by placing a few spots of
weld along its outline; final spot or seam welding is
carried out only afterwards
Tack rag
A cloth impregnated with a non-drying Varnish that is
used to pick up dust and dirt particles.
Tack range
The time during of a film to distortion or rupture when
it is exposed to forces exerted in opposite directions
(measured in psi).
Tack strip
See
Rear tack strip
Tack weld
Small weld used to temporarily hold together
components of an assembly.
Tack welding
Attaching a panel provisionally by placing a few spots of
weld along its outline; final spot or seam welding is
carried out only afterwards
Taco
To bend a wheel over on itself, in the shape of a taco. "I
taco'd my wheel when I hit that tree."
TAC system

A contact breaker ignition system developed by Lucas,


controlled by two transistors, one serving as a power
output transistor
Tactile paving
Contoured paving to mark out pedestrian crossing
points for those with vision problems.
TAD
Acronym for Thermactor air diverter solenoid
Tadpole cycle
A three wheel cycle with two wheels in front and one in
the back.
Also
see
Delta cycle
TAEE
Acronym for Tertiary amyl ethyl ether
Tag axle
A non-powered axle placed behind the drive axle in
large trucks. Contrasted with a Pusher axle which is
placed in front of the drive axle.
Tag block
A wiring harness terminal block with a number of
electrical plugs and sockets
Tag-Robinson Colorimeter
An instrument used to determine the color of oils. Also
a scale of color values.
Tag Trailers
A single axle trailer with equipment like generators,
cement mixers, or wood chippers.
Tagalong Trailers
Usually single axle equipment like generators, cement
mixers, or wood chippers.
Tail
The rear of a vehicle.
Also
See
Kamm
tail
Whale tail
Tailboard

A board at the rear of a pick-up that can be removed or


let down on a hinge. Compare Tailgate
Tail fin
A vertical fin on the back of the rear fenders. Copied
from a Lockheed P38 fighter plane, Cadillac introduced
tail fins on a coupe in 1948; they were a fashion until
the 1960s
Tailgate
1. On a truck it is the fold down access door to the
truck bed. On some Station wagon and SUVs, it
is the rear opening which usually requires the
window to be lowered before the tailgate folds out.
It differs from a liftgate in that the back opening is
raised to allow entry.
2. As a verb, to follow closely behind another
vehicle--an illegal and unsafe procedure.
Tailgating
Driving so close to the vehicle in front as to be affected
by its slipstream; a very dangerous practice as
available reaction time is reduced to a minimum. The
correct distance is 2 or 3 seconds behind the vehicle in
front.
Tail heavy
The description of the towing vehicle if the vehicle
being towed is too heavy
Tail lamp
The red rear light that illuminates as soon as the lights
are switched on, to show your vehicle to those behind
you
Tail lift
See
Brake dive
Tail light
The red rear light that illuminates as soon as the lights
are switched on, to show your vehicle to those behind
you
Tail light box

A deep-drawn panel spot-welded into the tail light


aperture to accept the complete tail light cluster. The
tail light box provides better corrosion protection for
the electrical connections of the tail light than would be
possible by installing the tail light with a rubber seal
into the open light aperture
Tail light panel
See
Rear panel
Tail light surround
See
Rear light surround
Tail pipe
The Exhaust pipe which runs from the Muffler to the
rear of the vehicle. and is open to the atmosphere,
through which the Exhaust gases are routed into the
atmosphere.
Outlet pipe from the evaporator.
Tailpipe
The last link in the exhaust system. Conducts exhaust
gases from the muffler to the rear of the car and into
the atmosphere.
Tailpipe expander
A special automotive tool used for reshaping and
expanding tailpipes evenly, to assure a tight fit and
prevent exhaust leaks
Tailshaft
A ship's propeller shaft.
Also
see
Gearbox output shaft
Take
See
Power take off
Take foot off the accelerator
The action of Easing up on the accelerator
completely so that there is only a minimal amount of
fuel entering the engine thus the engine will slow down
Take foot off the gas pedal

The action of Easing up on the gas pedal completely


so that there is only a minimal amount of fuel entering
the engine thus the engine will slow down
Take foot off the throttle pedal
The action of Easing up on the throttle pedal
completely so that there is only a minimal amount of
fuel entering the engine thus the engine will slow down
Take off
See
Power take off
Take up
To begin to transmit the drive when the clutch is
engaged
Take-up
The act of taking up.
Also
See
Lifting
platform
take-up
point
Quick take-up valve
Take-up point
See
Lifting platform take-up point
Take-up valve
See
Quick take-up valve
Talbot Lago
A vehicle brand of which all 150C models are Classic
cars.
Talbot
A vehicle brand of which all 105C and 110C models are
Classic cars. The 1946-54 Lago 4.5 models are
Milestone cars.
Talc
Powder lubricant to prevent sticking between tube and
tire. A soft mineral; a basic magnesium silicate usually
occurring in foliated, granular, or fibrous masses, used
in the manufacture of electrical insulators
Talking warning system

Using the car radio speakers, this microprocessorbased system tells the driver the source of the problem
in a clear, pleasant (female) voice. If the radio is on at
the time of the alert, the computer automatically turns
down the volume so the warning can be heard
Tall oil
The oily mixture of rosin acids, fatty acids, and other
materials obtained by acid treatment of the alkaline
liquors from the digesting (pulping) of pine wood.
TAME
Acronym for Tertiary amyl methyl ether
Tampering
See
Glass tampering detector
Tampering detector
See
Glass tampering detector
Tamperproof carburetor
A carburetor with factory-adjusted idle speed, sealed
idle speed adjustment screw, and provisions to ensure
that exhaust emission levels remain within specified
limits over an extended period of time
Tandem
1. A Bicycle that provides seats, bars, and pedals
for two or more riders, one behind the other.
2. A tractor-trailer truck.
Also
see
Fixed
Tandem
Sliding
Tandem
Spread Tandem
Tandem axle
See
Tandem axles.
Tandem axles
1. A pair of axles at the rear of the power unit
(tractor or straight truck) or trailer. For power

units, if described as a tandem, usually indicates


the number of drive axles on the power unit.
2. A combination of two axles having a common
suspension. Pair of axles and associated
suspension usually located close together. Called
Tandems.
Also
see
Spread Axle
Tandem booster
A vacuum power booster that uses two diaphragms to
increase brake application force. Smaller in diameter
than single-diaphragm boosters.
Tandem drive
Two powered axles in combination.
Tandem master cylinder
1. A master cylinder with two pistons; when the
brake pedal is pressed, the pushrod activates the
primary piston which in turn moves the secondary
piston; necessary for dual-circuit braking systems
2. A master cylinder having a single bore with two
pistons and separate fluid compression chambers.
In the event of significant fluid loss in one circuit,
this design, used in split braking systems,
ensures that there will be some braking power in
the other circuit. For this reason, it has been
mandatory on cars marketed in the US since 1967
Tandems
See
Tandem Axles
Tang
A device mounted on a rotating shaft or component
that engages in a recess of a component to be driven
Also
see
Bearing
Tang
Centerstand Tang
Tangential-flow scavenging

See
Loop scavenging
Tank
A container into which any liquid or gas can be held.
Also it may even be empty such as a Vacuum tank.
Also
See
Acetylene
cylinder
Air
tank
Anodizing
tank
Ballast
tank
Bleeder
Tank
Bottom
tank
Buffer
Tank
Cylinder
Deep
tank
Electropaint
tank
Expansion
tank
Flat
Tank
Fuel
tank
Fuel
tank
sender
Gas
tank
Header
tank
Miles
Per
Tank
Radiator
tank
Saddle
tank
Slop
tank
Supply
Tank
Surge
Tank
Vacuum
tank
Quiescent Tank
Tank bag
A bag that sits on the gas tank of the motorcycle,
secured by a magnet or by straps. Tank bags are good
for holding lightweight items such as gloves, maps, and
wallets
Tank-barge
A river barge for the carrying of liquid bulk cargo
Tank bib

A leather or vinyl covering over the gas tank of a


motorcycle to protect the finish from scratches
Tank chap
A leather or vinyl covering over the sides of a gas tank
of a motorcycle to protect the finish from scratches
Tanker
1. An enclosed cargo body designed solely for the
transportation of fluid or gaseous commodities in
bulk. Not to be confused with trailers which are
designed for carrying dry bulk products.
2. A ship designed for transporting liquid cargo,
usually petroleum products.
3. A dry bulk tanker. Sometimes called air-can
trailers. Used exclusively for hauling dry bulk
material. Cargo is emptied pneumatically.
Also
See
Oil
tanker
Petrol tanker
Tanker truck
A truck designed to carry liquid in bulk. British term is
petrol tanker
Tank sender
See
Fuel tank sender
Tank, supply
Separate tank connected directly or by a pump to the
oil-burning appliance.
Tanktop
A covering usually of wood, placed over the tank top for
its protection
Tank Vapor Valve
See
Fuel Tank Vapor Valve
Tank Wagon Sales
See
Dealer Tank Wagon Sales
Tap

Tap
1. To cut threads in a hole, nut, or tube with a
rotating tool called a "tap."
2. The fluted tool used to cut the threads.
3. To strike lightly
Also
Bottoming
Die
Drain
Pressure
Spark Plug Insert Tap

See
Tap
tap
Tap

TAP
Acronym for Transmission Adaptive Pressure
Tap and die set
A set of taps and dies for internal and external
threading, usually covers a range of the most popular
sizes.
Tap Bolt
A fully threaded hexagon head bolt.
Tap-changing Equipment
See
Automatic Tap-changing Equipment
Tape
See
Adhesive
tape
Blacking
A
Tape
Bonnet
tape
Hood
tape
Insulating
tape
Loom
Tape

Masking
tape
Rim tape
Tap End Stud
A double-end stud having each end threaded for a
different class of fit. The tap end has a Class 5 fit to
produce an interference fit in a tapped hole for semipermanent assembly. The nut end is threaded Class 2A
for assembly with a standard nut.
Taper
1. A gradual narrowing in size of a long round object
toward one end.
2. A lack of parallelism. A defect in which the
thickness of the drum or rotor at the outer edge
differs from its thickness at the inner edge.
Also
See
Advanced
rim
taper
Base
rim
taper
Drop
center
rim
taper
Flat
base
rim
taper
Intermediate
rim
taper
Rim
bead
seat
taper
Rim
taper
Semi-drop
center
rim
taper
Worm and taper pin
Taper-breaking tool
See
Ball joint separator
Taper cutter
A tool used to ream, deburr, align, and enlarge holes,
e.g., on car bodies. Also called Tapered reamer
Tapered Bottom Bracket
See
Square Tapered Bottom Bracket
Tapered compression ring
The upper compression ring which, due to its tapered
cross-section, requires a reduced running-in period
thus ensuring a tight seal quickly

Tapered leaf spring


See
Parabolic spring
Tapered punch
See
Drift punch
Tapered reamer
See
Taper cutter
Tapered roller bearing

Tapered roller bearing


An antifriction bearing using a series of tapered, coneshaped hardened steel Rollers operating between an
outer and inner hardened steel Race. It can accept
axial thrust as well as providing shaft location. Used
where both radial and thrust loads are to be handled.
Taper leaf spring
See
Parabolic spring
Taper of Head
In flat bearing surface fasteners, the taper of a head or
nut is the angle between a side and the axis.
Taper pin

Taper pin
A roll pin or Dowel pin that is wider at one end than
the other. The taper pin aids in hole alignment.
Also
See
Threaded
Taper
pin
Worm and taper pin
Taper seat
1. A conical seat that provides positive centering of a
wheel bolt head in the wheel. The opposite of
Radius seat.
2. A seal without a gasket achieved by mating the
conical surface of the spark plug shell and the
cylinder head
Tape weight
See
Adhesive weight.
Tap holder
A tool used to hold and drive taps, reamers, and screw
extractors with two long handles to provide high
leverage for turning operation
Tapped Hole
A threaded hole in a part.
Tappet
1. The screw used to adjust the Clearance between
the Valve stem and the Lifter or the Rocker
arm.

2.
Tappet
The Valve lifter itself.
Also
See
Barrel
tappet
Bucket
tappet
Cam
follower
Flat
tappet
Hydraulic
tappet
Mushroom
tappet
Valve tappet
Tappet adjusting screw
See
Valve adjusting screw
Tappet gasket
See
Rocker cover gasket
Tappet noise
Noise caused by the Lash or Clearance between the
Valve stem and Rocker arm or between the valve
stem and Valve lifter.
Tappet wrench

A wrench designed for adjusting valve clearances on


OHV-engines with bucket tappet assembly that use an
adjusting screw instead of valve shims for adjustment
Tapping
See
Boot
Tapping
Hinge tapping plate
Tapping plate
See
Hinge tapping plate
Tapping Screw
A screw which is threaded to the head and designed to
form or tap its mating thread in one or more of the
parts to be assembled, of various types as follows:
Tapping Screw, Type A: A thread-forming type of
tapping screw having a gimlet point and a thread
of relatively coarse pitch and special form, used in
punched, or nested holes in metal sheets or in
treated plywood or special asbestos compositions.
Tapping Screw, Type B: Also designate "type Z." A
thread-forming type of tapping screw, having a
blunt point with tapered threads of moderate
pitch, used with punched, drilled or nested holes.
Tapping Screw, Type C: A thread-forming type of
tapping screw having a blunt point with tapered
threads at the end, having UNC or UNF threads
and designed for fastening metal sheets.
Tapping Screw, Type D: Also designated "type EC."
A thread-cutting type of tapping screw having the
same thread as type C but provided with a fluted
end produced at thread rolling or a milled slot (or
slots) produced after thread rolling.
Tapping Screw, Type F: A thread-cutting type of
tapping screw having the same thread form as
type C but provided with a multiple flute tapered
end to facilitate tapping.
Tapping Screw, Type FZ: A thread-cutting type of
tapping screw having the same thread form as

type B but provided with a multiple fluted tapered


end to facilitate tapping.
Tapping Screw, Type G: Also designated "type EC."
A thread-cutting type of tapping screw having the
same thread form as type C but provided with a
slot across the end to facilitate tapping in hard
materials or deep holes.
Tapping Screw, Type H: Also designated "type DB"
or "type 25." A tapping screw having the same
thread as a type B but provided with a slot in the
end to facilitate tapping in plastics.

Tap ratchet
A tool with ratchet mechanism used to hold and
operate bits such as taps, drills, reamers, or screw
extractors
Tap spanner
See
Tap holder
Tap wrench
See
Tap holder
Tar
A black, sticky substance made from petroleum. It is
useful for patching cracks in the road. However, when
driving over it, the wheels kick up particles of it on a
vehicle's painted surface.
Also
see
Bug
and
tar
remover
Waste Tar
Tare weight
The weight of a truck, exclusive of its contents, but
including gas, oil, etc., ready to roil.
Also
see
Chassis
Weight
Curb weight
Targa

A removable-roof body style popularized by Porsche


that is similar to a convertible except that it
incorporates a fixed, roll-bar-like structure running
from side to side behind the front seats.
Targa bar
A type of roll bar made of a relatively wide band of
sheet steel rather than of tubing; made popular by the
Porsche 911 Targa
Targa top
A rigid, removable roof section between the windshield
and Targa bar
Tariff
1. A duty or tax imposed on imports.
2. A published volume of rate schedules and general
terms and conditions under which a product or
service will be supplied.
Also
See
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Generalized Preferential Tariff
Tariffs and Trade
See
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Tarnish
To discolor due to the formation of a thin film of oxide,
sulfide, or some other corrosion product
Tarpaulin
Waterproof canvas material used to cover cargo being
transported
Tar remover
See
Bug and tar remover.
Tar sands
Naturally occurring bitumen-impregnated sands that
yield mixtures of liquid hydrocarbon and that require
further processing other than mechanical blending
before becoming finished petroleum products.
TAS

Acronym for Throttle Adjust Screw


TA sensor
Intake Air Temperature Sensor
Tatra
A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models with
required application are Classic cars.
Taurus

Click image for books on


Ford Taurus
A model of automobile manufactured by Ford
TAV
Acronym for Temperature Actuated Vacuum
Tax
See
Car
tax
Displacement
taxes
Road tax
Tax disc
A road fund license disc displayed on the windshield to
show that a British road tax has been paid
Taxi
A vehicle in which passengers are carried for hire which
is usually recorded by a meter
Also
see
Tijuana Taxi
Taxicab
A car in which passengers are carried for hire which is
usually recorded by a meter
Taxi rank
A British term for a Taxi stand

Taxi stand
A place where taxis wait to be hired
DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ua"

Ua
Ub
Uc
Ud
Ue
Ui
Uj
Uk
Ul
Um
Un
Up
Ur
Us
Ut
Uv
UAIB
Acronym for Union of Automobile Importers in
Bulgaria
UART
Acronym for Universal Asynchronous ReceiverTransmitter
UAW
Acronym for United Auto Workers -- An international
union of workers in the automobile, aerospace, and
agricultural implement industries in North America.
DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Va"

Va
Vb
Vc

Vd
Ve
Vf
Vg
Vh
Vi
Vl
Vm
Vn
Vo
Vp
Vr
Vs
Vt
Vu
Vv
Vw
Vx

V
1. A letter rating for tires to indicate that they are
theoretically rated for speeds up to 210 kph (130
mph), as in P220VR15. The next higher rating is
W and the one lower rating is H.
2. A letter indicating a valve configuration as in 16v
meaning a 16 valve engine.
3. A letter indicating the configuration of the
cylinders in an engine as in V-8
4. Acronym for Volts
V-4
See
V-four
V-6
See
V-six
V-8
See
V-eight

V-10
See
V-ten
V-12
See
V-twelve
V-16
See
V-sixteen
VA
Value analysis.
Vac
Abbreviation for Vacuum
Vac servo
See
Vacuum brake booster
Vacuum
1. An enclosed area in which the air pressure is
below that of the surrounding Atmospheric
pressure.
2. Technically, a complete absence of pressure (0
psi), although the term is commonly used to
describe any pressure less than atmospheric.
Also
See
Air-valve
carburetor
Gauge
Vacuum
Manifold
vacuum
Ported
vacuum
advance
Pulse
vacuum
hublock
Separator
Assembly-fuel
Vacuum
Venturi vacuum
Vacuum activators
Dampers and control valves used in automotive air
conditioning system controlled by the vacuum created
by engine intake manifold vacuum.
Vacuum advance

A mechanism on the side of the Distributor that


automatically varies the instant at which the Spark
occurs as a function of Intake manifold vacuum.
Vacuum advance provides the additional advance that
is needed when the engine is operating at part throttle.
At part throttle less Air-fuel mixture gets into the
Cylinders and the mixture takes longer to burn after it
is ignited. Because the mixture burns more slowly, the
Piston will be past Top dead center and moving down
before the mixture has a chance to burn and produce
high power. As a result much of the power in the fuel
will be lost. The vacuum advance mechanism consists
of a flexible spring-loaded Diaphragm connected by a
Linkage to the Breaker plate on which the points are
mounted. The sealed side of the Diaphragm is
connected by a tube to the Carburetor. The Throttle
valve is below the vacuum passage in the Carburetor
Air horn so there is no vacuum advance when the
engine is idling because the throttle is closed. However,
when the throttle is partly open, Intake manifold
vacuum pulls the Diaphragm in and this causes the
Breaker plate to rotate a few degrees and advance
the Timing. With wide-open throttle there is very little
vacuum in the Intake manifold so there will be no
vacuum advance. In most instances the vacuum
advance is disconnected before checking the timing and
Point gap.
Also
See
Ported
vacuum
advance
Speed control vacuum advance
Vacuum advance mechanism
See
Vacuum advance
Vacuum advance unit
See
Vacuum advance
Vacuum assisted brake

See
Brake booster.
Vacuum assisted brakes
See
Brake booster.
Vacuum assist unit
An actuating mechanism that uses vacuum on one side
of a diaphragm as a source of power.
Vacuum booster
1. A small Diaphragm Vacuum pump, generally in
combination with the Fuel pump, that is used to
bolster engine Vacuum during Acceleration so
that the vacuum operated devices will continue to
operate.
2. A power brake actuating mechanism that uses
vacuum on one side of a diaphragm as a power
source.
Also
see
Integral
Vacuum
Booster
Multiplier Vacuum Booster
Vacuum brake booster
A device directly connected to the master cylinder and
mounted on the engine side of the bulkhead, which
uses engine manifold vacuum to produce additional
braking force
Vacuum brake supply line
The conduit for transmitting supply vacuum from a
vacuum source to the vacuum reservoirs.
Vacuum brake system
A brake system that uses engine vacuum to operate
and control.
Vacuum Bypass System
See
Delay Vacuum Bypass System
Vacuum capsule
A pneumatic actuator that converts air pressure
differences into a regulating short-stroke movement;

the circular, flat capsule has a spring-loaded diaphragm


with a lever attached
Vacuum chamber
A pneumatic actuator that converts air pressure
differences into a regulating short-stroke movement;
the circular, flat capsule has a spring-loaded diaphragm
with a lever attached
Vacuum check valve
(VCK-V) a one-way valve used to retain a vacuum
signal in a line after the vacuum source is gone
Vacuum control
A load-dependant mechanical ignition timing, controlled
by the inlet manifold vacuum
Vacuum control switch
A switch that monitors the vacuum signal enabling the
ECU to recognize open or closed throttle (idle)
operation
Vacuum control system
Intake manifold vacuum is used to operate dampers
and controls in some automobile systems.
Vacuum control unit
An assembly for load-dependent ignition timing
controlled by the intake manifold vacuum, consisting of
a vacuum capsule with a spring-loaded diaphragm
linked to the breaker plate
Vacuum control valve
(VCV) a ported vacuum switch, controls vacuum to
other emission devices during engine warm up
Vacuum delay valve
(VDV) a valve used by GM to bleed ported vacuum to
the vacuum advance unit through a small orifice and
control vacuum advance rate. Used to retard or delay
the application of a vacuum signal. Also called Delay
valve
Vacuum differential valve
(VDV) a device used in a Thermactor system with a
catalyst that sense intake manifold vacuum and

triggers the bypass valve to dump injection air to the


atmosphere during deceleration
Vacuum distillation
Distillation
under
reduced
pressure
(less
the
atmospheric) which lowers the boiling temperature of
the liquid being distilled. This technique with its
relatively low temperatures prevents cracking or
decomposition of the charge stock.
Vacuum-electric Switch

Vacuum-electric Switch
A component which gives gross reading of vacuum in
the intake manifold by using a diaphragm to operate a
simple on-off electrical switch.
Vacuum filter
A filter which removes electrical noise from the vacuum
signal sent from the vacuum sensor to the ECU
Vacuum gage
See
Vacuum gauge.
Vacuum gauge
A gauge used to determine the amount of Vacuum
existing in a chamber.
Vacuum hose
A pipe which connects the intake manifold to the
vacuum brake booster
Vacuum hublock
See
Pulse vacuum hublock
Vacuum hydraulic power unit
A unit consisting of a vacuum brake cylinder or
chamber, hydraulic cylinder(s) and control valve, in

which driver effort is combined with force from the


cylinder piston or chamber diaphragm to displace fluid
under pressure for actuation of the brake(s).
Vacuum ignition-timing control
See
Vacuum control
Vacuum leak
A loss of vacuum from a leaking hose or defective
gasket
Vacuum modulated EGR
An exhaust gas recirculation in which the amount of
exhaust gas admitted to the intake manifold depends
on a vacuum signal controlled by throttle position.
When the throttle is closed, at idle or during
deceleration, there is no vacuum signal to the EGR
valve; as the throttle is opened, a vacuum signal is
supplied causing the EGR valve to open
Vacuum modulator
A small unit attached to the Automatic transmission.
If the vehicle tends to stay in Low gear, shifts with
difficulty or produces whitish smoke, has an Automatic
transmission, and is constantly low in Transmission
fluid, try replacing the vacuum modulator before
undertaking major repairs. Most vacuum modulators
simply screw into place.
Also
see
Modulator.
Vacuum motor
A vacuum-actuated device used to operate doors and
valves.
Also
see
Air Cleaner Duct And Valve Vacuum Motor
Vacuum operated exhaust heat control valve
(VHC) a vacuum operated heat riser valve used by Ford
to cause the exhaust to flow through the intake
crossover passage for preheating of the air-fuel mixture
Vacuum over hydraulic brake system

A hydraulic-type brake system actuated by a vacuumpowered master cylinder.


Vacuum-powered master cylinder
A brake master cylinder actuated by a vacuum cylinder
or chamber.
Vacuum power motor
A device for use in opening doors in heating and air
conditioning systems
Vacuum power unit
A device for use in opening valves and doors in heating
and air conditioning systems using vacuum as a source
of power.
Vacuum pressure
Any pressure less than that exerted by the atmosphere.
Vacuum pump
1. A Diaphragm type of Pump used to produce a
Vacuum.
2. A special high efficiency device used for creating
high vacuums for testing or drying purposes.
3. A mechanical device used to evacuate an air
conditioning system to rid it of moisture, air, and
contaminants.
4. A device which creates a vacuum to actuate the
brakes.
Vacuum reducer valve
(VRV) A valve used by GM to limit the amount of
vacuum governing the ignition advance mechanism of
the distributor; on some ignition systems, a VRV is
used to reduce intake manifold vacuum when the
coolant temperature is above 104C, in order to
prevent or reduce detonation
Vacuum regulator valve three and four-port
(VRV) this type of vacuum regulator valve is used to
control the vacuum advance to the distributor
Vacuum regulator valve two-port

(VRV) this vacuum regulator provides a constant output


signal when the input level is greater than a preset
level. At a lower input vacuum, the output equals the
input
Vacuum relief valve
A valve which automatically opens and closes a vent for
relieving a vacuum within the a system, depending on
whether the vacuum is above or below a predetermined
value.
Vacuum reservoir
(VRESER) stores excess vacuum to prevent rapid
fluctuations and sudden drops in a vacuum signal, such
as during acceleration
Vacuum restrictor
(VREST) controls the flow rate and/or timing in actions
to the different emission control components
Vacuum retard
A vacuum control unit for retarding the spark
Vacuum retard delay valve
(VRDV) delays a decrease in vacuum at the distributor
vacuum advance unit when the source vacuum
decreases. Used to delay release of vacuum from a
diaphragm -- a momentary vacuum trap
Vacuum retard unit
A vacuum control unit for retarding the spark
Vacuum runout point
The point reached when a vacuum brake power Piston
has built up all the braking force it is capable of with
the Vacuum available.
Also
see
Booster Vacuum Runout Point
Vacuum sealing apparatus
A component in continuous zinc vapor deposition lines
through which steel strips enter the deposition chamber
and which prevents a build-up of pressure within the
chamber
Vacuum sensor

A sensor which detects changes in manifold pressure in


comparison to barometric pressure; such changes
indicate the need for an adjustment in air/fuel mixture
and electronic spark timing to maintain efficient engine
operation. Also called Manifold pressure sensor,
Pressure differential sensor, or Manifold vacuum
sensor
Also
see
Manifold Vacuum Sensor
Vacuum servo
A flexible diaphragm with a linkage attached to it
installed in a sealed housing. When vacuum is applied
to one side of the diaphragm, atmospheric pressure on
the other side moves the diaphragm and linkage to
perform work.
Also
See
Vacuum brake booster
Vacuum solenoid
On some engines, a vacuum solenoid controlled by an
electrical sensor switch is used to control the EGR valve
Vacuum suction cup

Dent Puller
A hand tool for pulling out shallow body dents and for
lifting flat, heavy objects such as windshields or sheet
metal
Vacuum suspended power booster
A type of power booster that contains vacuum in both
chambers of the booster when the brake pedal is at

rest. When the pedal is applied, the rear chamber is


vented to the atmosphere, causing the diaphragm of
the booster to move toward the master cylinder which
assist the driver in the application of the brakes
Vacuum-suspended power chamber
A booster power chamber that has vacuum on both
sides of its diaphragm when the brakes are not applied.
Vacuum switch
A switch that closes or opens its contacts in response to
changing vacuum conditions.
Also
See
Choke
Thermal
Vacuum
Switch
Oil
Thermal
Vacuum
Switch
Ported
Vacuum
Switch
Temperature
Vacuum
Switch
Thermal
vacuum
switch
Thermostatic Vacuum Switch
Vacuum switching valve
(VSV) an electrically controlled vacuum switching valve
used to control emission control devices
Vacuum tank
A tank in which a Vacuum exists. It is generally used
to provide vacuum to a Power brake installation in the
event engine vacuum cannot be obtained. The tank will
supply several brake applications before the vacuum is
exhausted.
Vacuum timing control
See
Vacuum control
Vacuum transducer

Vacuum transducer

A sensor with a vacuum diaphragm which moves an


iron rod inside a coil of wire sending a signal to the
computer that is proportional to the amount of vacuum.
Vacuum transmitting valve
(VTV) a valve used to limit the rate of vacuum advance
Vacuum unit
See
Vacuum control unit
Vacuum valve
See
Hot
Water
Vacuum
Valve
Idle
Vacuum
Valve
Thermal vacuum valve
Vacuum Valve Assembly
See
Thermactor Air Control Solenoid Vacuum Valve
Assembly
Vacuum vent valve
(VVV) controls the induction of fresh air into a vacuum
system to prevent chemical decay of the vacuum
diaphragm that can occur on contact with fuel
Vacuum Zone Switch
See
Manifold Vacuum Zone Switch
VAF
1. Acronym for Vane air-flow meter
2. Acronym for Volume Air Flow
Valance
A panel used to conceal structural detail or to provide
extra protection.
Also
See
Rear
corner
valance
Rear
quarter
valance
Rear valance
Valet parking

The parking of your car by a parking attendant


Valet switch
On some alarm systems, a switch to override the alarm
system for valet parking, car washes, etc.
Value
See
Actual
cash
value
Antiknock
Value
Beta
Value
Calorific
Value
Cd
value
Duty
paid
value
Expected
residual
value
Heating
Value
Lower
Heating
Value
Net
sales
value
Ph
value
Stated
residual
value
Thermal
Value
Threshold
Limit
Value
Yield Value
Value added
See
Auto
Pact
Canadian
Value
Added
Census value added
Value of shipment
Summation of value of shipments produced by
establishment, receipts of custom and repair revenue.
Valve
A device used to either open or close an opening to
allow or prevent the flow of a liquid or gas from one
place to another.
Also
See
ABS
relay
valve
Accumulator
valve
Adjustable-port
Proportioning
Valve
Air
Aspirator
Valve
Air
Bypass
Valve

Air
control
valve
Air
gulp
valve
Air
Inlet
Valve
Air
Inlet
Valve
Air
Outlet
Valve
Air
Outlet
Valve
Air
select
valve
Air
switching
valve
Air
Valve
Air-valve
carburetor
Allan
Valve
Altitude
Valve
Angle
Valve
Anti-backfire
valve
Anti-percolation
valve
Anti-backfire
valve
Anti-percolation
valve
Antisurge
Valve
Aspirator
valve
Automatic
Expansion
Valve
Auxiliary
Air
Control
Valve
Auxiliary
Air
Valve
Auxiliary
Control
Valve
Ball
check
valve
Ball
valve
Bleeder
valve
Bleed
valve
Blowoff
valve
Boost
valve
Brake
pressure
modulator
valve
Brake
proportioning
valve
Bucket
Valve
Burned
valves
Burner
Valve
Butterfly
valve
Bypass
valve
Cam
follower
Canister
Purge
Shut-off
Valve

Canister
Purge
Change
Check
Closed
Type
Check
Choke
Combination
Compensator
Control
Delay
Delivery
Diaphragm
Type
Diaphragm
Differential
Pressure
Discharge
Disc
Diverter
Dropped
Dump
EAC
EAS
Economizer
EGR
Electric
air
control
Electric
air
switching
Electric
Water
Electronic
Air
Control
Electronic
Egr
Emergency
Exhaust
valve
Exhaust
Expansion
Flapper
Float
Follow-up-type
Four
Frequency
French
Fuel
injector

Valve
valve
valve
Valve
valve
valve
valve
valve
valve
valve
Valve
Valve
Valve
valve
valve
valve
valve
valve
Valve
Valve
valve
valve
valve
valve
Valve
Valve
Valve
Valve
opens
valve
valve
Valve
Valve
Valve
valve
valve
Valve
nozzle

Fuel
Tank
Vapor
Gas
Governor
Gulp
Hairpin
valve
Hand
Lapped
Heat
control
High
pressure
relief
High-side
Service
High
Side
Service
Hold-off
Hot
Water
Vacuum
Hydraulic
valve
Idle
Air
Control
Idle
stop
Idle
Vacuum
Inlet
Intake
valve
Intake
valve
Intake
Integral Backpressure Transducer EGR
Kickdown
King
Kneuter
Lambda
Latching
Type
Liquid
Receiver
Service
Load
Sensing
Proportioning
Load-sensitive
proportioning
Low-side
Float
Low-side
Service
Lubricated
Plug
Manifold
Control
Manifold
heat
control
Manual
Metering
Modulating
Modulator

Valve
Valve
valve
valve
spring
Valves
valve
valve
Valve
Valve
Valve
Valve
lifter
Valve
valve
Valve
valve
closes
opens
valve
Valve
valve
Valve
valve
Valve
Valve
Valve
Valve
valve
Valve
Valve
Valve
Valve
valve
valve
valve
Valve
valve

Motor
Needle
Point
Needle
Oil
Control
Orifice
Oil
cooler
bypass
Oil
drain
Oil
filter
bypass
Open
Type
Check
Operating
Overhead
Overrun
control
Oversize
valve
Parallel
PCV
Petcock
Pilot
Operated
Absolute
Pilot
POA
Suction
Throttling
Pop-off
Poppet
Ported
EGR
Positive
Crankcase
Ventilation
Power
Pressure
Differential
Pressure
limiting
Pressure-operated
Altitude
Pressure
regulating
Pressure
regulator
Pressure
relief
Pressure
Water
Presta
Primary
Progressive
valve
Progressively
wound
valve
Proportioning
Pulse
Width
Modulation
Purge
Control
Quick
take-up

Valve
Valve
valve
Valve
valve
valve
valve
Valve
Valve
valves
valve
guide
valves
valve
Valve
Valve
Valve
valve
valve
Valve
Valve
valve
Valve
valve
Valve
valve
valve
valve
Valve
valve
valve
spring
spring
valve
Valve
Valve
valve

RAVE
valve
Reactionary
Type
Valve
Reed
valve
Reed
valve
induction
timing
Relay
Emergency
Valve
Relief
valve
Residual Brake Pressure Type Check Valve
Residual
Pressure
Check
Valve
Residual
pressure
valve
Reverse
inhibitor
valve
Reversing
Valve
Riser
Valve
Rotary
disc
valve
Rotary
valve
Running-on
control
valve
Saddle
Valve
Safety
Relief
Valve
Safety
valve
Scavenging
valve
Schrader
valve
Secondary
Air
Pulse
Valve
Secondary
Air
Switching
Valve
Secondary
Air
Bypass
Valve
Secondary
Air
Anti-backfire
Valve
Semi-Automatic
Valve
Service
Brake
Valve
Service
Valve
Shift
valve
Shuttle
valve
Side
Valve
Sleeve
valve
Slide
valve
Sodium-cooled
exhaust
valve
Sodium-cooled
valve
Solenoid
valve
Solenoid
Vent
Valve
Spark
Delay
Valve
Sponge
rubber
valve

Spool
balance
valve
Spool
valve
Step
Valve
Stop
Valve
Suction
Pressure
Control
Valve
Suction
Service
Valve
Suction
throttling
valve
Suction
Valve
Temperature
Relief
Valve
Thermactor
Air
Control
Valve
Thermal
time
valve
Thermal
vacuum
valve
Thermal
Vent
Valve
Thermostatic
Expansion
Valve
Thermostatic
Valve
Thermostatic
Water
Valve
Three-way
Valve
Throttle
valve
Timing
Valve
Tire
valve
Two-temperature
Valve
Two-way
Type
Check
Valve
Two-way
Valve
Vacuum
Check
Valve
Vacuum
Control
Valve
Vacuum
Delay
Valve
Vacuum
Differential
Valve
Vacuum Operated Exhaust Heat Control Valve
Vacuum
reducer
valve
Vacuum
Relief
Valve
Vacuum
Retard
Delay
Valve
Vacuum
Switching
Valve
Vacuum
Transmitting
Valve
Vacuum
Vent
Valve
Variable
valve
actuation
Warning
Light
Valve
Water
Valve
X-valve

Valve actuation
See
Variable valve actuation
Valve adjusting screw
A screw at the end of a rocker which bears on a
pushrod; used to tilt the rocker and thus adjust the
valve clearance
Valve and transducer assembly
This type of EGR valve consist of a modified ported EGR
valve and a remote Transducer. Works the same way
as an integral backpressure transducer EGR valve
Valve angle
A segment of the full circle of a rotary disc valve cut
out to admit the fresh charge into the cylinder
Valve aperture
See
Valve hole
Valve assembly
A device through which a tire is inflated. It includes a
valve stem, valve core, and valve cap.
Also
see
Control valve assembly
Valve block
See
Control valve assembly
Valve body
Part of the valve assembly containing plungers, pistons,
springs, etc.
Valve body housing
A housing which incorporates the bores in which the
valve spools slide and the canals which channel the oil
flow
Valve body separator plate
A plate sandwiched between two gaskets which
separates the upper and lower parts of the valve body
Valve bounce

The bouncing of a valve on its seat due to the valve


spring resonating at very high engine speeds. Also
called flutter.
Also
see
Bounce
Valve bushing
See
Valve guide
Valve cap
A screw-on cap to prevent the entry of dirt and dust
into the tire valve. It does not keep the air in -- the
Valve core does that.
Valve carburetor
See
Air-valve carburetor
Valve clearance
The distance between the small end of the Valve stem
and the Rocker arm or Valve lifter. This gap is
necessary to compensate for Expansion due to heat.
Also called Valve lash.
Valve clearance depression
A recess in the piston crown
Valve closes
See
Exhaust
valve
closes
Intake valve closes
Valve core
A check valve within a tire air valve which permits air
pressure chucks without undue loss of air pressure. The
core should not be considered a valve seal.
Valve cover
A long metal lid located on the top of the Cylinder
head on vehicles with overhead camshafts. The valve
cover is removed when the valves need adjusting. The
British term is rocker box or rocker cover.
Valve cover gasket

A gasket between the cylinder head and the valve


cover; usually either a flat paper or cork gasket or an
O-ring. The British term is rocker cover gasket.
Valve crown
See
Valve head
Valve cut-out
On some four-valve engines at low speed the main
rocker arms open only two valves per combustion
chamber in order to keep the energy of the gases at a
high level; with increasing rpm, the energy of the gases
becomes sufficiently strong for the remaining two
valves to be opened via hydraulic locking bolts
Valve diameter
Intake valves can be distinguished from exhaust valves
by their larger diameter
Valve duration
The length of time, measured in degrees of engine
Crankshaft rotation, that a valve remains open.
Valve engine
See
Sixteen valve engine
Valve, expansion
Type of refrigerant control which maintains constant
pressure in the low side of refrigerating mechanism.
Valve is caused to operate by pressure in low or suction
side, Often referred to as an automatic expansion valve
or AEV.
Valve extension
Extra length added to a tire valve stem for greater
accessibility particularly on inside duals.
Valve face
The outer lower edge of the Valve head. The face
contacts the Valve seat when the valve is closed.
Valve float
A condition where the valves in the engine are forced
back open before they have had a chance to seat.
Brought about (usually) by extremely high rpm. The

Valve lifters lose contact with the cam lobes because


the Valve springs are not strong enough to overcome
the
Momentum
of
the
various
Valvetrain
components. The onset of valve float prevents higherrpm operation. Extended periods of valve float will
damage the Valvetrain. Also called Valve bounce
Valve follower
See
Valve lifter.
Valve gear
A mechanism that operates the intake and exhaust
valves; includes the cams, pushrods, rocker arms, etc.
but not the valves themselves
Valve grinder
A special automotive tool consisting of a wooden shaft
and rubber suction cup(s) for hand grinding valves.
Valve grinding
Renewing the Valve face area by grinding on a special
grinding machine.
Valve grinding compound
An abrasive compound used for refacing valve seats.
The suction cup is placed on the valve head and the
valve is pressed into the seat; turning the handle
between one's hands will grind the valve into its seat;
always use with grinding paste. Not to be confused with
valve seat cutter which is used to cut worn valve
seats to a specific angle. Also called valve lapping
compound
Valve grinding tool
A special automotive tool consisting of a wooden shaft
and rubber suction cup(s) for hand grinding valves
Valve guide
The cylindrical hole which is located in the Cylinder
head or Block through which the stem of the Poppet
valve passes. It is designed to keep the valve in proper
alignment. It also serves as a bearing surface. Some
guides are pressed into place and others are merely
drilled in the block or in the head metal.

Also
see
Oversize valve guide
Valve guide driver
A tool for installing valve guides
Valve guide reamer
A tool used to enlarge worn valve guides to
accommodate oversized valve stems
Valve guide remover
A drift punch for driving out valve guides
Valve guide seal
See
Valve stem seal
Valve head
The surface of the large end of a valve.
Valve hole
The circular opening in the rim of a wheel for mounting
tubeless tires. Tubeless car tires commonly have a
snap-in valve consisting of a rubber molding bonded to
the metal stem casing. The rubber molding has a
groove formed at the base; when the valve is pulled
through the valve hole, the pliable rubber base snaps
into position. Commercial vehicle valves for tubeless
tires are all metal; they are attached to the rim and the
valve hole by an extended thread formed at the base
and secured by a nut. Airtight sealing is achieved by
either an O-ring or a fiat and flanged rubber washer.
Commercial vehicle valve stems may have a single,
double, or triple bend to accommodate different rim
profiles and single and twin wheel combinations. On
bicycle rims, the hole may be one of two sizes to
accommodate Presta or Schrader valves. Also called
valve aperture
Valve induction
See
Reed valve induction timing
Valve induction timing
See
Reed valve induction timing

Valve in head engine


See
Valve-in-head engine.
Valve-in-head engine
An engine in which both Intake and Exhaust valves
are mounted in the Cylinder head and are driven by
pushrods or by an overhead camshaft. Also called Ihead engine or Overhead-valve engine.
Valve In Receiver
See
Evaporator Equalized Valve In Receiver
Valve job
Replacing or regrinding old valves
Valve keeper
A small unit that snaps into a groove in the end of the
Valve stem. It is designed to secure the Valve
spring, valve spring retaining washer and valve stem
together. Some are of a split design, some of a
horseshoe shape, etc. Also called Valve key or valve
retainer.
Valve key
Key, keeper, washer, or other device which holds valve
spring cup or washer in place on valve stem
Also
see
Valve keeper.
Valve lag
The time between TDC or BDC and a valve closing
Valve lapper
A special automotive tool for grinding (lapping) valves
into valve seats; some types are power-operated, thus
allowing faster grinding compared with standard
suction-type valve grinding tools
Valve lapping compound
See
Valve grinding compound
Valve lash

Valve tappet Clearance or total Clearance in the


valve operating train with Cam follower on Camshaft
Base circle.
Also
see
Valve clearance
Valve Lead
The time between a valve opening and TDC or BDC
Valve lift
Distance a valve moves from the full closed to the full
open position. It is usually about a quarter of the
diameter of the port.
Valve lifter
1. The cylindrically shaped component that presses
against the lobe of a camshaft and moves up and
down as the cam lobe rotates. Most valve lifters
have an oil-lubricated hardened face that slides on
the cam lobe. So-called roller lifters, however,
have a small Roller in contact with the cam lobe
-- thereby reducing the friction between the cam
lobe and the lifter. Also called valve follower or
Cam follower.
2. A tool that compresses valve springs for removal
and replacement.
Also
see
Hydraulic valve lifter
Valve lock
Key, keeper, washer, or other device which holds valve
spring cup or washer in place on valve stem
Valve Main Burner
See
Individual Valve Main Burner
Valve margin
The width of the edge of the Valve head between the
top of the valve and the edge of the face. Too narrow a
margin results in Preignition and valve damage
through over-heating.
Valve oil seal

A Neoprene rubber ring that is placed in a groove in


the Valve stem to prevent excess oil entering the area
between the stem and the guide. There are other types
of these seals.
Valve opens
See
Exhaust
valve
opens
Intake valve opens
Valve overlap
A certain period in which both the Intake and Exhaust
valve are partially open. The intake is starting to open
while the exhaust is not yet closed. It is usually
expressed in degrees of crankshaft rotation and
determined by the valve timing, valve overlap is
necessary for the efficient flow of gases in and out of
the combustion chamber
Valve plate
Part of compressor located between top of compressor
body and head. It contains compressor valves and
ports.
See
Valve body separator plate
Valve port
The opening, through the Head or block, from the
Intake or Exhaust manifold to the valve seat.
Valve principle
The original method of ABS control using an electrically
operated valve to control the air pressure
Valve Refrigerant Cylinder
See
Liquid-vapor Valve Refrigerant Cylinder
Valve retainer
See
Valve keeper.
Valve rotator
A unit that is placed on the end of the Valve stem so
that when the valve is opened and closed, the valve will

rotate a small amount with each opening and closing.


This gives longer valve life. Also called Roto cap
Valve seat
1. The area onto which the face of the Poppet seats
when closed. The two common angles for this seat
are forty-five and thirty degrees.
2. The surface against which a valve comes to rest to
provide a seal against leakage.
Valve seat cutter
A special automotive tool with carting blades for use
with power tools; used to cut worn valve seats with 30
or 45 angles
Valve seat face
An annular part of a valve head located at the valve
seat of the cylinder head
Valve seat grinding
Renewing the valve seat area by grinding with a stone
mounted upon a special Mandrel.
Valve seat insert
A hardened steel valve seat that may be removed and
replaced. The use of valve seat inserts dispenses with
the need for lead in the fuel to act as a lubricant
between the valve head and seat
Also
see
Insert.
Valve seat ring
A ring-shaped insert of a harder metal than that of the
cylinder head; the use of valve seat inserts dispenses
with the need for lead in the fuel to act as a lubricant
between the valve head and seat
Valve, service
Device used to check pressures, service, and charge
refrigerating systems.
Valve shim
A calibrated shim used to adjust valve clearance on
OHV engines with bucket tappet assembly; for

adjustment, a calibrated valve shim is placed or


removed from between tappet and cam
Valve shim pliers
A special automotive tool for the removal and
installation of valve shims
Valve Shutoff
See
Manual
Main
Valve
Shutoff
Manual
Valve
Shutoff
Safety Valve Shutoff
Valves-in-receiver unit
(VIR) a component used on GM system, in which the
thermostatic expansion valve, POA suction throttling
valve, the receiver-drier, and, if equipped, the sight
glass are all combined into one assembly
Valve slot
Tube-type tires require a valve slot instead of a valve
hole to allow the tire valve to be removed from the rim;
a thread adaptor is molded to a circular rubber patch
vulcanized to the inner tube; the valve stem casing is
then screwed onto the tube adaptor
Valve, solenoid
Valve made to work by magnetic action through an
electrically energized coil.
Valve spool
1. In an automatic transmission, a sliding cylindrical
internal part of a valve with one or more sections
of reduced diameter
2. A spool-shaped valve, such as in the powersteering unit.
Valve spring
A small Coil spring that closes the valve after it has
been opened by the cam, and prevents the valve from
bouncing on its seat. The action of the spring keeps the
Lifter in contact with the cam. If the spring is weak,
noise will be generated and the valve, spring, lifter and

cam will be subjected to hammer-like blows that cause


Metal fatigue.
Also
See
Hairpin
valve
spring
Progressively
wound
valve
spring
Progressive valve spring
Valve spring cap
The retaining cap (of intake or exhaust valves) which
secures the valve keeper on the valve stem
Valve spring collar
The retaining cap (of intake or exhaust valves) which
secures the valve keeper on the valve stem
Valve spring compressor
A special automotive tool used to compress valve
springs for removal and replacement; the most
common type is a c-shaped clamp
Valve spring depressor
A lever-type tool used to depress valve springs, e.g.,
for removal and installation of valve stem seals
Valve spring lifter
A pliers-type tool with two expanding jaws, used to lift
and compress valve springs for removal and
replacement
Valve spring retainer
See
Valve spring cap
Valve spring seat
A seat retaining the bottom of the valve spring
Valve stem
The long cylindrical portion of the valve that moves up
and down in the Valve guide.
Valve stem seal
The oil seal between the valve and the cylinder head
which prevents excessive oil leakage from the top of
the cylinder head into the combustion chamber
Valve stem seal installer
A sleeve-type tool used to push down valve stem seals
for installation

Valve stem seal pliers


A special plier for removing valve stem seals on
overhead camshaft engines
Valve, suction
Valve in refrigeration compressor which allows
vaporized refrigerant to enter cylinder from suction line
and prevents its return.
Valve switch
See
Throttle position sensor
Valve system
See
VTEC Valve system
Valve tappet
An adjusting screw to obtain the specified Clearance
at the end of the Valve stem (tappet clearance). The
screw may be in the top of the Lifter, in the Rocker
arm, or in the case of the Ball joint rocker arm, the
nut on the mounting Stud acts in place of a tappet
screw.
Valve Three And Four-port
See
Vacuum Regulator Valve Three And Four-port
Valve timing
Adjusting the position of the Camshaft to the
Crankshaft so that the valves will open and close at
the proper time.
Also
see
Variable valve timing
Valve tip
The upper end of the valve that contacts the rocker
arm
Valvetrain
See
Valve train.
Valve train

1. The various parts making up the valve and its


operating mechanism which causes the valves to
open and close.
2. The system of valves that lets the fuel charges in
and let the exhaust gases out.

Valve Two-port
See
Vacuum Regulator Valve Two-port
Valve umbrella
A washer-like unit that is placed over the end of the
Valve stem to prevent the entry of excess oil between
the stem and the guide. Used in valve-in-head
installations.
Valve Vacuum Motor
See
Air Cleaner Duct And Valve Vacuum Motor
Valve, water
In most water cooling units. a valve that provides a
flow of water to cool the system while it is running.
Van
1. A covered road vehicle for carrying goods.

2. A recreational vehicle based on the body of a


commercial van, usually with comfortable, plush
interior trim, often with a bed.
3. A cargo body style with a totally enclosed cargo
area. Included are beverage vans, or bay vans,
and sealed shipping containers mounted on a
special bodiless chassis.
Also
See
Box
van
Cube
van
Light
van
Open
Top
Van
Refrigerated
Van
Step van
Vanadium Inhibitor
An organic and/or inorganic metal bearing chemical
intended to chemically and/or physically combine with
the compounds formed during combustion of heavy fuel
oil to improve the surface properties of the treated ash
compounds.
Van camper
See
Type
B
motorhome
Class B RV
Van conversions
See
Class B RV
Vane
A thin plate that is affixed to a rotatable unit to either
throw off air or liquid, or to receive the thrust imparted
by moving air or liquid striking the vane. In the first
case it would be acting as a Pump and in the second
case as a Turbine.
Also
See
Air-intake
Guide
Vanes
External
vane
pump
Hall vane switch

Vane air-flow meter


(VAF) a sensor with a moveable vane connected to a
potentiometer calibrated to cause the amount of air
flowing to the engine
Vane air temperature sensor
(VAT) located inside the vane airflow meter housing;
sense the temperature of the air flowing into the engine
Vane-in-rotor pump
A Sliding-vane pump
Vane-in-stator pump
See
External vane pump
Vane pump
A type of rotary pump with either a slotted rotor and
sliding vanes or a rotor with hinged vanes; typically
used for air pumps in secondary air injection systems,
as a compressor in air conditioning systems, and in
some transmission systems.
Also
See
External vane pump
Vanes compressor
Mechanism for pumping fluid by revolving blades inside
cylindrical housing.
Vane switch
See
Hall vane switch
Vane wheel impeller
An impeller with straight radial vanes
Van lift

Van lift

A platform which is deployed from a vehicle, allowing


people who use wheelchairs or have trouble stepping
up easy access. These platforms or lifts are run by
electricity or hydraulics but can always be manually
operated in the event that one of the previouslymentioned power sources fail.
Vanity mirror
A mirror on the inside of a sun visor
Vanity plate
A personalized license plate
Vapor
1. The gaseous form of a liquid which is usually
created by heating the liquid.
2. A gas which is often found in its liquid state while
in use.
3. The gaseous state of refrigerant. Vaporized
refrigerant is preferred to the word gas.
Also
See
Fuel
vapor
Fuel
vapor
recirculation
system
Saturated
Vapor
Superheated
Vapor
Water Vapor
Vapor barrier
Thin plastic or metal foil sheet used in air-conditioned
structures to prevent water vapor from penetrating
insulating material.
Vapor canister
See
Activated carbon canister
Vapor degreasing
A type of cleansing procedure to remove grease, oil,
and loosely attached solids from metals; a solvent such
as trichlorethylene is boiled, and its vapors are
condensed on the metal surfaces

Vapor deposition
A production of a surface film of metal on a heated
surface, usually in a vacuum, either by decomposition
of the vapor of a compound at the work surface, or by
direct reaction between the work surface and the vapor.
Also
see
Zinc vapor deposition
Vapor displacement
The release of vapors that had previously occupied
space above liquid fuels stored in tanks. These releases
occur when tanks are emptied and filled.
Vapor-engine
See
Binary Vapor-engine
Vapor injection
See
Water injection.
Vaporization
1. Breaking the Gasoline into fine particles and
mixing it with the incoming air.
2. Change of liquid into a gaseous state.
Also
see
Heat
Of
Vaporization
Latent Heat Of Vaporization
Vaporize
The action of converting a liquid into a mist or vapor by
breaking it into small particles and mixing it with air.
The design of the Carburetor and Fuel injectors
vaporizes Gasoline to produce a combustible Fuel-air
mixture. If it is not vaporized, the liquid gasoline may
not burn properly and may even Hydraulic.
Vapor Lamp
See
Mercury Vapor Lamp
Vapor lines
Air conditioning system lines in which refrigerant is
normally in a gaseous or vapor state.

Vapor lock
1. This is an unwanted condition where bubbles of air
form in the fuel line caused by boiling or
vaporizing of the fuel in the lines from excess
heat. The boiling will interfere with the movement
of the fuel and the air bubbles which form will in
some cases, completely stop the flow. Sometimes
it will cause the Float chamber to overflow which
Floods the Carburetor and result in an over-rich
mixture that can cause stalling of the engine when
the Accelerator is depressed. Fuels containing
Alcohol have lower Boiling points and many oldcar owners have installed more-powerful electric
Fuel pumps which overcome vapor lock
tendencies of these fuels by pushing them through
the air bubble. A wet rag will cool the line and get
rid of the problem. To prevent the problem in hot
weather, some mechanics wrap tinfoil around the
fuel lines to reflect the heat away.
2. The abnormal condition that occurs when brake
fluid contains too much moisture and is
overheated, causing the moisture in the fluid to
boil. Gas bubbles are formed in the fluid, which
causes a spongy brake pedal or a complete loss of
hydraulic pressure.
3. Condition where liquid is trapped in line because
of bend or improper installation. Such vapor
prevents liquid flow.
Vapor pressure
1. Pressure imposed by either a vapor or gas.
2. The tendency of a liquid to pass into the vapor
state at a given temperature. With automotive
fuels, volatility is determined by measuring RVP.
Also
Reid Vapor Pressure
Vapor pressure curve

see

Graphic presentation of various pressures produced by


refrigerant under various temperatures.
Vapor recirculation
See
Fuel vapor recirculation system
Vapor recirculation system
See
Fuel vapor recirculation system
Vapor recovery
An emission control system used by gasoline stations.
A special filler nozzle seals the gap between the pump
filler nozzle and the car's filler opening, preventing
benzene vapors from escaping into the atmosphere;
instead, they are recycled into the gas station's own
fuel tank; the same system is also used when the gas
station receives a new delivery of fuel from a gas
tanker
Also
see
Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery
Vapor recovery system
A system that prevents the escape of Gasoline vapors
from the Fuel system into the atmosphere. The basic
system consists of a Canister filled with activated
Charcoal and pipes connecting the Canister to the
Fuel tank and Carburetor. Any vapor-filled air that
leaves the Fuel tank because of Expansion passes
through special Emission control pipes to the
Canister where the vapors are grabbed and stored by
the Charcoal. Then when the engine is started, Intake
manifold Vacuum draws fresh outside air up through
an opening in the Canister. This moving air pulls the
fuel vapor out of the Charcoal and carries it to the
Carburetor and into the engine. In the meantime any
Gasoline that evaporates from the Carburetor collects
in the Carburetor and Air cleaner. As soon as the
engine starts this vapor is drawn down through the
Carburetor and into the engine along with the

entering Fuel-air mixture. Also called evaporative


Emission control.
Also
see
Exhaust
emission
controls
Fuel Vapor Recovery System
Vapor recycling
An emission control system used by gasoline stations.
A special filler nozzle seals the gap between the pump
filler nozzle and the car's filler opening, preventing
benzene vapors from escaping into the atmosphere;
instead, they are recycled into the gas station's own
fuel tank; the same system is also used when the gas
station receives a new delivery of fuel from a gas
tanker
Vapor retarder
A material that retards the movement of water vapor
through a building element (walls, ceilings) and
prevents insulation and structural wood from becoming
damp and metals from corroding. Often applied to
insulation batts or separately in the form of treated
papers, plastic sheets, and metallic foils.
Vapor, saturated
Vapor condition which will result in condensation into
droplets of liquid if vapor temperature is reduced.
Vapor separator
A device used on cars equipped with air conditioning to
prevent Vapor lock by feeding vapors back to the Fuel
tank via a separate line.
Vapor Valve
See
Fuel Tank Vapor Valve
Vapor withdrawal
A system of piping and connection to operate an engine
directly on vapor taken from the top of an LPG tank
Vapour
British spelling for Vapor
VAR

A unit of reactive power in a circuit carrying a


sinusoidal current. A VAR equals the amount of reactive
power in the circuit when the product of the root-meansquare value of the voltage (volts) by the root-mean
value of the current (amps) and the sine of the phase
angle between the voltage and the current, equals 1.
VARI
Acronym for Vacuum Assisted Resin Injection -- a
process for forming composite panels and bodywork
with consistent, controllable results.
Variable
See
Infinitely
variable
transmission
Input variable
Variable air volume
(VAV) system on the heating and cooling system: A
means of varying the amount of conditioned air to a
space. A variable air volume system maintains the air
flow at a constant temperature, but supplies varying
quantities of conditioned air in different parts of the
building according to the heating and cooling needs.
Variable air volume controller
(VAV) Device having electronic components used to
regulate the volume of air in a distribution system.
Variable assist power steering
A power steering system that enables the stiffness or
tension of the steering to increase at higher speeds for
more control or to soften at low speeds when
performing slower activities, such as parallel parking.
Also
see
Variable ratio steering
Variable assist steering
See
Variable assist power steering
Variable belt transmission
A continuously variable transmission using rubber Vbelts on expanding-contracting pulleys, depending on

engine speed and load; originally developed by van


Doorne for DAF and then used on the Volvo 340
Variable-choke carburetor
See
Variable-venturi carburetor
Variable displacement compressor
A compressor which can change its output in
accordance with the conditions.
Variable dwell
See
Dwell-angle control
Variable exhaust port
See
Adjustable variable exhaust port.
Variable fuel vehicle
See
Flexible fuel vehicle
Variable hole cutter
A drill bit with a stepped cutting head used to drill holes
into sheet metal and to enlarge the radii gradually by
advancing from one step diameter to the next on the
same drill bit
Variable intake manifold
A setup in which the path through which air travels into
the engine can be altered. Altering the path at a set
point allows an engine to develop more power over its
rev range.
Variable-jet carburetor
A carburetor with a sliding needle which moves in and
out of a jet to change its functioning size. A type found
on many motorcycle carburetors.
Variable limited-slip axle/center differential
A
limited-slip
axle/center
differential
with
an
electronically operated multiple-disc clutch as a slipinhibiting device
Variable message sign
An upright electronic computer-controlled highway
information sign sign (either permanent or movable),

which reveals road conditions, traffic restrictions, road


safety, etc.
Variable pitch pulley
Pulley which can be adjusted to provide different pulley
drive ratios.
Variable pitch stator
A Stator that has Vanes that may be adjusted to
various angles depending on load conditions. The vane
adjustment will increase or decrease the Efficiency of
the Stator.
Variable rate springs
Springs which become stiffer under compression;
variable rate gas springs are a feature of air suspension
systems
Variable ratio steering
Steering ratio characteristics in power steering systems
providing different ratios for small and large steering
angles
Variable reluctance sensor
(VR or VRS) a non-contact Transducer that converts
mechanical motion into electrical control signals
Variable resistor
A resistor, connected in series with an electric motor
that can be adjusted to vary the amount of current
available and thereby alter motor speed
Variable-speed wind turbines
Turbines in which the rotor speed increases and
decreases with changing wind speed, producing
electricity with a variable frequency.
Variable spring
Spring providing variable effective length through cam
action to suit load.
Variable Transducer
See
Backpressure Variable Transducer
Variable transmission

See
Continuously
variable
transmission
Infinitely variable transmission.
Variable valve actuation
In older engines, the Intake and Exhaust valves
operated in a fixed program of timed openings and
closings. With variable valve actuation, these actions
are varied for a better balance of low-speed, mediumspeed, and high-speed operation.
Variable valve timing
Through the use of computers, the precise time when
the valves open and close can be altered. It may be
better to change the timing slightly when the engine is
at a higher RPM than when it is slower.
Variable-venturi
See
Air-valve carburetor.
Variable-venturi carburetor
The characteristic feature of this carburetor is the
vacuum-operated piston which adjusts the crosssectional area of the venturi and moves a jet needle in
and out of a needle jet; typical designs are the SU and
Stromberg carburetors
Variable volume induction system intake configuration
A restrictor plate that opens and closes controlling the
amount of oxygen that can go into the engine.
Variomatic transmission
A transmission which used rubber belts and expanding
pulleys to provide an infinitely variable belt drive.
Also
see
Variable belt transmission
Varnish
1. A deposit on the interior of the engine caused by
the engine oil breaking down under prolonged
heat and use. Certain portions of the oil deposit
themselves in hard Coatings of varnish.
2. Residue formed when Gasoline gets old and stale.

VAT
Acronym for Vane air temperature sensor
VATS
Acronym for Vehicle AntiTheft System
Vauxhall

A vehicle brand of which only the 25/70 and 30/98


models of 1925-1948 are Classic cars.
VAV
Acronym for Variable air volume
VAWT
Acronym for vertical-axis wind turbine
DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Wa"
W
1. A letter rating for tires to indicate that they are
theoretically rated for speeds up to 270 kph, as in
P220WR15.The next higher rating is Y and the
one lower rating is V
2. Acronym for Watt
W/
Abbreviation for with, as in black w/white top.
WAC
1. Acronym for Wide Open Throttle A/C Cutoff
Relay
2. Acronym for Wide Open Throttle A/C Cutout
Relay

WACA
Acronym for A/C Wide Open Throttle Cutout Relay
Monitor
Waddle
A side to side rocking movement of a vehicle in motion,
caused by suspension or tire damage or excessive
lateral runout
Wading plugs
Oil drain holes are provided in the bottom of the clutch
housing (and the camshaft drive-belt housing on Tdi
and 2.5D engines) to preclude the possibility of the
clutch or cam belts becoming contaminated in the
event of oil leaks from the adjacent bearings. Wading
plugs should be fitted to block these holes when driving
through water over 30 cm deep and subsequently
removed.
Wad punch
A tool with a round cutting edge for cutting out holes in
gaskets or other soft materials
Wafer
A thin sheet of semiconductor (photovoltaic material)
made by cutting it from a single crystal or ingot.
Wagon
See
Dealer
Tank
Wagon
Sales
Dragon
Wagon
Four-door
station
wagon
Garbage
Wagon
Liftback
station
wagon
Sag
wagon
Space
wagon
Station
wagon
Two-door station wagon
Waistline
A British term for Belt line. An imaginary or molded
horizontal line below the bottom of the side window
that separates the roof area from the bottom of the
body

Waiver
See
Duty waiver
Wakening
See
Field Wakening
Walcker
See
Chenard-Walcker
Walked over
Trucker slang for Over powered by a stronger c.b.
signal as in "Come back on that someone walked all
over you."
Walk-in cooler
Larger. commercially refrigerated space kept below
room temperature. Often found in supermarkets or
wholesale meat distribution centers.
Walking Beam Suspension
A type of truck and tractor rear suspension consisting
of two beams, one at each side of the chassis, which
pivot in the center and connect at the front to one axle
of a tandem and at the rear to the other axle.
Walking Floor
A type of dump trailer with a conveyor belt or chain
running down the center of the floor of the trailer to
unload the cargo. Also called live bottom
Wall
See
Bearing
Wall
Cylinder
wall
Retaining
wall
Sound walls
Walnut
See
Burr walnut
Wander
A steering action where the vehicle moves or rambles
from a fixed course without positive control.

Wanderer
The first Wanderer car with a 5/12 hp four-cylinder
engine was test driven in 1912. It went into series
production in 1913. This small Wanderer car had not
been on the market very long when it became a stage
star in the operetta Puppchen (which can be
translated loosely as "darling") by Jean Gilbert. The title
song was rather catchy "Darling, you are the apple of
my eye, darling, I think the world of you." From then
on the little Wanderer was known simply by the name
Puppchen.
Wandering
A condition in which the front wheels of an automobile
tend to steer slowly one way and then another, and
interferes with directional control of stability
Wankel engine
A rotary Internal combustion engine invented by
Felix Wankel (1902-1988). It consists of an equilateral
triangular member with curved sides orbiting about an
Eccentric on a shaft inside a stationary Housing
whose inner working surface is in the shape of an
Epitrochoid. The Rotor is in sliding contact with the
Eccentric and imparts power to the eccentric shaft as
a connecting rod does to a Crankshaft. With one-third
of a rotor revolution per shaft revolution and a power
impulse for each of the three rotor sides, the Wankel
generates one power impulse per revolution per rotor-twice that of what the Four-cycle Piston engine
produces. Thus it has become accepted practice to
multiply the geometry Displacement of the Wankel by
a factor of two for comparison with Otto-cycle piston
engines. The Wankel's advantages include compact
size, light weight and smooth operation because there
are no Reciprocating parts. Its drawbacks include
relatively high Exhaust emission, possible sealing
problems and low Fuel economy. Mazda, however, has
made significant improvements in all three areas.
Warding file

See
Key file
Warm Air
See
Furnace Central Warm Air
Warm Air Furnace
See
Central Warm Air Furnace
Warm up
1. To run an engine until it reaches normal operating
temperature.
2. The laps taken on the track prior to the race used
to warm up the tires, transmission, engine fluids
and other components of the race car before the
start of the event.
Warm-up
The action of starting an engine and allowing it to idle
until it reaches operating temperature before driving
away.
Warm-up control unit
A unit that produces the richer mixture needed for cold
running and modulates fuel system pressure according
to engine temperature; the unit includes an electrically
heated thermostatic spring, which reduces the force on
a spring-loaded control diaphragm
Warm-up enrichment
A reduced enrichment of the air/fuel mixture following
cranking and after-start enrichment. In the past,
warming up an engine was thought to be good practice
but now manufacturers recommend that motorists
should drive off immediately, as this is the quickest way
of heating up the engine and preventing oil being
washed off the cylinder walls by partially burnt rich
mixture (which causes engine wear)
Warm-up regulator

On Bosch CIS, the original name for the controlpressure regulator


Warning
See
Deflation
warning
system
Direction
indicator
warning
light
Engine
oil
level
warning
light
Fluid
level
warning
indicator
Handbrake
warning
light
Hazard
warning
switch
Low
Tire
Pressure
Warning
Oil
pressure
warning
light
Parkbrake
warning
light
Reversing warning signal
Warning Flasher
See
Hazard Warning Flasher
Warning indicator
See
Fluid
level
warning
indicator
Level Warning Indicator
Warning lamp
A small lamp on the instrument panel that lights up if
there is a problem
Warning light
A small lamp on the instrument panel that lights up if
there is a problem.
Also
See
Brake
warning
light
Check
engine
warning
light
Coolant
level
warning
light
Direction
indicator
warning
light
Engine
oil
level
warning
light
Handbrake
warning
light
Oil
pressure
warning
light
Parkbrake
warning
light
Seat
belt
warning
light

Signal
light
warning
light
SRS warning light
Warning light valve
A valve in the hydraulic circuits of a dual brake system
that switches on a dash warning light when one system
fails.
Warning signal
See
Reversing warning signal
Warning switch
See
Hazard
warning
switch
Pressure Differential Warning Switch
Warning Switch Assembly
See
Brake Fluid Level Warning Switch Assembly
Differential Pressure Warning Switch Assembly
Parking Brake Warning Switch Assembly
Warning system
See
Deflation
warning
system
Talking warning system
Warning tracks
1. The little ridges in the road that warn you of an
upcoming tollbooth or another lane. Sometimes
called wake-up bumps or Bot's Dots -- Mr. Bot
got very rich off these.
2. A part of the race track which is off the main part
of the section for driving.
Warning triangle
A triangular red safety reflector that should be carried
on all vehicles and be placed at the side of the road to
warn of an obstruction ahead, such as a broken-down
vehicle
Warp
1. A bending or twisting out of shape.

2. Threads in cloth that run along the length of the


material.
3. To bend or twist out of shape
Warranty
The promise made by both the vehicle manufacturer
and the vehicle dealer to fix or replace parts on a new
vehicle if there is a malfunction before a specific time
or distance has elapsed. In some instances some
manufacturers or dealers grant warranty even after the
expiry of the designated time or distance. This is called
good will warranty.
Also
See
Anti-corrosion
warranty
Good will warranty
Wash
See
Car
wash
Window Wash
Washboard
A road surface which has a series of lateral grooves -usually found on gravel roads and caused by water
runoff. Also called corrugations
Washcoat
An oxide layer on the catalyst substrate which
increases with the active surface area
Washer
A flat Disc with a hole in the center. It may be made of
metal, rubber, plastic, or leather. It is often placed
under a nut to even out pressure and prevent damage
to the part on which it rests.
Also
See
air
washer
Bridge
washer
Crush
washer
Cup
washer
Dish
washer

Flat
washer
Helical
spring
lock
washer
Open
washer
Protector
washer
Slip
Washer
Spacer
Washer
Spring
lock
washer
Spring
washer
Tab
washer
Thrust
washer
Windshield
washer
fluid
Windshield washer
Washer face
A circular rim or boss on the underside of the head of a
bolt (i.e., the bearing surface) or on one side of a nut
to give a flat surface for the bolt or nut to sit on. A
smooth washer face takes away any burrs or
imperfections caused by the manufacturing process.
Washer fluid
A fluid added to the water in the windshield washer and
rear window washer reservoirs/bottles to improve the
cleaning action and lower the freezing point.
Also
see
Windshield washer fluid
Washer pump
See
Windshield washer pump
Wash/wipe
See
Headlight
wash/wipe
Rear wash/wipe system
Wash/wipe switch
A switch on the instrument panel that operates the rear
wash/wipe system
Wash/wipe system
See
Windshield
wash/wipe
system
Rear wash/wipe system

Waste
See
Biomass
waste
Hazardous Wastes
Wastegate
See
Waste gate
Waste gate
A valve used to limit the boost developed in a
turbocharger. A waste gate operates by allowing some
of the engine's exhaust flow to bypass the
turbocharger's
Turbine
section
under
certain
conditions.
Also
see
Electronically-controlled Wastegate
Waste materials
Otherwise discarded combustible materials that, when
burned, produce energy for such purposes as space
heating and electric power generation. The size of the
waste may be reduced by shredders, grinders, or
hammermills. Noncombustible materials, if any, may be
removed. The waste may be dried and then burned,
either alone or in combination with fossil fuels.
Waste oil
Petroleum-based materials that are worthless for any
purpose other than fuel use.
Waste spark method
In distributorless ignition systems, dual-spark coils fire
two spark plugs at the same time; one of these sparks
is in a cylinder during its exhaust stroke, where the
spark has no effect (waste spark); the other spark
occurs in the cylinder near the end of the compression
stroke
Waste tar
Petroleum-based materials that are worthless for any
purpose other than fuel use.
Watchdog timer

A device that detects controller malfunction and


initiates independent action to safely deactivate the
equipment operated by the failed controller. The device
accomplishes failure detection, by monitoring a periodic
update signal from the controller, and activation, if this
periodic signal does not occur within a specified time
period.
Water
See
De-ionized
water
Distilled
water
Light
Water
Sweet
Water
Valve Water
Water bar
A diversion ditch and/or hump installed across a trail or
road to divert runoff from the surface before the flow
gains enough volume and velocity to cause soil
movement and erosion, and deposit the runoff into a
dispersion area. Water bars are most frequently used
on retired roads, trails, and landings.
Water column
A reference term used in connection with a manometer
Water-cooled
An engine which is cooled by antifreeze in contrast with
an air-cooled engine.
Water-cooled condenser
1. Heat exchanger designed to transfer heat from hot
gaseous refrigerant to water.
2. Condensing unit which is cooled through use of
water flow.
Water cooling system
The normal cooling system used on most cars and
trucks to keep the temperature of the engine down to a
desirable level; engine heat is removed via water acting
as a coolant which surrounds the cylinders in a water

jacket; the system typically includes water passages,


coolant pump, thermostat, hoses, and radiator
Watercourse
A definite channel with bed and banks within which
concentrated water flows continuously, frequently or
infrequently.
Water defrosting
Use of water to melt ice and frost from evaporator
during off-cycle.
Water extractor
See
Air transformer
Water fade
A delay in brake application caused by water
contamination that reduces friction between the brake
linings and drum or rotor.
Water gauge
A device, often a glass tube, which shows the level of
water.
Water hammer
Noise generated by back pressure of water when a
valve is closed.
Water injection
In an attempt to improve performance and allow the
use of lower octane Gasoline, water injection was
developed. The cooling of the water vapor charge
suppresses Detonation. A small amount of water or
alcohol-water fluid is injected into the Fuel-air
mixture as it enters into the
Carburetor.
Theoretically, as the water evaporates it should cool the
incoming charge which then becomes denser, leading to
higher Volumetric efficiency. This in turn should lead
to improvements in performance and Economy and
allow the use of lower octane fuel because cooling of
the charge suppresses Detonation.
Water jacket
1. The area around the Cylinder block and Head or
Intake manifold that is left hollow so that water

may be admitted for cooling. Also called cooling


jacket.
2. Channels in the engine through which water and
coolant circulate to cool the engine.
Also
See
Cooling system.
Water jet cutter
A stream of water under great pressure (50,000 psi)
which is controlled by a computer and is used to
accurately cut plastic and fiberglass, etc.
Waterline
The line of the water's edge when the ship is afloat.
Also
see
Load waterline
Water marking
Stains on the paintwork caused when a drop of water
evaporates, leaving behind an outline of the drop
Water passage
A passage within the water jacket designed to prevent
the formation of pockets of steam
Water pump
A device that circulates the liquid through the Cooling
system by pumping it from the engine Water jackets
to the Radiator. The pump is usually mounted at the
front of the engine and is driven by a belt from a
Pulley on the front end of the Crankshaft. Also called
a coolant pump.
Water separator
A device found on diesel cars which removes any water
that may have contaminated the diesel fuel.
Water splash
See
Salt water splash
Water spotting
Stains on the paintwork that occur when a drop of
water evaporates from the painted surface and leaves a
white spot behind.

Also
see
Water-spotting.
Water-spotting
Drops of water that mar the Finish before it is
thoroughly cured.
Water temperature gauge
A gauge on the instrument panel which indicates
coolant temperature
Water turbine
A turbine that uses water pressure to rotate its blades;
the primary types are the Pelton wheel, for high heads
(pressure); the Francis turbine, for low to medium
heads; and the Kaplan for a wide range of heads.
Primarily used to power an electric generator.
Water valve
1. A shut-off valve, mechanically or vacuum
operated, for stopping the flow of hot coolant to
the heater.
2. In most water cooling units, a valve that provides
a flow of water to cool the system while it is
running.
Also
see
Electric
Water
Valve
Pressure
Water
Valve
Thermostatic Water Valve
Water vapor
Water in a vaporous form, especially when below
boiling temperature and diffused (e.g., in the
atmosphere).
Waterways
See
International waterways
Watt
(W)
1. The international unit of measurement of power.
One watt equals one Joule per second.

2. The unit of electrical power equal to one ampere


under a pressure of one volt. A Watt is equal to
1/746 horsepower.
Also
see
Lumens Watt
Watt linkage
A Suspension Linkage which has three-bars to locate
the De Dion or Live axle. There are two usual methods
for arranging a Watt linkage Frame to pivot on axle
Housing to frame or axle to pivot on frame to axle. In
either arrangement, this link structure restrains all
movement of the axle to a vertical plane.
Watts link
A device used to control side to side motion in a ladder
bar, torque-tube, or 4-link rear suspension. A watts link
has a pivot point in the center of the axle and a rod
that runs to each side of the car. This design eliminate
the side to side motion of a panhard rod.
Wave
See
Backward-wave
tube
Bending
Wave
Bow
Wave
Carrier
Wave
Pressure
wave
supercharger
Pressure
wave
Quasi-longitudinal
Wave
Quasi-optical
Waves
Rectifier
Wave AC Current
See
AC current sine wave
Waveband
A series of wavelengths forming a group
Waveform
See
Bi-directional Waveform

Wave rectifier
See
Rectifier
Wave supercharger
See
Pressure wave supercharger
Wax
1. A substance resembling beeswax in appearance
and character, and in general distinguished by its
composition of esters and higher alcohols, and by
its freedom from fatty acids; used for underbody
sealing, cavity sealing, and paintwork care.
2. Ingredient in many lubricating oils which may
separate from the oil if cooled enough.
3. A solid or semi-solid material at 25C consisting
of a mixture of hydrocarbons obtained or derived
from petroleum fractions, or through a FischerTropsch type process, in which the straight
chained paraffin series predominates. This
includes all marketable wax, whether crude or
refined, with a congealing point (ASTM D 938)
between 80 (or 85) and 116C and a maximum
oil content (ASTM D 3235) of 50 weight percent.
4. To treat with wax.
Also
See
Car
wax
Hot
wax
Microcrystalline Wax
Waxing
1. The formation of wax crystals in diesel fuel in
freezing conditions, thus clogging the fuel filter
and stopping the engine; avoided by the use of a
fuel heater or fuel additives.
2. The application of a wax finish on the paint
surface of a vehicle to preserve the paint and
maintain its beauty

Wax injection
The injection of corrosion-inhibiting wax into car body
cavities
Wax lancing
The injection of corrosion-inhibiting wax into car body
cavities
Wax-type thermostat
A thermostat in which the expansion of melting paraffin
wax (in a rigid cylinder) deforms a molded rubber
membrane and displaces a piston/pin from the cylinder;
this has the advantage of being insensitive to sudden
temperature fluctuations or to the pressure in the
system
Way
See
Oil
way
One way clutch
Way clutch
See
One way clutch
Ways
1. The machined abutments on which a sliding brake
caliper rides
2. Special sliding surfaces machined into the anchor
plate and caliper body where these parts of a
sliding caliper make contact and move against one
another.

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Xa"

Xa
Xe
Xf
Xl

Xr
Xt
Xv
Xy

X
Originally this letter indicated experimental vehicles,
but later came to indicate an exotic or unusual vehicle.
Also
See
Michelin X
DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ya"
Ya
Yb
Yc
Ye
Yi
Yo
Yp
Yu

Y
A letter rating for tires to indicate that they are
theoretically rated for speeds up to 300 kph (186 mph),
as in P220YR15.The next higher rating is Z and the
one lower rating is W
Yamaha

Click image for books on


Yamaha
A Japanese motorcycle manufacturer

Yard
See
Breaker's
yard
Scrap yard
Yard Horse
A tractor for moving trailers short distances in a truck
yard or terminal compound. Also called switching
tractor, yard tractor, trailer spotter, yard dog, and
linehauler. Equipment is manufactured and sold for
such exclusively off-road use, but sometimes old,
spare, or unroadworthy tractors are used.
Yarding
Method of transport from harvest area to storage
landing.
Yard Jockey
A person who operates a Yard tractor
Yard Mule
Special tractor used to move trailers around a terminal,
warehouse, distribution center, etc. Also called a Yard
Tractor
Yard sale
A bicycle term borrowed from skiing where a serious
crash leaves all your various wares -- water bottles,
pump, tool bag, etc. -- scattered as if on display for
sale.
Yardstick
Trucker slang for Mile markers on the road side as in
"There's a smokey advertising at the 75 yardstick."
Yard Tractor
Special tractor used to move trailers around a terminal,
warehouse, distribution center, etc. Also called a Yard
Mule
Yarn

See
Ballooning Of Yarn
Yaw
The rotation about a vertical axis that passes through
the car's center of gravity.
Yaw acceleration
A steady increase in the yaw angle
Yaw angle
The angle of deviation between a vehicle's longitudinal
axis and its true direction of motion, i.e., the difference
between the direction a vehicle is pointing when
cornering and the direction in which it is actually
moving
DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Za"
Za
Ze
Zf
Zi
Zo
Zv

Z
1. A letter rating for tires to indicate that they are
theoretically rated for speeds over 300 kph (186
mph), as in P245/50ZR16. There is no higher
rating, but the one lower rating is Y
2. The symbol for Impedance
Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen
See
ZF
ZAP
See
AIA-ZAP
Z-axle
A rear axle introduced with the BMW Z1 in 1988,
consisting of a trailing arm, one upper lateral link, one

lower diagonal link, and a coil spring at each side; also


included is an anti-roll bar