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RADIUS Accounting June 2000

RFC: 2866 Network Dictionary


http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-
ary.html

Network Working Group C. Rigney Network Protocols Map


Request for Comments: 2866 Livingston http://www.javvin.com/map.html

Category: Informational June 2000


Network Security Map
Obsoletes: 2139 http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
html
Wireless Communications
Technology Map
http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
RADIUS Accounting html
Network Protocols Hand-
book
http://www.javvin.com/model.html

TCP/IP Quick Guide


http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html

Ethernet Quick Guide


http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
html

Packet Analyzer
http://www.javvin.com/packet.html

DiskShare
http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html

DiskAccess
http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html

LANsurveyor
http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
html

CyberGauge
http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
html

Easy Network Service


Monitor
http://www.javvin.com/easy.html

Business Card Scanner


http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
scanner.html
Color Cards and Picture
Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
ner.html
Portable Document Scan-
ner
http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
ner.html
www.javvin.com

www.networkdictionary.
com
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RADIUS Accounting June 2000

Status of this Memo Network Dictionary


http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-
This memo provides information for the Internet community. It does not specify an Internet standard of any ary.html
kind. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
Network Protocols Map
http://www.javvin.com/map.html
Copyright Notice
Network Security Map
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000). All Rights Reserved. http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
html
Wireless Communications
Abstract Technology Map
This document describes a protocol for carrying accounting information between a Network Access Server http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
and a shared Accounting Server. html
Network Protocols Hand-
book
Implementation Note http://www.javvin.com/model.html
This memo documents the RADIUS Accounting protocol. The early deployment of RADIUS Accounting TCP/IP Quick Guide
was done using UDP port number 1646, which conflicts with the "sa-msg-port" service. The officially as- http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html
signed port number for RADIUS Accounting is 1813.

Ethernet Quick Guide


http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
html

Packet Analyzer
http://www.javvin.com/packet.html

DiskShare
http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html

DiskAccess
http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html

LANsurveyor
http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
html

CyberGauge
http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
html

Easy Network Service


Monitor
http://www.javvin.com/easy.html

Business Card Scanner


http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
scanner.html
Color Cards and Picture
Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
ner.html
Portable Document Scan-
ner
http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
ner.html
www.javvin.com

www.networkdictionary.
com
[ Page  ]
RADIUS Accounting June 2000

Table of Contents Network Dictionary


http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-
ary.html
1. Introduction . ..................................................................................................4
1.1. Specification of Requirements ...............................................................4 Network Protocols Map
http://www.javvin.com/map.html
1.2. Terminology...........................................................................................4
Network Security Map
2. Operation .......................................................................................................4 http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
2.1. Proxy ......................................................................................................5 html
Wireless Communications
3. Packet Format ................................................................................................5 Technology Map
http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
html
4. Packet Types ..................................................................................................7
4.1. Accounting-Request................................................................................7 Network Protocols Hand-
4.2. Accounting-Response ............................................................................8 book
http://www.javvin.com/model.html

5. Attributes . ......................................................................................................8 TCP/IP Quick Guide


http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html
5.1. Acct-Status-Type ....................................................................................9
5.2. Acct-Delay-Time . ................................................................................10
5.3. Acct-Input-Octets .................................................................................10 Ethernet Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
5.4. Acct-Output-Octets ..............................................................................11 html
5.5. Acct-Session-Id ....................................................................................11
5.6. Acct-Authentic .....................................................................................12 Packet Analyzer
http://www.javvin.com/packet.html
5.7. Acct-Session-Time ...............................................................................13
5.8. Acct-Input-Packets ...............................................................................13 DiskShare
5.9. Acct-Output-Packets ............................................................................13 http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html
5.10. Acct-Terminate-Cause . ......................................................................14
5.11. Acct-Multi-Session-Id ........................................................................15 DiskAccess
http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html
5.12. Acct-Link-Count ................................................................................16
5.13. Table of Attributes . ............................................................................17 LANsurveyor
http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
6. IANA Considerations . .................................................................................18 html

CyberGauge
7. Security Considerations ...............................................................................18 http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
html
8. Change Log . ................................................................................................18
Easy Network Service
Monitor
9. References . ..................................................................................................18 http://www.javvin.com/easy.html

10. Acknowledgements ....................................................................................18 Business Card Scanner


http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
scanner.html
11. Chair's Address............................................................................................19 Color Cards and Picture
Scanner
12. Author's Address........................................................................................19 http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
ner.html
13. Full Copyright Statement . .........................................................................19 Portable Document Scan-
ner
http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
Acknowledgement ...........................................................................................19
ner.html
www.javvin.com

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RADIUS Accounting June 2000

1. Introduction Network Dictionary


http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-
Managing dispersed serial line and modem pools for large numbers of users can create the need for signifi- ary.html
cant administrative support. Since modem pools are by definition a link to the outside world, they require
careful attention to security, authorization and accounting. This can be best achieved by managing a single Network Protocols Map
"database" of users, which allows for authentication (verifying user name and password) as well as con- http://www.javvin.com/map.html
figuration information detailing the type of service to deliver to the user (for example, SLIP, PPP, telnet,
rlogin). Network Security Map
http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
The RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service) document [2] specifies the RADIUS protocol html
used for Authentication and Authorization. This memo extends the use of the RADIUS protocol to cover Wireless Communications
delivery of accounting information from the Network Access Server (NAS) to a RADIUS accounting
server. Technology Map
http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
This document obsoletes RFC 2139 [1]. A summary of the changes between this document and RFC 2139 html
is available in the "Change Log" appendix. Network Protocols Hand-
book
Key features of RADIUS Accounting are: http://www.javvin.com/model.html
Client/Server Model TCP/IP Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html
A Network Access Server (NAS) operates as a client of the RADIUS accounting server. The client is
responsible for passing user accounting information to a designated RADIUS accounting server.
Ethernet Quick Guide
The RADIUS accounting server is responsible for receiving the accounting request and returning a http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
response to the client indicating that it has successfully received the request. html

The RADIUS accounting server can act as a proxy client to other kinds of accounting servers. Packet Analyzer
http://www.javvin.com/packet.html
Network Security
DiskShare
Transactions between the client and RADIUS accounting server are authenticated through the use of a http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html
shared secret, which is never sent over the network.

Extensible Protocol DiskAccess


http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html
All transactions are comprised of variable length Attribute- Length-Value 3-tuples. New attribute val-
ues can be added without disturbing existing implementations of the protocol. LANsurveyor
http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
html
1.1. Specification of Requirements
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD",
CyberGauge
http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
"SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be inter-
html
preted as described in RFC 2119 [3]. These key words mean the same thing whether capitalized or not.
Easy Network Service
1.2. Terminology Monitor
http://www.javvin.com/easy.html
This document frequently uses the following terms:
Business Card Scanner
service The NAS provides a service to the dial-in user, such as PPP or Telnet. http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
scanner.html
session Each service provided by the NAS to a dial-in user constitutes a session, with the Color Cards and Picture
beginning of the session defined as the point where service is first provided and the end
of the session defined as the point where service is ended. A user may have multiple
Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
sessions in parallel or series if the NAS supports that.
ner.html
silently discard Portable Document Scan-
This means the implementation discards the packet without further processing. The ner
implementation SHOULD provide the capability of logging the error, including the http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
contents of the silently discarded packet, and SHOULD record the event in a statistics ner.html
counter.
www.javvin.com

2. Operation www.networkdictionary.
com
[ Page  ]
RADIUS Accounting June 2000

When a client is configured to use RADIUS Accounting, at the start of service delivery it will generate an Network Dictionary
Accounting Start packet describing the type of service being delivered and the user it is being delivered to, http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-
and will send that to the RADIUS Accounting server, which will send back an acknowledgement that the ary.html
packet has been received. At the end of service delivery the client will generate an Accounting Stop packet
describing the type of service that was delivered and optionally statistics such as elapsed time, input and Network Protocols Map
output octets, or input and output packets. It will send that to the RADIUS Accounting server, which will http://www.javvin.com/map.html
send back an acknowledgement that the packet has been received.

The Accounting-Request (whether for Start or Stop) is submitted to the RADIUS accounting server via the Network Security Map
network. It is recommended that the client continue attempting to send the Accounting-Request packet until http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
it receives an acknowledgement, using some form of backoff. If no response is returned within a length of html
time, the request is re- sent a number of times. The client can also forward requests to an alternate server or Wireless Communications
servers in the event that the primary server is down or unreachable. An alternate server can be used either Technology Map
after a number of tries to the primary server fail, or in a round-robin fashion. Retry and fallback algorithms http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
are the topic of current research and are not specified in detail in this document. html

The RADIUS accounting server MAY make requests of other servers in order to satisfy the request, in
Network Protocols Hand-
which case it acts as a client. book
http://www.javvin.com/model.html
If the RADIUS accounting server is unable to successfully record the accounting packet it MUST NOT
send an Accounting-Response acknowledgment to the client.
TCP/IP Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html

2.1. Proxy
Ethernet Quick Guide
See the "RADIUS" RFC [2] for information on Proxy RADIUS. Proxy Accounting RADIUS works the http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
same way, as illustrated by the following example. html

1. The NAS sends an accounting-request to the forwarding server. Packet Analyzer


http://www.javvin.com/packet.html
2. The forwarding server logs the accounting-request (if desired), adds its Proxy-State (if desired) after
any other Proxy-State attributes, updates the Request Authenticator, and forwards the request to the DiskShare
remote server. http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html
3. The remote server logs the accounting-request (if desired), copies all Proxy-State attributes in order
and unmodified from the request to the response packet, and sends the accounting- response to the DiskAccess
forwarding server. http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html

4. The forwarding server strips the last Proxy-State (if it added one in step 2), updates the Response LANsurveyor
Authenticator and sends the accounting-response to the NAS. http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
html
A forwarding server MUST not modify existing Proxy-State or Class attributes present in the packet.
CyberGauge
A forwarding server may either perform its forwarding function in a pass through manner, where it sends http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
retransmissions on as soon as it gets them, or it may take responsibility for retransmissions, for example in html
cases where the network link between forwarding and remote server has very different characteristics than
the link between NAS and forwarding server. Easy Network Service
Monitor
Extreme care should be used when implementing a proxy server that takes responsibility for retransmis- http://www.javvin.com/easy.html
sions so that its retransmission policy is robust and scalable.
Business Card Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
3. Packet Format scanner.html
Color Cards and Picture
Exactly one RADIUS Accounting packet is encapsulated in the UDP Data field [4], where the UDP Desti-
nation Port field indicates 1813 (decimal). Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
When a reply is generated, the source and destination ports are reversed. ner.html
Portable Document Scan-
This memo documents the RADIUS Accounting protocol. The early deployment of RADIUS Accounting ner
was done using UDP port number 1646, which conflicts with the "sa-msg-port" service. The officially as- http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
signed port number for RADIUS Accounting is 1813. ner.html
A summary of the RADIUS data format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left to right. www.javvin.com

www.networkdictionary.
com
[ Page  ]
RADIUS Accounting June 2000

Network Dictionary
http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-
ary.html

Network Protocols Map


http://www.javvin.com/map.html

Network Security Map


http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
html
Wireless Communications
Code Technology Map
http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
The Code field is one octet, and identifies the type of RADIUS packet. When a packet is received with html
an invalid Code field, it is silently discarded.
Network Protocols Hand-
RADIUS Accounting Codes (decimal) are assigned as follows: book
http://www.javvin.com/model.html
4 Accounting-Request
5 Accounting-Response
TCP/IP Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html
Identifier

The Identifier field is one octet, and aids in matching requests and replies. The RADIUS server can
Ethernet Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
detect a duplicate request if it has the same client source IP address and source UDP port and Identifier
html
within a short span of time.

Length
Packet Analyzer
http://www.javvin.com/packet.html
The Length field is two octets. It indicates the length of the packet including the Code, Identifier,
Length, Authenticator and Attribute fields. Octets outside the range of the Length field MUST be treat- DiskShare
ed as padding and ignored on reception. If the packet is shorter than the Length field indicates, it MUST http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html
be silently discarded. The minimum length is 20 and maximum length is 4095.
DiskAccess
Authenticator http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html

The Authenticator field is sixteen (16) octets. The most significant octet is transmitted first. This value
is used to authenticate the messages between the client and RADIUS accounting server.
LANsurveyor
http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
html
Request Authenticator

In Accounting-Request Packets, the Authenticator value is a 16 octet MD5 [5] checksum, called the
CyberGauge
http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
Request Authenticator.
html
The NAS and RADIUS accounting server share a secret. The Request Authenticator field in Account-
ing-Request packets contains a one- way MD5 hash calculated over a stream of octets consisting of
Easy Network Service
the Code + Identifier + Length + 16 zero octets + request attributes + shared secret (where + indicates Monitor
concatenation). The 16 octet MD5 hash value is stored in the Authenticator field of the Accounting- http://www.javvin.com/easy.html
Request packet.
Business Card Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
Note that the Request Authenticator of an Accounting-Request can not be done the same way as the
scanner.html
Request Authenticator of a RADIUS Access-Request, because there is no User-Password attribute in
an Accounting-Request. Color Cards and Picture
Scanner
Response Authenticator http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
ner.html
The Authenticator field in an Accounting-Response packet is called the Response Authenticator, and
contains a one-way MD5 hash calculated over a stream of octets consisting of the Accounting- Re-
Portable Document Scan-
sponse Code, Identifier, Length, the Request Authenticator field from the Accounting-Request packet ner
being replied to, and the response attributes if any, followed by the shared secret. The resulting 16 octet http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
MD5 hash value is stored in the Authenticator field of the Accounting-Response packet. ner.html
www.javvin.com
Attributes

Attributes may have multiple instances, in such a case the order of attributes of the same type SHOULD
www.networkdictionary.
be preserved. The order of attributes of different types is not required to be preserved. com
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RADIUS Accounting June 2000

4. Packet Types Network Dictionary


http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-
The RADIUS packet type is determined by the Code field in the first octet of the packet. ary.html

Network Protocols Map


4.1. Accounting-Request http://www.javvin.com/map.html

Description
Network Security Map
http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
Accounting-Request packets are sent from a client (typically a Network Access Server or its proxy) to a
html
RADIUS accounting server, and convey information used to provide accounting for a service provided
to a user. The client transmits a RADIUS packet with the Code field set to 4 (Accounting-Request). Wireless Communications
Technology Map
Upon receipt of an Accounting-Request, the server MUST transmit an Accounting-Response reply if it http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
successfully records the accounting packet, and MUST NOT transmit any reply if it fails to record the html
accounting packet.
Network Protocols Hand-
Any attribute valid in a RADIUS Access-Request or Access-Accept packet is valid in a RADIUS Ac- book
counting-Request packet, except that the following attributes MUST NOT be present in an Account- http://www.javvin.com/model.html
ing- Request: User-Password, CHAP-Password, Reply-Message, State. Either NAS-IP-Address or
NAS-Identifier MUST be present in a RADIUS Accounting-Request. It SHOULD contain a NAS-Port
TCP/IP Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html
or NAS- Port-Type attribute or both unless the service does not involve a port or the NAS does not
distinguish among its ports.

If the Accounting-Request packet includes a Framed-IP-Address, that attribute MUST contain the IP
Ethernet Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
address of the user. If the Access-Accept used the special values for Framed-IP-Address telling the
html
NAS to assign or negotiate an IP address for the user, the Framed-IP-Address (if any) in the Account-
ing-Request MUST contain the actual IP address assigned or negotiated.
Packet Analyzer
http://www.javvin.com/packet.html
A summary of the Accounting-Request packet format is shown below.

The fields are transmitted from left to right. DiskShare


http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html

DiskAccess
http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html

LANsurveyor
http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
html

CyberGauge
http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
html
Code
Easy Network Service
4 for Accounting-Request. Monitor
http://www.javvin.com/easy.html
Identifier
Business Card Scanner
The Identifier field MUST be changed whenever the content of the Attributes field changes, and when- http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
ever a valid reply has been received for a previous request. For retransmissions where the contents are scanner.html
identical, the Identifier MUST remain unchanged. Color Cards and Picture
Note that if Acct-Delay-Time is included in the attributes of an Accounting-Request then the Acct-De-
Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
lay-Time value will be updated when the packet is retransmitted, changing the content of the Attributes
ner.html
field and requiring a new Identifier and Request Authenticator.
Portable Document Scan-
Request Authenticator ner
http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
The Request Authenticator of an Accounting-Request contains a 16-octet MD5 hash value calculated ner.html
according to the method described in "Request Authenticator" above.
www.javvin.com
Attributes
www.networkdictionary.
The Attributes field is variable in length, and contains a list of Attributes. com
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RADIUS Accounting June 2000

Network Dictionary
4.2. Accounting-Response http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-
ary.html
Description
Network Protocols Map
Accounting-Response packets are sent by the RADIUS accounting server to the client to acknowledge http://www.javvin.com/map.html
that the Accounting-Request has been received and recorded successfully. If the Accounting- Request
was recorded successfully then the RADIUS accounting server MUST transmit a packet with the Code Network Security Map
field set to 5 (Accounting-Response). On reception of an Accounting-Response by the client, the Identi- http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
fier field is matched with a pending Accounting-Request. The Response Authenticator field MUST con- html
tain the correct response for the pending Accounting-Request. Invalid packets are silently discarded. Wireless Communications
A RADIUS Accounting-Response is not required to have any attributes in it. Technology Map
http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
A summary of the Accounting-Response packet format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from html
left to right. Network Protocols Hand-
book
http://www.javvin.com/model.html

TCP/IP Quick Guide


http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html

Ethernet Quick Guide


http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
html

Packet Analyzer
http://www.javvin.com/packet.html
Code
DiskShare
5 for Accounting-Response. http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html

Identifier
DiskAccess
The Identifier field is a copy of the Identifier field of the Accounting-Request which caused this Ac- http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html
counting-Response.
LANsurveyor
Response Authenticator http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
html
The Response Authenticator of an Accounting-Response contains a 16-octet MD5 hash value calcu-
lated according to the method described in "Response Authenticator" above. CyberGauge
http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
Attributes html

The Attributes field is variable in length, and contains a list of zero or more Attributes. Easy Network Service
Monitor
5. Attributes http://www.javvin.com/easy.html

Business Card Scanner


RADIUS Attributes carry the specific authentication, authorization and accounting details for the request http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
and response. scanner.html
Color Cards and Picture
Some attributes MAY be included more than once. The effect of this is attribute specific, and is specified
in each attribute description. Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
The end of the list of attributes is indicated by the Length of the RADIUS packet. ner.html
Portable Document Scan-
A summary of the attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left to right. ner
http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
ner.html
www.javvin.com

www.networkdictionary.
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[ Page  ]
RADIUS Accounting June 2000

Network Dictionary
Type http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-
ary.html
The Type field is one octet. Up-to-date values of the RADIUS Type field are specified in the most recent
"Assigned Numbers" RFC [6]. Values 192-223 are reserved for experimental use, values 224-240 are Network Protocols Map
reserved for implementation-specific use, and values 241-255 are reserved and should not be used. This http://www.javvin.com/map.html
specification concerns the following values:

1-39 (refer to RADIUS document [2]) Network Security Map


40 Acct-Status-Type http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
41 Acct-Delay-Time html
42 Acct-Input-Octets Wireless Communications
43 Acct-Output-Octets Technology Map
44 Acct-Session-Id http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
45 Acct-Authentic html
46 Acct-Session-Time
47 Acct-Input-Packets
Network Protocols Hand-
48 Acct-Output-Packets book
49 Acct-Terminate-Cause http://www.javvin.com/model.html
50 Acct-Multi-Session-Id
51 Acct-Link-Count
TCP/IP Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html
60+ (refer to RADIUS document [2])

Length
Ethernet Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
The Length field is one octet, and indicates the length of this attribute including the Type, Length and
html
Value fields. If an attribute is received in an Accounting-Request with an invalid Length, the entire
request MUST be silently discarded.
Packet Analyzer
http://www.javvin.com/packet.html
Value

The Value field is zero or more octets and contains information specific to the attribute. The format and DiskShare
length of the Value field is determined by the Type and Length fields. http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html

Note that none of the types in RADIUS terminate with a NUL (hex 00). In particular, types "text" and DiskAccess
"string" in RADIUS do not terminate with a NUL (hex 00). The Attribute has a length field and does not http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html
use a terminator. Text contains UTF-8 encoded 10646 [7] characters and String contains 8-bit binary
data. Servers and servers and clients MUST be able to deal with embedded nulls. RADIUS implement-
ers using C are cautioned not to use strcpy() when handling strings.
LANsurveyor
http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
html
The format of the value field is one of five data types. Note that type "text" is a subset of type "string."

text 1-253 octets containing UTF-8 encoded 10646 [7] characters. Text of length zero
CyberGauge
http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
(0) MUST NOT be sent; omit the entire attribute instead.
html
string 1-253 octets containing binary data (values 0 through 255 decimal, inclusive).
Strings of length zero (0) MUST NOT be sent; omit the entire attribute instead.
Easy Network Service
Monitor
address 32 bit value, most significant octet first. http://www.javvin.com/easy.html

integer 32 bit unsigned value, most significant octet first.


Business Card Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
scanner.html
time 32 bit unsigned value, most significant octet first -- seconds since 00:00:00 UTC,
January 1, 1970. The standard Attributes do not use this data type but it is presented Color Cards and Picture
here for possible use in future attributes. Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
5.1. Acct-Status-Type ner.html
Portable Document Scan-
Description ner
http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
This attribute indicates whether this Accounting-Request marks the beginning of the user service (Start) ner.html
or the end (Stop).
www.javvin.com
It MAY be used by the client to mark the start of accounting (for example, upon booting) by specifying
Accounting-On and to mark the end of accounting (for example, just before a scheduled reboot) by www.networkdictionary.
specifying Accounting-Off. com
[ Page  ]
RADIUS Accounting June 2000

Network Dictionary
A summary of the Acct-Status-Type attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-
to right. ary.html

Network Protocols Map


http://www.javvin.com/map.html

Network Security Map


http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
html

Type
Wireless Communications
Technology Map
40 for Acct-Status-Type. http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
html
Length Network Protocols Hand-
6
book
http://www.javvin.com/model.html
Value TCP/IP Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html
The Value field is four octets.

1 Start Ethernet Quick Guide


2 Stop http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
3 Interim-Update html
7 Accounting-On
8 Accounting-Off Packet Analyzer
9-14 Reserved for Tunnel Accounting http://www.javvin.com/packet.html
15 Reserved for Failed
DiskShare
5.2. Acct-Delay-Time http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html

Description DiskAccess
http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html
This attribute indicates how many seconds the client has been trying to send this record for, and can be
subtracted from the time of arrival on the server to find the approximate time of the event generating
this Accounting-Request. (Network transit time is ignored.) LANsurveyor
http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
Note that changing the Acct-Delay-Time causes the Identifier to change; see the discussion under Iden- html
tifier above.
CyberGauge
A summary of the Acct-Delay-Time attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
to right. html

Easy Network Service


Monitor
http://www.javvin.com/easy.html

Business Card Scanner


http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
scanner.html
Color Cards and Picture
Type
Scanner
41 for Acct-Delay-Time. http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
ner.html
Length Portable Document Scan-
ner
6
http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
ner.html
Value
The Value field is four octets. www.javvin.com

5.3. Acct-Input-Octets www.networkdictionary.


com
[ Page 10 ]
RADIUS Accounting June 2000

Description Network Dictionary


http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-
This attribute indicates how many octets have been received from the port over the course of this ary.html
service being provided, and can only be present in Accounting-Request records where the Acct- Status-
Type is set to Stop. Network Protocols Map
http://www.javvin.com/map.html
A summary of the Acct-Input-Octets attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left
to right.
Network Security Map
http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
html
Wireless Communications
Technology Map
http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
html
Network Protocols Hand-
Type
book
42 for Acct-Input-Octets. http://www.javvin.com/model.html

TCP/IP Quick Guide


Length http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html

6
Ethernet Quick Guide
Value http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
html
The Value field is four octets.
Packet Analyzer
5.4. Acct-Output-Octets http://www.javvin.com/packet.html

Description DiskShare
http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html
This attribute indicates how many octets have been sent to the port in the course of delivering this
service, and can only be present in Accounting-Request records where the Acct-Status-Type is set to DiskAccess
Stop. http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html
A summary of the Acct-Output-Octets attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left
to right. LANsurveyor
http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
html

CyberGauge
http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
html

Easy Network Service


Type Monitor
http://www.javvin.com/easy.html
43 for Acct-Output-Octets. Business Card Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
Length scanner.html

6 Color Cards and Picture


Scanner
Value http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
ner.html
The Value field is four octets. Portable Document Scan-
ner
5.5. Acct-Session-Id http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
ner.html
Description www.javvin.com
This attribute is a unique Accounting ID to make it easy to match start and stop records in a log file. The
start and stop records for a given session MUST have the same Acct-Session-Id. An Accounting-Re- www.networkdictionary.
quest packet MUST have an Acct-Session-Id. An Access-Request packet MAY have an Acct-Session- com
[ Page 11 ]
RADIUS Accounting June 2000

Id; if it does, then the NAS MUST use the same Acct-Session-Id in the Accounting- Request packets Network Dictionary
for that session. http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-
ary.html
The Acct-Session-Id SHOULD contain UTF-8 encoded 10646 [7] characters.
Network Protocols Map
For example, one implementation uses a string with an 8-digit upper case hexadecimal number, the http://www.javvin.com/map.html
first two digits increment on each reboot (wrapping every 256 reboots) and the next 6 digits counting
from 0 for the first person logging in after a reboot up to 2^24-1, about 16 million. Other encodings
are possible. Network Security Map
http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
A summary of the Acct-Session-Id attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left to html
right. Wireless Communications
Technology Map
http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
html
Network Protocols Hand-
book
http://www.javvin.com/model.html
Type TCP/IP Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html
44 for Acct-Session-Id.

Length Ethernet Quick Guide


http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
>= 3 html

String Packet Analyzer


http://www.javvin.com/packet.html
The String field SHOULD be a string of UTF-8 encoded 10646 [7] characters.
DiskShare
5.6. Acct-Authentic http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html

Description DiskAccess
http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html
This attribute MAY be included in an Accounting-Request to indicate how the user was authenticated,
whether by RADIUS, the NAS itself, or another remote authentication protocol. Users who are deliv-
ered service without being authenticated SHOULD NOT generate Accounting records. LANsurveyor
http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
A summary of the Acct-Authentic attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left to html
right.
CyberGauge
http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
html

Easy Network Service


Monitor
http://www.javvin.com/easy.html

Business Card Scanner


Type http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
scanner.html
45 for Acct-Authentic.
Color Cards and Picture
Length Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
6 ner.html
Portable Document Scan-
Value
ner
The Value field is four octets. http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
ner.html
1 RADIUS www.javvin.com
2 Local
3 Remote www.networkdictionary.
com
[ Page 12 ]
RADIUS Accounting June 2000

5.7. Acct-Session-Time Network Dictionary


http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-
Description ary.html

This attribute indicates how many seconds the user has received service for, and can only be present in Network Protocols Map
Accounting-Request records where the Acct-Status-Type is set to Stop. http://www.javvin.com/map.html

A summary of the Acct-Session-Time attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left Network Security Map
to right. http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
html
Wireless Communications
Technology Map
http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
html
Network Protocols Hand-
book
Type http://www.javvin.com/model.html

46 for Acct-Session-Time. TCP/IP Quick Guide


http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html
Length

6 Ethernet Quick Guide


http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
Value html

The Value field is four octets. Packet Analyzer


http://www.javvin.com/packet.html

5.8. Acct-Input-Packets DiskShare


http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html
Description

This attribute indicates how many packets have been received from the port over the course of this DiskAccess
service being provided to a Framed User, and can only be present in Accounting-Request records where http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html
the Acct-Status-Type is set to Stop.
LANsurveyor
A summary of the Acct-Input-packets attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
to right. html

CyberGauge
http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
html

Easy Network Service


Monitor
http://www.javvin.com/easy.html
Type
Business Card Scanner
47 for Acct-Input-Packets. http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
scanner.html
Length Color Cards and Picture
Scanner
6 http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
ner.html
Value
Portable Document Scan-
The Value field is four octets. ner
http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
ner.html
5.9. Acct-Output-Packets
www.javvin.com
Description
www.networkdictionary.
This attribute indicates how many packets have been sent to the port in the course of delivering this com
[ Page 13 ]
RADIUS Accounting June 2000

service to a Framed User, and can only be present in Accounting-Request records where the Acct-Sta- Network Dictionary
tus-Type is set to Stop. http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-
ary.html
A summary of the Acct-Output-Packets attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from
left to right. Network Protocols Map
http://www.javvin.com/map.html

Network Security Map


http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
html
Wireless Communications
Technology Map
Type http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
html
48 for Acct-Output-Packets. Network Protocols Hand-
book
Length
http://www.javvin.com/model.html
6 TCP/IP Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html
Value

The Value field is four octets. Ethernet Quick Guide


http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
5.10. Acct-Terminate-Cause html

Description
Packet Analyzer
http://www.javvin.com/packet.html
This attribute indicates how the session was terminated, and can only be present in Accounting-Request
records where the Acct- Status-Type is set to Stop. DiskShare
http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html
A summary of the Acct-Terminate-Cause attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from
left to right. DiskAccess
http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html

LANsurveyor
http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
html

CyberGauge
http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
Type html

49 for Acct-Terminate-Cause Easy Network Service


Length
Monitor
http://www.javvin.com/easy.html
6 Business Card Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
Value scanner.html

The Value field is four octets, containing an integer specifying the cause of session termination, as fol-
Color Cards and Picture
lows: Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
1 User Request ner.html
2 Lost Carrier Portable Document Scan-
3 Lost Service
4 Idle Timeout
ner
http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
5 Session Timeout
ner.html
6 Admin Reset
7 Admin Reboot www.javvin.com
8 Port Error
9 NAS Error www.networkdictionary.
10 NAS Request
com
[ Page 14 ]
RADIUS Accounting June 2000

11 NAS Reboot Network Dictionary


12 Port Unneeded http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-
13 Port Preempted ary.html
14 Port Suspended
15 Service Unavailable Network Protocols Map
16 Callback http://www.javvin.com/map.html
17 User Error
18 Host Request
Network Security Map
The termination causes are as follows: http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
html
User Request User requested termination of service, for example with LCP Terminate or Wireless Communications
by logging out. Technology Map
http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
Lost Carrier DCD was dropped on the port. html

Lost Service Service can no longer be provided; for example, user's connection to a host
Network Protocols Hand-
was interrupted. book
http://www.javvin.com/model.html
Idle Timeout Idle timer expired.
TCP/IP Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html
Session Timeout Maximum session length timer expired.

Admin Reset Administrator reset the port or session.


Ethernet Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
Admin Reboot Administrator is ending service on the NAS, for example prior to rebooting
html
the NAS.

Port Error NAS detected an error on the port which required ending the session.
Packet Analyzer
http://www.javvin.com/packet.html
NAS Error NAS detected some error (other than on the port) which required ending
the session. DiskShare
http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html
NAS Request NAS ended session for a non-error reason not otherwise listed here.
DiskAccess
NAS Reboot The NAS ended the session in order to reboot non-administratively ("crash"). http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html

Port Unneeded NAS ended session because resource usage fell below low-water mark
(for example, if a bandwidth-on-demand algorithm decided that the port was no
LANsurveyor
http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
longer needed).
html
Port Preempted NAS ended session in order to allocate the port to a higher priority use.
CyberGauge
http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
Port Suspended NAS ended session to suspend a virtual session.
html
Service Unavailable NAS was unable to provide requested service.
Easy Network Service
Callback NAS is terminating current session in order to perform callback for a new Monitor
session. http://www.javvin.com/easy.html

User Error Input from user is in error, causing termination of session.


Business Card Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
scanner.html
Host Request Login Host terminated session normally.
Color Cards and Picture
5.11. Acct-Multi-Session-Id Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
Description ner.html
Portable Document Scan-
This attribute is a unique Accounting ID to make it easy to link together multiple related sessions in a ner
log file. Each session linked together would have a unique Acct-Session-Id but the same Acct-Multi- http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
Session-Id. It is strongly recommended that the Acct- Multi-Session-Id contain UTF-8 encoded 10646 ner.html
[7] characters.
www.javvin.com
A summary of the Acct-Session-Id attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left to
right. www.networkdictionary.
com
[ Page 15 ]
RADIUS Accounting June 2000

Network Dictionary
http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-
ary.html

Network Protocols Map


http://www.javvin.com/map.html
Type
Network Security Map
50 for Acct-Multi-Session-Id. http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
html
Length Wireless Communications
>= 3 Technology Map
http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
String html
Network Protocols Hand-
The String field SHOULD contain UTF-8 encoded 10646 [7] characters. book
http://www.javvin.com/model.html
5.12. Acct-Link-Count TCP/IP Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html
Description

This attribute gives the count of links which are known to have been in a given multilink session at the time
the accounting record is generated. The NAS MAY include the Acct-Link-Count attribute in any Account-
Ethernet Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
ing-Request which might have multiple links.
html
A summary of the Acct-Link-Count attribute format is show below. The fields are transmitted from left to
right.
Packet Analyzer
http://www.javvin.com/packet.html

DiskShare
http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html

DiskAccess
http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html

Type
LANsurveyor
http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
html
51 for Acct-Link-Count.

Length
CyberGauge
http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
html
6

Value
Easy Network Service
Monitor
The Value field is four octets, and contains the number of links seen so far in this Multilink Session. http://www.javvin.com/easy.html

It may be used to make it easier for an accounting server to know when it has all the records for a
Business Card Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
given Multilink session. When the number of Accounting-Requests received with Acct-Status-Type
scanner.html
= Stop and the same Acct-Multi-Session-Id and unique Acct-Session- Id's equals the largest value of
Acct-Link-Count seen in those Accounting-Requests, all Stop Accounting-Requests for that Multilink Color Cards and Picture
Session have been received. Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
An example showing 8 Accounting-Requests should make things clearer. For clarity only the relevant ner.html
attributes are shown, but additional attributes containing accounting information will also be present in
the Accounting-Request.
Portable Document Scan-
ner
Multi-Session-Id Session-Id Status-Type Link-Count http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
"10" "10" Start 1 ner.html
"10" "11" Start 2 www.javvin.com
"10" "11" Stop 2
"10" "12" Start 3
"10" "13" Start 4
www.networkdictionary.
"10" "12" Stop 4 com
[ Page 16 ]
RADIUS Accounting June 2000

"10" "13" Stop 4 Network Dictionary


"10" "10" Stop 4 http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-
ary.html
5.13. Table of Attributes
Network Protocols Map
The following table provides a guide to which attributes may be found in Accounting-Request packets. http://www.javvin.com/map.html
No attributes should be found in Accounting-Response packets except Proxy-State and possibly Vendor-
Specific. Network Security Map
http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
html
# Attribute Wireless Communications
0-1 User-Name
0 User-Password Technology Map
0 CHAP-Password http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
0-1 NAS-IP-Address [Note 1] html
0-1 NAS-Port Network Protocols Hand-
0-1 Service-Type book
0-1 Framed-Protocol http://www.javvin.com/model.html
0-1 Framed-IP-Address
0-1 Framed-IP-Netmask TCP/IP Quick Guide
0-1 Framed-Routing http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html
0+ Filter-Id
0-1 Framed-MTU
0+ Framed-Compression Ethernet Quick Guide
0+ Login-IP-Host http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
0-1 Login-Service html
0-1 Login-TCP-Port
0 Reply-Message Packet Analyzer
0-1 Callback-Number http://www.javvin.com/packet.html
0-1 Callback-Id
0+ Framed-Route DiskShare
0-1 Framed-IPX-Network http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html
0 State
0+ Class
0+ Vendor-Specific DiskAccess
0-1 Session-Timeout http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html
0-1 Idle-Timeout
0-1 Termination-Action LANsurveyor
0-1 Called-Station-Id http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
0-1 Calling-Station-Id html
0-1 NAS-Identifier [Note 1]
0+ Proxy-State CyberGauge
0-1 Login-LAT-Service http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
0-1 Login-LAT-Node html
0-1 Login-LAT-Group
0-1 Framed-AppleTalk-Link Easy Network Service
0-1 Framed-AppleTalk-Network Monitor
0-1 Framed-AppleTalk-Zone http://www.javvin.com/easy.html
1 Acct-Status-Type
0-1 Acct-Delay-Time Business Card Scanner
0-1 Acct-Input-Octets http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
0-1 Acct-Output-Octets scanner.html
1 Acct-Session-Id Color Cards and Picture
0-1 Acct-Authentic
0-1 Acct-Session-Time Scanner
0-1 Acct-Input-Packets http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
0-1 Acct-Output-Packets ner.html
0-1 Acct-Terminate-Cause Portable Document Scan-
0+ Acct-Multi-Session-Id ner
0+ Acct-Link-Count http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
0 CHAP-Challenge ner.html
0-1 NAS-Port-Type
0-1 Port-Limit www.javvin.com
0-1 Login-LAT-Port
www.networkdictionary.
[Note 1] An Accounting-Request MUST contain either a NAS-IP-Address or a NAS-Identifier (or both). com
[ Page 17 ]
RADIUS Accounting June 2000

Network Dictionary
The following table defines the above table entries. http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-
ary.html
0 This attribute MUST NOT be present
0+ Zero or more instances of this attribute MAY be present. Network Protocols Map
0-1 Zero or one instance of this attribute MAY be present. http://www.javvin.com/map.html
1 Exactly one instance of this attribute MUST be present.
Network Security Map
6. IANA Considerations http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
html
The Packet Type Codes, Attribute Types, and Attribute Values defined in this document are registered Wireless Communications
by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) from the RADIUS name spaces as described in the Technology Map
"IANA Considerations" section of RFC 2865 [2], in accordance with BCP 26 [8]. http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
html

7. Security Considerations Network Protocols Hand-


book
Security issues are discussed in sections concerning the authenticator included in accounting requests and http://www.javvin.com/model.html
responses, using a shared secret which is never sent over the network.
TCP/IP Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html
8. Change Log
US-ASCII replaced by UTF-8.
Ethernet Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
html
Added notes on Proxy.

Framed-IP-Address should contain the actual IP address of the user.


Packet Analyzer
http://www.javvin.com/packet.html
If Acct-Session-ID was sent in an access-request, it must be used in the accounting-request for that ses-
sion. DiskShare
http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html
New values added to Acct-Status-Type.
DiskAccess
Added an IANA Considerations section. http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html

Updated references.
LANsurveyor
http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
Text strings identified as a subset of string, to clarify use of UTF-8.
html

9. References CyberGauge
http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
html
[1] Rigney, C., "RADIUS Accounting", RFC 2139, April 1997.

[2] Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A. and W. Simpson, "Remote Authentication Dial In User Service
Easy Network Service
(RADIUS)", RFC 2865, June 2000. Monitor
http://www.javvin.com/easy.html
[3] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March,
1997.
Business Card Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
scanner.html
[4] Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768, August 1980.
Color Cards and Picture
[5] Rivest, R. and S. Dusse, "The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm", RFC 1321, April 1992. Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
[6] Reynolds, J. and J. Postel, "Assigned Numbers", STD 2, RFC 1700, October 1994. ner.html

[7] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646", RFC 2279, January 1998.
Portable Document Scan-
ner
[8] Alvestrand, H. and T. Narten, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
26, RFC 2434, October 1998. ner.html
www.javvin.com
10. Acknowledgements www.networkdictionary.
RADIUS and RADIUS Accounting were originally developed by Steve Willens of Livingston Enterprises com
[ Page 18 ]
RADIUS Accounting June 2000

for their PortMaster series of Network Access Servers. Network Dictionary


http://www.javvin.com/networkdiction-

11. Chair's Address ary.html

Network Protocols Map


The RADIUS working group can be contacted via the current chair: http://www.javvin.com/map.html

Carl Rigney
Livingston Enterprises Network Security Map
4464 Willow Road http://www.javvin.com/securitymap.
Pleasanton, California 94588 html
Wireless Communications
Phone: +1 925 737 2100 Technology Map
EMail: cdr@telemancy.com http://www.javvin.com/wirelessmap.
html

12. Author's Address Network Protocols Hand-


book
Questions about this memo can also be directed to: http://www.javvin.com/model.html

Carl Rigney
TCP/IP Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/tcpipguide.html
Livingston Enterprises
4464 Willow Road
Pleasanton, California 94588
Ethernet Quick Guide
http://www.javvin.com/ethernetguide.
EMail: cdr@telemancy.com
html

13. Full Copyright Statement Packet Analyzer


http://www.javvin.com/packet.html
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000). All Rights Reserved.
DiskShare
This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to others, and derivative works that http://www.javvin.com/diskshare.html
comment on or otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and
distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice DiskAccess
and this paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this document itself http://www.javvin.com/diskaccess.html
may not be modified in any way, such as by removing the copyright notice or references to the Internet
Society or other Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of developing Internet standards
in which case the procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be followed, or
LANsurveyor
http://www.javvin.com/LANsurveyor.
as required to translate it into languages other than English.
html
The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be revoked by the Internet Society or its
successors or assigns.
CyberGauge
http://www.javvin.com/CyberGauge.
html
This document and the information contained herein is provided on an "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET
SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE
Easy Network Service
OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WAR- Monitor
RANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. http://www.javvin.com/easy.html

Business Card Scanner


Acknowledgement http://www.javvin.com/businesscard-
scanner.html
Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the Internet Society. Color Cards and Picture
Scanner
http://www.javvin.com/colorcardscan-
ner.html
Portable Document Scan-
ner
http://www.javvin.com/portablescan-
ner.html
www.javvin.com

www.networkdictionary.
com
[ Page 19 ]