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ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE

ATM or asynchronous transfer mode is a high-speed switching service which is capable of carrying
data, voice, video and multimedia images. This is not an automatic teller machine used in
banking. ATM, asynchronous transfer mode is used mainly in the network service provider's
network. However, many users started to use ATM as a way to send large files between locations. For
example, the entertainment industry use it to send movie clips to another location for editing. The
main advantage and ATM is that it enables service providers and end users to bring a lot of traffic
types without having to build separate networks for voice communications, video, and data.
This service has a higher cost, higher speed, and service more flexible in its implementation of the
frame relay to the end user. If the frame relay superior in communication between the LAN, ATM can
carry traffic (traffic) with various type is through a single connection.
Point of difference is that ja ATM can perform traffic prioritization. This service can provide different
quality of service on the traffic of different types. This is known as QoS and reviewed in ATM elements
below. ATM brings traffic flow parallel at different levels of quality of service ATM is used by:

Provider distance

Telephone companies

Competitive local exchange carriers

Cellular provider

Cable TV Network

Janngan frame relay

ISP

Virtual Private Network Provider

Large financial companies

Fortune 500 Company

University

Large hospital
Speed ATM caused by three characteristics.

1.

Has a fixed cell size

2.

The cell-switch in hardware in order based connections

3.

The process of switching is done asinkronous

Fixed-sized cells - Process Less


Memaket ATM data to be transmitted into discrete groups called cells. Analogues as putting the same
number of letters in each envelope. Envelopes is called a fixed-size cells (fixed-sized cells). Handling
fixed-size cells requires less processing than removal with varying packet sizes. ATM switches do not
need to see the bits that tell him when a cell will end. Each cell has a standard length of 53
bytes. Switch to know when a cell will end.
Five and 53 bytes are preliminary information (header). Fifth includes bits that identify the type of
information that exist in the cell (such as voice information, data, or video) so that the cells can
diprioritaskan.Suara and videos that require constant delivery (bitrate) so there is no interruption in the
sound or image , requiring a higher quality of service than the LAN data. Other header information
used for routing, put the cells in the correct sequence and error checking. The rest of the other
contains 48 bytes of user data such as voice, video, or sales proposals.

Switching in Hardware - Less MeIihat address


The main reason why the service is fast ATM is that the cells undergo a process of switching in
hardware. This means ATM switches do not need to see every cell address in the software. Anyway,
ATM switches menenentukan a path through the network when looking at the first cell and a delivery
process. Ja put this information into the hardware and sends each cell with the same routing
information header rnelalui virtual path that has previously been achieved. For example, all cells with
XXX in its header using path 234. By using a similar path for each cell makes the ATM into a
connection-oriented service.

Asynchronous Switching - Increased Use of Network


With asynchronous switching, each bit in the network capacity available for each cell. This is different
and synchronized multiplexing technology such as T-1 and T-3. By multiplexing the T-3, each
shipment is placed on the input 672 time slots. For example, the terminal A is placed in slot 1 and
terminal B at time slot 2. If the terminal A no delivered, time slots are sent over the network in the form
of time slots are empty. ATMs do not have the need for synchronization. Statistically it performs
multiplexing on the cell into the network path based on the quality of service information in its

header. For example, voice and video require a better service, fewer delays, and higher speeds than
the e-mail message. With ATM, all that can be achieved without having to waste network capacity.

Scalability - Ability to Use ATMs for High Speed and Low Applications
ATM can carry traffic with various speeds. He received streams and different input (such as telephone
systems, routers, and video equipment) and send it through channels or virtual circuits achieved by
the ATM switch. It is scalability. ATMs can be scaled and low-speed (56 kilobits) to video and highspeed multimedia applications. Currently, ATM mainly installed on the network service provider. As the
technology has reached a mature level, it is expected that more companies will use ATM as a way to
bring the UNTAS voice and data over the network covers a wide area (WAN).

ATM - Core Equipment


ATM switch is a device commonly used in frame relay network service providers to move a lot of
customer traffic at 622 megabits through its main facility. Seller frame relay using frame relay devices
to connect directly to their customers at the end of the network. The tip is the point where the network
traffic entering and leaving the network. End traffic network where there are known as egress
point. Most service providers to develop multiplatform switches with frame relay and ATM ports.
Customers who want access to higher network and T-3 uses a direct ATM connection to a network
service provider. This enables customers to access specific network virtual path high speed. They
received a lot of advantages and the specific network without a network must make arrangements.

ATM Network Element


ITU has determined what elements are present in a network ATM.Elemen are:

User network interface (User Network Interface)

Quality of service

Connections between customer sites


These three elements are very important because they create a way to prioritize traffic, mengirirnkan
traffic between places, and make connections to the ATM network. Multiple definitions for quality of
service is important because ATM is used to remove various types of traffic. Compared to email, voice
and video traffic is intolerant of delay. For example, a tin can be taken on a variety of different service
qualities.
The majority of ATM switches located in the service provider network. For example, they are used in a
particular cellular network to transfer the call between the antenna in a different cell. However,
customers can hire the services of ATM and service providers janngan. ATM is more appropriate to
mix komunikasj media such as voice, video, and data, and the frame relay.

UNI - User Network Interface, Physical Connection to ATM Network


UNI or User Network Interface is a digital telephone line connection between the customer with a
dedicated ATM equipment. Dedicated connection to the ATM can be applied at various speeds,
including:

T-1

T-3

Fractional T-3

OC1 (52 megabits)

0C3 (155 megabits)

0C12 (622 megabits) to top


ATM Services ATM which is known as ash (native ATM) when the customer enters into a contract with
the network service provider for ATM services. In native ATM where customers hire the ATM
connection and network service providers, each line connected to the ATM access network service
providers through a physical telephone line UNI. Every place does not require connection to any other
place in the organization.The figure below illustrates the ATM in a public ATM network.

Some large organizations menggunaican native ATM to connect to a special dedicated line
perusahuan them to another location. For example, they can use the line-line to transmit voice dialing,
video conferences, e-mail and komunikasj between LANs. As with any service provider that uses the
ATM to eliminate data and voice networks are separate, large organizations menggIcan ATM to
obviate the need for special line voice and data separately. Organizations can use the ATM offers a
public service provider, or they can use the ATM through their own special line.