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CHAPTER 10 ELECTRICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS AND

MEASUREMENTS
EXERCISE 51, Page 123
1. A moving-coil instrument gives f.s.d. for a current of 10 mA. Neglecting the resistance of the
instrument, calculate the approximate value of series resistance needed to enable the instrument
to measure up to (a) 20 V (b) 100 V (c) 250 V

(a) If ra = 0 , then when V = 20 V, series resistance,

RM

(b) If ra = 0 , then when V = 100 V, series resistance,

(c) If

ra

= 0 , then when V = 250 V, series resistance,

V
20

I 10 103 = 2 k

RM

V
100

I 10 103 = 10 k

RM

V
250

I 10 103 = 25 k

2. A meter of resistance 50 has a f.s.d. of 4 mA. Determine the value of shunt resistance required
in order that f.s.d. should be (a) 15 mA (b) 20 A (c) 100 A

(a) When I = 15 mA, IS 15 4 11mA


I r 4 10 50
RS a a
IS
11103
3

Then V =

Ia ra ISR S

from which, shunt resistance,

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= 18.18
86

3
(b) When I = 20 A, IS 20 4 10 19.996 A

Then V =

Ia ra IS R S

from which, shunt resistance,

3
Ia ra 4 10 50
RS

IS
19.996

= 10.00 m

3
(c) When I = 100 A, IS 100 4 10 99.996 A

Then V =

Ia ra ISR S

from which, shunt resistance,

3
Ia ra 4 10 50
RS

IS
99.996

= 2.00 m

3. A moving-coil instrument having a resistance of 20 gives a f.s.d. when the current is 5 mA.
Calculate the value of the multiplier to be connected in series with the instrument so that it can be
used as a voltmeter for measuring p.d.s up to 200 V.

In diagram,

V Va VM I a ra IR M

5 10 20 5 10 R
3

i.e.

200 =

i.e.

5 10 R
200 = 0.1 +
3

from which,

RM

200 0.1
5 103 = 39.98 k in series

4. A moving-coil instrument has a f.s.d. of 20 mA and a resistance of 25 . Calculate the values of


resistance required to enable the instrument to be used (a) as a 0 10 A ammeter, and (b) as a
0 100 V voltmeter. State the mode of resistance connection in each case.
3
(a) In diagram (i), IS 10 20 10 = 9.98 A

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Then

I a ra ISR S

from which,
I r 20 10 25
RS a a
IS
9.98
3

shunt resistance,

(b) In diagram (ii),

= 50.10 m in parallel

V Va VM Ia ra IR M

20 10 25 20 10 R
3

i.e.

100 =

i.e.

20 10 R
100 = 0.5 +
3

from which,

RM

100 0.5
20 103 = 4.975 k in series

5. A meter has a resistance of 40 and registers a maximum deflection when a current of 15 mA


flows. Calculate the value of resistance that converts the movement into (a) an ammeter with a
maximum deflection of 50 A (b) a voltmeter with a range 0-250 V
3
(a) In diagram (i), IS 50 15 10 49.985 A

Then I a ra ISR S

from which,

shunt resistance,

3
Ia ra 15 10 40
RS

IS
49.985

= 0.01200 = 12.00 in parallel

(i)
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(b) In diagram (ii),

V Va VM Ia ra IR M

(ii)

15 10 40 15 10 R
3

i.e.

250 =

i.e.

15 10 R
250 = 0.6 +
3

from which,

RM

250 0.6
16626.7
15 10 3
= 16.63 k in series

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EXERCISE 52, Page 126


1. A 0 1 A ammeter having a resistance of 50 is used to measure the current flowing in a 1 k
resistor when the supply voltage is 250 V. Calculate: (a) the approximate value of current
(neglecting the ammeter resistance), (b) the actual current in the circuit, (c) the power dissipated
in the ammeter, (d) the power dissipated in the 1 k resistor.

V 250

(a) Approximate value of current = R 1000 = 0.250 A


V
250

(b) Actual current = R ra 1000 50 = 0.238 A

(c) Power dissipated in ammeter, P =

I 2 ra 0.238

50

= 2.832 W

I 2 ra 0.238 1000
2

(d) Power dissipated in the 1 k resistor, P =

= 56.64 W

2. (a) A current of 15 A flows through a load having a resistance of 4 . Determine the power
dissipated in the load. (b) A wattmeter, whose current coil has a resistance of 0.02 , is
connected to measure the power in the load. Determine the wattmeter reading assuming the
current in the load is still 15 A.

(a) Power in load, P =

I 2 R 15

= 900 W

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(b) Total resistance in circuit,


Wattmeter reading, P =

R T 4 0.02 4.02

I 2 R T 15

4.02

= 904.5 W

3. A voltage of 240 V is applied to a circuit consisting of an 800 resistor in series with a 1.6 k
resistor. What is the voltage across the 1.6 k resistor? The p.d. across the 1.6 k resistor is
measured by a voltmeter of f.s.d. 250 V and sensitivity 100 /V. Determine the voltage
indicated.

Voltage,

1.6 103
240
3
800 1.6 10
= 160 V

V1

Resistance of voltmeter = 250V 100 /V = 25 k


The circuit is now as shown in (a) below.

25 k in parallel with 1.6 k = 1.5038 k and circuit (a) simplifies to circuit (b).

Now voltage indicated,

1.5038 103
240
3
800 1.5038 10
= 156.7 V

V1

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4. A 240 V supply is connected across a load resistance R. Also connected across R is a voltmeter
having a f.s.d. of 300 V and a figure of merit (i.e. sensitivity) of 8 k/V. Calculate the power
dissipated by the voltmeter and by the load resistance if (a) R = 100 (b) R = 1 M. Comment
on the results obtained.

(a) Resistance of voltmeter,

RV

= 8 k/V 300 = 2.4 M

From the circuit shown, current in voltmeter,


Power dissipated by the voltmeter, P = V

When R = 100 , current in load resistor,

IV

V
240

100 A
rV 2.4 106

I V 240 100 106

IR

Power dissipated by the load resistor, P = V

= 24 mW

240
100 = 2.4 A

I R 240 2.4

= 576 W

The power dissipated by the voltmeter is very small in comparison to the power dissipated
by the load resistor.
(b) When R = 1 M, power dissipated by voltmeter is the same as above, i.e. 24 mW

Current in load resistor,

IR

240
1106 = 240 A

Power dissipated by the load resistor, P = V

I R 240 240 106

= 57.6 mW

In this case, the larger load resistor reduces the power dissipated such that the voltmeter uses a
comparable amount of power as the load resistor R.

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EXERCISE 53, Page 131


1. For the square voltage waveform displayed on an oscilloscope shown below, find (a) its frequency,
(b) its peak-to-peak voltage

(a) The width of one complete cycle is 4.8 cm


Hence the periodic time, T = 4.8 cm 5 10-3 s/cm = 24 ms

1
1
3
Frequency, f = T = 24 10 = 41.7 kHz
(c) The peak-to-peak height of the display is 4.4 cm, hence the
peak-to-peak voltage = 4.4 cm 40 V/cm = 176 V
2. For the pulse waveform shown below, find (a) its frequency, (b) the magnitude of the pulse
voltage.

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(a) Time for one cycle, T = 3.6 cm 500 ms/cm = 1.8 s

1
1

Hence, frequency, f = T 1.8 = 0.56 Hz


(b) Magnitude of the pulse voltage = 4.2 cm 2V/cm = 8.4 V

3. For the sinusoidal waveform shown below, determine (a) its frequency, (b) the peak-to-peak
voltage, (c) the r.m.s. voltage.

(a) Periodic time, T = 2.8 cm 50 ms/cm = 0.14 s

1
1

Hence, frequency, f = T 0.14 = 7.14 Hz


(b) Peak-to-peak voltage = 4.4 cm 50 V/cm = 220 V

1
220
(c) Peak voltage = 2 = 110 V and r.m.s. voltage = 2 110 = 77.78 V

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EXERCISE 54, Page 139


1. The ratio of two powers is (a) 3 (b) 10 (c) 20 (d) 10000
Determine the decibel power ratio for each.
(a) Decibel power ratio = 10 lg 3 = 4.77 dB
(b) Decibel power ratio = 10 lg 10 = 10 dB
(c) Decibel power ratio = 10 lg 20 = 13 dB
(d) Decibel power ratio = 10 lg 10000 = 40 dB

1
1
1
2. The ratio of two powers is (a) 10 (b) 3 (c) 40

1
(d) 100

Determine the decibel power ratio for each.

1

(a) Decibel power ratio = 10 lg 10 = - 10 dB
1

(b) Decibel power ratio = 10 lg 3 = - 4.77 dB

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1

(c) Decibel power ratio = 10 lg 40 = - 16.02 dB

(d) Decibel power ratio = 10 lg 100 = - 20 dB

3. The input and output currents of a system are 2 mA and 10 mA respectively. Determine the
decibel current ratio of output to input current assuming input and output resistances of the
system are equal.

10
Decibel current ratio = 20 lg 2 = 13.98 dB
4. 5% of the power supplied to a cable appears at the output terminals. Determine the power loss in
decibels.
P2
5
P
P
If 1 = input power, and 2 = output power then P1 = 100 = 0.05
P2
Decibel power ratio = 10 lg P1 = 10 lg 0.05 = -13 dB

Hence, the power loss, or attenuation, is 13 dB


5. An amplifier has a gain of 24 dB. Its input power is 10 mW. Find the output power.
P2
P = 10 lg P1

i.e.
Then

P2
P
hence, 24 = 10 lg 10 where 2 is in mW
P2
24
2.4
lg 10 = 10
102.4

P2
10

10 10
from which, output power, P2 =

2.4

= 2512 mW or 2.51 W

6. Determine, in decibels, the ratio of the output power to input power of a four stage system, the
stages having gains of 10 dB, 8 dB, -5 dB and 7 dB. Find also the overall power gain.
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The decibel ratio may be used to find the overall power ratio of a chain simply by adding the decibel
power ratios together.
Hence the overall decibel power ratio = 10 + 8 5 + 7 = 20 dB gain.

Thus

20 = 10 lg

P2

P1

from which, 2 = lg

P2

P1

P2
102 = P1 = 100

and

P2
Thus the overall power gain, P1 = 100
7. The output voltage from an amplifier is 7 mV. If the voltage gain is 25 dB calculate the value of
the input voltage assuming that the amplifier input resistance and load resistance are equal.
V2
Voltage gain = 20 lg V1

Thus,

7
V
hence, 25 = 20 lg V1 where 1 is in mV

7
25
1.25
V
lg 1 = 20
7
V1 = 101.25

i.e.

and the input voltage,

V1

7
101.25 = 0.39 mV

8. The voltage gain of a number of cascaded amplifiers are 23 dB, -5.8 dB, -12.5 dB and 3.8 dB.
Calculate the overall gain in decibels assuming that input and load resistances for each stage are
equal. If a voltage of 15 mV is applied to the input of the system, determine the value of the
output voltage
Overall gain in decibels = 23 5.8 12.5 + 3.8 = 8.5 dB
V2
Voltage gain = 20 lg V1

V2
hence, 8.5 = 20 lg 15

where

V2

is in mV

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8.5
V
lg 2
20
15

Hence,

and

100.425

V2
15

i.e.

0.425 =

lg

V2
15

0.425
from which, output voltage, V2 15 10
= 39.91 mV

9. The scale of a voltmeter has a decibel scale added to it, which is calibrated by taking a reference
level of 0 dB when a power of 1 mW is dissipated in a 600 resistor. Determine the voltage at
(a) 0 dB (b) 1.5 dB and (c) -15 dB. (d) What decibel reading corresponds to 0.5 V?

Power, P

V2
V2
1 103
R hence
600

from which, V = 0.775 V

(a) Number of dBm = 20 lg 0.775

Hence, at 0 dB, then 0 = 20 lg 0.775

from which, 0 = lg 0.775

100

and

V
0.775

and V = 0.775 V

(b) At 1.5 dB,

1.5 = 20 lg 0.775

V
1.5

from which, 20 = lg 0.775

and

10

1.5
20

V
0.775

1.5

and

10 20
V = 0.775

= 0.921 V

(c) At -15 dB,

from which,

-15 = 20 lg 0.775

V
15

20 = lg 0.775

and

100.75

V
0.775

and V = 0.775

10

0.75

= 0.138 V

0.5

(d) When V = 0.5 V, then the decibel reading = 20 lg 0.775 = - 3.807 dB

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EXERCISE 55, Page 141


1. In a Wheatstone bridge PQRS, a galvanometer is connected between Q and S and a voltage
source between P and R. An unknown resistor

RX

is connected between P and Q. When the

bridge is balanced, the resistance between Q and R is 200 , that between R and S is 10 and
that between S and P is 150 . Calculate the value of R X

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From the diagram,

and

10

unknown resistor,

RX

RX

= 150 200

150 200
10
=
= 3 k

2. Balance is obtained in a d.c. potentiometer at a length of 31.2 cm when using a standard cell of
1.0186 volts. Calculate the e.m.f. of a dry cell if balance is obtained with a length of 46.7 cm.
E1 l1

E 2 l2

hence,

1.0186 31.2

E2
46.7

from which, e.m.f. of dry cell,

46.7

31.2 = 1.525 V

E 2 1.0186

EXERCISE 56, Page 142


1. A Maxwell bridge circuit ABCD has the following arm impedances: AB, 250 resistance; BC,
15 F capacitor in parallel with a 10 k resistor; CD, 400 resistor; DA, unknown inductor
having inductance L and resistance R. Determine the values of L and R assuming the bridge is
balanced.

The bridge circuit is similar to the diagram below, R 1 = 250 , R 2 = 400 , R 3 = 10 k and
C = 15 F

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100

6
From equation (2), page 142, inductance, L = R 1R 2C 250 400 15 10 = 1.5 H

R 1R 2 250 400

R
10 103 = 10
3
From equation (3), page 142, resistance, R =

EXERCISE 57, Page 143


1. A Q-meter measures the Q-factor of a series L-C-R circuit to be 200 at a resonant frequency of
250 k. If the capacitance of the Q-meter capacitor is set to 300 pF determine (a) the inductance
L, and (b) the resistance R of the inductor.

1
(a) From Problem 21, page 143, inductance, L =

2f r

2 250 10 300 10

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3 2

12

101

= 1.351 mH
2f r L 2 250 103 1.351 10 3

200
(b) Also from Problem 21, page 143, resistance, R = Q
= 10.61

EXERCISE 58, Page 145


1. The p.d. across a resistor is measured as 37.5 V with an accuracy of 0.5%. The value of the
resistor is 6 k 0.8% . Determine the current flowing in the resistor and its accuracy of
measurement.

V 37.5

Current flowing, I = R 6000 = 6.25 mA


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Maximum possible error is 0.5 + 0.8 = 1.3%


1.3% of 6.25 = 0.08 mA
Hence,

I = 6.25 mA 1.3%

or

6.25 mA 0.08 mA

2. The voltage across a resistor is measured by a 75 V f.s.d. voltmeter which gives an indication of
52 V. The current flowing in the resistor is measured by a 20 A f.s.d. ammeter which gives an
indication of 12.5 A. Determine the resistance of the resistor and its accuracy if both instruments
have an accuracy of 2% of f.s.d.

V 52

Resistance, R = I 12.5 = 4.16


Voltage error = 2% of 75 V = 1.5 V

1.5
100%
As a percentage of the voltage reading, this is 52
= 2.88%
Current error = 2% of 20 A = 0.4 A

0.4
100%
As a percentage of the current reading, this is 12.5
= 3.20%
Maximum relative errors = 2.88 + 3.20 = 6.08%
6.08% of 4.16 = 0.25
Hence, resistance, R = 4.16 6.08% or 4.16 0.25

3. A Wheatstone bridge PQRS has the following arm resistances:


PQ, 1 k 2% ; QR, 100 0.5% ; RS, unknown resistance; SP, 273.6 0.1% .
Determine the value of the unknown resistance and its accuracy of measurement.

From the diagram below, 1000

RX

= 100 273.6

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and

unknown resistor,

Maximum relative error of

RX

RX

100 273.6
1000
=
= 27.36

= 2% + 0.5% + 0.1% = 2.6%

2.6% of 27.36 = 0.71


Thus,

RX

= 27.36 2.6%

or 27.36 0.71

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