DRENCHED
DIFFERENTIAL
CALCULUS
SIIANTI
NARAYAN
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
THE
it
Its
meets
5th edition
all
in
demands.
9 years and
Is
it
the revie
opening chapter on
clearly dealt with
Or
the
in
real
it
this only to
is
be expected from
how
to count
.
"i
is
is
sympathetic to the
Certaianly
excellent
Mr.
Narayan's
command
scientific
of
or
English
is
mathematical
specialist,
Indian
confreres,
with
English
to
master
before
their
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
FOR
B. A.
&
B. Sc.
STUDENTS
By
SHANTI NARAYAN
Principal,
and Head of
Hans Raj
the
Department of Mathematics
S.
CHAND &
CO.
NEW DELHI BOMBAY
JULLUND tTR LUC KNOW
DELHI
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Published by
CHAND &
S.
for
Shyam
16B/4, Asaf
AH
Ram
Road,
New
Delhi.
S.
CO.
CHAND
charities.)
CO
&
NEW
Nagar
Fountain
DELHI
DELHI
BOMBAY
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JULLUNDUR
LUCKNOW
Lai Bagh
First Edition
1942
Published by
G S
Shartna. for S.
Rs. 700
Chand
&
Co.,
Ram
Ram
Nagar,
Nagar,
New
New
Delhi1*
Delhi and
revised.
SHANTI NARAYAN
PREFACE
This book is meant for students preparing for the B.A. and
Some topics of the Honours
B.Sc. examinations of our universities.
standard have also been included. They are given in the form of
appendices to the relevant chapters. The treatment of the subject
is rigorous but no attempt has been made to state and prove the
theorems in generalised forms and under less restrictive conditions as
It has also been a
is the case with the Modern Theory of Function.
constant endeavour of the author to see that the subject is not preThis is to see that the student
sented just as a body of formulae.
does not form an unfortunate impression that the study of Calculus
consists only in acquiring a skill to manipulate some formulae
through 'constant
drilling'.
An
made
illus
trated
am indebted to
Prof. Sita
Ram
of the
rendered
me
SHANTI NARAYAN
CHAPTER
ARTICLE
ri.
1'2.
1*3.
1*4.
1'5.
1 6.
1*7.
PAGE
Introduction
Rational Numbers
...
...
Real Numbers
Irrational Numbers.
Decimal representation of real numbers
The modulus of a real number
Variables, Functions
Some important types of domains of variation
Some Important
13
14
Graphs of y=x*
Monotoiiic Functions. Inverse Functions
n
Graph of y x*i
x
Graph of y=a
Graph of >>^log a x
Graphs of sin x, cos x, tan x, cot x, sec x,
26.
11
...
II
2*2.
25.
...
...
21.
24.
...
...
CHAPTER
23.
...
2
5
6
9
...
18
...
20
22
24
25
...
...
...
...26
cosec x
27.
2*8.
cosec^x
Function of a function
...
29.
Classification of functions
...
CHAPTER
...
30
34
35
III
32.
3*3.
34.
35.
361.
3'62.
363.
Continuity of a function
Limit
...
...
..
Theorems on limits
Continuity of sum, difference, product and
quotient of two continuous functions. Con...
tinuity of elementary functions
Some important properties of continuous functions
...
Limit of x n as > oo
...
Limit of x n jn as n > oo
...
Limit of (1 1//I)" as n >oo
...
Limit of [(a*~l)/Jt] as x 0
X
...
Limit of [(x
^)/(xo)] as x>a
...
as
x>0
Limit of (sin .v/x)
...
Hyperbolic Functions and their graphs
7;.
Inverse Hyperbolic Functions
I
364.
365.
366.
37.
38.
37
41
52
53
54
57
58
59
63
64
64
66
68
VI
CHAPTER IV
Differentiation
41.
4*11.
412.
414.
415.
4*16.
Indroduction.
Derivability.
Rate of change
Derivative
Derived Function
An Important theorem
Geometrical Interpretation of a derivative
Expressions for velocity and acceleration
4 22.
Derivative of x
43.
Spme
434.
4*35.
436.
4*4.
4*5.
461.
462.
471.
48.
491.
4*92.
493.
72
72
74
74
76
78
TO
...
...
...
...
...
...
81
86
88
...
...
...
by means
88
89
93
96
97
97
99
100
of a parameter
...
...
Derivatives of Trigonometrical Functions
Derivative of Inverse Trigonometrical Functions
...
Deri vati ve of loga x
...
Derivative of (f
...
Derivatives of Hyperbolic Functions
...
Derivatives of Inverse Hyperbolic Functions
Logarithmic differentiation
Transformation before differentiation
...
Differentiation 'ab
...
initio*
Appendix
...
102
104
108
...
113
...
116
...
118
...
CHAPTER V
Successive Differentiation
51.
5*2.
Notation
Calculation of nth derivative.
Some standard
results
5*3.
Determination of the
th derivative of rational
functions
5 4.
5*5.
5 6.
Determination of the nth derivative of a product of the powers of sines and cosines
Leibnitz's theorem
Value of the nth derivative for
x0
CHAPTER
General Theorems.
tvl.
6*2.
6*3.
6*4.
...
120
...
121
...
123
VI
Introduction
...
Rolled theorem
Lagrange's mean value theorem
Some deductions from mean value theorem
Cauchy's mean value theorem
...
...
...
...
130
130
133
136
137
vn
6*6,67. Taylor's
;
CHAPTER
Maxima and Minima,
71.
Definitions
...
...
CHAPTER
Evaluation of
...
...
VIII
86.
8'7.
Limit of /(x)
82.
84.
85.
F'(l
\Y
'
"
148
149
151
157
Indeterminate forms
limits.
Introduction
...
Limit of [/(x)/ir (x)] when/(x)>0 and F(x)>0 ...
Limit of [/(x)/F(x)] when/(;c)>oo and F(xj *oo ...
Limit of [/(x).F(x)] when/(x)>0 and F(x)>oo ...
Limit of [/(*) F(x)J when/(x)>oo and F(x)>oc
81.
140
145
VII
...
...
...
165
166
170
173
174
175
CHAPTER IX
Taylor's Infinite Series
9*
Definition of convergence
...
179
180
181
185
188
infinite series
...
Use of
Appendix.
ex
sin x,
x, log (lfx),
...
...
(l+x)
CHAPTER X
FUNCTION OF
VARIABLES
WO
Partial Differentiation
4
10 1.
10 '2.
10*4.
10*5.
10'6.
10*7.
10*71.
...
Introduction
Functions of two variables and their domains
...
of definition
...
variables
a
two
of
of
function
Continuity
...
Limit of a function of two variables
...
Partial Derivatives
Geometrical representation of a function of
...
two variables
Geometrical interpretation of partial derivatives
...
of first order
193
193
194
195
196
197
198
10*81.
10*82.
Eider's theorem on
10*91.
Theorem on
VIII
...
199
...
204
Calculation
...
Differentiation of Composite Functions
...
...
Differentiation of Implicit Functions.
Appendix. Equality of Repeated Derivatives.
Extreme values of functions of two variables.
206
210
213
Homogeneous functions
A new Nota
10*93*
10*94.
total Differentials.
Approximate
Lagrange's Multipliers
...
Miscellaneous Exercises I
...
230
232237
...
238
...
239
CHAPTER XI
Some Important Curves
IT!.
11*3.
11*4.
Catenary
Explicit Cartesian Equations.
Parametric Cartesian Equations. Cycloid,
Hypocycloid. Epicycloid
Branches of a
Implicit Cartesian Equations.
Cissoid, Strophoid, semiCubical parabola
Polar Coordinates
Polar Equations. Cardioide, Leinniscate.
curve.
11*5.
116.
CHAPTER
...
243
247
...
248
...
XII
121;
Explicit, Implicit
12*2.
12*3.
12*4.
12*5.
126.
127.
128.
equations
Angle of intersection of two curves
Cartesian subtangent and subnormal
Pedal Equations. Cartesian equations
Angle between radius vector and tangent
Perpendicular from the pole to a tangent
Polar subtangent and subnormal
Pedal Equations. Polar equations
CHAPTER
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
254
262
264
266
267
270
271
272
XIII
Derivative of Arcs
133.
134.
An axiom
the meaning of lengths of arcs.
a
function
as
an
arc
of
Length
To determine ds/dx for the curve y=f(x)
To determine dsjdt for the curve
135.
To determine dsjde
13'1.
13>2.
On
*=/(0, ?=/(')
for the curve
r=/(0)
...
.,.
...
...
274
275
275
276
277
CHAPTER XIV
Concavity, Convexity, Inflexion
14).
14*2.
1 t3.
144.
281
Definitions
Investigation of the conditions for a curve to be
concave upwards or downwards or to have inflexion at a point
Another criterion for point of inflexion
...
...
282
284
285
...
290
...
291
...
291
w.r. to line
...
...
CHAPTER XV
Curvature, Evolutes
151.
152.
15vJ.
154.
lo'l'O.
1547.
15*48.
1551.
15*5").
Two
properties of evolutes
...
...
...
...
...
...
292
298
299
300
304
310
CHAPTER XVI
Asymptotes
161.
Definition
16'2.
...
Determination of Asj^mptotes
Determination of Asymptotes parallel to co...
ordinate axes
,.:_<
of
rational
Asymptotes
general
Alge^raic'Equations
IO31.
lfi32.
...
"
1(54.
lfi5.
](>(>.
I(r7.
1C8.
Asymptotes by inspection
Intersection of a curve and
Asymptotes by expansion
...
its
asymptotes
...
...
...
...
313
313
315
317
324
325
328
329
331
CHAPTER XVII
Singular Points, Multiple Points
17*1.
172.
1731.
17*4,
Introduction
...
Definitions
Tangents at the origin
Conditions for multiple points,
...
...
,..
335
336
336
339
175.
Types of cusps
...
176.
...
CHAPTER
342
345
XVIII
Curve Tracing
18*2.
183.
184.
186.
186.
...
348
349
357
359
364
...
369
...
...
...
...
CHAPTER XIX
Envelopes
19
l.
19*2, 19'3.
19*4.
19*5.
19*6.
...
obtained 'ab initio*
...
Determination of Envelope
Evolute of curve as the Envelope of its normals ...
Geometrical relations between a family of curves
...
and its envelope
Miscellaneous Exercises II
...
Answers
,,.
369
270
37:2
372
37882
383408
CHAPTER
REAL NUMBERS
FUNCTIONS
Introduction.
The subject of Differential Calculus takes its
stand upon the aggregate of numbers and it is with numbers and
with the various operations with them that it primarily concerns
itself.
It specially introduces and deals with what is called Limiting
operation in addition to being concerned with the Algebraic operations of Addition and Multiplication and their inverses, Subtraction
and Division, and is a development of the important notion of Instantaneous rate of change which is itself a limited idea and, as such, it
finds application to all those branches of human knowledge which
deal with the same. Thus it is applied to Geometry, Mechanics and
other branches of Theoretical Physics and also to Social Sciences such
as Economics
It
may
and Psychology.
be noted here that this application
is
essentially based
It is, however, not intended to give here any logically connected amount of the development of tl>e system of real numbers, also
known as Arithmetic Continuum and only a very brief reference to
some well known salient facts will suffice for our purpose. An
excellent account of the. Development of numbers is given in
'Fundamentals of Analysis' by Landau.
2
this
will
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
straight line.
Positive Integers.
I'll.
It
1, 2, 3, 4, etc. r
While the operations of addition and multiplications are^,unrestrictedly possible in relation to the aggregate of positive integers,
this is not the case in respect of the inverse operations of subtraction
and 'division. Thus, for example, the symbols
are meaningless in respect of the aggregate of positive integers.
Fractional numbers.
1*12.
At a later stage, another class of
numbers like p\q (e.g., , ) where p and q are natural numbers, was
added to the former class. This is known as the class of fractions
and it obviously includes natural numbers as a sub class q being
;
equal to
in this case.
Rational numbers.
Still later,
enlarged by incorporating in it the class of negative fractions including negative integers and zero. The entire aggregate of these numbers
is known as the aggregate of rational numbers.
Every rational
number is expressible as p\q, where p and q are any two integers,
positive and negative and q is not zero.
numbers
is
is
operations.
115.
Meaningless operation of division by zero. It is important
to note that the only exception to the above property is 'Division
REAL NUMBERS
by
zero'
follows
which
a meaningless operation.
is
This
may
be seen as
To
divide a
Now, there is no number which when multiplied by zero produces a number other than zero so that a JO is no number when 0^0.
Also any number when multiplied by zero produces zero so that 0/0
may be any number.
(/).
Let
jc
6.
Then
;c
36:=.x6,
or
8.
(x6)(jcf.6)=Jt
Dividing both sides by jc 6, we get
jc+6=l.
6+6=1,
which
is
12
= 1.
clearly absurd.
Division by jc
absurd conclusion.
(ii)
We may
6,
^lf =
which
remark
also
is
zero here,
is
*~^~
=x+6,
...
(1)
hand expression, (je2 36)/(x 6), is meaningwhereas the right hand expression, xf 6, is equal to 12 so that
For *=6, the
less
i.e.,
left
when x^6.
Ex.
2.
Show
that
is
expressible as
a terminating
or a recurring decimal.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
From this stage onward, the quotients will also repeat themselves and the
decimal expression will, therefore, be recurring.
The student
some
Ex.
3.
W *+.
!.
(0
tan 
1*16.
Representation of rational numbers by points along a line
or by segments of a line.
The mode of representing rational numbers
by points along a line or by segments of a line, which may be known
as the numberaxis, will now be explained.
We
axis
and
Any
one of these
it
The point
"ft
Fi
and the
On
it
may
"
tive
divides the
hand
axis into
zero will
two parts or
sides.
left
number
on the number
number
side of
drawn
negative.
we take an
arbitrary length
OA, and
call
We
number
1 is
represented
by the
point A.
explained below
Positive integers.
m.
We take
ger,
m.
Firstly,
we
consider
any
positive integer,
m, w<
Negative integers. To represent a negative integer,
take a point on the negative side of O such that its distance from
is
times the unit length OA.
fraction, p\q*
REAL NUMBERS
is
represented
by the
We
Real numbers.
have seen in the
number
can
be
rational
every
represented by a
the line with
see
can
cover
of
a
it
to
that
is
line.
we
Also,
easy,
point
such points as closely as we like. The natural question now arises,
"Is the converse true ?" Is it possible to assign a rational number
to every point of the numberaxis ?
simple consideration, as de12.
Irrational numbers.
show that
it is
not
so.
OA
Fig. 2.
its
= 2,
i.e.,
p*
(0
2q*.
Firstly
we
for,
such
notice that
an even number
is
number is odd.
that
equal to 2n where n
Let, the
Thus, #
see,
is
p2
an
is
an even number.
integer.
is alsc
Hence p and
is
line
QL
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
rational measure.
For, if possi
ble, let
m
p
mq
/0
or v
\/2=\/ 2
v
n
q
p
which states that <\/2 is a rational number,
being equal to mqjnp.
This is a contradiction. Hence L cannot correspond to a
rational number.
>
'
numbers.
method of representing
notation
is
irrational
13.
number, rational or
irrational, is called
is,
thus, the
Each real number is represented by some point of the numberaxis and each point of the numberaxis has some real number,
rational or irrational, corresponding to it.
Or,
we might
OP
length
a<x<b
<.
is
[a, b]
called
an
as also of
*).
REAL NUMBERS
To start with,
side of O.
point
on the positive
lies
coincides with any of these points of division, then it corresIn the alternative case, it falls between
a
rational number.
ponds
two points of division, say
If
to
i.e.,
o.a v
where, a l9
is
We
tf.K+1),
one
of
the
any
integers 0,
1, 2, 3,
9.
a,
+ io'
a+
,
L*
<Ji+i
10
n
J
is
1/10
2
.
fll
fl
io
_!_"
+io
+ io'
4_
The point P
a>
//u' !
of division
lie
(in
will
cither
which case
it
10*
i.e.,
where a 2
We
is
0, 1, 2, ...... , 9.
form
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
is
and which
1/10*
series
will
of intervals
intuitively
series
of
intervals
Combining the
p. 3,
is
we
contrary case.
Let, now,
representing it is
lie
on the negative
side of O.
##i#2**#i ......
where
is
Ex.
1.
We have
I=*l<2and23 =8>2.
l<3/2<2.
which divide the interval [1, 2] into 10 equal parts and find two successive nunv
bers such that the cube of the first is <2 and of the second is >2. We find that
129, l'3 r
10 equal parts.
REAL NUMBERS
We find
that
(l'25)
8
=l953125<2and(l26) 2'000376>2.
l25<3/2<l26.
Again, the numbers
125, 1251, 1752. ....... ,1*259,126
We find
that
8
(1259)=1995616979<2 and (1'26) =2'000376>2
!259<3/2<l26.
Hence
Thus
we have
?/2=l259.
Ex. 2.
Note. The method described above in Ex. 1 which is indeed very cumbersome, has only been given to illustrate the basic and elementary nature or
the problem. In actual practice, however, other methods involving infinite
series or other limiting processes are employed.
x,
1*4.
The modulus of a
Def.
x or
real number.
the
By
number
3
=3; 3
57
=(3)=3;
= 75

=0
=2.
We
a+b <
141.

i.e.,
a

b

is less
1.
In this
Let
case,
a,
we
I
e.g.,
and
sign.
clearly have
=
b
a +
=
7
+ 3
73 = 7 + 3
a+6
7+3
to see
into
of each.
Case
,
.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Case
Let
II.
In this
case,
we
I
4=
e.g.,
Thus
b have opposite
a,
clearly
have
a+b
73
<
<
+
+
7
I
=10.
3

ab
142.
b

we have
in either case,
I
signs.
\b\
43
(4)(3)
If x, a,
143.
=12=
=12=
/,
4

4
3
.
is
<*>
(^)
then
i.e.,
lies
between a
and
a\l or that
interval
The
a and x must be
d+t
a,
Fig 3
may
It
if
lies
figure,
I
clearly
and only
and a+l.
possible,
between a
we
if
*!<'
is
is
closed interval
equivalent to saying that, x, belongs to the
[al, a+l].
Ex.
1.
//
ab
We have
bc
ac
<m, show
that
</+/w.
= ab+b
1
<
ab +
2.
notation
ac
</,
bc
<l+m.
in
(0
1<*<3. () 2<x<5.
(m) 3<;t<7.
(iv)
/~s<x</+s.
Give the equivalents of the following by doing away with the modu3.
lus notation :
(/)
4.
If
y=
x_2
x
\
<3.
+
l
(//)
jc
2x,
1

fora;<0
forO<A:<l.
x\
<2.
11
FUNCTIONS
1*5.
Variables, Functions. We give below some examples to
enable the reader to understand and formulate the notion of a variable and a function.
Ex.
"where
1.
we take only
exist.
Now,
jc
equal to 1. This
the relation
i.e.,
is
is
x 2 is less than or
any number satisfying
the case
if
and only
if
is
1, 1],
to the
interval
value of y.
2.
their
relationship
...(/)
(")
...(iii)
DIFFEBENTIAL CALCULUS
12
y corresponding
instance,
forx=
2,
forx=,
for
y=(
2)
=4, [Equation
(/)
[Equation
(i7)
[Equation
(in)
j=J
^=
*=3,
Here again, y
is
v 2<0
v 0<J<1
3>1.
of real numbers.
This example illustrates an important point that it is not necesthat
sary
only one formula should be used to determine y as a function of x. What is required is simply the existence of a law or laws
which assign a value to y corresponding to each value of x in its
domain of variation.
Let
4.
Here y
is
integers only.
Let
5.
numbers.
It
follows
may
6.
ys=
x when
y=
x when x<0.
Let
yt=z\lq f
when x
y=0 when
t
is
is
in its lowest
terms r
irrational.
x defined
1*51.
Independent variable and its domain of variation. The
above examples lead us to the following precise definitions of variable
and function. Ifxis a symbol which does not denote any fixed number
but is capable of assuming as its value any one of a set of numbers,,
then x is called a variable and this set of numbers is said to be its
domain of variation.
FUNCTIONS
13
1*53.
variable
is
read as the
is
The
fact that
y is a function of
expressed symbolically as
'/'
of x.
p. 11,
then
then
it is
Some
Sometimes
it
We may similarly
[a, b),
a<x<6
(a, b],
a<x^b
as domains of variation.
We may
bound
(00,
b] or
x<6
[a, GO
or
x>a (00
;
oo
or
any
without
x.
Here it
00,00 are no
numbers in any sense whatsoever. Yet, in the following pages they
will be used in various ways (but, of .course never as numbers) and
in each case it will be explicitly mentioned as to what they stand for.
Here, for example, the symbol ( 00, b) denotes the domain of variation of a variable which can take up as its value any number less
than or equal to b.
should be noted that the symbols
Constants.
called a constant.
),
(00
oo
).
is
14
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
It has
like a, h, c
like JC, y, z
Note.
The following
carefully noted
2.
not necessary that there should be a single formula or rule for the
[Refer Ex. 3, page 11.]
Ex.
is
Show
1*
that the
For
and
x>2
x=l
negative.
is not defined for *<; 1 and x^2.
For x>l
the expression under the radical sign is positive so that a
Hence the function is defined
value of the function is determinable.
and
<2
in^heopen
Show
2.
that the
Show
3.
are
(0, oo)
and
that the
^[(1
x)
(A*
2)]
is
[1, 2].
oo
domain of
0) respectively.
4.
(0 ^(2x+l)
17.
(//)
1/U + cos
A)
(iii)
y=f(x)
defined in an interval
...
[a, b].
(/)
To
We take O
on OX,
To any number x
corresponds a point
OY
M on
FUNCTIONS
15
said
numbers x,
Thus
we obtain a
y*
there
which
is
y.
and to
point
(/),
this pair of
corresponds a point
above.
y
o
numbers,
x, y
as obtained
Fi g% 4
The
1.
page 11,
Examples
The graph of the function considered
in
Ex.
3,
1'5,
is
Fig. 5
2.
The graph
of >>
1) is
(jc
2).
Fig. 6
3.
consists of a discrete set of points(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 6), (4, 24), etc.
\
DrFFEBENTIAL CALCULUS
4.
x,
when
1,
when
x when
is
as given.
Fig. 7
5.
square
the function
As
*v/x
graph (Fig.
x according
=jc or
8) of
V*2
as
is
*s
f x, when
=H
x,
xi
when x<0.
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
(Fig. 8) of
2
\/* with the
(Fig. 9) of x.
Draw
see that
the graph of
>
We
have
x+lx=l
x+lx=l
2x when x<0,
when 0<x
{ x+x ^l=2x 1 when
Thus we have the graph as
drawn
The graph consists of parts of
:
3 straight lines
^
,,
^oo,0].
Fig. 10
[0, !],[!,
x).
FUNCTIONS
Dawn
7.
17
the graph of
[*],
where
We
have
y=4
for
1,
1^2,
The value of y
than x.
<*<!,
<x<2,
f 0, for
1
<ix<3 and
for 2
so on.
x can
also be similarly
given.
is
not a
Fig. 11.
Exercises
1
Draw the
<0/(*)
when A<CO
l,when.v>0
x, when OjcCjc^i
2*, when^v^i
2
f A
A ,
\
2.
x.x
Draw
^v,
when
wften A<TO
x^u
when A>0;
<)/(*)
,^
,.^ f
(")/(*)
( v /)/(A)
,.^
00 x
(/)
(0
4.
W
where
[*]
is
w
when
when
*
{!*,
,
+
,
when x = 4
1
A, when
I/*. when ^<
0, when A =
.
1,
^
f
^* 2
^
^
l/jc.whe
^(x\)
(///)
MV
x.
2*1
+3
CHAPTER
II
cos x,
21.
y=x*
(i)
integer
odd
when n is a
(Hi) when n
(//)
integer.
The following
are,
y=x
(i)
The
graph,
1.
therefore,
passes
(0,0),
(it,
(1,1), A'
(1,
when x
1).
is posiy
(ii)
positive
tive or negative. Thus no point on the
graph lies in the third or the fourth
is
quadrant.
18
19
GRAPHS
We have
(wi)
so that the
values of x.
The variable y
(iv)
larger numerically.
gets larger
and
Moreover, y can be
The following
when
1,
The graph,
of
y=xn
whatever positive
whenx^O;
x=l
^=0,
(i)
in
212.
odd
is,
therefore, passes
(//')
,4 (I, I),
is
according as x
,4'(l,l)
positive or negative
is positive or nega
tive.
lies
in
(n,
odd integer)
a positive
quadrant.
13.
Fig
(///)
increases with an
increase in the
numerical value of x.
Also, the numerical value of y can be
by taking x
213.
made
we
as large as
like
m> (w>0).
Here,
xn
n,
=x
(n,
~~
xm
\U,D
1
_______
may have
(i)
x=Q
Determination
of y
20
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
(fl)
Thus no
positive whether x be positive or negative.
lies in the third or in the fourth quadrant.
is
We have
(p)
decreases.
as
As
x, starting
from
Alsojy can be
we like) by
1,
made
m
Again, as x, starting from 1, approaches zero, x decreases so
that y increases. Also y can be made as large as we like by taking x
sufficiently near 0.
The
down by symmetry.
214.
x may
be,
now, put
is left
reader.
is
to the
shown
VJ)
ourselves
article
later considerations.
221.
+. a negat^ odd
integer^
Monotonic
functions.
Fig. 15.
an
Def. 2.
it
is
A function is
21
GBAPHS
then for a monotonically increasing function in the interval
and
for
A
ing
is
function which
called a
Show
Ex.
is
mono tonic
that for a
in
an interval
decreas
(a, 6),
the
fraction
xn
Looking
at
the graphs
in
(a, 6).
we
2*1,
notice that
is
00, 0)
is
and mono
a positive even
(//')
when n
is
when n
(00,
is
222.
Inverse functions.
Let
y=Ax)
...(1)
x=*(y).
Then
<p(y) is
..(2)
below
be
(i) The functional equation (1) may not always
as a function of y as, for instance, the case
solvable for
j = l+x
,
,
a
,
...(3)
22
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
of x. This
of x which
to the same
must natur
/(/>),
it,
Similar conclusion
is
reached
easily
if
y decreases monotoni
cally.
articles.
2*3.
To draw
the graph of
JL
y=x*
n being any positive or negative
integer.
y~x n
drawn
integral value n
(11)
of
takes
up every
in
(0, oo
21, or
whatever
positive value.
y=x n
or
xy^
Thus
determines
jc
always positive.
(0, oo
x being
also
OBAPHS
23
also the
graph of
x=y
first
quadrant,
is
n
.
y*
o
when n
is
when n
a positive integer.
is
a negative
integer.
Fig. 17.
Fig. 16.
i
j,
to the point
in the line
y=x.
This
is
is
nth root of x
X
when n
a positive integer.
Fig. 18.
is
2*3 above).
student. (It has also been considered in
To give the
rigorous meaning of a* when the index, x is irrational is beyond the
scope of this book. However, to obtain some idea of the meaning of
a? in this case, we proceed as follows
:
24
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
We
We
Note. The definition of a* when x is irrational, as given here, is incomplete in as much as it assumes that what we have done is actually possible and
that also uniquely. Moreover it gives no precise analytical way of representing
a* as a decimal expression.
z
of
y=a
Graph
we note
its
following properties
241.
The function a*
(i)
Leta>l.
always positive whether x b3 positive or
is
negative.
(//)
large as
(ill)
(iv)
value which
is sufficiently
large nu
merically.
242.
(i)
LetQ<a<\.
The function a*
is
or negative.
as x increases and can be
(//) It decreases monotonically
as near zero as we like by taking x
sufficiently large.
(ill)
fl=l. Therefore
on the graph.
the
point
(0, 1) lies
(iv)
Since a x ~\\cr x
we
see that
cf
is
made
as large as
we like if we
is
give to
sufficiently
large numerically.
as
drawn
Fig. 20.
made
GRAPHS
25
Note
2.
Ex.
Draw
1
2 /*
(i)
1
2 /*"
</<)
Graph of
25.
is
always positive
(iiflZ
WZ
/*
/*'.
ylog a x
a,
x being any
We
positive numbers.
know that
y=a*
can be written as
fo>
Thus
y=log a x,
we
We
oo
to
oo
if
if
Fig. 22,
Fig. 21.
Note.
to oo the
oo
is
the reflection
tfy=a*
in the line
.y
26
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
We may,
is
If
a>l,
we
we
like
like
(i/O
alterations.
1=0.
When fl>l, we
When 0<1, we
2*6.
by taking x
by taking x
log a x<0, if
x<l
have,
loga x>0, if
x<l.
x>l, and
log a x<0, if x>l, and
Trigonometric functions.
It will be
We
will
important and
261.
well
ysin
known
properties here.
x.
,1\
Fig. 23.
(i)
It is defined for
every value of x.
1 to 1 as x increases from
from
to
1 as x increases
1 to
from
it
decreases
7r/2
7T/2
monotonically
from Tr/2 to 3?r2, and so on.
(ii)
It increases monotonically
;
(Hi)
have.
<
sin
x <1,
i.e.,
sin

x
[
<1, whatever
value x
may
27
GRAPHS
Fig. 24.
It is defined for
(i)
It decreases
(11)
to
TT
and
263.
to
as
increases from
so on.
cos
(/)
every value of x.
y^tan
<1
whatever value x
may
have.
x.
Fig. 25.
(i)
+ l)7r/2,
x excepting
i.e.,
it
28
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
(if)
from
It increases monotonically
7T/2 to 7T/2
increases from
can
(Hi) It
oo
to
bfe
made
positively as
x<7r/2 and
x>
yr=cot
7T/2
and
large as
oo
to
increases
+00 as
sufficiently near to it
+00 as x
from
it
we take
264.
from
increases monotonically
to
7T/2
37T/2, and so on.
;
we
provided we take
like
sufficiently near to
it.
x.
Fig. 26.
It
(i)
is
defined for
4?r,
all
STT,
values of x excepting
27r,
TT,
0,
i.e., nir, where w has any integral value, since for each of these angles
the height of the rightangled triangle which defines cot x is zero and
the definition of cot x being the ratio of base to height involves
division
by
zero.
()
<x>
as x increases
as x increases
GO
(iii)
It can
like
provided
we take
x>0and
sufficiently near to it
GRAPHS
29
265.
Fig.
A:
excepting
i.e.,
(2n
l) ?r/2, where n has any integral value, since for each of
these angles, the base of the right angled triangle which defines
sec x is zero and as such the definition of sec x involves division
by
zero.
(11)
sec

^1
whatever value x
may have.
monotonically from
1 to oo when x increases
to Tr/2
it increases
oo to
1 when x
monotonically from
increases from ?r/2 to TT, and so on.
(zv) It can be made positively as large as we like by taking
x<7r/2 and sufficiently near to it
(ill)
It increases
from
y=cosec
as large as
we
like
by taking
sufficiently near to
x.
Fig. 28.
it.
DIFFBKENTIAL CALCULUS
30
(i)
"STr,
27T,
TT,"
x excepting
0,
TT,
27T, OTT,
i.e., nit,
(ii)
(lii)
have.
oo
from 1 to
decreases monotonically from oo
It decreases monotonically
from
7T/2
creases
from
to
it
as~""x
to]*l
increases
as jc in
to 7T/2.
(iv) It can
x>0
and
sufficiently near to it
The inverse
trigono
are generally defined as the inverse of the corresponding trigonometrical functions. For instance, sin" 1 * is defined as the angle whose
sine is x. The definition, as it stands, is incomplete and ambiguous
as will now be seen.
We
x== sin y
where y
is
...
(/)
variable.
trigonometric
func
tions also.
We now
271.
ysin^x.
GRAPHS
sin~ l x
between
5/ne
is
Tr/2
we
Accordingly
and
Tr/2,
w^ose
x.
y= sin 1 *,
we note that
monotoni(i) y increases
to
from
?r/2 as x
cally
Tr/2
1 to 1.
increases from
(if)
sin 1
(fff)
We,
__
0=0,
sin 1 *
the interval
defined
is
1, 1]
in
only.
Fig. 29.
We
2.
y=cos""
1
.*?
is
the reflection of .y
sin
x in the line
x.
A:
We know
we note that
(/)
from
TT
to
decreases
monotonically
as x increases from
1
(/I)
Fig. 30,
COS"
cosMl) = 0.
1
(
to
1.
1)=7T,
COS^O^TT^
1
1, 1] only.
defined in the interval [
(MI) cos ^ is
varies
taking up every
mondtonically,
that
x^cosy
Note. We know
w to 2w, 2* to 3* and so .on. Thus
value between 1 and 1 as y increases from
modified ty restricting
the definition could also have been equally suitably
instead of (On).
1
etc.,
3*]
2w],
[2*,
x
[,
the
intervals,
of
to
cosany
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
32
273.
We
y=tair*x.
x=tan
We know that
y.
y increases from
7T/2 to 7T/2, then x increases
00 to oo taking up every value.
Thus there is
as
monotonically from
one and only one angle between
7T/2 and 7T/2 with a given tangent.
1
Accordingly we have the following definition of tan x
l
tari~ x is the angle, lying between
whose tangent
TT/ 2 and Tr/2,
:
isx.
Fig. 31
(Fig. 31)
of
increases monotouically
oo to oo and then tan*" 1
from
?r/2
to Tr/2 as
in
0=0.
274.
y==cot x.
Consider the functional equation
x=cot
y.
We know that
cot~\
is
o
Fig. 32
and
TT,
whose cotangent
is x.
GRAPHS
To draw the graph
we note
from
that
oo
(Fig. 32)
of
y=COt~ l
X,
TT
to
as x increases
to oo
275.
y^sec^x.
X=9eC y.
We know
Thus, there
and
and
1.
TT,
and
sec 1
y=secr*
TT,
whose'$eant
is x.
x,
1=0, and
sec 1
to oo
and
Also
l)=7r.
Ylk
Fig. 33
276.
y=cosec
x.
x=cosec
We know
y.
7T/2
to 0, then
x decreases
to
oo
cosecant.
We thus
1
cosec"
cosecant is x.
To draw
is
say that
the
angle,
the graph of
lying
between
?r/2
and
*r/2,
whose
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
34
to
?r/2 as x increases from
as x increases from 1 to oo.
oo
to
Fig. 34
1
1
1
Ex. What other definitions of tan *, cot *, sec * and cosec 1* would
have been equally suitable.
1
cot 1 *, sec 1 * and
Note. The graphs of j^s in 1*, cos *, tan 1*,
1
sosec * are the reflections of y
*, cos *, tan *, cot *, sec * and cosec *
yx.
Ex.
1,
>>=sinw.
...(2)
To any given value of *, corresponds a value of u as determined from (1) and to this, value of w, corresponds a value ofy as
determined from (2) so that we see that y is a function of u which isagain a function of x, i.e., y is a function of a function of x.
From a slightly different point of view, we notice that since the
two equations (I) and (2) associate a value of y to any given value
3fx, they determine y as a function of x defined for the entire aggregate of real numbers.
2.
w=sin
x,
.(!)
y=\ogu.
...(2)
The equation
(0,
W)
(2*, 3*}
..,(3)
35
FUNCTION OF A FUNCTION
define y as a function of
set of intervals (3).
x where
'
the.
General consideration.
Let
and
be two functional equations such that/(x)
[a, b]
and
<f>
is
in
[c, d\.
29.
Any
y as a function of
given function
Algebraic or
(i)
A function
(ii)
transcendental.
is
),
A function
is
said to be transcendental if
it is
not algebraic.
The exponential, logarithmic, trigonometric and inverse trigonometric functions are all transcendental functions.
Two
(ii)
Polynomials
Rational functions.
(/)
where #
is
two
speci
#,, .........
is
a positive integer,
called a polynomial in x.
such as
A rational function of x is defined for every value of x excludfor which the denominator vanishes.
those
ing
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
36
Exercises
1.
2.
For what domains of values of the independent variable are the following,
tani(l),
(11)
[Sol.
sinNx
(/)
this will
O'O
is
log sin
(iv)
and only
if,
open
if,
x is defined only
sin
in the
2,
log a sinx.
is
be the case
50 that sinNx
(///)
(//)
I.*.,
cos 1 (~i).
sinH,
functions defined
and
sec~i
(/)
[0, 1].
for
which
x>0
intervals
(0, *), (2n, 3*), ......
or generally in (2nn,
(ill) log sini*.
(v)
log
2/ifl *)
(xH)/(xl)
(ix)
log [x+>J(x
1)
].
+*)/(! x)
(iv)
log
(v/)
log (tan'x
(1
(viii)
(Iog 6 x)^.
(x)
x tanix.
(02*.
4.
(//)
(i)*
(ill)
1 ''*'
(iv)
x,
G)
4 l/x2
'
(v)
2sinx.
CHAPTER
III
so that
Thus, if *!, x a are any two values of the independent variable
then
the
function
of
)/(*i)
2
values
/(*
fix),
/(*i) /(*) are the corresponding
may be large even though x a x,. i? small. It is because the value /(x,)
value /(x^ of the
assigned to the function for x=x 2 is quite independent of the
I
x=x
We now propose
function for
change
t.
XgXi
relative to the
/(x? )/(x,)
study the change
of
and
of
discontinuity
notion
the
continuity
by introducing
to
a function.
In the next article, we first analyse the intuitive notion of continuity that
in the form of
possess and then state its precise analytical meaning
we already
a definition.
r,
We
Here,
h,
which
positive or negative.
f(c), is
Then,/(c+A)
we
For continuity,
numerically small,
can
c __/j)_y( c )
small.
sufficiently
yjr
h
be
if
require
is
c+h)f(c)
that
small.
numerically
as small as
made
we
This
like
be
should
means that
by taking
h

The precise analytical definition of continuity should not involve the US6
and
of the word small, whose meaning is definite, as there exists no definite
absolute standard of smallness. Such a definition would now be given.
To be more
precise,
c,
x=
corresponding to any
number S
arbitrarily assigned, there exists a positive
function /(x)
positive number,
such that
we
is
\f(c+h)f(c)
37
if,
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
38
for
Alternatively, replacing
is
f(x)
continuous at
around c such
that,
for
lies
and
between /(c)
c+h by
x=c,
all values
and /(c)+c
for all
8.
x,
8,
cf 8)
Draw
the lines
which
lie
the point
on
different sides of
are parallel to
P and
xaxis.
x=c,
then,
should be
for
requires that we
able to draw two
lines
g. 35.
x=c
8,
x=c+S,
...(2)
which are parallel to >>axis and which lie around the line x=c, such
that every point of the graph between the two lines (2) lies also
between the two lines (1).
311. Continuity of a function in an interval. In the last
articles,
at
we
We
a point of
A function /(x)
is
continuous in an interval
[a, &], if it is
continuous
is
x=c
is
xc.
is
Show
continuous at
that
x=l.
will
now be
illustra
39
We
will
now attempt
to
value of this
/(I).
Now
/(*)/(l) =3(xl)<001,
if
xKOOl/3
ie., if
x<l+001/3=*l0003.
Let JC<1, so that 3(x
value of/(jc)/3;i) is 3(Lx).
1) is
(11)
..(0
Now
/(*)/(!)
=3(l*)<001,
if
lx<
001/3,
'
i.e., if
l~001/3<x,
or
Combining
(/)
and

(//'),
we
/(*)/(!)
seo that

<001,
<
0003
x <1 +0003.
test of continuity for x~l is thus satisfied for the particular value 001 of e.
may similarly show that the test is true for
the other particular values of e also.
The
We
however, as follows
be any positive number. We have
is,
Now
3
x
if
*i.e
if
le/3
<
<
l+e/3.
lit
may be shown
for
x=l.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
2.
Show
Let
f/Ktf
/(x)=3x
+2x
1 is
We have
= 3x*+2xl15
= x2
3x+8

We
suppose that x
between 1 and 3, 3x + 8
Thus when
lies
is
between
positive
and
x = 2.
continuous for
less
.

we have
Now
17
if

Thus,
we
x2
<e/17.
when
x2
<e/17.
Therefore /(x) is continuous for x=2.
Note. It may be shown that 3x*f2x 1,

of
is
x.
Prove that
3.
say
sin
is
shown that
It will be
sin
is
c.
Let
/(x)
/(c)
=
=
sin
x+c
~ sin x
X + C!
xc
2 cos
have
We
sin c
Now
cos
x+c
;
for
xc^lx
Also
sm
c.
Thus we have
sm x sm
cos
xc
x+c
XC
Hence
sin

sin c
<e when x

c

<
e.
sin
(c
e,
sin c
every value of x
4.
is
continuous for
c being
c such that
for
<s.
xc
Hence, sin x
c+e) around
and, therefore,
also for
any number.
sm* x
S7z0w
Let
We
have
f/?tff
\f(x)f(c)
sin 2 xsin 2 c

sin

<
(x+c)
sin (x
c)
xc
sin (x
c)
when
1
Hence, sin x
every value of x
5.
Show
atx^.
is
xc
<e.
continuous for
c being
x=c
any number.
x,
[x,
The argument
will
discontinuous
is
when
when
of this function.
consists of the point P (,
the
Our intuition
excluding
point A.
there
that
is a disimmediately suggests
continuity at A there being a gap in the
graph at A.
The graph
1)
and the
*
*
lines
OA, AC:
*p ^ *
,
for
every value of x,
tive
number
32.
for
Fi
X.
arbitrarily assigned.
Therefore /(x)
will
is
discontinuous at
x=:
now be
(ii)
x near
c,
42
DIFFBBENTIAL CALCULUS
equal to f(c) or that the values do not lie near any number at all.
Thus, for example, we have seen in Ex. 5, above, that the values of
the function for values of x near
lie near
which is different from
the value, 1, of the function for
In fact this inequality itself
was the cause of discontinuity of this function for x= J,
The above remarks lead us to introduce the notion of limit as
x=.
follows
Mm
Def.
f(x;=l.
x > c
A function f(x)
as
I,
responding to
which
is
less
than
e, i.e.,
\A*)l\ <e,
for every value
ofx
other than
such that
c,
\
left
handed
lim
xc
/(*)=/.
x>(c+0)
A function f(x)
is
<8.
limits.
said to tend to
lim /(*)=/
x>(c0)
a limit, I, as x tends
I/WM
e,
to,
c,
from
arbitrarily assigned,
<*
whenever
c<x<c+8.
In this case, we write
lim fix)
and say
1,
/ is
whenever
c8<x<c.
In this case, we write
lim
/(*)=/
x > (c0)
and say that, /, is the left handed limit of/(x).
From above it at once follows that
lim
*)
/,
and only
if,
Jim
It is
/fx)=/=
lim
f(x)
may not
always exist.
Remarks
1.
limit of f(x) as
321.
Another form of the definition of continuity. Comparing
the definitions of continuity and limit as given in
3*1, 3*2, we see
that
x=c
if,
and only
if,
lim f(x)=f(c).
X >C
as
x tends
to
c,
is
>
We
in
any
continuous for X = c
(/)
(11)
is
f(x)
x=c
r, i.e.,
x >c
Hm
(Hi)
is
defined but
Examples
1.
Examine
<w x tends to
The function
is
y=
x2
than
1.
is
greater than 2
when x
is
y for
greater
^4
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
In
takes
up values whose
greater than 2,
diminishes also.
like
1,
fact, difference
by taking x
sufficiently
near
1.
"001.
Then
if
x<l001.
Thus, for every value of x which is greater than 1 and less thai*
1*001, the absolute value of the difference between y and 2 is less than*
the number 001 which we had arbitrarily selected.
Instead of the particular number 001,
number
Then
we now
consider
any
e.
positive
if
x<l +
e.
Thus, there exists an interval (/, 1 f e), such that the value ofy,
for any value of x in this interval, differs from 2 numerically, by a
number which is smaller than the positive number e, selected arbitrarily.
/, is
Case
II.
We now
less
than
When x
2,
y for
1.
than
1, }> is less
than
2.
If,
difference
than
is less
=2.
lim
values of
x,
from
also.
Let, now, e be
any
number, however
small.
We
then have

if
y2
=2>>=2(x+l)=lx<
1
e,
<x,
s,
the absolute
number
e.
Thus there
Jor any x in the
is
exists an interval (I
Thus the
1, is
45
ofy, as x approaches
limit
1,
values
through
less
than
2 and we write
lim
y=2.
jc~(i0)
Combining the conclusions arrived at in the last two
any arbitrarily assigned positive
e, 14**) around 1, such that
for every value of x in this interval, other than 1, y differs from 2
numerically by a number which is less than e, i.e., we have
Case HI.
cases, we
number e,
y2
or
any
x, other
than
1,
<
such that
xl<e.
Thus
lim
y=2,
or,
y >
2 as
x >
1.
x>l
Examine
2.
of the function
the limit
y=x sin x,
as x approaches 0.
Case
Let x
I.
>
that y
0, so
<
is
also
> 0,
if
we suppose
7T/2.
r<x,
that
x
Let
sin
x<x 2
if
0<x<7r/2.
less
than
y'e,
we have
X <e
we have
x sin x<e.
Thus there
e,
above.
Thus
lira
Case
II.
Let
x<0
so that
sin
^>0,
x=0.
if
we suppose
x>
Tr/2.
The values of the function for two values of a which are equal
Hence, as in case I,
in magnitude but opposite in signs are equal.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
46
\/e, 0)
is^ less
e.
lim
x sin x=0.
x > (00)
Case HI. Combining the conclusions arrived at in the last two
cases, we see that corresponding to any positive number e arbitrarily
\/s, \/ e ) around 0, such that
assigned, there exists an interval (
for any x belonging to this interval, the numerical value of the
Hence
difference
i.e.,
Hence
<e,
x~Q
is
sin
lira
sin
<e.
x=0.
x>0
It will be seen that the inequality
Note.
sin
x

< e is
satisfied
even
if
x=0
were an exception.
we
Again,
#=0,
sin
which
is
for
is
it is
limit
conti
discontinuous for
Examine
3.
x=0.
is
0=0
x approaches 0.
the same as its value.
of the function
nuous
the limit
x = l.
of sin
(1/jc)
as x approaches 0.
Let
so that
is
from
1
toO
As x
7T/2
to
as
i;
and so on.
number of
jc
47
can be divided in an
infinite
intervals
r j
Li
r j!_
I*'
* J'
LlT' 5;: J' L57T> 3lTj'
such that the function decreases from 1 to in the first interval on
the right and then oscillates from
1
1 to 1 and from 1 to
on
interval
second
in
the
the
others
from
alternatively
beginning
the right.
It may similarly be seen that the negative values of
divide themselves in an infinite set of intervals.
A
[
x also
_? 1
37T'
57TJ
and
Fig. 37.
Hence
lira
(sin 1/x)
>0
may
not
exist.
Note.
is
x=0
48
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Examine
4.
the limit
of
sin
x
as x approaches
0.
is
x=0.
Now,
for
non
*rini
]*
sin~L]<*
so that
xsm
sin
j\
when
Thus, we see that
an interval
exists
if,
e, s)
e,
around
Hence
In
fact, as
may
y=x
oscillates
between
y=x
as
sin
x tends to
and>>=
zero.
This function
is
Infinite limits
3*22.
infinity.
Meanings
of
(i)
lim/(x)=oo
lim f(x)=
(//)
oo
interval
[c8, c+S],
/(*)
>
G.
as x tends to c, if,
oo
Also, a function f(x) is said to tend to
Corresponding to any positive number G, however large, there exists a
positive number S such that for all values of x in [c8, c+8] exclud,
ing
c,
AX)
Right handed and
left
<
G.
handed
p. 42.
some examples.
3*2,
INFINITE LIMITS
Examples
Show
I.
that
lim
^cA*
The function
is
52
]=OQ
'
x=0.
We
write
y=l/x
2
.
near
it.
Then
l/x
>10 6
if
X<1/10*,
3
x<l/10 , we have
,
10 6
we may
consider
any
G.
Thus, there exists an interval [0, lj\/G] such that for every
x belonging to it, y is greater than the arbitrarily assigned
t
value of
positive
number G.
Hence
lim
l*2 = oo.
increases.
Also
if,
x tends to
2
lim
(l/JC )
a>(00)
through values
less
than
it
= oo.
we have
Thus
lim
lx*z=oo
or (l/;c*)*oo as
50
WFFBRENTIAL CALCULUS
2.
Show
that
lim
=POO

lim
The function
is
1.1 =
,.
lim
00,
We
write
y=I/x.
Also, if
l/x>G,
if
x<l/G.
Hence
lim (l/x)
Case
Let
= oo
whenx>(0+0).
#<0
Also, if
l/x<G,
if
x>l/G.
Hence
lim (l/x)=
Case
when x>(0
0).
III.
323.
ings the reader
(i)
oo
may
easily follow.
function f(x)
is
/,
as
tends to
QO ), if, corresponding to
(or
any arbitrarily assigned positive
e, there exists a positive number G, such that
oo
number
'
!/(*)/
for every value
ofx>G, (x<
(11)
i/,
A function f(x)
corresponding to
a positive number
is
oo
as x
number G, however
,
oo
].
tends to oo (or
oo )
such that
we
r
Symbolically,
said to tend to
any positive
<>
G).
we write
= / when x>oo
Symbolically,
lim /(*)
write
Note
1.
Instead of
oo,
we may
oo
oo
Note
Rigorous, solution of any .problem on limits requires that the
problem should be examined strictly according to the definitions given above in
terms, of e'$, g'j, G's etc. Bat in practice this proves very difficult except in some
2.
THEOREMS ON LIMIfS
We may
not,
J5J
on a rigorous
Exercises
Show
1.
lim
(2*+3)=5.
lim
(**+3)=4.
(0
(///)
2.
(3*4)=2.
o;~>3
lim
Show
(l/aO=i
(vO
lim
that
(0
5x+4
is
(11)
z a +2
is
lim
(iv)
a?>l
(v)
(0
.
/()=/
(,7)
6,
sin
is
~,
whena?=0,
0,
j^
4.
when #=3,
Show that cos 2 x and 2+x+x* are continuous for every value of x.
6.
Draw the graph of the function V(x) which is equal to
when x
when 0<a;^l and to 2 when s>l and show that it has two points of
5.
to
discontinuity.
7.
function
Show
that
when
/(z)=cos
is
discontinuous for
9.
Show
g=0.
that
lim
tan a?=oo
[Refer
lim
lim
but
10.
263, p. 27]
Show
that
lim
logx=
oo.
*>(<HO)
[Refer
11.
x^O and/(0)=l.
25, p. 25].
Examine
lim
5^
tan a?=
oo
DIFFERENTIAL OALOTTLtTS
[If x tends toO through positive values, then I/* tends to ooand, therefore,
21 /* tends ooo.
i
If x tends to
through negative values, then I/* tends to
l/a
tents toO.
fore, 2
oo
and there
>
Thus
JL_
JL,
lim
2* =
lim
2*~=oo,
sKO+0)
but
2*
lim
does not
exist.]
Show
12.
that
lim
Show
13.
where
that if
[a?]
*Hi 0)
What
a?>(l
is
exist.
<c>J
+0)
x=\
15.
but
is,
Theorems on
3*3.
Let/(x) and
lim
<p(x)
limits.
/(*) = /,
lim
?(x)=w.
Then
lim
a?0
(0
i.e.,
limits
lim [f(x)
the limit
of their
limits
(Hi)
i.e.,
of the
equal to the
sum of
their
(iv)
difference
/(x)lim
of two functions
y>(.x)
is
m,
is
= /m,
equal to the product of
lim
^Ae limit
their limits
?(x)]=lim
ih* limit
their limits
i.e.,
is
(ii)
i.e.,
x*a
x >a
63
number of
functions.
The fact is that in each case the question as to whether the inversion of
the order of operations is or is not valid has to be separately examined in
relation to the nature of the operations.
We now examine the following statements
:
(i)
logOnfn) ;*logw4log
n.
+ B) ^sia A+ sin B.
=0x6 + axc,
(Hi) ax(b+c)
In (/) we find that the two operations
(it)
sin (A
involved,
viz.,
that of addition
we
The theorems in this article amount to asserting the validity of the inversion of the operations of taking the limits with each of the four operations of
addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
The reader is advised to think of other similar cases also.
34.
quotient of
Let /(;c),
x=0,
<p(x)
so that
Prom
lim/(x) ^(a),
x > a
the theorems in 3*3,
lim
x >
lim 9(x)=?(0).
x > a
we
see that
a.
=value of
so that/(x)+9(.x)
is
The continuity
of/(x)
y(x)
and
f(x)<p(x)
proved.
*=0
continuous at x = (t.
/M ?^M
,
'
*here lim
may
similarly
be
D1FFB&BKTUL CALCULUS
54
JM
^value of t&.
so that/(x)r?(x)
for
xa,
?(*)'
?(a)
is
when x >
lim <p(x)=<p(a)^iQ,
a.
Thus, f&e sum, the difference, the product and the quotient of two
continuous functions are also continuous (with one obvious exception
in the case of a quotient).
3*41.
Continuity of elementary functions.
sin
tan
x= cos
3*4, above,
x
x
cot
x
sm x
x= 
x and
see that
cos
we
4, p.
sec
x=
cos
,
'
cosec
x= sin
Also it may be easily seen that, x, and a constant are continuous functions of x. Thus by repeated applications of the results of
3/4 above, we see that every polynomial
is
<*
is
for
1
1
1
1
1
Finally the functions, sin x, cos x, tan"" x, cot x, sec x,
1
a?
are, continuous for all those values of x for which
cosec x, log a x,
they are defined. This is geometrically obvious from the graphs
drawn in Chap. II. Analytical proofs are beyond the scope of this
book.
3*5.
Some
351.
exists
ofx
in this interval.
it
may
be proved as follows
To
for
65
it
may
be, there
c8
is,
when
analytical proof
is,
this book.
353.
Letf(x) be continuous in a closed interval [a, b]. Then
there exists points c and d in the interval [a, b], where f(x) assumes its
andm, i.e.,
greatest and least values
The proof
is
this book.
A
as
discontinuous function
we now
may
illustrate.
x,~fbr
\,~
0<;
ibrJfc=X
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
point C(0 *>' and the line AB excu u point 5. The function
.
the
possesses no greatest value; 1 not being
a value of the function. If we consider
>
it
(0'i)C
This
interval (0, 1)
Fig. 38.
#=0
being a point of
discontinuity.
Example
Show
when, n
is
that
any
integer.
We cannot
write
,.
hm
jc*~ a*

yrS
 ~>
r
for
,.
hm(x
Case
I.
is
a)=0.
is
also zero.
a positive integer.
actual
By
division,
lim
As the
~~
x*a x a
x > a
is
its limit
when x > a
must be equal
x
n
*a+ ...... +di=na**
^=a*i+a
~
x >a x a
lim
Case
where
is
II.
m,
67
iMPOKTAisri LiMi'fs
 =
x*
,.
lira
a*
,.
lim
1
x m a m
m
a xm
x a
x m a m ,.
1
hm
m m
employing Case I and the fact that l/a x
In the Case II, we must suppose that
'
is
Exercises
1.
Show
2.
If
that
^2 and/(2)*t
find
Show
3.
*=
2.
that
3*6.
3*61.
Let
(i)
useful limits.
x>\.
x= 1 +h
We
write
By
is
so that h
is
positive.
we have
positive.
Hence
n
x=(l+h) >l+nh.
As
with
n,
infinity.
To be more
rigorous,
we
Then
If
58
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
(ii)
Let
x~l. Here
x*
=l
and therefore
in this case.
(m) Let
We
0<x<l.
write
x=l/(l +h)
is
positive.
a positive number.
is
As before
<z __ __
^
_
1+nh'
Now
ll(l+nh)*Q as n tends to
Therefore x"*Q as
infinity.
oo.
To be more
rigorous,
,
If
m be any
we consider any
number
positive
t.
Then
if
integer which
>
is

then
J[A,
Thus we
n^m
so that for
is
lim x w
(iv)
Let
(v)
Le/
lies
always positive,
between
and e
0<jc<l
x=0.
Here
when
l<x<0.
>co
is
Absolute value of x n
is
x"

But a*>0.
i.e.,
=an
Hence
1 and 1, therefore
Since x n is alternately
1.
Let x=
i n this case.
neither tends to any finite limit nor to Jt
(vi)
x<
it
Let
/.
oo,
exists finitely
if,
and only
if,
Abo ttisOifl<x<I
9
i.e.,
Iforx^l.
is
lies
let
m>
ao that
m+l
we haye
through
.,
IMPOETAN'T LlMlfs
We
write
s
^L
1*2
nl
^L
JL
'
'
"m
IT'
*
'
m+1
p=^.JL
12
Let
so that
'
'
'
'
^n+2'
'7T*
m..
a positive constant.
/? is
^.
m+3
^~,
Also, each of
m+2
x*
\*~
,
'
is
'
"
<~ ^
8ay
where
A:
is
Since, x/(w
+ l)
is
n.
positive
m being a constant.
Hence
xn
lim ^^=^0,'
when w^oo
let
Again,
tive.
We
a, so
have
that a
is
posi
x*
Ij
Now,
since
j>0,
Hence
we
whatever value x
may
see that
lim
also0.
x*
ny*=
have.
3 63.
Limiting value of
when n tends
60
DIFFERENTIAL CALCTJLXJS
Step
1.
we have
By
is
sum
__L_ViA_^
A n+i
)
......
(wi1
sum
fi
of
(+2)
n+l
\
J
positive
terms.
'
1
i_l_<i__2_
< n + l' !_!
n
is
\*
K'+T)
for all positive integral values of w,
cally as n increases.
Step
II.
We
have
+ l/M)"
i.e.,
(l
increases monotoni
<l+l+2+
g.
=1 +
61
factors
<3) foralln.
...(//)
Thus we
see that
N*
1
j
steadily increases
as
/i
takes up
1, 2, 3, etc.,
and
re
mains
H
(1

Note
1,
From
(i)
approaches a finite
and
(11),
we
limit as
n >
oo
see that
is
lies
between 2 and
3.
The mere
The reader will be enabled to appreciate the argument better and also
begin to feel a little more acquainted with, e, if he calculates the value of
1+
In Chapter
IX
it
will
Note
much
inconvenience.
Cor.
real
I.
Lim
numbers as
its
(1
values.
JL > JL
x
or
n+i'
i.j__^],4_ L>i___J_,
x
'
n+1
82
DIFFERENTIAL CALCTTLtT&
/
or
O+T)
number to a
greater
We thus
have
Let x ~>
values.
oo
We know
00
that
lim
lim
H
= lr=:lim
x*
(l
M+ ""Xf
/I
\ n4
=^ = lim (l+^~TTj
Therefore
Urn
x+<
COT. 2.
lim
l.
C^ccV
Let
x=
so that >>>
oo
'
lim (l+z)
3.
oo
4
We have
lim flf
=e
jY
^yV
Cor.
as
when z >
+
T ^(l+~
lim
ooV
0.
according as z >
or
Now
lim
(1+z)
z>(0+0)
a=s
lim
*>
[1+
s=f
and
lim
(1+2)
> (00)
lim
1+ ~)
=^.
through
63
Cor.
4.
Hl+
^
+0\
*.y'*Iim
a)
X ^.Q
To show
364.
that
a*
lim
Let
is
The base
i
 =log, a.
as x >().
We have
or
a=log
log
(1 +>>),
i.e.,
=x
log (l+>0/loga.
Hence
a*
y
1
.
..
&v
'logo
 _
1
=loga.
;
log
hm
..
...
^Q
log (1+7)
(1+7)
a*\
=
x
lus M .
hm
'.
r.
^Q]_
a
logo
lim
To
Iy
Hm
^0
365.

log
(1+7)
T7/:K
1
J
is
generally
DIFFEBENTIAL CALCULUS
Let x=a(l+y) BO that y >
*X <* X
= aX
...
Again,
[(1+JO
0, as
1]
a.
x~ 1
fl
we put
(1BO
l=z
=i +2
so that z + 0, as
y >
0.
or
l)
_ a (XD
a
(XD
Fog
_
(1+z)
log
(1+z j
_z
'
z_
>
*
'
log (1+z)
~~~y
.
'
log (1+z)
Hence
..
Urn 
..
~
>0 x a
3*66.
lim
hm
z*0
=?va

^0 x
=1,

log
as proved in books
Examples
Show
that
ll
is
continuous for
when
x=0.
Now
lim/(x)=lim f
#>0
aothat
lim
a?>OL
f[x)=*
>0
Hence the
result.
hm
,.
'
metry.
1.
,,
on Elementary Trigono
EXAMPLES
2.
Show
65
that
i
/(x)=(e*l)/(e* +1)
whenx^Q,
/(0)=0
if
x=0.
discontinuous at
When x
tends to
therefore e* 
oo.
tT
..
Thus
_1

When x
tends to
JL
Thus
hm
Hence we see that
lim
Hm
eo that
does not
lim
f(x)
f(x)
exist.
Hence the
3.
f(x)^
Show
as
that
continuous for
Now,
result.
x=l.
may
easily be seen
_
lim
;r
^  1 =B
oo,
e*"1 =0.
lim
a?>(l
0)
l/JC>
<x>
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Thus
lim
Km
/(x)=0,
*Hl+0)
x=0=
lim
Hence the
4.
annum.
/(x)0,
*>(! 0)
result.
amount
after
is
years will be
r
We
is its
\tn
limit as n> c.
have
"
fr/100
as n
which > Pe
*>
oo
and
is
amoun
Exercises
1.
Prove that
sin
ax
 COS
l
..
taf^
(j/i)
2.
lim
0,
:r
(iO
1,
2r
"5
sin
A*)}"
^
tan 2*
>
when
when
a;
i^O.
rc=0.
when #0,
when a; =0.
wbencc^O.
when a;
0.
whena;=0.
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS
e2 ,
(
when #=0.
I/*
*)=)
C
when #=0.
1,
e
f
(v/0 /(*)=
/*
whcn x
1+~^T~'
<(
f
vi/0
Show
whens^O.
1
3.
I/a'
"777
*
e 11
/()(
when # = ().
U,
67
when #=0.
1,
that
sin
lim
a?
sin

(a?/0

=cos
A>0
Show
4.
and
that
(//) (
Draw
5.
37. Note on Hyperbolic Functions. In analogy with Trigonometric functions, the Hyperbolic functions are defined in the following
manner
QX _ p X
03?
sinh
x=
^
sinh
tanh X=s
sech
371.
=e^
e^
Graph of
The following
C0th
cosech
sinh
is
sinh
x=
properties of sinh
will
 ass ~
enable us to
0=
^
sinh x.
V>__gO'
(tf)
X= cosh x =
graphs:
(i)
12
x=
cosh x==
=0.,
draw the
68
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
_L
e x er*
e*
0,
2
monotonically increases and
Thus as x
monotonically decreases.
increases from 0, sinh x monotonically
e*
increases.
(iv)
lim (sinh
x>oo
x)=oo
e~* e*
(v)
sinh
a
(*)=
..
sinh x.
3'72.
(/)
Graph of cosh
cosh
x.
is
(ii)
cosh
0=
(iii)
cosh
x=
0.
(iv)
(v)
x=
lim cosh
X>co
cosh
oo.
x)=cosh
x.
Graph of tanh
x.
() tanh 0=0.
(tit)
tanh x
e*+e~*
1
69
HYPERBOLIC
BO that tanh
increases as
increases from
onward.
vi
y^tanh x
Fig. 41
lim tanh
(iv)
(v)
tanh
x)
We may note
\e~**
e*fi
lim
lim
e*+e~*
1+e
tanhx.
that
tanh x
Note. The graphs of coth x, sech x and cosech x have not been given.
The reader may, ifhe so desires, draw the same himself.
Some fundamental relations. The following fundamental
374.
relations can be at once deduced from the definitions
:
<
a)
cosh x
sinh
tanh x
2
=1
=sech2 x.
(2)
(3)
coth2 xl
(*)
cosh 2x+sinh 2x
2 sinh x cosh x
=sinh 2x.
=cosech2 x.
cosh 2x.
sinh x, cosh 1
X tanh 1
9
1
1
1
x, coth x, sech"" x, cosech"" x,
A.
make them
singlevalued.
Let
1
y=sinh"" x,
<
so that
is
the
number whose
sinh
or j
is
x.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
It is easy to see that x+
V(* 2 1) is positive and x <\/(x*+l)
negative for every value of x, positive or negative. Also we know
that the logarithm of a
negative number has no meaning in the
2
field of real numbers so that
[x
<\/(*
1)] has to be rejected. Hence
is
we have
B.
Let
We
a given number.
is
Now
y= J
*=xi/(x*
x=cosh
(<# f<r")
l)
e 2 *2,x.^+l=0.
i.e.,
or >>=log [x
v^C*
!)]
22
Here we see that both jt +
1 ) are
v/(* l), an d xVf*
positive and real when x>l so that in this case y has two values.
For x>l, we have
,
and
BO that
log
log
[x
x=log
[x
+ vXx*
1)].
C.
Let
7=tanh~1 x, where
..
x=
Thus
l
A "T" A
if
HYPB11BOLIC FUNCTIONS
We may
D.
similarly
show that
eothix=^^f
log
[<*+!)/(* 1)]>0,
E.
71
sech*x=log
X
A ^]
~
if

M.
>1.
jc
1+ ^flTlg2).
[0
<x< 1].
'
F.
is
is
positive or negative.
Ex.
oo
or
oo
oo
Show
that
sinh* tends
to oo
or
oo
according as x tends to
3.
4.
Show
2.
,lo
1.
that
sinh (;c+^)==sinh
oo
or
CHAPTER
IV
DIFFERENTIATION
Rate of Change. The subject of Differenits origin mainly in the geometrical problem of the determination of a tangent at a point of curve, has
rendered possible the precise formulation of a large, number of physical concepts such as Velocity at a point, Acceleration at a point,
Curvature at a point, Density at a point, Specific heat at any temperature, etc. each of which appears as a Local or instantaneous Rate
of change as against the Average Rate of Change which pertains
to a finite interval of space or time and not to an instant of time
Introduction.
41.
tial Calculus
which had
and space.
The fundamental idea of Local or instantaneous Rate of Change
all
pervading
differential coefficient.
411.
defined in
Derivability. Derivative.
any interval
(a, b).
o that /(c)
is
h, is
number.
It is possible that the ratio tends to a limit as h tends to 0.
This limit, if it exists, is called the derivative of f(x) for x==c and
the function, then, is said to be derivable for this value.
Def.
f(x)
is
said to be derivable at
and
the limit
is
if
^,
/r>0
exists
xc
of
x=c.
is
isftflffe.
72
DIFFERENTIATION
Ex.
Show that x2
1.
derivable forx=l
is
for *=7.
73r
and obtain
its
derivative
Let
2
/(jc)=x so that/(l)
in the
=l
Ex.
is
derivable and
that
\
is
\
to
1fft
&
to
functional +h)*l=2h+h
Show
2.
=l.
Hence /(x)
2
.
0.
its
derivative
is
2 for x
1.
x=0.
Let
f(x)=
x
\
s>othat/(0)=0.
It will be
exist,
limit of [/(04/J)
f(0)]//J
does not
Now
f(0+h)f(0)
h
according as h
is
=
=f(h)
/r lorl
positive or negative.
and >
Hence
Ex.
3.
show thatf(x)
for
is
\
If
is
f(x)=xsin
continuous for
x=0
x=0.
We
x=0.
have
=x sin
0=xsin
X
DIFFERENTIAL OALOTTLUS
x

Thus
if e
*
Bin
<
<e.
Hence
lim /(x)=0
x0
so that f(x)
is
continuous for
Again
x=0.
==
x
jc
8n
and, as seen in Ex. 3, p. 47 lim sin (I/*) does not exist when x >
Thus/(x) has no differential coefficient for JC=0.
>
Ex.
0.
4.
(/)
(11)
1/jc
for
x5.
>/v
lim
~ yv
when h > A
.
ded
it
^his
limit which
a function of x
is
is
is
denoted by/'(jc).
Derivative of function
also
is
called its
Differential coeffi
cient.
Let
/(*)=**.
/'<*)lim
&^^
when h >
for x=*c.
DIFFERENTIATION
when h >
^^I^
]i ra
ft
=
Thus 2x
is
lim
x2
Find the
.x
for
x=l
differential coefficient
result of
of \/x.
Let
f(x)=\(m
We start
when'/* >
through positive values
tive values of h.
Ex.
Find the
r
,
'
x=0.
when X
We have
<\Jh
of
derivations
(///)
(i/y 1/^Jx.
x8
</v)
ax*+bx+c.
The
derivative
t.e. 9
lim
(Sj>/Sx),
as 8x ~+ 0,
is
then denoted by
Thus
<
dx
lim
when 3x
^ 0.
ox
c,
of x
is
denoted by
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
76
Note
1.
Note
2.
1.
Find
Ex.
2.
An
(! ) x=Q
y are
* when y
and
Ex.
414.
ts
in x,
*f
also
known as
increments.
=,
when *=l
important theorem.
Every
continuous.
x=c
[f(c+h)f(c)]lh
We
tends to a
write
lim
J^L^'J^J x
lim
"
ii
A0
Hence
lim fa+h)=f(c),
Therefore /(x)
Cor.
nition,
then
Note.
is
i.e.,
lim /(x)=
x ~> c
continuous at x=c.
is
its
interval of defi
i.e.,
a function
may
For
yis
1*1
[Ex. 2, 3
is
sin (1/x)
is
is
page 73)
is
continuous
DIFFERENTIATION
To show
4*15.
/'(c),
77
that
t.e. 9
is the tangent of the angle which the tangent line to the curve
at the point P[c,f(c)] makes with xaxis.
y=f(x)
PN
JL
MQ. We
QM
have
yi
and
NQ
Here,
_XRQ
is
Fig. 42.
PQ
of the curve
denote by $.
On
(1) gives
tan</r=f'(c).
Thus f'(c)
is
Cor.
The equation of the tangent at any point P[c, f(c)] of the
curve y =/(*) is
yf(c)=:f'(c)(xc).
Note. The student should note that it is not necessary for every curve to
have a tangent line at every paint thereof. The existence of the tangent demands
the existence of the derivative and we have seen in Ex. 2, and 3, 3 4'11, p. 73
that every function
is
1.
p.
Ex.
point
thS
(2, 4).
y=x 2 at
x=2
is
4.
Ex. 2
Show that the tangent to the hyperbola y^ljx at
with xaxis.
3*r/4
Hence the
(1, 1)
makes an
DIFFEBBNTIAL CALCULUS
78
Ex. 3.
points (1,
1)
4*16*
Expressions for
in a straight line.
velocity
moving
Calculus,,
velocity
any instant is defined as the distance travelled in an
Now there exists
infinitesimal interval subsequent to the instant.
no such thing as an infinitesimal interval of time. We can take
intervals of time as small as we like and in fact interval with duration smaller than any other is conceivable. The definition as it stands
A meaning can, however, be attached to the
is thus meaningless.
above definition by supposing tluat the words 'velocity' and 'infinitesimal' in it really stand for approximation to the velocity' and 'some
short interval of time', respectively.
at
The
precise
is
analytically represented
by a functional
The
We
values of 8t .
We
lim
Hence,
if v
8s
T
6t
ds
i.e.,
fr
dt
we have
P as
DIFFERENTIATION
19
8t
7
Jim
Bv
dv
,
i.e.,
dtf
Ex.
1.
(//) initially,
in
(a)
j=i*f2f+3.
Ex,
2.
function of/
Ex.
A particle
;
3.
(/')
at
(b)
(c)
moves along a
prove that
Ff ,y/ 3
s= \l(t {!).
its
5=
is
a quadratic'
1,
of
2 seconds.
42.
The remaining part of this chapter is devoted to determining the derivatives of functions. Home general theorems on differentiation which are required for the purpose will also be obtained"
To provide for illustrations of these general theorems,
4*3.
in
we obtain, in this section, derivative of x a where a is any real'
number.
421.
Derivative of constant.
Let
V=r,
where,
c, is
a constant.
To every value of x corresponds the same value of y, so that theincrement Sv, corresponding to any increment Sx, is zero.
*y
8x
dy
..? o
8.x
..
By
...
dc
Note. Looking at derivative as the rate of change, this result appearsalmost intuitive, as the rate of change of anything which does not change i
necessarily zero.
The result may also be geometrically inferred from the fact that the sloper
cf the tangent at any point of the curve y=c, which is a straight line parallel to*
xaxis, is 0.
422,
Let
Derivative of
xa where a
is
90
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Let 8y be the increment in y corresponding to the increment 8x
in x.
y+8y=(x+8x)*
"
Sx
8x
(x+8x)x
'
lim
(
365, p. 63)
Hence
d(x
=a x^
Vdx
where a
is
any
real
number, rational or
1,*
irrational.
Case
I.
Here
We write
Then
z+8z=(x+8x)
8y
8x
Let 8x >
l lq
or
(z+Sz^^x+Sx.
81
= axoc1
Case II. Let a be any negative rational number, say
We have
being both positive.
Sv
oy
8x
Writing
Sx
Let
dy
Jx
p,
v~*Pl4
x
fYJL&v\~~PlQ
(x^bx)
~~
p\q
Sx
z=x llq
Sx >
so that Sz >
""
z*.z p
p'
^1
As
also.
'
a2^"
before,
get
9
1
Ex.1.
(/)
()
dx
ar
4*3.
Some
Derivative of the
431.
of x.
functions
able
derivable
y,
sum
we
or difference.
Let
w, v
be two
write
...(i)
Sw, Sv, 8y be the respective increments in u, v, y, corresan increment Sx in x so that x, u, v, y become x\8x,
to
ponding
Let
u\8u,
r+Sv,
y+Sy
respectively.
We
have
y+Sy^U+Sll+V+Sv.
Subtracting
(i)
from
(H),
JSj^ ==s
Sx
Sv
'
"SjT"^"8jc
...(//)
82
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Let Sx >
0.
8y
to
,.
=lim
/Sw
8u\
(to+to)du
dy
We may
"
Sv
+lim S*
>
dv
dx^dx +
Sw
,.
1
ta
d(u
v)
dx
du
dv
dx
dx
Generalisation.
By a repeated
obtained above, it can be proved that
number of derivable functions and
"
application
if
u l}
t/
2,
of the results
u n be buy finite
then
dy
dx
We
du
= ~dx
duz
du 3
du n
~dx
~dx
dx
'
Algebraic
and
Ex.1.
_ 11
_
= 1 4.
TV
/
(0
i '\
i
(io
1
3
x i 1 _
i*.
>X
'
dx
dx
Ex. 2.
""""
(l/o
__
DIFFERENTIATION
432.
Derivative of a product.
Let
y~uv
where
are
u, v f
Let
be the increments in
We
x.
x.
y respectively corres
u, v,
have
8y=u.8v+v.8u+8u.8v,
or
Let 8x >
function,
is
Then 8u
0.
Sw
8v
8y
also
for
8v
w,
which
is
a derivable
continuous.
W
limf
L
,.
*V
'
fix
Sv \
/
.
=hm(
ljc
Hto.
f
Sx
v.
when S* ,
'
,.
Su \
dx
..
)+hm( v.)+hm3w.l,m
dv
..
,.
du
dv
dx
derivative
other.
The
first function
derivative of the product of two functions
derivative of the second f second function x derivative of the first.
The
result
(i)
may
.
y dx
Note.
It
also be rewritten as
u dx
may be noted
dx
,
'
'
d(u
e"
__
"^
v)
"dx
du
dx
dv
dx'
'
Cor.
1.
Generalisation.
We first take
of any finite
84
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
dy
du,
Hi Un
"
du
On
by
dividing
I
du l
dy
dx
dx^U!
~if
By
y=u u2 u^ we
obtain
1
du z
u%
dx
dki
dy
27
,a
r~
du
dc
'3x~~
dx
dx
du
du z
u3
dx
we obtain
du^t
J_
^^
dy
is
TT
wr
t/w
Hence
du
d(cu)
2.
dx
t/x
433.
(//)
(xl2) (2x:3).
Derivative of a quotient.
Let
J>=n/v,
are two derivable functions of
for the value of x under consideration.
w, v
x such that
v is not zero
85
DIFtffiBENTIATION
V.SMM.8V
T(v+Sv)"'
By
Sx
Now,
~
v(v
+Sv)
v,
is
continuous
Hence
as Sx > 0.
Sv >
Thus
dv
*du
<.:* =
d(
"~~
dx
v2
dx
= [Derivate of Numer.
(Denomr.)
,/
d(
...
Ex.
^ dx
(1+^) ax
7

+x)/
\l
Square of Denominator.
dx
(lJr x).lx.l
L 1+X*J
[i]
2.
n\
'
^x f~5
ft:\
v*
r *)
x*
"f
Note
supposed
tf
at
1.
86
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Thus
if
ding value of
v,
we suppose x+ Sx
/.<?.,
to lie wittvn this interval then, the corresponjustifies division by v+gv in step (/)
This fact
vjgv^O.
34.
is
y=f(u) and
//
a function of x,"*then
dy
dy
du
dx
i4r
du
dx
'
ofu and x
respectively.
Let Sx be any increment in x and Su the corresponding increment in u as determined from u = (f>(x). Again, corresponding to the
increment Su, in u let 8y be the increment in y as determined from
9
y=f(u).
We
write
Sy
Let Sx ~>
Su
Sy
8u
8x~~~
Sx
so that Su > 0.
n
nm
Sx >
( _ S ^y \\
/ Sy
rL,
nm
lirv,
\ Sx J
sx
>
lim
Su
8>L
>
6//
Su
.
'
Sx
lim
Sw
5x
8u
.
S^
>
Hence
du
jdy ~~ dy
dx
The
functions so that
dy
dx
Ex.
(i)
dx
immediate generalization.
result is capable of
be three derivable
'
du
>>
a function of x,
is
du
dy
~ du
'
dv
'
dx
dv
We
"
Hence
write
du
dy
= l +x 2
j=w2.
1
i

Thus
if
we have
87
DIFFERENTIATION
or,
without introducing
u,
_
~
dx
(U)
Let
we have
'
</(l+x
dx
u=~, y=u
du
</x~
(I*)
1)
(1x)
__
J2
'
~~(1
x)*
Hence
dy
~~
C/A:
dy
du
du
~~
'
dx
/l4x\
or, directly
l+x
Ex.
(i)
(ax+b)
n
.
(M
{tv)
We
We
f '(y).
88
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
We have
,
1
Sx
Sy
Let 8x 
^y
by
d[v/rfx
dy
4*36.
We consider
by means of a para
x =ft) y=9(t)
9
of
other.
Ex.
meter.
0.
dx
Thus
8x
" A*
t>x
'*'.
we
obtain
so that
By
(
4*34),
is
a function of x.
we have
dy
dx
dt
dy
*
dt
'
dx
dt
AI
Also
dx*=
Note,
Ex.
We
have
'f* is
1.
dt)
'
~dt~T\t)
called a parameter.
Finddyjdx, when
x=a/ 2 y=
,
89
DIFFESENTIATION
2.
(0
I/'
,.
* flt
,6
2t
....
*=
*=
(ii)
,.
3at
8,
7
2a/
.,
8x
sin
_x
S^
_2
""
cos
%(2x+8x)
Bx
sin 8x
sin iSx
gy
=lim
cos
(x+^Sx)
UJ\
As
cos
AT
Also
is
lim
wo
a CDntinuous function,
lim cos
o
when Sx
>
r,
0,
sin iSx
 .2
hm
^$ O^t
when Bx >
have,
when Bx
0.
> 0,
= 1.
,
dy =
,
cos.v.
Thus
d
(sin
x)y
v
dx
cos x.
Derivative of cos x.
442.
Let*
By
'Bx^
SAT
2 sin (2x

_
=
As
sin
A: is
dy
sin
sin
sin iS
.
$A
= hm
,.
i* v, iC sm x +iSx)] hm
.
a?>0
+Sx)
s^
sin
xl
sin x.
1
when Bx ~>
90
DIFFBBBNTIAB CALCULUS
*>(Cos x/)
Tk
Ihus
Ex,
Let
We
smx.
1.
sin 2x.
(/)
(i)
j;
= sin
cos 3 x.
(ii)
(Hi)
^(sin
2x.
write
= 2x,
dy
so that >>:=sin w.
du
dy
or briefly
~~=
d(sm 2x)
(ii)
Let
We
write
2x\
d(sm
~
}
d(2x)
 cos
2x
2==2 cos
.y
t/=cos
.y=w 3
so that
du
rfv
rfy
A:
3 cos 2 JC
)=
sin x.
or, briefly
__ </(cos x)
~
dx
dx
=3
Let^^V
(Hi)
We
write
(cos x)
rf(cos x)
x(
rf(cos x)
*
~d(Qo* x)
sin x)
dx
3 cos 2 x
(sin
v=sin
u=<\/x=x^
u,
j= v/v=v2.
so that
dy
dx
~~
dv
\v
""
du
dv
dy
'
du
*.
dx
cos w
x~~^
COS <\/X
VC^ V*)
11
V^*
or, briefly
=  (sin
sss
JL
v^*)""""
cos
*
dsin y/x
cos
V^ I*
sin
91
DIFFERENTIATION
Find dy\dx for /=7r/2, when
2.
x=2
cos
y=2
cos 2/,
sin
sin 2t.
We have
sin
^=2
^ =2
cos
(cos 2/)2
dy dx
dy
dx ~~dTj ~dt
,
Putting
= 7T/2,
z=r
=2
~2(sin
sin 2/,
2 cos 2/>
cos 2/)
sin 2/)
2(cos
cos
/+2
2 sin
/(sin 2/)(2)=
we obtain
3.
(0 sin x,
(//)
sin x
(1/1)
m
(/>)
cos 8
*,
(v)
cos mx,
(vi)
.f
cos
(v/0
sin^x. cos x.
<v//7)
4.
(/)
(i/y
sin
(sin
/
cos
2 sin
/).
t.
(///)
443.
(D.U. 1955)
Derivative of tan x.
Let
>=tan x
(x
tan x
Sx
sin
+ Sx)
cos
(x+Sx) sin x
(x+Sxj"~cos x
Sx
cos x
~ sin (x+Sx)
Sx cos
cos
(A:
(x 4 S^j
sin (x4S.x
x)
8x. cos (x+ox). cos
*
cbs~fx
x
sin
+8x)
cos :f
+8x)
x
cos
Sx
sin
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
= cos
J_._L.l
=8ec*x
x cos x
dx
Thus
Or,
we
x.
^>=sec*
dx
write
x= sin
}>=tan
cos
cos x.
x
x
,,
(sin x)^
sin x.
,
dx
dy
dx~~
so that
(cos x)'
j
dx
cos lc
cos x. cos
x+sin
x. sin
cos 2
1
"cos 2
/
444.
proof
Ex
1.
(i)
(iv)
cosec 2 x.
tan x
cot
(/i)
;c
(v^
tanxtcotjc
445.
x.
to the reader.
Its
is left
=sec 2
tanx\
A //I
\
VJ
(Ill)
i.
\l + tan x/
.,
(v/)
A
A
//"I
/ i 1i
y V
Derivative of sec x.
Let
>>=sec jc=
COS
1
" Sy
cos_(x+8x)
~
cos
cos
cos
Sx
x
sin i
OX)
1
COS
COS
=tan x
sec x.
8x
Thus
Or,
dx
we
=tan x
dy
/
dx
cos
sm x)
=tan x
s2
is left
so that
x 01
= cos
cos
dfcosec x)
'=
^,
Its proof
x cosec
cot
sec x.
x.
to the reader.
Ex.
(/)
sec x.
write
v=
A A*
446.
93
cosec8 3 x.
(//)
(Hi) secVfcf&x).
(/v)
>l[sec
(ax+b)].
Derivative of
sin"" 1
x.
Let
1
^=sin"" x so that x=sin y.
dx
4y
j^
__
^
By
sin"" 1 x,
the def. of
is
we have
1
A:<'7r/2,
i.e.,
positive.
Hence
452.
it
is
_
,,
fi
Derivative of cos
^/(TT^p
x.
Let
y^cos x
1
dx
so that x^=cos y.
7r/2<><7r/2
DIFFEBENTIAL CALCULUS
94
dy
f\f
_.__
_.
<
Also
if
lies
453.
.._
and
dfcos 1 x)/
is .the
cos" 1 * <TT
between
Hence
,
I
then sin y
TT,
=
,
<
i.e.,
is
<
By
y.
the
TT.
necessarily positive.
Derivative of tan 1 x.
Let
"1
dx
so that
x=tan
y.
or
4.54
454
d(cot
dx
x)_
~
J^
1+x*
Derivative of see" 1 x.
Let
y.
dy
dy
dx
or
sec
_
We take,
y tan y
^
c*f\f* i^ //afvr>2
2
sec
^ V(8e
s ig n before
+>
S"
dx
x)
1 \
1)
_
// 2 x^ VCx
1)
>
*>2
'
x7(^)
Thus
d(sec~
J'
1
'
95
DIFFERENTIATION
When x
ween
is
[1,
oo].
then y
oo,
1],
lies
bet
then y
lies
radical
is
interval,
is
posi
tive or negative.
:r"=
2
^
dx
x^(x*l)
if
*>
and
,/
~ir
if
<
jH(x l)
so that
dy
_._
=:
ctx
x
I
Thus
*\
[x~
__~
dx
_
2
Derivative of cosec 1 x.
456.
Let
dx
j
or
dx
cot
x=cosec
so that
y.
y cosec
cosec
cot
__
1
cosec 2
We take,
+,
1
yl)~^
x\7(x
1)
"
dfcosec" 1 x)

Thua
Note.
By
dx"
The
and
nr/2
when x
ween
7T/2
and
xV(xiy
When x
ween
*,
is
the
same
as that of cot y.
we have
in
the interval
[1, oo],
then y
lies bet
then y
lies bet
is
[oo
1],
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
96
fckw
Thus the
is
=^br
and
so that
we
dKcosec^x)^^
Thus
Ex.
(v;
'
posi
if
x<0
>
1_
1.
sinH*.
(i)
is
can write
l
(//;
(i//)
Hence we have
tive or negative.
sec
>t
tanXcos Vx).
(/v)
/ X
Jt!~~l\
(v/iFcos
l4x
,
Ex.
2.
461.
Find
when
rfy/d*
Devivative of
(, x are both
log,, x.
positive)
Let
J>=log x.
tf
Now
Cor.
lim (
^
Let
a=e
1+
X
* )
^
=e.
so that
^=log^ x=log
f
_
.,
rrs"^
dx
iut&
6e
363, cor. 3)
D1FFBBENTIATION
JL
*&*_
x
dx
Thu8
462.
Derivative of ax
Let
a*.
y
~x f ox
a
=
&x~
by
dy
2~*
x
ax
8x
,.
8x
&x
,
1
*
8x
l
ii? """&T~
=a*
(364, p. 63)
log^a.
Thus
fJ=a
Cor.
Thus
fdx
Ex.
97
(/)
log sin x.
(//)
(/v)
(vi)
cos (log
x).
(Ill)
(v)
(vii)
sln *
logV(#
I y.
(V//0 ,~r'
log X
(x) logioCsin"
(x/v)
('*>
^1 ).
w *+e w;r
(jci")
).
eV^7
(jci//)
(jrv)
v \
V(
fl
log[x+
)/
V(jc
a+b *
x
losa b tan x
t;t4l).
log(sec xftan x)
0^X
(xi7) log(e
Derivative of sinh x.
Let
e*e~*
*
98
DIFFBBENTIAL CALCULUS
m,
d(sinh x)
Thus
472.
===coshx *
d
Derivative of cosh x.
Let
x=
e e._.__
dy
d <co h
*)=sinh
;
dx
Thus
473.
!t
x.
Derivative of tanh x.
Let
,
>>=tanh
x= sinh
,
cosh
^(sinh x)
cosh x
,
d(cosh
'
 x)
~smh x
.
t/x
T
Jx
""
cosh 2 x
cosh x.cosh
"
cosh 2
sinh 2 x
_ 
cosh 2
_.
Thus
A
*A
474.
xsinh
.^ 
dx
=
^^dx
cosch 2 x.
ft
4*75.
Derivative of sech x.
Let
v=sech
dx
^
""
cosh
1
x=~cosh
vx
xO
sinh
l.sinh
cosh a x
^^ _ S ech10
cosh 2 x
.
d(tanh
x)/
~
=sech29 x.
d(coth x)
/
x.sinh
cosh 2 x
x.
DIFFERENTIATION
d <S
Thus
*>=tanhxsechx.
dx
An*
470.
d(cosech
x
x)<
_
Its proof
is left
..
coth x cosech x.
to the reader.
Derivative of sinh 1 x.
Let
3^= sinh 1 x so that x=sinh}>.
dx
dy
A:
or
where the sign of the radical is the same as that of cosh y which we
know, is always positive, ( 3'72, page 68).
^
Hence
482.
dfsinhv x)
'
...
dx
Derivative of cosh 1 x.
Let
x=cosh
1
j^cosh""" x so that
y.
dx
dy'
^_J_
Gin
n
Ol
1111
//~Y*
t*^V
v
X
"
A /^rr^ftri*
tV ^^ A
1
I v/v/Oll
\/
?
^
i
H /iI
^^
I**
*Hs
^^
'
483.
ll00
^^^
Hence
Derivative of tanh 1 x.
x
\
<1]
Let
j^tanh 1 x
so that
x=tanh
y.
dx
l^l
Thus
._
=. 
dx
= *1
x^a
>>
~~lx*
1
*
is
\I
positive
100
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Derivative of sech 1 x.
4*85.
Let
1
>>=sech~ x so that x=sech
sech y
j
sech y tanh y
1
is
is
1
y.
dy
dx
or
tanh
y.
x,
i.e.,
is
always positive.
dteechr 1 x)
 J _.
_,
Hence
._!.
dx
xyXl
Derivative of cosech
4*86.
_
1
x.
Let
1
>?=cosech~ x so that x=coseoh y.
dx
T
coseoh y
or
cosech y
Now,
as
is
y,
coth
____
^cosech y
when the
,.
coth y.
is
________
2
=,
^(cosech y~+I)
x<\/(x*+l)'
is
positive or negative.
*2?!*^x) 
TH
rhus
dx
ifx<0.
=1
VO
Ex.
(i)
491.
(//)
necessary to take
is
slnh2
*,
Logarithmic differentiation.
v
a function of the form u
which
known
its
(///)
In order
tan
to
tanh x.
differentiate
as logarithmic differentiation
is
also useful
when the
101
DIFFERENTIATION
function to be differentiated
Differentiate
log
dy
dx
,
x
sln x
^ = 16g
we
Differentiating,
x sin
=x*
Let
(x
Hence
=:COS
+ Sin X.
,
.
log
&
JC
y=x *
l
log
+ (sin
Differentiate [x
write
log x.
get
tan *
Ex. 2.
*+(sin
sin x\
x 
\
cos x
x)
].
cos
*.
x)
tan
Let
t/=;c
and
v=(sin x)
so that
..
*,
(1)
cos
dy _ du
From
(1),
we
*,
dv
w=tan x
log
1
du
dx
log
we
tana;
/
f
^ec
log
v=cos x
</v
,
==
dx
sin
dx =(sm x)
3.
(3)
and
log
x+
tanx
J
log sin x.
1
.
cos^/
dv
Adding
*e.,
rfx^^
(2),
;c.
21logx+tan x
=sec 2 x
rfw
j.^.,
From
...(2)
dx^dx
rfx
Ex.
)=sin x
dy = sin * /
~
x
(cos x
TT
We
is
(4),
jc+cosx.
^sin
we obtain
Differentiate
log
a sin
log sin
sin
COBJC
/ov
...(3)
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
102
Putting
it
log }>=
dy
log
2
(23*) J
l2x~~
log (34x).
Z'
we obtain
2"3x
34x
_ __
+5(3.4x)
9
2JC
Ex.
(/)
4.
Find the
(cos x)
(1
(3j?)
sin
16
"I
+ 5(34x)" J'
(in
tanA:
f(cotx)
8/4
x
.
(4^ 4 ) 4
log x
'
*(v)
(log
;c)4(sin
xx
/C
*)V (2x)/
(vi/j)
differential coefficients of
cot
"
log
(/vfaanx)
v
^3(l2;c)
+ 4(2 
examples.
Ex.
1.
Differentiate
Sin
!+*
Putting
x=tan
we have
6,
Yr
1
t/an
dy
~dx
!+*'
*'
Ex.
2.
=Bini
(sin
1
2^)=2^=2 tan
2_
Differentiate
Putting x=cos
0,
we have
2
^'
=V2
'
cos
x.
DIFFERENTIATION
103
=
e
COS x
f\
cos
'2 sin
l\
+sin
rt
ltan
l+tan2
7T
7T
J.
Ex.
3.
tan~ l
,
JL
of
to sin" 1
2x
x=tan
.*
J.
_
Putting
r^c/
wft/i
*~2
X
co efficient
0,
we
(P.C7. 1954,
1956)
2y
_ sini
see that
2

J*
(tan 20)
2= sin~
z=sin 1
( sin
= 2^=2
tan1 x.
tan~i x.
26)^20=2
dy^
dy ,dx
dz~dx dz~
Also otherwise, we have
y***>
dy
j ==1.
so that
Ex.
4.
//
that
we have
+ *>(lBm*
)=a(sin B
sin
P.U. 1952)
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
or
cos
0+cos ^=0(sin
sin
<f>)
or
<
^(0~<)= cot 1 a
0^=2 cot"
"**
sin^
Differentiating,
sin"
we
get
y=2
cot" #.
or
<fa
Ex.
5.
.(/)
.....
%
(ltt)
Find
tan 1
tan
(>.t/. 1952)
j^.
Vx
of
(it)
..
sin~ l
Ov) tan
/\l*vos x\l/2
[Show that
Ex.
6.
sin
respect to x of
or,
1.
Let
^sssin
initio'.
,*.
.y+Sy^sin (x+Sx).
We have
and
so that
x=sin y
x + &t s= sin
(y
8>>)
Sx=sin (y+8y)~8my.
(D.U. 1955)
DIFFERENTIATION
105
Thus
Sx
sin
(y+Sy^&'my
Let Sx
(y+ %Sy)
~"
2.
F//irf,
cos
3;
/rom
>0.
~~~
cos
$8y
Vsin ^ Sy )
so that 8y also
>
</x
Ex.
/
'
cos
^(F
~x*y*
of
~sin*:~
Let
y~ Vsin
x.
\/sin x
'
Sx
sin
sin
(x+Sx)
= COS (X + iSx)
.
Let Sx>
\/sin
sin A Sx
TO
'
 
0,
^V
=cos x
COS
.^
~~
Vsinlc
Ex.
Find, from
3.
sin
<'>
first
()
sin
x.
(i/O
Vx.
Exercises
Find, from
* 8)
*(
4
tanx 8
first
5.
>/(tanx).
sec^x.
3.
:
(D.U. 7955)
106
J>^FFBBBNTIAlj CALCULUS
Find the
differential coefficients of
6XT^iwo 3T
__
.*.
7.
X*
b tan 1
9.
tt tan
*
11.
*
i
tan 1
~\
** *
tan*
12.
1+sinjc
I
..
OfcOjH^*).
14
16.
8
a
.sin 1^.
17. [lx")"
22. 10
lo 8 sin
Mj
tan11
26.
/7
V
23.
Y*
A
TJ
b + a cos x
IJX*
.
'
21. sin
x
L./
f
t/ f*O^
V^^Jo
\/(f^H).
20
(l4x)
~
j^
x log x
log(log x).
f <^Q.
v^V/O
^V
25. (sin
v
x)y
27.
^29.
&*
/ eaX
_"~_?_
sin^ 1
sin 1
;^^^
31.
*^ vv/k
X.
cot x coth x.
^^
Find the
+)
differential coefficient of
^~ w sin
/
107
DIFFERENTIATION
42.
Differentiate
'
(0
,.,,
00
,2x+l
+ ^T tan
^3
43.
. .,
(i)
(/f)
(///)
sin 8 /
x =
cos 8
'a"*/ 6
^(cos2/)
'
x=sin H(cos 2/), y=cos /V(cos 20x=a(cos /flog tan i/), .y=a sin /.
44.
JI5.
Differentiate sin*
46.
Differentiate
47.
Differentiate tan 1
dy/dx^log
jc/(l
+log
x)
(Differentiate logarithmically)
x with respect
sm x
(D.U. 1950)
to (log x)*.
(P.U. 1959)
x)*.
1
2
with respect to tan[{V(l hx )l)}/x]
(P.U. 1956)
when x=e
48.
Find
49.
Differentiate
Differentiate (log x)
tan*
x.)
(P.
51.
F(x)=
From
first
/,(*)
<fr,(x)
principles
we have
F(x+A)F(x)
;j
;
/<*)
AW
fi(x+h)A(x)
*)
f&c+h)
(*+*)
U".
1955, 56)
108
DIFFERENTIAL CALCTJLUS
<P,W
we
get
<Pi
!
^*
^.
The
APPENDIX
EXAMPLES
1.
Show
that
/(x)=x
8 sin
(//x)
when
x^O
/(0)=0
is
ofx
is
x=0.
For xr0,
sin
f'(x)=2x
coa(
osin
=2x
cos
.V
^ )(_

x'sin
_!1
fwm^
x
x
=x
* _
sin
>
as
/'(0)=0.
x and
We
=2*
sin
cos
when
sin
(2x
\
of
sin
*
x=0.
cos
*
We write
...(1)
DIFFERENTIATION
109
Here
lim ( 2x sin
J=0.
y ^Q
'
In case
i.e.,
had
x0
existed,
it
'
(1)
;c>0
But
exist.
this
is
Henca lim
x0
for
THUS
f'(x)
is
not continuous
x=0.
Examine
2.
(
oo
oo )
the continuity
the
following function
/or
)
=l
and
derivability
in
the
interval
oo<x<0,
in
n x
in
7r)
O<X<TT,
2
in
JTT<X<
oo.
(Mysore)
we consider x=0.
Now
lim
/(x)
0)
and
lim
/(*)=
x>(0+0)
lim
Hence /(x)
is
/x=l=:
continuous for
x=0.
for
x<0,
Again,
so that
Also for
x>0
"""
1+sinx^.
x
lim
(l+sinx) =
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
80 that
lim
*>(OH0)
M*~
xKO+0) *
Thus
*
Now we
is
xKO~0)
x=0.
consider x=irj2.
We have
lim
is
X ^(7T
0)
lim
Hence /(jc)
lim
/(x)=
lim
/(x)=
continuous for
Again, for
Putting
x=/ we
^TT
see that
sin
x~"
==
Isin
"" (JTT
cos
/)
so that
lim
TT
lim
iiiu
(}n^
exists
and
is
equal to
0,
2 sin 2 \~t
_ sm
.
sin \
"""t
DIFFBBBNTIATION
111
Exercises
Discuss the existence of/'(x) and/"(x) at the origin for the function
1.
/(x)=x
sin 
when
(B.U. 1953
Examine the
2.
m
/(x)= x
sin
when
x^r.0,
w>0
when x=0
at the point
x=0.
Determine
m when/'(x)
3.
is
is
where
Show
4.
is
that
x=0
and x=l.
origin.
where
o,
when x
is
W ^ en
irrational or zero
JC==
a fraction in
'
its
lowest terms.
(D.U. 1953)
1.
Find from
and/(0)=0
first
at a point
=~
is
when x^0
continuous at x=0.
(B.U. 1953)
8.
Show
is
(B.U. 1952)
9.
If /(*)=*
tan 1
x0.
that /(x)
is
continu
112
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
10.
Is the function
f(x)**(xa) sin
x=a
_ for
11.
f(x)
is
defined as follows
(/)
(ii)f(x)=e
12.
5x
when
function f(x)
4whenO<x^l,
11 *
is
to 4x a
3x when
l<x<^2
(D.U. 1955)
2
Jo
x
when ^0, to
3x+4 when x=2
,
and to
x=0,
and
2.
CHAPTER V
SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION
5*1.
Notation. The derivative f'(x) of a derivable function
f(x) is itself a function of x.
suppose that it also possesses a
derivative, which we denote by/"(;c) and call the second derivative of
The third derivative off(x) which is the derivative of f"(x) is
f(x).
denoted by/"'(jc) and so on.
We
is
dny\dx*
also
denotes the
rtth
The symbols
Examples
1,
Ifx=a
0+0
(cos
sin 0),
)>=0
(sin
00 cos 0),find
d*yldx*,
We have
.
c/v
V
M0
rfy
~a (sin
=a (cos
rfy
~dx=~d~e
rf*v
Q)=a
cos
cos
0sin
0,
0.
vY=sec
^~SeC 3 va
t/(9
^0
v
1


"~~
"^~ rsz
cos d
113
ad
fl
114
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
2.
Ify=sin
(sin x),
prove that
Tx
COS* JC==0
+y
(/>
'
1953)
We have
dy
Making
,
=cos (sm
x) cos x,
substitution,
we
cos
dy
Change
see that
^ x j +}>
j^+tan
3.
cos*
#=0.
d 2y
2x
dy
x=tan
We
6.
have
_dy
dt ~de
dy^
= 2 cos
rt
dd
Oane..
.
=
2 cos 6 sin
2 sin 6 cos 3
cos 2
dy
'
+">*
dy
^T+ cos2
2>in
or
cos8
^cos
dy
do
dO
d*y
n
'
'
'
j~
cos 2
dv
0.
^r
or
U. 1932)
(P.
0^42
d ly\dx*
in the given
sin 0. cos 3
^jco8
SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION
Ifax*+2hxy+by*+2gx+2fy+c=Q, show
4.
that
d*y
dx z
Solving the given equation as a quadratic in y, we get
x [2(h*ab)x+2(hfbg)]
Differentiating again,
for
Substituting
we get
dy
+h
,
from
(1),
we
result.
Exercises
r.
Show
^3.
that
y=x f tan x
/^/AO

V
.
satisfies
/;
If >~[(fl+te)/(c + <fc)] t then
If
5.
x2
^=2
sin
/sin
2/, find
when =i*.
y\
If
(f.
'
#=a
If ^(I/A:)*,
show
that
^ (1) 0.
%
'4s
,
\If p
prove that
cos
29),
prove that
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
116
9.
.J*
1 j.
If
*=sin
/,
^4 cot x
~J~
z in the equation
+ 4>> cosec*x=0
z=log tan
12.
of x and
If y is a function
jc<=l/z,
i*.
show
that
dz*'
.
and
Show
that
dx
__
~dy
~dy$x
'
""
tf^^^
dy*
terms of
dx*
5*2.
Let
521.
dy*
Some
standard results.
y=(
so that in general
jV=w(m
In case,
is
7
(m
w)
m
60 that, the /wth derivative of (^x+fr) m is a constant viz.,
\ a
and the (mfl)th derivative along with the other higher successive;
derivatives are all zero.
SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION
Cor.
1.
m=
Putting,
1,
we
,117
get
dx"
Cor.
Let y=\og(ax+b).
2.
a
yi== a
dx*
522.
(ax+b)*
Let
y l =ma mx
log a,
so that, in general
Cor.
Putting *e for
a,
we
~~
dx
523.
get
7*
'
Let
jsin (ax+b).
y =a cos (ax\b) = a
l
J 3 =a
cos
(ax+b+i7i)=a*
sin
(ax+6+7r),
o that, in general
d*
524.
sin(ax+b)
Similarly
r
d*cos (ax+b)
<=a wn cos
j\
dx*
L
.
525.
mr"
Let
y=ea * sin
(6^:+c).
ax
y^=ae sin
*=eax
\a sin
(6jc+c)+e
a*
6 cos
ax+b+
,
DTTI
^~
2 J'
118
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
In order to put y in a form which will enable us to make the required generalisation, we detarmine two constant numbers r and
f such that
a=r cos
b=r
V,
sin ?
r^i/
Hence, we have
ax
Thus y l
arises
Thus
from
by
>>
y l =re sin
on multiplying by the constant
the constant
and
<f>.
similarly
y 2 ==r*e
ax sin
Hence, in general
d w 1[e * sin (bxf c)]l
a*
^V___r_y ==r e sm
,.
fl
where
526.
Similarly
ffi!.fll)].
m.
+ W)4^
cos
tan^
(bx+cfn
1.).
Determination of nth derivative of Algebraic rational funcIn order to determine the nth derivative of
Partial Fractions.
rational
function, we have to decompose it into partial
any algebraic
fractions.
53.
tion.
where n
is
0/ sin 0)
any
=cos
n0i
sin
n()
apply
Demoivre'a
andi=\/(
l).
Examples
1.
Throwing
it
dr
_ __
(x+2)(2x+3)~ 2 L
xa
"I
we obtain
"
1
x+2 "2x+3j.
''
2(2*
8
SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION
Find the differential
2.
119
of
coefficient
We
have
x2 + a2
(jc
~~
2
form,
+ <r/j(x
a.
+
f
L*
J

^x + a/
x=r
rrr?
n+1
and
^
cos
9,
a=r
sin 9.
'
nl
"i i v 1
j=
.(cos
v
0\i
(cos
= ^ii
sin 0)y
sin
t cos
Hence
x
~"
n
(l) n!
cos(Kfl)fl
rfx"
where
r=\/(x
+
1.
Find the
f0
),
0=tan 1
(ajx).
Exercises
of
^.^
2.
in real
x+1
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
120
3.
(//)
X
Show
4.
is
Kl)w ("
!)
sin
<l
(w
+ (sia
5.
for
x=0 is zero,
Show
6.
(l)ni (w i)
is
s in
(PU.)
(P.U. 1935)
7.
_..
If ^=tani x,
8.
ton ,
show
If
y=jc(x+
provided that
log
cos a
(jcf I)
cos
3
,
[n,y
+(!)
cos"^.
prove that
/*
If >;=A:
10.
1)
Jf
that
=(nl)
9.
....
A:
log
~, prove
that
X~j~ I
54.
cosines.
i)
() #*
cos* x.
We know that
1
+cos 2x
cos 2
sin x,
(/>./. 1951)
SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION
cos *
121
2x
2x +1(1+008
1+4
.
)
cos
cos
4x
*+ +4
cos
x=4(l + cos
cos 2* sin
2x+J
cos
2x) sin x
sin
Hence
sn x
sin
(
x)+J
sin
sn
e
(e
sn
sin
2.
(/)
(//)
sin
(v) e
2ay
(i/)
x cos
cos
A:
x.
(/v)
e* sin 4 x.
sin 2 2x.
This theorem
Step
I.
By
will
direct differentiation,
and
we have
(wv),j=w a
t/
is
true for
C 1t/1 v 1
n=l,
2,
is
true
for
a particular
mC w
a wa vJ + ......
t
......
+ m C muv m
122
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Differentiating both sides,
+i
v+u m Vj+^C,
um
B,
we
get
^+"0, M W _,
va
V^rC^C.,)
V2
!/_!
U^OK^ V,+
...+
OT
+
CW
from which we see that if the theorem is true for any value
then it is also true for the next higher value m + l ofn.
Conclusion.
for==2.
In step
Therefore
=3 + l,
i.e., 4,
it
and
I,
must be true
of
is
so
tt,
true
for
Examples
1.
To
2
(x e* cos x) n ^(e
x.
(PU)
cos x,
we
n x
2k e cos
.
(x+n tann
l).x
~ 1)
" 1
cos
2.
cos
(x+^"2 tanU).2
cos
//
.V=a cos
show
(x+nlj.tan l)2x
~2
.2*
+2?.nx cos f
cos x) w _ 2 .2
(/og
x)+& ^m
(fog x),
that
(D.C7. 1952)
12$
SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION
we
Differentiating,
get
or
xj^ 1
x)
x)+b
a sin (log
Differentiating again,
xy*+yi=*
or
b ??_C!.o 8^t

a sin (log

__
Vl
we
get

^(xya+J'iH
a cos (log
x)

x)
 b sin(log
*
x)+6
* j>3+*yi+:y=o.
or
Differentiating n times
* aJ^2+"Ci2x^,fi+^
or
x'y n
Exercises
1.
(i)
jc
e*.
(i/i)
2nax+n(n + l)].
4* [a*x*
(//)
x 3 cos
x.
(iv)
e" log
(P.U.1954,56)>
2.
sn
3.
If/(x)=tan
x+x
cos
x, prove that
= sin x and
4.
dx*
5.
(D.U. 1950)1
differential equation
Determination of the value of the nth derivative of a funcit is possible to obtain the value of the nth
derivative of a function for x =0 directly without finding the general
expression for the nth derivative which cannot, in general, be
obtained in a convenient form. Examples 1 and 2 below which have
5*6.
tion for
x=o. Sometimes
124
DIFFBRBNTIAL QALCIJTJS
been solved will make the procedure cl *ar. As will be seen in Ch. IX,
the values of the derivatives for x=0 are required, to expand a
function by Maclaurin's theorem.
Examples
1.
or
"w=*r
Differentiating,
get
Differentiating n times
Putting
From
x=0, we
(1), (2)
...
(1)
(2)
(3)
ox
x*)y*=nfy*.
(1
we
x0,
msiiTl x
*
for
"
sin Ax
y=e m
Let
"1 *
by
Leibnitz's
theorem, we get
get
and
WO)HHm%
(3),
B (0).
we obtain
XOHl^OHm^COHin".
Putting n=l,
2, 3, 4, etc. in (4),
we
get
In general
'~
(w(lHJ
2
)
(3
+m )...[(n2) +m
3
2
],
is
when n
is
even,
odd.
(P.U. 1955)
2.
If >>= (sin x)
(1
x
2
,
prove f/wf
x 2 ')^x^2:=0
ax*
dx
...
(1)
x=0.
(P.U, 1955)
Differentiating
(sin
x)
2 sin" x
we
get
*=
v (!*).
9
,^>
SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION
.
(1
 x*) y* = (2
125
= 4y.
sin 1 x)*
we get
Differentiating again,
2(lx ^22x^=4^.
Dividing by 2y l9 we get
2
(l* )>>2*yi2=0
...(3)
which
...(4)
is (1).
(1^+2+^+1
n(
(2x)+
~^y(2)xy ni
ny n
1=0.
l*
or
Putting
x=0, we
obtain
JWOHa^CO).
From
From
(2),
>>i(0)^0.
(4),
y,(0)
Putting H=l,
In general,
if
= 2.
(7)
3, 5, 7 successively in
w=2,
Again, putting
is
>> n (0)
4,
even,
= 2.2
,.,(6)
6 ...... in
(6),
we
(6),
we
see that
see that
we obtain
'4 ? .6 2
..
(~2)
2
,
when w
Note. The result (5), obtained on dividing (4) by 2y t is not a legitimateconclusion when ^t=0, which is the case when x=0. Thus, it is not valid to
derive any conclusion from (5) and (6) for x=0.
,
But these results may be obtained by proceeding to the limit as x>0 instead of putting x=0. This may be shown as follows
:
We can
x=
Exercises
1.
If
u~ tan~
x, prove that
x=0
(M.T,
If
1
j>=sin (m sin" x),
show
that
and
find
yn
3.
(P.U.
(0).
Find y n
(0)
when
j>=*log
[x+
4(\
{ x')].
/P5>
126
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
4.
5.
If
yn (Q).
ys~JM
*how
COS"" 1*
that
(1
x^+iVn + ^xyn^W+m^y^O
(/)./. Hons. 1953)
If ^(sinh 1 *)
Hence
x=0
find at
prove that
the value of
dnyfdx n
(B.U.1952)
Exercises
1.
Show
that if
l
 36^0
then
2.
n" 1
If >>n 'denotes
(bja),
the
th
bx and
prove that
.
y n =(a sec
n aa! sin
^) ^
y=*(ABx)
cos
3.
If
4.
:5.
Prove 'that
6.
Show
that
if
coefficient of
w r =^[lf(~lKsin2x] i
when
(Lucknow)
7.
Show
that
__
23
......
__
n
(P.U.)
j '
8.
Prove that
where P and
and
respectively.
Q stand
for
nx^MilXfl
f
2)jt
t
4
EXERCISES
9.
127
jx*^x
2
a
4)
U
for
x0.
10.
Prove that
dn
if
;t=cot
fi
^=(l)
where n
is
11.
Trinity College
0,
n 1
(l)
sin nO sin*0
Prove that
IifIni+(l)
Jn_
/j
and replacing
by
If
y=
12.
1,
d n
Ini
~(/ii)
____
l)
n,
3, 2,
show
JL
we
that
Hence show
13.
If
that
.y
U n denotes
satisfies
0.
that
Wn+t +
14.
? (*r*Ji
If y=x*e x , then
z,
15.
If
prove that
(D.I/. //ow5.,
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
128
If
16.
(tan"
;'
*)*,
then
Deduce
that
(Birmingham}
If
17.
prove that
(1
+*)+
(2n X
l)% +(!)
m +y __m _
=2x, prove
!>=(>.
(B.U. }
__
18.
that
If
19.
cos x,
y=*e*
show
P.U. 7959)
that
y =(l+ x rf
If
20.
^ n(0)=Oand^ 2n+1(0)(l)
show
w(ml)'w~2).
.(m2n).
If
22.
If x4y==l,
prove that
(D.U.Hons.l950\M.U.)
21.
23.
that
By forming
in
two
different
8
ways the nth derivative of* ", prove
that
1
+ "!+
is
723
i*
2 2 73 2
^"f
an
with the
[Equate the nth derivative of x
of x n and x n and put x=l].
24.
Prove that
sin
"Of!?
th derivative of the product
129
EXERCISES
25.
If
9=tan ^
Where
26.
show
Ifw=
that
().
(7,
CHAPTER VI
GENERAL THEOREMS
MEAN VALUE THEOREMS
Introduction. By now, the student must have leanrt to distinguish
between theorems applicable to a class of functions and those concerning some
particular functions like sin x, log x etc. The theorems applicable to a class of
known
functions are
as general theorems.
Some
M &1.
Merval
'c'
ofx
Rollers
(a, b],
Theorem.
// a
is
function f(x)
exists at
derivable
least
in
an
one value
tinuous,
Now
M~w,
either
... (i)
M^m.
or
..
.(//)
When
case
(/),
f'(x) is
true in this case.
When
must be
different
lies within
the interval
[a, b].
is,
in
Hra
exists
and
is
As/(c)
the sani3
is
/(c+/t)/(c)
when h >
wh0nA
_.
we have
f(c+h)<f(c)
whatever positive or negative value h has.
Thus
...(I,
130
GENERAL THEOREMS
131
and
f(c+h)f(c)
Let h *
>0for h<0.
From
..(2)
(1),
we
get
...(3)
Let h +
The
relations (3)
and
From
(2), .we
get
>0.
(4) will
...(4)
both be true
if,
and only
if
/'(c)=0.
m which
differs
is
similarly reached
if
it
is
the
its
"X
Fig. 43.
Fig. 44.
is
also
sometimes regarded to be
"a
shown
as follows
If a function f(x)
\
is
such that
It is
It is
[a, b],
2.
3.
/()=/<.
V of the
open interval
(a, b),
such thatf'(c)~Q
132
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Note 2. The conclusion of Rolle's theorem may not hold good for a
function which does not satisfy any of its conditions.
To illustrate this remark, we consider
the function >>=/(*)= x
the interval

[1,
lt
/(
1)
is
continuous in
1,
1]
and
/(I),
1.
derivative/ (x)
1^
for
1,
li
< 0, and
is 1
for
0<z<l
and
~%r
The
Fig. 45.
Ex.
1.
x2
(i)
in
[7,
1].
'
(ii)
[3,
0].
(0 Let
2
/(;c)=;c so that /(!)=! =/(~l).
Also,
f'(x)
x1
is
derivable in
1, 1].
which value
x=O
Let
(ii)
We have
/( 3) =0 =
*nd/(x)
is
[3,
0]*
We
have
*
x
consideration.
Hence the
Ex.
verification.
GENERAL THEOREMS
Ex.
3.
sin x/e
(/)
Ex.
jc
log
133
in [0, *]
(//)
(sin
xcos
4.
x2 x
is satisfied
x) in [w/4, 5w/4].
log x,
f(b)f(a)
"
ba
_

(C) '
V(x)=f(x)+Ax,
where
is
Thus
~
Now, /(x)
constant.
is
derivable in
<?(x), is
Therefore,
Thus,
ba
is,
f'(c)=0.
Q = <e>(c)=f'(c)+A,
JWz>
=f (c)
i.e.,
A = f(c),
...
(0
f(a
We
Ja, b]
a
write 6
which
+ h)=f(a)+hf(a+0h).
may now be
written as
a+h],
between a and
where
becomes
or
is
of the interval
[a,
and
f(afh)=f(a)+hf'(a+0h).
1.
is
greater than
(i)
134
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
01
Fig. 46.
Fig. 47.
We
and geometri
The
slope
r
of the chord
.
Let
Pbe
AB= f(b)f(a)
L
b a
V
c,
...(01
^>M=/'(c).
The
From
chord
(i7),
we
AB are equal.
Thus there
is parallel to
exists a point
the chord AB.
P on
P and
thex
function f(x) over the interval [a, b]. Also/'(c) is the actual rate of change of
the function for x=c Thus the theorem states that the average rate of change of
a function over an interval is also the actual rate of change of the function at
some point of the interval. In particular, for instance, the average velocity
over any interval of time is equal to the actual velocity at some instant belonging to the interval ; velocity being rate of change of distance w.r. to time. This
interpretation of the theorem justifies the name 'Mean Value' for the theorem.
we
theorem*
almost
is
GENERAL THEOREMS
Ex.l:
135
//
f(x)=(xl)(x2)(x3)
find the value
of
a=0, 6=4,
c.
We have
/(6)=/(4)=3.2.1=6,
f(a)=f(Q)
f(b)f(a)
7,~a
12
= 6,
~6
'
Also
Consider
now
the equation
i.e.,
3=3c 2 12c+ll.
or
3c 2 12c+8=0
may
c'
Ex.
2.
Verify the
log x in
Find
'c'
[1, e].
lx*+mx+nin
3.
mean
(//)
x3
in [a, 6].
[a, b].
of the
mean
value theorem,
/\x)=x(x l)(x2)
if
a=0, &=*.
(D.U. Hons. 1951)
Ex.
cases
4.
Find
'c'
so
that
the following
(c)=[/(/))~/(fl)]/(6~a) in
6=3.
fl=2,
(x4)
/(*)=*; a0, 6=1.
;
Ex.
tions log
5.
x and
Applying Lagrange's mean value theorem, in turn to the funcdeteimine the corresponding values of in terms of a and h.
ex ,
Deduce Jhat
(0 0<[log
Ex.
6.
(1
+*)]**'<!
(//)
< 1 log
~e
"
 <1.
[1,
1}
when
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
136
Some
63.
We
Meaning of
f^ftoHfvXi)*'^
Letf(x)0
631.
From
(/)
...
we get
where xl9 x 2 are any two values of x. Thus we see that every two
We
values of the function are equal. Hence f(x) is a constant.
thus prove :
"If the derivative of a function vanishes for
interval, then the function must be a constant.
This
all values
of x
in
an
is
is
zero/'
Cor. If two functions f(x) and F(x) have the same derivative for
every value ofx in [a, b] then they differ only by a constant.
We
write
Hence, ^(x),
f(x)F(x)
i.e.,
632.
Letf(x)>0for
From (i), we get
for,
*!*!
is
a constant.
every value
ofx
in [a, b].
Hence
proved
x.
We
have thus
"A function
interval is
633.
From
JOT,
X2
Xi
Letf'(x)
(/),
is
Hence
proved
we
every value
ofx
in [a, b].
get
positive
f(x)
<Qfor
is
and/'()
negative.
a decreasing function of x.
We
have thus
"A function
interval is
GENERAL THEOREMS
137
6'4.
Cauchy's mean value theorem. If two functions f(x) and
F(x) are derivable in an interval [a, b] and F'(x)^Qfor any value ofx
in [a, b], then there exists at least one value 'c'
ofx lying within [a, b],
such that
f(b)f(a)
f'(c)
F(a)^
F'(c)
we note that
Firstly,
[F(b)
F(a)]^0 for if it were 0, then
would
the
of
conditions
the Rolle's theorem and its deriF(x)
satisfy
vative would therefore vanish for at least one value of x and the
would be contradicted.
hypothesis that F (x) is never
:
Now, we
F(x)
and designed so as
Let
where
is
f (*
Thus
f(a)
Now,
Therefore,
f(x)
+ AF(a)=f(b)AF[b).
a constant.
<f(x) is
f(x)+AF'(x).
the conditions of Rolle's theorem. There
therefore, at least one value, c, of :c lying within [a, b] such that
Thus,
f(x) satisfies
is,
f(c)=0.
or
f'(c)=AF'(c),
Dividing by F'(c ) which^fO, we get
_
F'(c)
~F(b)F(a)
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
138
may
theorem
is
Ex. 1. Verify the theorem for the functions x* and x* in the interval
b being positive.
Ex. 2. If, in the Cauchy's mean value theorem, we write for/Yx), F(x)
x
is the arithe x show that in each case
(i) **, x
(ii) sin *, cos x
(///) e
metic mean between a and b.
[a, b]
a,
Ex.
3.
If,
in the Cauchy's
and
we
Ijjc
then,
6*5.
mean
F(x),
if
c, is
c, is
Examples
1.
monotonically increasing
in
every interval.
Let
is
it
vanishes.
in
increasing or decreasing.
Let
so that
for
x<2
/'(*)<0for2<x<3
x>3
=
x=2
for
/'(*)
/'(*)>0for
()
is
and
3.
oo , 2)
positive in the interval (
negative in the interval (2, 3).
and
(3,
oo
and
monotonically increasing in
2] [3, oo) and monotoni(
cally decreasing in the interval [2, 3].
To draw the graph of the function, we
note the following additional points
Hence /(x)
the intervals
is
oo
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
Fig. 48.
/(0)=2,
/(#)>
<
as
oo
GENERAL THEOREMS
Show
3.
that
*/(!+*)
We
<
<
log
(1+x)
>
and
xfor x
>
0.
write
Thus
/'(x)
Hence f(x)
>
for
for
x=0.
is
= 0,
/(*) > /(O) =0
Also
=0
/(0)
Hence /(x)
for
>
0.
that
positive for every positive value of x, so
0.
x/(l+x) for x
log (1+*)
is
>
>
Again, we write
BO that
F'(jc)==l
Thus,
oo],
>
F(x)
Therefore F(x)
[0,
[0, QO ].
is
for
>
and
monotonically
for
is
increasing
#=0.
in
the
interval
AlsoF(0)=0.
>
F(x)
Hence
F(x)
is
>
F(0)=0forz
0.
>
>
to
x=n/2.
0.
Exercises
1.
(i)
(ii)
(//i)
Show
that
x=0
(P*U.%
(
Jw, Jn).
(.{/. 7952)
O'v)
2.
*>2 ^
tan
<
tan"
<
Show
of values of x.
ing function.
3.
interval
increas
(M.J7.)
Determine the
(x
is
increasing or decreasing.
is
5.
or decreasing.
is
increasing:
140
DIFFEBENTIAL CALCULUS
6.
x 8 9x 2 f24xin[0,
x
7.
Show
that
$.
Show
that if
x
(//)
Show
>
6].
(i f x)
<
log
that e~ x lies
Prove
Show
If
*.
d+x) < x
(1
x)
*
l\
(B.U. 1953)
that sin
<
<
1,
lies
<
<
1.
between
,
x5
show that
taking * =2/1
+
Hence
for
between
x9
12.
0,
1xand 1x + Jx 2
11.
to
that
x
10.
log
(/)
9.
W
1'
>
rdcduce that
5.
13.
Show
that
tan^c
sm
x
14.
Show
ifo<x<
..
jc
that
and
for
15.
7957)
If /(x) is
where
(jcl)x
1
,
(M.T.)
1.
<^<
(a+h)2f(a)+f(ah
where < t < 1.
fl
of
Higher mean value theorem or Taylor's development
derivatives
the
function in a finite form.
// a function f(x) possesses
*
to a certain or^er n f r every value
f'(x)>f"( x )'f'"( x )> ..... /"(*)> UP
x in the interval, [a, a+h], then there exists at least one number 0,
between and 7, such that
66.
TAYLOB'S THEOREMS
f(a +
141
Rollers theorem.
Let
......
,i
where A
is
Thus we get
Now,
it is
in the interval
[a,
a+h].
2
Also, a+hx, (a+Ax) /2 !, ........ , (a+hx)"ln I are derivable in [a, a+h]. Therefore <t(x) is derivable in [a, af^] Also
f'(x)=f(x)f'(x)+(a+hx)f*(x)(a+hx)f'(x)
Thus
<p(x)
satisfies all
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
142
f"(a+6h)=A
for
(1
in
(i),
we
get
f(a+h)f(a)+hf\a)+~f''(a)+ ...... +
'
'
'
.
..(//I)
Mervai
in the
[0, x].
f
,
The formula
[0, x] in
the
finite*
(HI)
is
known
;7 2
We define
/)i
+_
f(x)=/(x)f (a+hx)f(x)
where
is
1)
/i
(a)
TAYLOR'S THEOREMS
Thus, we get
143
Hence
<p(x) satisfies
derivable in
is
[a,
a+h].
number
Now,
y'(x)~
o=?'(a+0/o=
hn
h*
rii)'i
f n ( a + 6h ) A
'1
in
(/),
we
get
Maclaurin's development.
Cor.
(//),
we
Changing a to
and h
to
in
get
which
[0.
jc
f(x) possesses
Ex.
1.
Show
that
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
144
Ex.
2.
Show
JC
3.
JC
we
x
~
X*** 1
"2~!
Ex.
6*7, p. 142),
JC
Show
X^
4!
that
Ex. 4. Find, by Maclaurin's theorem, the first four terms and the remainder after n terms of the expression of e ax cos bx in terms of the ascending
powers of x.
APPENDIX
Examples
(rtf1)
f(a+h)=f(a)+hf'(a) + ...... +
nl
fn
\
These give
hn
hn
/(+*)=
f n ()+
,
fn (a+eh)f (a)= n
or
(n+l)
,/"(+'*),
+l f<*\a+e'h).
Let h >
+i
'/" +
0.
lim
2.
Show
0=^.
that
x*>(l+x)
We
..
put
side,
f(x)
= x* 
/'(x)=2xl.
[log
+ x)]*for x>0.
[log 1 + x)].
[log (l
+x)
(l+x)](l+x).
(
as to its sign.
vative.
We,
145
decide
deri
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
146
/"(x)=22
which
is
>0
for
'
/'(*)
Also
log (l+x).l/(l
+ x)2/(l+x)
x>Q.
i"3
).
/'(0)=0.
Therefore
f'(x)>Qforx>0.
,
Hence f(x)
is
[0, oo).
Also
/(0)=0
Therefore
f(x)>0
for
x>0.
Hence
x>(l+x)[log (1+*)]
3.
for
x>0.
+ *(*.)],
and x z
We write
Applying Lagrange's mean value theorem to the function
X 2 ] we see that there
for the intervals [x l9 (x l
2 )/2] and [(x 1
2 )/2,
exist numbers 19 % belonging to the two intervals respectively, such
+x
+x
that
and
[f K*i+*i)^(*i)]
Thus from
(3)
we obtain
Applying the mean value theorem to the function 9' (x) for the
interval [^,  2 ], we see that there exists a numer y such that
From
(4)
..(5)
APPENDIX
Since Jta xl9  2
required result.
147
ft ll
we obtain the
positive,
Exercises
Show
1.
that
*0M which
'A'
mean
approaches
0,
value theorem)
'
is
[It
2.
where
Show that
/(a+/0=/(aH
lies
between
and
V W+4* /
/
//
is
not zero.
Hons. 1949)
).(/.
not continuous.]
(fl+ 0/0,
H+Q
where
in [a, b] 9
show
that
^^*^^
/4,
to the intervals
such that
[a, c]
and
[c, 6].]
The second
between c and
and
d,
it
vanishes everywhere
(B.U. 1952)
d.
*how
f(b)
Prove that
lim
if /
7/
(jc)
exists.
7.
Theorem when
b^n.
(m)
(iv)
/W=Uc) 3 c 3
(a,
b)
CHAPTER
VII
all values
c,
This, again,
f(C)
c+8
is
f(c)
is
maximum
> f(c+h),
and
i.e.,
S, i.e., for
f(c+h)f(c)
<
values of h sufficiently
Minimum
of /(#),
if it is
This
is
is
f(c)
<f(c+h), i.e.J(c+h)f(c)
and
8, i.e.,
>
Note 1. The term extreme value is used both for a maximum as well as
for a minimum value, so that /(c) is an extreme value if f(c+h) f(c) keeps an
invariable sign for values ofh sufficiently small numerically.
148
149
is an extreme value or
the values of the function for values of x in any
immediate neighbourhood of c, so that the
values of the function outside the neighbourhood do not come into question at all.
Thus, a maximum value may not be the
greatest and a minimum value may not be the
least of all the values of the function in any
finite interval.
In fact a function can have
several maximum and minimum values and a
minimum value can even be greater than a
not,
2.
maximum
value.
A glance
at the adjoining
graph of f(x)
is
To prove that a
necessary condition for extreme values.
is that
value
extreme
an
condition
be
to
off(x)
for f(c)
necessary
72.
Let f(c) be a
c\h
maximum
value of f(x)<
may
/(c+/0</(c),
be positive or negative.
Thus
'^<0iffc>0,
If h tends to
...
If A tends to
.(Hi)
/'(c)>0.
The
relations (in)
and
(/v)
(0
(/),
/'(c)<0.
only
if,
is
if
(iv)
and
if
/'(c)=o.
It
if /(c)
is
minimum
value of f(x).
Cor. Greatest and least values of a function in any interval. The
either f(a)
greatest and least values off(x) in any interval [a, b] are
x
andf(b), or are given by the values of for w/i/c/i/'(x)=0.
The greatest and least value of a function are also its extreme
values in case they are attained at a point strictly within the interval
so that the derivative must be zero at the corresponding point.
The theorem now
easily follows.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
150
Note
for
1.
When
Geometrically interpreted,
is
stated in this
maximum
"Tangent
or
minimum
is
parallel
to
almost selfevident.
Note
2.
x=Q.
also
for x^cif the derivative f (x) vanishes for x=c, i e. if /'(c) =
then f(c) is said to be a stationary or a turning value of f(x). The
term stationary arises from the fact that the rate of change /'(#)
of the function f(x) with respect to x is zero for a value of x for which
;
f(x)
is
stationary.
Ex.
1.
least values
of
Let
Thus
/'(*)=0forx=l, 1,
The value
x=
J.
[0, 2]
and
Now
Also
2.
is 1
least values
is
21.
of
Def
unction
is
negative.
151
A similar
the statement
"A
= (x + 2)(xm2x l)Cx~3)
<?(x)
changes sign from positive to negative as x passes through 4 and from negative
to positive as x passes through
2 or 3 ; also show that it does not change sign
as x passes through 1.
Ex. 2. Show that the function
changes sign from positive to negative as x passes through
.* and 2.
negative to positive as x passes through
4 and
and from
Case
I.
passes through
c.
is
the greatest of
all
handed neighbourhood.
In some righthanded neighbourhood of
so
f(x)
p. 136).
in
is
monotonically increasing
Therefore /(c) is the greatest of
left
negative and
neighbourhood ( 6*33,
the values off(x) in this
c,
f'(x)
is
this
all
righthanded neighbourhood.
the greatest of all the values of /(x) in a certain
value
complete neighbourhood of c and so, by def., f(c) is a maximum
Hence
f(c)
is
of/(x).
Case
II.
passes through
c.
shown that
in this case/(c)
is
Case III. If /'(x) does not change sign, i.e., has the same sign
in a certain complete neighbourhood of c> then /(x) is either monothis
tonically increasing or monotonically decreasing throughout
value
extreme
so
of/(x).
neighbourhood
that/(c) is not an
Note. Geometrically interpreted, the theorem states that the tangent to
a curve at every point in a certain left handed neighbourhood of the point P
whose ordinate is a maximum (minimum) makes an acute angle (obtuse angle)
and the tangent at any point in a certain righthanded neighbourhood of P makreJJ
an obtuse angle (acute angle) with xaxis. In case, the tangent on either suit of r
makes an acute angle (or obtuse angle), the ordinate of P is neither a maximum
nor a minimum.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
152
Ex.
I.
Examine
the polynomial
10x6
for
values.
Let
2)
=60x*(x +l)(x2)
Thus, /'(;t)=0 for x=0 and x=2
values of f(x) for #=0 and 2 only.
so that
we expect extreme
Now,
forx<0,
/'(*)<<>;
forO<x<2
/'(x)<0;
forx>2
/'(*)> 0.
so that
Ex.
2.
24
so that
/(x)=0
for
x=l,
2, 3.
1<*<2,
for2<x<3,
for
/ (x)<0;
/'W>0
forx>3,
pig, 50
therefore /(l)8
and/(3)=8
153
3.
5*+18;c 5 +15;c*10.
Ex.
are
Show
4.
that the
values of
Show
5.
that
maximum when x=
Also, find
[2,
2/3
its
greatest
Ex.
6.
Show
that
value
5x+5;c3 l
when x = l, a minimum
jc
has a
0],
and
2].
maximum
value
neither
*=0.
when
(D.U. 1948)
of the
first
orders.
All along this discussion it will be assumed that f(x) possesses
continuous derivatives of every order, that come in question, in the
neighbourhood of the point c.
7*41.
Theorem
1.
f(c)
is
f'(c)=0andf"(c)>0.
Applying Taylor's theorem with remainder after two terms, we
get
f(c+h)^f(c)+hf'(c)+
r(c+0ji)
is positive for X
c, there exists an
for every point of which the second derivative is
351, p. 54)
(
c,
positive.
Let
point of
ft
/2
is
c+h
th''s
interval
Then,
is
c+6 2 h,
a
Also
is also
positive.
positive.
.Thus
we
Hence /(c)
is
minimum
value of/(x).
154
DIEFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Theorem
742.
As
in theorem
f(c
i'.*.,
2.
1,
f(c) is a
maximum
we have by
value off(x) 9 if
Taylor's theorem,
+h)f(c) =
Hence /(c)
is
maximum
General Criteria.
743.
value of/(x).
Let
Thenf(c)is
a minimum value off(x), iffn (c)>Q and n
(i)
is
even
x of which
Thus
fn (c + 9 n h)
has the
sign of f
(c).
in^
7*43 above.
155
Examples
Find the
1.
Let
4
2
5
/(x)=8x 15x l10x
3
4
/'(x) = 40x 60x +20x
=20x(2x 3 ~3x* + l)
2
Hence
20x(xl) (2x+l).
/'(*)=0 for x=0, 1, J.
Again
/"(x)=160x
 180x 2 +20
9x 2 +l).
Now, /"(
maximum
45 which
)=
negative so that /(
is
I)
TS
is
value.
is
positive so that/(0)
is
minimum
value.
As/"(l)0, we have
Now
to
examine /
(1).
2
/'"(*)= 480x 360x.
= l20
f'"(l)
Hence /(I)
is
neither a
which
maximum
2.
//;
sin JC+cos
is
nor a
not zero.
minimum
value.
the function
2jc.
Let
x+cos 2x.
x 2 sin 2x
=cos
x 4 sin x cos
%
we
dyldx=Q,
get
>>=sin
...(i)
dy fdx = cos
Putting
cos
We
function
x=0
or sin
consider values of
is
x= J.
x between
and
cos
x~ Ogives
x=
x = siii"
and
J lying
sin
x=
gives
and
between
Now
d*y/dx
^
J
sin
df^/rf^^sin
negative.
and
TT
sin* 1 J,
Tr/2.
2
is
and
which
2ir
Now
sin*" 1
x.
x4 (12
4 cos 2x.
is
positive
is
positive
;.
sin 2 x)
= 15/4
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
156
= sin~"
J4
sin" 1 J
TT
and
is
maximum
Exercises
Investigate the
1.
(/)
(it)
values of
2x 3 15x 2 + 36x+10.
(P.U.I945)
3x*4x 3 +5.
'
2.
values.
3.
minimum
has
for
(PU 1941)
4.
Find the
5.
Find the maxima and minima as well as the greatest and the
Find
6.
minimum
for
y=x*
(P>V. 1939)
least
[0, 7].
is
maximum
or
2x 3 21x 2 4 36x20.
7.
8.
Show
9.
Show
that x x
10.
Show
1).
maximum
minimum
value 0.
is
that the
minimum
maximum
maximum
x=e~ l
for
value of
(1
l
/*)* is e
l*.
<x<oo
11.
Find the
12.
13.
14.
~as x.
sin
(a>
(P.U. 1955)
1).
x cos x
is
in
<S x
maximum
2*.
or a
minimum.
15.
Find the
in(
*^jc5^0;
Show
16.
17.
that sin
Discuss the
(/)
values of
x (1fcos x)
is
sinxfisin 2x+ j
in the
interval
[0, n]
of the sums
sin 3x.
18.
(i)
(Hi)
19.
for
x=0.
sinxcos^x.
(i"0
sinxcos 2x.
Show
that (3
maximum
(/v)
x)e**
4x^x
values of
flsecxf&cosecx,
ex cos (x
has no
(0<a<6).
a).
maximum
or
minimum
value
EXAMPLES
Find the maxima and minima of the radii vectors of the curve
20.
ra
21.
Find the
P
~ _a?__ +
"cos
sin*0
l
(Delhi, Aligarh)
"fl
ax*+2hxy+by*=l.
[Taking x=rcos
treme value of r 2 where
0,
y = rs'm
0, the
2
T=fl cos 0f 2/i cos $ sin
sin 2 0]
maxima
It /will
7*5.
be seen that, in general, we shall not need to find the second derivative and complete decision would be made at the stage of the first
derivative only when we have obtained the stationary values. In this
connection, it will be found useful to determine the limits between
which the independent variable lies. Suppose that these limits are
a, b.
If
is
for
x=a
and
is
necessarily the
Sphere of Radius
r.
Volume = ?Ttr*.
Cylinder of height,
2.
Surface
Cone of height,
h,
47ir.
h,
and
face
Trr
2
.
r.
tan" 1 (/*//*),
Semivertical angle
Slant height V( r2 +/* 2 ),
Volume = TT r 2 h,
Application to Problems.
76.
Examples
Show
1.
greatest volume
Let
surface
is
h,
cylinder.
the height
Therefore,
the
158
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
V in
which gives
is a variable.
Also, h, r
as obtained from (i), in
h,
r.
dV __S
'
dr~~~
As
V must be
positive,
Srnr >
we have
Thus
r varies in
Now F=0
for every other
r=V
being
0, i.e.,
>
Sr
the interval
Trr
(0,
or r
>
y"
(S/Tr).
(5/7:)).
r=0 and
admissible value of x.
^/ (S/n)
Hence K
and
is
is
positive
greatest for
(S/37T).
(i),
we
get
c
h
3?r
2?rr
_2S
~
3
Hence
27T
and given
surface.
Let
be the radius
OA
h,
OV of the
the height
given cone.
between
and
r.
PL
Fis. 51.
PA
= ~'
PL
of this
ro:
'
159
EXAMPLES
If
S be
we have
= ?5^?L ^^
S=27T. OP. PL
^J^
dx
(r2x)
=0
(rxx
for
2
),
x=r/2.
positive
for values of
Fi/irf
//*
OA
We
lies
OA
=008
0.
= OB cos
AB
=sm
OB
..
cos
6.
0=rsin
6.
0,
AB=OBsm
IfS be the
0=r
surface,
we have
dS
=27r/
= 27rr
2
(
20). ..(1)
2 cos
(2 cos
sin
20
Fig. 52.
0+2 cos
20)
sin 20).
=0
gives
2 cos 20
sin
20=0,
i.e.,
tan 20=2.
...(2)
which
is
2
greater than Sirr
Hence
0=7T/2,
(1+^^+
5=0,
sin
20,)
wr
is
sjurface. (Cor.
p,149),
160
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
circle
ABC
triangle
We
Also
circle.
have OL~r.
BP=AP tan
If* P>
Fig. 53.
/_BAP
we have
p=AB+A C+BG
=2AB+2BP
=2(AL+LB)2BP
=2AL+4BP,
(for,
BL=BP)
rr
"dx
=2 2{x+r)(x*r
for
so that dpjdx=0
admissible.
)x(x+r}
2r
negative value,
From
(r,
(i),
oo
only,
r,
of x being in
so that
p
Hence p
we
see that
also as X>QO
is
varies in
).
>
oo
as x >
r.
so that
it
least for
x2 we get
,
x=2r.
(/),
we
EXAMPLES
161
cone
is
distance
x from the
centre
if v
now expressed
be
will
Since sin
=7=r,= x
OA
A
Again, since
Thus
.'.
BP
tan
have
0=
,
=tan
AL
(r+x)
mi
We
in terms of x.
0,
r2
v=ir\, 92
9
2
^
(x+r)=
,

Trr
'
r)
>> r
and
= sinNormal
6.
is
drawn
at
~sin 1 r
= sin~
3r
a variable point
P of an
i.
^
ellipse
maximum
We
of the normal at
Hence, slope
*
1
p
is
P~ a sin
.
P=tb cos
r
=1.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Therefore equation of the normal at
,
"
0x
>P> be
,.
sin
yb sm
0=^~
0by cos
0=(a
/
<5r
a sin
is
(xa
2
)
cos 0.
sin
its
(0, 0),
we
obtain
jm
(9
cosj?
*~6+b*^o&

,
/
(
CL
^ 2 cos4
ka\\
u

(a
Putting

sin
6}
<

ft
cos
dpld6=Q, we get
Because of the symmetry of the ellipse about the two coordinate axes, it is enough to consider only those values of 6 which lie
between and 7r/2 so that we reject the negative value of tan 0.
and
or
7T/2
and p
is
positive
when
lies
Therefore p is maximum when tan 0=v'(^0Substituting this value in (/), we see that the maximum value of
is
7T/2.
b.
7.
Assuming that the petrol burnt (per hour) in driving a motor
boat varies as the cube of its velocity, show that the most economical
speed when going against a current ofc miles per hour is  c miles per
hour.
Let v miles per hour be the velocity of the boat so that (v c)
miles per hour is its velocity relative to water when
going against
the current.
Therefore the time required to cover a distance of d miles
u
hours.
3=
The
8
petrol burnt per hour=A:v where k
the total amount, y> of petrol burnt is given by
,
y=k
'
v*d
vc
Thus
Of these r;=0
is in
t8
7
=fo/
VC
.
dv
Putting dy/dv=0
a constant.
is
(v
we
get
c)
0=0 and #
admissible.
Also y _>
oc
when
t?
_> oo
183
EXAMPLES
Exercises
1.
Divide a number 15 into two parts such that the square of one
multiplied with the cube of the other is a maximum.
Show
2.
that of all rectangles of given area, the square has the smallest
perimeter.
3.
Find the rectangle of greatest perimeter which can be inscribed in a
of radius a.
4.
If 40 square feet of sheet metal are to be used in the construction of
an open tank with a square base, find the dimensions so that the capacity is
circle
(PU.)
a semicircle with a rectangle on its diameter.
Given that perimeter of the figure, is 20 feet, find its dimensions in order that
its area may be a maximum.
(Patna, Allahabad)
greatest possible.
A figure consists of
5.
6.
A, B are fijced points with coordinates (0, a) and (0, b) and P is a
variable point (x t 0) referred to rectangular axes ; prove that x*o6 when the
( p # 1935 )
angle APB is a maximum.
7.
given quantity of metal is to be cast into a halfcylinder, /.*., with
a rectangular base and semicircular ends. Show that in order the total surface
area may be minimum the ratio of the length of the cylinder to the diameter
of its circular ends is */(*+2).
(Aligarh 1949)
8.
The sum of the surfaces of a cube and a sphere is given show that
when the sum of their volumes is least, the diameter of the sphere is equal to
;
10.
The amount of fuel consumed per hour by a certain steamer varies as
the cube of its speed. When the speed is 15 miles per hour, the fuel consumed
The other expenses total Rs. 100
is 4 J tons of coal per hour at Rs. 4 per ton.
per hour. Find the most economical speed and the cost of a voyage of 1980
(P.V. 1949)
miles.
11.
Show
maximum volume
12.
Show
that the right circular cylinder of the given surface and maxisuch that its height is equal to the diameter of its base.
mum volume is
13.
surface
is
Show
(D.V. 1952)
volume and
least
14.
Given the total surface of the right circular cone, show that when the
l
volume of the cone is maximum, then the semivertical angle will be sin
15.
Show that the right cone of least curved surface and given volume
has an altitude equal to 42 times the radius of its base.
.
16. Show that the curved surface of a right circular cylinder of greatest curved surface which can be inscribed in a sphere is onehalf of that of the
sphere.
17.
well as
its
is
greatest
when
its
altitude
prove that
its
volume as
is 4r/3.
DIFFERENTIAL CALOVLUS
164
JO. Prove that the area of the triangle formed by the tangent at anj
9
point of the ellipse x*la*+y*lb **l and its aves is aminimuu for the point
21. Find the area 9f the greatest isosceles triangle that can be inscribed
in a given ellipse, the triangle having its vertex coincident with one extremity
(Allahabad 1939)
show
23.
;
tangent to an ellipse meets the axes in P and
least value of PQ is equal to the sum of the semiaxes of the ellipse
that PQ is divided at the point of contact in the ratio of its semiaxes.
that the
and also
24.
is the foot of the perpendicular drawn from the centre O on to the
2
2
tangent at a variable point P on the ellipse x*la +y lb*=l (a>b). Prove that
2
2
the maximum area of the triangle OPN is (a
i )/4.
25.
One corner of the rectangular sheet of the paper, width one foot, is
folded over so as to just reach the opposite edge of the sheet ; find the minimum length of the crease.
a^x^b,
est
and
grocer requires cylindrical vessels of thin metal with lids, each to contain exactly a given volume V. Show that if he wishes to be as economical as
8
possible in metal, the radius r of the base is given by 2wr =V.
If, for other reasons, it is impracticable to use vessels in which the diameter exceeds threefourths of the height, what should be the radius of the base
of each vessel
(P.U.)
/, feet
long is in the shape of a frustum of a cone the
radii of its ends being a and b feet (a>b). It is required to cut from it a beam
of uniform square section. Prove that the beam of the greatest volume that
can be cut is alll(ab) feet long.
(Agra ; P.U.)
27.
tree trunk,
28. Find the volume of the greatest right circular cone that can be described by the revolution about a side of a rightangled triangle of hypotenuse
1 foot.
(P.U. 1940)
29.
rectangular sheet of metal has four equal square portions reat the corners, and the sides are then turned up so as to form an open
rectangular box. Show that when volume contained in the box is a maximum,
moved
where
a,
(Banaras 1953)
The parcel post regulations restrict parcels to be such that the length
plus the girth must not exceed 6 feet and the length must not exceed 3 feet
Determine the parcels of greatest volume that can be sent up by post if the
from of the parcel be a right circular cylinder. Will the result be affected if the
30.
Show
that the
maximum
(Patna)
is
a square.
Suppl 1944)
CHAPTER VIII
EVALUATION OF LIMITTS
INDETERMINATE FORMS
8'1.
a,
hmF(x)
F(x)
so that this theorem on limits fails to give any information regarding
the limit of a fraction whose denominator tends to zero as its limit.
Now, suppose, that the denominator F(x) > as x > a.
The numerator f(x) may or may not tend to zero. If it does
not tend to zoro, then f(x)/F(x) cannot tend to any finite limit. For,
if possible, letit
tend to
finite limit,
say
/.
We
write
we have
lim/(x)=lim
[fe
F(x)
lim
lim
F(x)=/.0=
we
see that
=+oo
(Hi)
zero
lim
(I I x)
(//)
lim(l/Jt )=:ao
is
mining the limit of such a fraction will be given in this chapter. For
the sake of brevity, we say that a fraction whose numerator and
denominator both tend to zero as x tends to a, assumes the indeterminate form 0/0 for x=a.
may be
differential co efficient
form
will
also
165
186
DIFFABBNTUL OALOVLV8
82.
^
To determine
x*a
when
lim
/(x)=0
Urn F(x).
f(a)= lim
By
yfr0 ;*
x=0, we have
Fx=Q.
lim
we have
Hence
\f
y._
f,\
ttli
The
J \ )
Tflf/**\i
Jj \CL\
case
:f
pt
81.
Now, lQtf'(a)=F'(a)=0.
Again, by Taylor's theorem with remainder
after
two terms,
we get
Hence
lim
^li
lim
h^(
The case of failure which
as before*
In general,
arises
let
f(a)=*f'(a)=*f"(a)=*
F
Mid
INDETERMINATE FORM 3
By
167
^Lfni
l
h
F^(a)+ ~ F(a+0' nh)
F(a+6' nh)
Hence
Ex.
Determine lim
1.
.
sin
where x >0.
.,'
/(0)=0,
F(0)=0.
.
F(x)=x
sin
jc
.
f'(x)=e*+e* r
~,
/'(0)=0,
'.
F'(0)=0.
...
/" (0 )= 2>
Again
)=
_hm 
sin
JC+2 cos
F"(0)=2.
x,
_.>
follows
:
* e_21og(l + x)
x cos
^o
Ex.
2.
e'ea +2/(l+x) 8
x sin x+2
cos
x~
_
~
ay be equal
to
'
'
U. 1944, 1959)
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
The function
is
all
values of a and
6.
frsinx
x >
l+a
,.
cos
x > .
finite
ax sin x
3x 2
JX
b cos x
'
requires
Again supposing
l+a
we have
cos
xax sin x
b cos x
3x2
6X
2# sin

= hm
..
,.
bx
x*a
*}/
As given,
From
Ex.
and
(1)
=1,
(2),
i.e.,
3a = 6.
we have
3.
....
sm x x
x..v
lv
cos x
cosh
A:
cos
( V)7
(x>0).
v
log cos x
, M ,,v
(vi)
Jog(146x)
A:
.
Ex.
4.
Jim
*"
.
^^
Af
.(D.U.1952)
(//)
lim
"
'
1'
0*1*
.*
*v
^v
r\ T
(D.U. 1955)
INDETERMINATE FORMS
Ex.
If the limit
5.
169
of
2x+a
sin
sin
X9
as
x tends to zero, be
finite, find
(P.U.)
..
hm
sin
x >
simplifies the process
tan x
..
lim
* =1, x>
a good deal.
=1
These limits
may
also be used
to
Ex.
hm 1+sin
*
1.
i?
.
ITFind
cos
(1x)
x+log
J
x tan 25x
~> 0).
(x
v
'
The inconvenience of continuously differentiating the denomiwhich involves tan 2 x as a factor, may be partially avoided as
nator,
We
follows.
1
write
+ sin
cos
x+log
x)
(1
x tan^x
1
~~
1
,.
101
+ sin x
x)
\tan x/
(1
x)
xcos x+log (1
x)
Ax 3
1+sin

\2
"
cos x+log
x tan 2 x
1jsin
(1
x*
xcos~ x+log

(1
x)
~
x >0
1
lim
jc^O
tor
+ sin
cos x+log(l
3
x
x)
To evaluate the limit on the B.H.S., we notice that the numeraand denominator both become for x=0.
l+sin x cos x + log (I x)
..
hm
x3
cosx fsuiv
_x T
cos x^sin

DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Ex,
2.
x un x
We
have
cosh
x
*
 cos x =
cosh x
,.
.....
lira
xsmx
cos x
x*
lim
cosh
CQ sh
cos
cos
..
.
hm
cosh x
,.
I*
i
sin
sinh
__ ,.
Aim
^
for
x=0,
*+sin~~x
OY
cosh
x
lim ____  x+cos
iim
J
x>0
,.
=1.
Ex.
3.
Determine the
(i)
te 
"J~.
dV) log (1
0).
) cot
x.
>
0).
*..( o,
84.
~.
Tc?
determine
00
ton
lim
*Let f'(x)IF'(x) +
also >
/(x)=
I
oo
asx+a.
//m F(x).
It
mil be shown
that f(x)/F(x)
/.
a+8.
I* Another
INDETERMINATE FORMS
171
We now
and
a+8 and
where
We
F(x)F(c)
between c and x and, therefore, between a and a
lies
rewrite
(/)
as
7"T~T~I
x
'/'(I)
F(x)
lFWlFWJ'F'fc)
a+S
Keeping
Therefore,
F(c)
1
as *~* 00
'
Thus
^)/^W
Yf(c{ f(x)
it
sufficiently near
can be
a so that
it
W
a.
*
as
x > a through
a.
Hence
^ hm
hm
,.
,.
/'(*)
when
lim
/x=
oo
=s lim
8*41.
A proof of the
above result
lim /(*):=
oo
is
A*)
F'(x)
3BES
f'(x)
oo
172
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Let
lim [f(x)IF(x)]
.,
from
we
(1),
get
/+.U
..
+ l
result,
F'(x)
/
Finally
By
let
/=*>
= m
)

...(8)
so that
..
0=hm
F(x)
.

..
=lnn
F'(x)
r' <

 (4)
i)*'
Hence we
when lim/JC
,
= 30
^ ^
"m
<>
lim JPx.
Note
2.
While evaluating
Urn
j~r*
when
it is
of the form
we must try to change over to the form 0/0 as soon as it may be conveniently
possible, for, otherwise we may go on indefinitely without ever arriving at the
end of the process.
INDETERMINATE FORMS
Ex.
1.
Determine lim
yp^
173
L, as
oo
as
log(xa)
..
..
Inn
lim
a
=*
JT
e*
Ex.
2.
Determine the
w,.
Hint,
(v/)
86.
log
tan x
tan 2x =
U >
log tan 2x
log tan *
1).
0*oo
7b determine
Urn [/(x).
x>a
when
lim /(x)=0,
To determine
this limit,
we
write
so that these new forms are of the type 0/0 and oo /oo respectively
84.
limit can, therefore, be obtained by 8*2 or by
and the
form
O'oo
Ex.
at
1.
x=a.
Determine lim (x logx), as x>0.
We write
x
log
x
_.
f/i
lim (x log
x)
lim
lim
^
r=
(*)
DIFFERENTIAL
xlogx=
(I/log x)
Note
w e know that
haye
lx
lim
=00,
*(0+0) *
Ag ~ in
0.
In fact
*(00)
'
we
is
no
lim (xlogx).
x>0
Thus, here x <+
Ex.
(/)
(///)
86.
really
Determine the
2.
x log tan
x,
that
/*
(x *
0).
>
x > a
x tan (w/2x).
(//)
(x
*
0).
0).
oo
<*>
7b determine
[f(x)F(x)l
when
lim /(x)=<x>
X>fl
We
write
Ex.
1.
Determine
We write
___
_1
x2
and
log
new form
*.
tog
(X !)(*'
(x1)
is
(x2)
(x1)
of the type 0/0 when x *
_ __L__1
log
2.
iog(y~i)(y~2
175
FORMS
for x=2. On
The numerator and the denominator are both
the
that
we
show
of
the
method
required limit is
82,
may
using
Ex.
Determine the
2.
'
8'7.
as
'
oo
To determine
when
(i)
(fl)
limf(x)=:Q
F(x)=0.
(Hi) //w/(jc)
We
lim
= oo
lim F(x)=0.
write
so that
In each of the three cases, ^ e see that the right hand side
assumes the indeterminate form 0. oo and its limit may, therefore, be
determined by the method given in 8*5.
Let
lim
x>
[^(*),log /(*)]==/.
;\
limlogj;=/,
or
log lim
Hence
lim
or brevity,
forms
we say
1,
oo
y=l or
that
j/(x)
lim y=e*.
^1
respectively for
assumes the
x=a.
indetermi
DIFFERENTIAL CALOVLVS
176
Ex.
Determine
I.
x~a
Urn (x
a)
os x >
a.
form).
(0
Let
lim
log>>= lim
{} ^~^
I
~~
.
Hence
Thus
i.e.,
lim
lim y~e<>
x~a
lim (x
(xtf)=0.
=I when
a)
a,
Ex.
2.
Determine
lim (cos x)
1/x 2
tfs
1/x
Let
y=(cos
IT
\f\Ct
iv'fti
,.
,.
hm logy= hm
=
log (lim y)
..
lim
i or
x
"~
log cos
^
tan x
~
s
^JT
lim (cos x)
JL
y=e
lim
x~>0
Hence
0.
x)
cos
log
^^
x >
'
'
*.
x>0
Ex.
3.
Determine the
>
(/)
x*, (x
ii )
(cot x)
sin
0).
(//)
^
,
(x
>> 0).
(l
~' x
)~\ (x >
tan x
(/v)
(sin x)
(x
(P.C7. 7923)
1).
>
1.
12).
INDETERMINATE FORMS
177
(v)
(vii)
x*
(viii)
(D.C7. 7949)
(x>0).
(x >1).
(P.C/.
7957)
Exercises
3.
1+^cos A:~cosh x
(2jc
tan x
^3
,
'
(A:
v
> <>.
'
log(lf x)
7.
log
& AC
>
>
n sec x),
(A:
>
n/2).
j_
8
log x
.
(cot *)
u > o).
a*
10.
13.
(cos ax)
(x > 0).
14.
15.
tan
16.
(2O
17.
sin
=
2a
Ct
\w
',
(*>).
(B.V.1953)
sec 2
20.
cot x
(sec x)
(x > n/2).
21.
(2x)
tan
ff
(x^
1).
'
DIFFIRENTIAL CALCULUS
178
a t5>*', (,+,).
'*,
..
26.
(fl.tf.
log
cos
Hons. 1959)
95, p. 185
sect*_
sec
ijc
28.
!+
,(*>
co)
31.
Evaluate
sinxi
lim
32.
If
/(0)=0,
show
/
33,
x=0,
/.<?.,
(0)=0,foralln.
/(*)=* log
sin
x for
CHAPTER IX
TAYLOR'S INFINITE SERIES
EXPANSIONS OF FUNCTIONS
91.
Infinite Series.
Its
Let
be an
Then a
an
called
that there
may
infinite series.
is
consist of.
Let Sn denote the sum of the first n terms of the series so that
a function of the positive integral variable n. If Sn tends to a
finite limit S, as n tends to infinity, then the series is said to be comergent and S is said to be its sum.
Sn is
finite limit,
series
series
does not
arise.
by adding a
sufficiently large
Illustrations.
l+r+r*+r* + ......
We know
of a convergent
that
#n ,=
1
JL
r*
*f
Sn =n
when
179
DlFFEBENTIAL CALCULUS
180
We have now to
[Refer
oo
361, p. 57].
For
For
<
1,
lim r"=0,
r>
1,
lim
r
k
For
For
r^
1,
lim
<
only if
1,
and
the
Sn
does not
exist.
infinite
sum of the
infinite
2."
Sn =l/(lr).
therefore, lim S n =oo
oo
so that lim
=oo and,
to
is
We suppose that a
given function
series.
Taylor's
f(x) possesses derivatives of every order in
an interval
may
[a,
1/(1
r).
a+h].
be, there
exists
number
f(a+h)=f(a)+hf'(a)+
=^
where
*^
n
We
write
so that
0,
lim
so that
we
as n >
ao
It
is
Sn =f(a+h),
f(a)+hf'(a)+
converges and that
*",
its
sum is equal
to /(
(/*/(*)
possesses derivatives
a+H] and
(ii)
the remainder
tends to
as n tends to
infinity,
then
of every order
in
the
interval
EXPANSIONS
This
known
is
as Taylor's theorem
j(a+h) in an infinite
power series in h.
The
as Taylor's series.
infinite series.
series,
for the
we
for a
Putting
(ii)
for
in
in
the remainder
tends to
as n tends to
This
known as
is
expansion of/v x) in
i.e.,
and x
see that if
and
x,
known
Maclaurin's
development of
ascending integral powers of h, i.e.,
series of
series (1) is
9'3.
181
power
The
an
infinity,
then
series in x.
series (2) is
known
as Maclaurin's series.
to find out if
then
Iff(x) can be expanded as an infinite Maclaurin's series,
/(*)=/(0)+*/'(0)+
**,
/*(<))
+ ......
...(1)
it is
for
182
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
In the Appendix, we shall obtain the expansions of
e, sin
x, cos x, log
(1+x). (l+x)
by assuming
Expansion of
941.
e*.
Let
Thus
Substituting in the Maclaurin's series,
we obtain
v
v3
which
is
known
Cor.
1.
as Exponential Series.
=e
This result
(1),
we
get
= 1+(x log a) +
may
also
rin's series.
Cor
2.
Putting,
for x,
we obtain
.LI
+ 2! +
L
from which we
\
~3!
L.4.
+ '"
+ ~4!
JL
may
of,
e,
decimal places.
942.
Expansion of sin
x.
Let
/(*):=: sin
x
mr
Thus
/(0)sin
1,
so that
we
*
AOJ^O,/^)^!,
/'(0)0,
etc.,
1,0,
form
183
EXPANSIONS
we obtain
series.
sin
*=*__
We may
943.
x2
cos
Expansion of log
944,
x 2n
xl
(!)
+x).
Let
Thus
.\/'(0)
= l,/"(0)=l
Making substitutions
Logarithmic Series
log
/'''(0)==2
wo
so on.
obtain the
(i+x)=.x^+^+
9 45.
!,/""(0)= 3 land
Expansion of
(1
+x)
......
+ (i)"i.
..... .
OT
.
Let
Thus
Making
substitutions,
2f
In case
is
we
a positive integer,
n\
we obtain
right.
we
184
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Examples
1.
Assuming
as the term inx*.
the possibility
as far
x,
Lot
/(x)=tan
/.
/'(x)=sec
x.
x=l+tan 2 x.
/"(x)=2 tan x
=2
sec 2 x
tan x(l+tan 2 x)
sec
x+6
x.
tan x sec 2 *
2
/ v (jc)
+tan 2 x)
tan 4 x sec 2 x.
Thus
Substituting these values in the Maciaurin's series
obtain
anxx+
9*4,
+
e
in
(w 2 (2 2 +w 2 )(4 2 +w 2
2
2
2
2
(m (! +m )(3 +m
[(w2)
fw 2
+m
2)
[(
Use of known
3.
find the expansion of
2i
by
the term in
w(l fw
o
2
)
(2
m sm x
2
]
we
+m
By Maciaurin's theorem
series.
sin
we
n even
w odd.
get
2
)
or otherwise
(e*l),
x4
EXPANSIONS
=z,
Now,
sin (e
say.
l)=sinz
z
O
z5
v*2
"v4
"vS
+
2T
9*5.
185
3~"T
+ 4l +
Use of infinite series for evaluating the limits of indeterThe following examples will illustrate the procedure.
minate form?.
Examples
1.
find Urn
Using the
?*?
****
(D.U.1953)
e" sin
x) 1
.x
x
,
sin
x and
log (I
.v),
we obtain
= lim
=lim
= lim
2.
ii
Eh
(0
(//)
lira
x>0
'
_e
ie v
:
Ex. 26,
p. 178)
186
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Let
y=(i+ X
log
7=
l lx
)
log(l+x)
2
L
(T>
or
'6
as
1^
O
3
Q
2
e.e.
24
IX
JL
./V
+STV
'
2
/
""
24
llx
+ "24
'
Exercises
(/w f/w following ,
1.
//re
possibility
Prove that
187
EXPANSIONS
2.
Prove that
e a * sin
3.
b ~
bx=bx+abx*+
*+....
in ascending
of*.
powers
(P.U.1951)
4.
Show
5.
Prove that
6.
If >>=log
x=*lx 2 +$x*^\x
that cos 2
e x sin
*= *
f * f
Jx
......
____
2
[x+ >!(!+ x )], prove that
powers of x
yss *~
x3
T*
x5
+ T' 4
x7
'
'
'
~5~~ ~2~' 4
'+
,
'
'
'
(P.C/.
7.
If >>=sin log
2
(;c
7P57)
'
.v
ascending powers of x as
in
far as
Prove that
.
,
9.
Show
that
2)
10.
(/)
log tan
(l
(i"fx)=Zx+*x
log
(v)
tan
^
__.1
e.^!
(vi7)
A:
(m
8)
JxH 
log sec
T~ 2T~
=^ +
xM ""
A'
47
"90"
'
2"+fi
30"
'
'
x4
^c
sm^^xl,1
i
(v/)
x2
1
4
...
f
+ sin
1+
(iv)
2!
^8
'
""
30
l
X*
x5
"5
'
f2^
*=2> +
12
+ *"
4"!
^+45
x%
+
+"
(D.V.1953}
188
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
log sin (x+/i)=log sin
(v//7)
x+ h
cot
/i
+JY

tanMs+AJtan^+Asinz
(/AT)
2
cosec x
*yT
~?
(A
1
sin z) 
2*

v.sin3z
8
.,
x 
2 cot x cosec
4(Asmz)
...
when zcofr^x.
Obtain the expansion of e
11.
sm X
in
powers of x as
far as
x4
(D.I/.
12.
Obtain
the
first
Powersoft
13.
as the term in x 8
14.
Expand log
sin
in
powers of U3).
2
Expand 3x3 2x 4x4
16.
Show
that
(/)
Uin
in
x
in
lim
(//)
and A by
x~3
in
sin
".
xsmx
=1.
*3
Obtain by Maclaurin's
powers of x2.
*55=;
^
x>0
X
(D.U. 1955)
15.
sion of e
in
(P. U. 1955)
of e x l(e x 1) as far
17.
(1Manx)
16
theorem, the
first
xcosx
_
~A
lim
x0

=3.
smx
Appendix
We shall now
e*,
(1+x),
(l
+ x) m
x
n
Let /(*)=*.
Therefore, f (x) = e so that/(x) possesses
vatives of every order for every value of x.
Taking Lagrange's form of remainder, we have
,
..
deri
'
V!
We know
that
when
>
oo
x//i
whatever value x
may
have.
>
(See
3*62, p. 58)
EXPANSIONS
Rn
>
as n >oo
189
.
/(0) = e=l
Also
Making
v2
l+*+
which
is
we
2!
get
vn
y3
3,
+;,!+"
Expansion of sin
Let f(x)= sin x.
x.
..
f n (x) = sm
(x
+ ^nn),
We
of
jc.
have
Since
*
x"
n\
we
see that
Rn
>
Maclaurin's infinite
for
Now
satisfied.
expansion are
n*
/"(0)=sin
Making these
sinx=x
f
which
is
j
,
we
get
....
Expansion of cos
x.
cos x
for
As above, it may
2
x4
x6
_i x
2
j
+4
easily
be shown that
every value of x.
Let
i.e.,
Moreover
for
x>~l.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
190
If
Rn
<
Let
we have
is
also,
have.
Thus
/? n
Let
(ii)
as H >
>
1<JC<0.
we
when 0^x<J 1.
oo
to
fail
may
draw any
definite conclusion
Here
(1
0)/( !
+ #*).
is
positive
v
and
less
than
1,
and
i_
Also
Hence,
x n >
as n +
co
Rn
as n >
oo
>
3'61, p. 57)
Also
in the Maclaurin's
x*
series,
we get
log
for
v3
A:
<v2
A.
./>
!<*<!.
m
Expansion of (l+x)
(m
is
any
real number).
Let
/w=(i +*r
Whenm
is
any
real
number, (l+x)
when
+ x>0,
when
x>
1.
Now,
m
f(x)=m(ml)(m2) ...... (mn+l)(l+x) ~.
We notice that
if
EXPANSIONS
191
otf(x) of order higher than mth vanish identically and thus, for
m
n
w, R n identically vanishes, so that (l+x) is expanded in a
finite series consisting of (m+l) terms.
>
Ifwbe
we have
identically so that
If
Rn
still
further.
get
Let
1
<
<
1, i.e.,
<
1.
Also
0<0<
< 1<(
or
<
1.
l+Ox,
<
;}
1,
0<
Let (m
1) be positive.
Now
ml be
Let, now,
Now, since
negative.
x
I
or
X )!.
(l + fl*)l^(l_
we know that
m(m
l)...(w
w+1)
^
_J
""*
when
\
*Also

Thus,
Hn
~>
The conditions
fied.
"ZTiri
as n > oo
when
<
<
1.
Now
/(0)=w(wl) ...... (wn
Aefer to the foot note on the next page.
satis
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
192
ft
(l+x)*=l+mxH
when
<
<
A:
JL
l)(m2) x
v
+ m(m
3
,
'>
,
3
f ...
1.
Ex.
1.
Ex,
2.
Show
3.
Show
that log
as
Maclaurin's
series.
Ex.
f(x)
infinite
expansion
is
where
e~
*To prove
that
when
<
1) ____
Changing n
to wf
1,
we
1,
(w
"^
get
or
As
p such
<
we can
1,
<
that
Wn
>
k, for
1,
<
we get
Now
up
//c^ is
<
Thus
/>.
Multiplying
number k
find a positive
as n >oo.
as w
>
oo.
as n
>
oo.
CHAPTER X
FUNCTIONS OF
TWO
VARIABLES
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
The notions of
two
10*1.
relation to functions of
this chapter.
proved.
The sub ject of functions of two variables is capable of extension to functions of n variables, but the treatment of the subject in
this generalised form is not within the scope of this book.
Only a
few examples dealing with functions of three or more variables may
be given.
The
(/)
between
relation
x, y, z,
of numbers x,
y,
>=!.
(/)
a<b c<d.
Now (a x)(x
where
is
nonnegative
if
b)
is
nonnegative
if
a^x^b
and
(cy)(yd)
ct^y^d.
The
193
194
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
The
(ill)
relation
r2
V2
z=e x y
determines z as a function of
x,
The
etc., as in
write z=f(x,y),
Ex.
definition of
Neighbourhood of a point
(x, y) such that
103.
(a, b).
The points
number.
x=a
Its centre
is
S,
at the point
(a, b).
x = a+8
y=^b~8, y
This square
(a, b).
For every value of,
is
called
S,
we
a neighboura neigh
will get
bourhood.
10*4.
Let
(a, b)
>
(a. b).
Formally, we say that /(A: y) is continuous at (a, b), if, corresponding to any preassigned positive number e, there exists a positive
,
number
such that
1
P(a,b)
for
y)f( a b )
f(*>
>
<e
square
x=a
8,
such that,
square,
x=fl+S; y^b
for
any point
between
8,
y=b+8
(x, y)
of this
/(x, y) lies
f(a, fc)e,
p.
j.
where
small.
e is
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
10 41.
continuous
195
a domain
in
1042.
Let /(.x, y) be continuous at (a, b) and
Special Case.
be any positive number, however small. Then there exists a
square bounded by the lines
let e
x=a8, x = a\8
;>'=
S, >'
value of the
In particular,
line
y=b, we
It
of y
for
may
y = b.
a continuous function
is
variables
5.
l,
\f( X ,y)l\
for
<
all points (x, y), other than (a, 6), lying within the square,
defini
we
see
that/(x,
limf(x, y)=f(a, b) as
(x, y)
>
(a, b),
ie.,
(0,0).
also be expressed
of the function.
by saying that
for conti
196
DIFFEBENTIAL CALCULUS
Partial derivatives.
106.
Let
*=/(*>
J>).
Then
if
it
exists, is
and is denoted by
(a, b)
3z
f_
V
or
8x /(a, b)
x at
fA
.(a,
b).
'
(a, b),
function as
x changes from a
to a
\h
so that
/(*, b)
is the
x=a.
Again,
if
it
and
15
exists,
is
is
y at
(a, b),
denoted by
y for y=b.
Thus
fix v]\im
lim
")
Jx\x>
<*
f(X+h
'
y)
f(X
' y)

as/z^0
AI > u,
as
f,
We
by
gz/8^, f*(x, y) or fy .
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
197
Thus we have
oZ
Y>
or
v,
lvx
respectively.
aj \dy
are
respectively denoted by
Ths
by
y.
is
in
The proof
equal.
10
7.
OX
We take a pair of
XY
oall it Zaxis.
Any one
sense.
Lengths,
domain lying
in the
XY plane,
Fi g 55
.
Thus to each point of the domain in the XY plane there corresponds a point P. The aggregate of the points P determines a surface
which is said to represent the function geometrically.
198
first
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
10 71.
order.
Let
z=f(x
We have seen
y).
...(/>
b.
f(a, b)]
dent variables
If a
#,
on the
surface*
b of the indepen
x, y.
variable
from
starting
point,
changes its
remains constantly equal 1o b
then
it
is
clear
that the locus of the point is the curve of intersection of the surface and the plane y=b.
Fig. 56
On
this curve
x and
*=/(*,*).
T

is
)
3* Aa>
(C5
&)
x=a.
Hence, we see that

is
\OX
J(a>
the tangent
6)
Similarly,
it
may
be seen that
ZX
)T V
is
^ oy /( a
>
the
tangent of the
ft)
angle which the tangent to the curve of intersection of the surface and
the plane x=a makes with Yaxis.
Homogeneous Functions.
108.
n. if
Thus
in
x and y
is
is
equal to
n.
n.
199
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
is
(/)
new
definition
also.
'
L
so that
it is
of degree
Here the
1+
* J
J.
n, then
We
have
Thus
Cor.
// z
Differentiating
/
^"r
^T
?!
i,
...(i)
200
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
x and y
separately,
we obtain
d z
32
'" (
9*'
'
8z
Multiplying
(2), (3)
by
x,
(1)
I
//
1
^
v
2 f
1
*
yv
^v
'
prove that
2
_9
"
3x3^
Wa
l~ y
x 2 +>' \2
/955; P.f/.)7
(D.t/.
v
have
rtAtan1l
 2v
1
dxdy
= 12.
//
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
show
that
3
i^
We
201
"+
__
a"^
(D.U. 1952
P.U. 1949)
have
Similarly or
by symmetry
2
3 w
=:
//
prove that
=sm
.
d*
Here u
is
z=tan
so that z
is
ft
2u.
dy
u= 
xy
We, however,
l(ylx)
write
'
2.
%7
>?
...(i)
dy
But
*
'
Substituting in
(1),
we obtain
sec 2 w
)=2z=2 tan
d* J
3w
+y
ax
,
3w
<
W~
2 sin w
cos
cos
M=
w,
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
202
Exercises
Find the
1.
first
(/)
(Hi)
tanr (x+y).
logU
(//)
sin by.
).
j>>
2.
r^
Verify that
3.
//
a*a>
when
is
(/)
(Hi)
4.
sin 1
Xy
/;;x
y
log (y sin
x+x sin
a2
when
5.
liii)
(v)
z^sin 1
xy
+ taxri x

(iv)
z=jc
log
~.
*
2=
rj7l'
6.
If u=f(yjx),
show
that
*!"_
1.
If
(D.[/. 7950
P.U. 1954)
dz
If z=tan
dZ
j^r.
(y+ax)+(yax)'*
J!^
>.
8.
+J 8_ =0
^J!?.
=2z.
p rj
^.L/./
i
(P.U. 1945)
1
If r=tapr (y/x), verify that
1^41^ 0,
(AC/.)
205
EXERCISES
r
10.
If
z(x+y)=x
show
V
J
*L
3y
11.
11
12.
that
Tr
If w =log
(
\*
dx
If
( fl )
(A) If
wsin 1
wsia 1
show
,
'
^^"^
(AlhLatcd)
show
=1.
that
*
3w
y ^
9x^9^
A:
>>
f
\
J
9Z
dy
verify that
13.
az
=tan
w.
(P.t/.
1954)
that
^x+>!y
/
14.
^^
3 A:
If
z=f(x
a
a*
15.
V9^
2
If w=/(cix f
_9 z\
2
9y9^y
2/7^+^
If
9=t
9^
e~ r2/4/
i
18.
If
=/(r)
^^^
\9y
*
v^(^
),
V,
x
V .Jr.V
9^
17.
'
/9 2 z
16.
(P.U. 7955)
prove that
ay),
ay)\<f>(x
I
.=
9y
9*
f2/?xyh^
which
8r
9^
&+C;^m
19.
If
=log
UHyhz
f a
2
),
If
K=r m where
21 .
If
w = tan 1
[Refer Ex.
3, p.
 y
201]
=x2 Fy
find
dxdy'
9zax
3>az
20.
prove that
prove that
(M.r.)
.dY^ao^^ao
/
V
9r
),
\
f
9^ x
f
V
+ z 2 show that
,
will
make
(M
r<)
204
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Differentiating
(2), w.r.
to
x and
y,
we
=2
<>
2
*
sec w tan w
As
z is a
w
9*
*
=2
w
9;>
2 sec w tan
get
/0~
(
2
^sec w
,
Y +sec
,
}
\9^ /
8*
;^.
2
a^
2,
we
have, by Cor.
10*81
P. 199.
Using
(3) p.
201,
we
obtain
/ ^ ]=2 tan
22.
2 sec*
tan
sin
2u.
If
w~sin~
show
that
10 82.
introduce the
that
notation,
we
x=r cos
a<jid
we
new Notation. To
consider a particular case.
Suppose
new
6,
y=r
sin 6
(0
connected
In the present case we have four variables x, y, r,
relations so that any one of them may be expressed in terms
by two
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
Thus, x
or (b)
r,
may
or
205
be expressed in terms of
(c) 0, y.
In case (c), 3.x/9r has no meaning. In cases (a) and (&), where
9x/gr has a meaning there is no reason to suppose that the two values
of (9x/3r) as determined from them, where we regard
and>> conSome modification of the notation is
stants respectively, are equal.
therefore necessary to distinguish between these two values.
Thus
means
L
r,
0?
Jv
i.
rax
J0,
Ldr
of x w.
r.
to r
when
From x
To
cos
find
Ldrjy
From
(/),
we have
.we have
1.
If
*!
>'
fl
in
terms of
and
y.
we obtain
r2
Ex.
to express
rcos
r
=x +y
2
so that
*!
L ar Je'
r^i
L'w
x= \?(r
y*).
the values of
9x
a<
i
Jfl
r^
L'w
(P.t/.
Ex.
are
its
the
3.
1938)
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
206
Ex.
4.
Prove that
)
to
&r
 ~
0*(logr)
8

F cos
>
\vhere
x=rco5
0,
yr sin
0.
109.
it
10 91.
Theorem on Total
Differentials.
will
w.
r.
We
be assumed that
x and y in the
to
consider a
func
tion
z=f(*, y)..(')
be
two
so
that
Sx 8y are
any
(x, y), (x\8x. y+8y)
points
the changes in tlie independent vnriablcs x B,ruly. Lst Sz be the
consequent change in z.
Let
We
have
From
(/)
and
z+Zz=f(x \Sx,y+8y).
we get
(//'),
...(//)
tix,y)~f(x
so that
y)]
...(Hi)
differences, to eaoh of
theorem.
x \x being
We write
...(/v)
fy(x+&x, y+OWf^x, ^} e a
so that e 2 depends on $x, Sy, aid because of the assumed continuity
offy (x y) tends to zero as x and Sy both tend to 0.
t
Again we regard f(x, y) as a function of x only, y feeing sup*posed constant, so that by the mean value theorem, we have
We
y).
write
Ux + OJx.ylUx.y),**!
...(v)
s, depends
upon 8x and, because of the assumed ontinuity
to
tends
as 8x tends to 0.
off
y),
tso x (x
that
t
EXAMPLES
Prom
we
get
,
207
y)+Byfv
(x,
A
y
first is called
Of
Thus
9
dz=^~8x +
S>>.
dx
...(v/)
v
dy
Let
z
=x
so that
dx=dz=l 8x^8x.
.
Similarly,
Thus
(v/)
dz=^dx n+ a/
ax
dy.
ay
dz
8r
dx ^
+
dx
2y
which has been denoted by dz.
</>>,
Examples
in the area of an ellipse when an
per cent, is made in measuring the major and minor axes.
If a, b, A denote semimajor axis, semiminor axis and area of
an ellipse respectively, we have the relation
1.
error of
._
=7rV
TT
Here
^ =7m
dATrbda+Tradb.
Since
we
JL
208
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULI! S
Too
dA
+ ioo ""loo
'
A = 2.
2,
The sides of an acuteangled triangle are
that the increment in
due to small increments in a,
measured. Prove
b c is given by the
y
equation
be
sin
S/l
=a(cos
Supposing that the limits of error in the length of any side are
M per cent, where p is small, prove that the limits of error in A are
approximately
1
5(fjLa
jbc sin
A~
2 cos
Here
A is
.*.
9 sin
2
(M. T. >
degrees.
that
be
a, b, c.
A A 2b*cc(b*+c*a*)
> ' db
AA dA=*~
'
~ 
a*)'

2a
^c
b'c*
or
2O
sin A
JA
<M=
2ab cos
..
Tho
be sin
A dA~
a(cos
(7
&/i/100.
is
2 c# cos
c/6+cos
B dcdd).
.
triangle
c<*/100,
acuteangled,
therefore cos
dA are
JB,
cos
are
C+c
cos fff a)
0(6 cos
6c sin"^
a(
100
180
'
100
1
15
'
Cc cosj8a)
Bc"s5tt
or
6cos
'TOO'
sin
or
As the
positive.
222
IT
At
.A
t/c
,
sin A.
degrees approximately.
M
'
100
PABTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
209
Exercises
Find the percentage error in calculating the area of a rectangle when
error of 2 per cent is made in measuring its sides.
1.
an
Show
anyplace
and
is
A,
and length a
4.
ABC.
and SB are
(i)
c8b+b8c+bc
cot
/I
S/l0.
(//)
cSBhsin BSjt=0.
(M.T.)
The area of
2 A S A = S 8p  s8q  abcSs,
2
2s=a+b + c,
Avhere
6.
The work
distance s in time
is
2/?=0
that
f
+c
2
,
3?
must be done
for
proportional to
rZ>f/ 2
Find approximately the percentage increase of work necessary when the displacement is increased by 1%, the time diminished by 1%, and the distance
diminished by 3%.
7. The height // and the semivertical angle a of a cone are measured, and
from them A, the total area of the cone including the base, is calculated. If h
and a are in error by small quantities S/z and 8* respectively, find the corresponding error in the area. Show further that if a=n/6, an error of fl per cent
0'33 degree in a.
in h will be approximately compensated by an error of
(M.T.)
10*92.
Composite
functions.
Let
=A*.
and
y)
0")
let
Again, let
x=^(ii
y^(u
...(h)
t>,),
v)
,..(*;)
210
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Differentiation of composite functions.
10*93.
Let
***f(x>y)*
possess continuous partial derivatives and
let
Then
Jz =
dF
'Let
in x, y, z
ffSf be
f,
dx
gz
dt
ax~
dy
gz
+ 8y~
'
Let
'
'
dt
be the change*
Sx, Sy, Sz
t.
We have
y+8y)f(x, y)
+ [f(x,y+*y)f(x, y )1
As
in
10'91, p. 207,
to the two differences on the right,
and obtain
fJx+Ol
lim
Hence, in the
fi
limit, (/)
dz
becomes
_
"~
dt
Cor
Bx y+Sy)=fj(x,y)=&,
Sx, 8y)>(0, 0)
1.
dx
9z
'
dt
9x
8z
dy
9y
dt
'
Let
z=/(^,
possess continuous
first
y),
Let
X=>(,
y=$(u,
possess continuous
first
,),
v),
'
'
*' '
211
It
may
similarly be
a*
az
a*
ay
shown that
_az __ az
~av ~~ax
ax
a_z^
av
ay
j?y
*
av"'
Examples
1.
Verify by
direct substitution.
Now
.
(//),
10*93, p. 210,
*L = (yZ+2xy) 2at+(2xy+x*)2a
Again
~
Hence the
2.
verification.
Prove that
if
then
We look
'
8j>
"
3V
9"
v.
we
get
212
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Subtracting,
we
du ~"av
get
^a
.
9*
3.
9>>
prove that,
^c
Let
u=y
vzx, w=xy,
z,
so that
H=f(u,
We
have expressed
v,
w).
H as a composite
function of x,
>>,
2.
'
'
9*
Similarly
__
'
'
'dy
9M
'
3"
th(it
is
prove
[This
is
independent variables.]
H=xnf
We
,
function of three
have
j=x/\w,
v)
IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS
213
But
8w
=
~~  JL
a*
;c*~
?
>
^ _
z
'
~~;c a
a*
Hence
= njt'/(,
/V
0*
v)'
'
'
~ x* 
+z 
( v
V '9W
0V /
Again
dH^xnfdf
a^
8", ?/
+ 8v~
8.y
'
\8
?/,
for
aw
'
v >
aj/
8B
a>>
A;
3J!..o.
ay
Similarly
3
two
10*94.
Let /(jc, _y)
Implicit functions.
variables.
Ordinarily, we say that, since
f(x,
we can
an
be any function of
on solving the equation
y)=o
...(0
(/)
defines
y as
implicit function of x.
we cannot say
Assuming that the conditions under which the equation (/) dey as a derivable function of x are satisfied, we shall now obtain
the values ofdy/dxandd 2yldx 2 in terms of the partial derivatives 3//3X,
2
2
2
3 //ay, 3 //8*
d fld*dy, d*f/dy* of / w.r. to x and y.
fines
'
dx
3/
'
3x
~dx
df
+ dy~
a/
dy
'
dx
*'
ax
dy
df
+9*
'
dx
'
Therefore
derivative w.r. to
its
is 0.
is
identically
214
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
__
,_.
/v
dfldy
'
~dx
and 3//8y as
'
dx\dxdydy*
>dy
dy
dy
a.y
2V
dx
8*A
>3
3
Hence
__
~
dx
ftf
'
and
_._
.^__
10'93,
...
also
as
Now
in y, so that
f(x+Sx,
.or
or
,
fy (x,
Sx
Let 8x >
0.
Example
Prove
/fart
i//
3flrx
y+Sy)
2J6
EXERCISES
f(x, >>)=>>
on
(Hi),
p. 214,
we
get
_
dx*
27>>
 a)(3ajc2 (x
y
Thus
j
as before.
Exercises
1
1.
Ifii=Jt y ,JC=2r35 + 4,
2.
If
3.
i
If
,
cosv"
y=r+855,
x=w 2  v, y.=^ v find
sin*
v=
smy
If
5.
sin (x^)(xy)=0.
(tan x)* +y
eoi
z)=0
6.
If F(x, y,
"7.
If 2=xyf(vjx)
find v
ar/
/
4.
Ji=(x+ y)l(l*y)
find
(//)
(i v)
x.
(P.U. 1955)
=sin
x* ^y*.
x =a.
and z
find
216
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
8.
y)=Q,
If/(jc,
<p(y,
?/
If
9.
JH(lyH^(l*
If u
and
1*
?/..
show
)=fl,
(/>./.)>
that
y?=2
dX
10.
4L=
?,.
(P.U. 1935\
_^
,j
J
xu + e~
z'
sin w,
>>
defined by
v
yv\e~ cos
w,
prove that
d^ = dv
If
11.
,4,
B,
(P.U. 1936)
dx
dy
/1
+ sin B]
sin
C=constant,
prove that
dA^
Clan B
tan
12.
......
"dx*
Show
13.
where
//*!
x=yz,
r
ff~z
"" 1
"I"
X log
tfX
14.
(/)
(Hi)
15.
Find dy/dx 2
x *+y*=laxy.
Jc
+^ 5 =5fl 8
If AX,
(P.U.)
Jc.y.
=_
d 2x
/y
'
dy
fx
(//)
x 4 i y*=
(iv)
jc
5
!
/(x,
>>)=.xM y
dy
^_S^fv}*2fa
2
.
(/
Given that
dx 2
17.
dx
16.
If
is
3ax>>:=0,
show
that
'
dy
and if
(x, y> z)
1950)
217
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
APPENDIX
EQUALITY OF REPEATED DERIVATIVES
It has been seen that the two1.
Equality of fxy and fyx
are generally equal. They
derivatives
second
order
repeated
partial
ate not, however, always equal as is shown below by considering twoexamples. It is easy to see & priori also whyfyx (a, b) may bo diffe
A.
rent
from/^
We
(a, b).
have
Iim
A >
and
t,
/y (0, &)=
i
Inn
k *
/K
yv
f(a,b)
b\k)'

Jim,
li
>0
A
r
Iim
/7
It
_>
similarly bo
may
r
Inn
A >
<
say.
/7/c
shown that
>
Iim
>
//fc
/z
Thus wo sec that/ (a, ft) and/^ffl, /;) are repeated limits of the
same expression taken in different orders. Also the two repeated
limits may not be equal, as, for example
rj!/
r
lirn
v
Jim
fc
.
hk
and
A
Iim
Iim ._> o/j^0 n
+K
=
=
v
Iim
''
A>0
ll
1,
_k
Iim
A:>0
7
^
Examples
1
x,
Prove that fxy ^ fyx at the origin for the funct ion
We
A>0
'
^
.
'J v^
L
*
'
...(1)
218
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Also
/,(0,
and
/,(
Thus from
Again
0)=
lim
lim
MH
/(0.
0+k)fM

... (2 )
= m
li
=0..
lim
and
(1), (2)
(3)
/((>,
OH
lim
/,,(0 (
0)
lim
fl( 0, 0)=
lim
t =
l.
...,4)
Also
**
and
/fin
x (0,
From
(4), (5)
to
/c)=
and
/.>,
Thus
/JO,
==
"
h^0
OH *>o
I
"
=0,
.(5)
lim
lim
(6),
lim
A>0
*=
K
2.
2
1 /(x, .y)=* tan x
and
We
is
have
zero elsewhere.
2
>^
tan 1
^/
(B.U. 1953)
219
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
= hm
..
r
\
fcoL
=A
/ta,n l klh\
'
h 1
k tan 1
,,
klh
/c
*/*]
>
as
J
* 0.
A:>0
We may
similarly
Hence the
show that
result.
t(x)=f(x,y+k)f(x,y),
...(1)
so that
<?(h,
By
Lagrange's
k)=$(x+h)t(x).
...(2)
Also
...(5)
ji, y)].
(5),
we obtain
)
0<0 t <l.
Thus
Again considering
proceeding as before,
/r(^)=/(A:+/j, y)
f(x, y) instead of
</t(x)
and
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
220
3.
V /(*
order
in
f(a+h, b+k)=f(a,
b)
+k A/(<7,
b)
Lemma.
We
write
=/(*, y)
and
so that z
is
a function of
t.
Now, we have, by
10'93, p. 210,
dz
8z
dx_
di'^'Wx
~dt
dz
Now, we agree
dz
dy
'
"di
dy
dz
+k
,
ax
z.
8z
to write
dz
in the
dz
TWO VARIABLES
221
8y)
8
lx +k
,
If,
we have
d*z
'
/i
times.
result
a, b,
//,
k, are cons
tants, then
\n
'
By)
Proof of Taylor's Theorem.
We
write
f(x,y)=f(a+ht b+kt)=g(t)<
and apply Maclaurin's theorem to the function
9
variable
of the single
g(t)
t.
For
= !,
this
becomes
and
(0
<
such that
<
1)
.(/)
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
222
Now
)=/te+A, b+k).
f(0)/te
b).
Also since
(i),
Exercises
1.
Show
>
2.
that
(*
By mathematical
indication or otherwise,
3 7
/ h. 9 +
+/t _3_\" A" V
a>/
3^
3^"
show
that
"
......
on,
n K
"
4"c.h
f..t
C,n rkr
nr
4
3.
Show
(i)
that
sin
sin
^^ary
T[(**+ 3x^
2
)
cos 0a sin
sin
(W)
e*
sin
ex cos
0,y]
<
< K
6^A>+afrx,y
2
u
+. e [(a*x* 3ab*xy ) sin
v (3fl
^ ^6^) cos
a
],
4.
Def.
fix, y)> if there exists some neighbourhood of the point (a, b) such
for every point (a\>h, 6+fc) of this neighbourhood,
Minimum
value,
f(a,b)>f(a+h,b+k).
/(a, b) is minimum value of the function
that
f(x, y) r
if
it is
exists
maximum
A. 41.
or a
minimum
value.
fx (a b)=Q,fv (a,b)=0.
9
x=a
x (a, b) for
Similarly
we may show
that
/,(*,
Note
As
1.
*)=0.
but/(0, 0)
is
Note
2.
jc=<i,
y=b
/*(0,0)0,/V(0,0)=:0,
not an extreme value.
y=0
is
true.
A. 42.
Sufficient conditions.
To show
that
/.(M)=O //a,&HO,
f
and
f*(a.
b)=AJxy (a,
b)=B,tf(a,
is
a max. value
a min. value
ifACB*>0
b)=C
then
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
f(a b)
t
f(a.
b) is
f(a> b) is not
an extreme value if
ACB*<O
(iv) the case
It
may
is
and A>0,
be noticed that
A^O
if
consideration, if
224
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Taylor's Theorem with remainder after three terms, we.
By
obtain
fta+h. b+k)=f(a,
or
&)+(
~ +k
(a,
b)+kf,
b)+k%*
(a, b)
(a, b)]
Now
fx (a,
Also,
where
p is
We
6)=0,/,(a, 6)=0.
we have written
fc.
of
h,
k,
the
sign of
is
Case
1.
Let
ACB >0.
2
nor
C can
be zero.
We
write
=r
Since
is
ACB*
is
positive,
we
[(Ah+Bk)*+(ACB*)k*].
see that
Ah+Bk=Q,
i.e.,
when
/*=0, fc=0,
Thus we
which
is
when
it is
fc=0.
zero.
same sign
that of A.
Thus f(a>b)
maximum
or
is
minimum
an extreme value
according as
in tbja case
a^J ,will be
or
negative
positive.
t
is
EXAMPLES
Case
225
II.
Let
ACB*<0.
Firstly,
We
write
ACB
2
Since
is negative, \ve see that this expression lakes
values with different signs when fc=0 and when Ah\Bk= Q;
up
A=Q
as well as
value.
C=0, we have
and
Case HI.
Let
ACB*=0.
Suppose that
We
A^Q.
have
zero,
when
f(a+h,b+k)f( a,b)
depends upon
If,
have
now,
the consideration of
A = Q then,
p.
The
case
is,
therefore, doubtful.
AC=B
2
,
we must
5=0.
is
zero
Examples
1.
We
write
xy(axy).
/(*, y)
We now
=xy(axy)=axyx*y.\y*.
~Q and/y=0.
be!
The
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
226
Thus we have
2xy
x2
ay
ax
=0,
.y
y which make
J"
(0, 0),
^1=0,
5= a, C=0
is
Thus/(0, 0)
For
(0, a),
so that AC B* is negative.
not an extreme value of /(*, y).
A2a, B=
Thus/\0,
is
^r)
We may
a,
C=0 so that AC U2 is
negative.
also not
>>).
show that
similarly
f(a, 0)
is
also not
an extreme
For
(\a, la),
A\<t, B
\a,
C=
\a so that
AC
J3* is
positive.
JVmf
f/ie
2(x^)
We
write
/(x,
fy*(x,
We now
extreme value of
a
x ^4
4
(/>.[/.
Hons.)
j;)
y)=4
fy=Q which
y
are
...(1)
...(2)
4(x3 +}")=()
or
EXAMPLES
227.
x \y~Q
either
or
We
xy+y*=0.

and
viz.,
>
The equations
(3)
The equations
(4)
give only
(0, 0)
For (0,0),
A =4,
and
For(V2,
X=
V 2
20,
.. /(\/2,
value
as,
A,
5= 4, C=20 so
is
\/2)
negative.
is
We may
that
4C B
is,
is positive.
in fact, a
maximum
also a
maximum
be disposed
y2,
\/2)
is
value.
Note.
The
of by an elementary consideration as
when x=0,
follows:
Now/(0,0)=0.
For points, (x
0) along xaxis,
=2x;c=;t'(2;c
which
is
which
is
8
)
neighbourhood of the
origin.
for points along the line, y=*x the value of the function
negative.
Again
2x 4
Thus in every neighbourhood of the point (0, 0) there are points where
function assumes positive values i.e., >/(o, 0) and there are points where the
function assumes negative values i.e., </(0, 0).
Hence /(O,
0) is not
an extreme value.
3.
We
write
when
We
by a
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
228
We now
a function of x and y.
as
obtain
where,
ables
w,
x and
We
independent vari
y.
have
(*>
;>)=?*
(p a *  hy)
"*
>
<>b
u(x.
order
first
partial derivatives,
we
obt&jn
Again, we have
2
2^2
2
C'
2ab
a

Since
minimum
4C
jB
positive and,
is
x and y
of, w, therefore, is
Exercises
1.
x*+xy+y*+ax+by.
(vi)
4).
(v/i)
(ix)
3x 2 ~^ 2 4x a
2 sin (jc+2y)+3 cos (2xy).
.
(iv)
(vi/i)
2x*y+x*~y*+2y.
z
xy).
(x) x*y (\
(B.U. 1952)
2.
Find
all
STATIONARY VALUES
3.
A.
229
5.
To find
the
stationary values of
u=f(x,y, z,w).
where the four variables x, y,
r,
...(i)
are subjected to
the
two subsidiary
conditions
...(2)
...(3)
ing
We may
two.
(2)
and
(3)
as determin
x and
y\
we obtain
.0.
.(4)
0.
...(5)
+/.
Again, differentiating
v,
(2)
and
(3) partially
with respect to
and
.v
we obtain
"=0.
...(7)
<>.
...(8)
^0.
'...(9)
9z

If, now, 3Z/3X, 3>v/gx, 9z/3j^, 3w/9>> be eliminated out of the six
equations (4) (9), we shall obtain two eliminants, say,
F,(x y z w)=0,
9
...(10)
...(11)
^t(^, y, z, >v)=0.
stationary.
230
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
This method
is
section.
A. 51.
*)
Again,
section
by
Xl
(9)
1AalM
~=0.
...(12)
ox
of the preceding
~ =0.
...(13)
make
...(14)
...(15)
With
and
A2
and
(13) give
...(16)
The equations (2) and (3) of the preceding section along with
the equations (14), (15), (16), (17) determine values of A x A 2 and of
x, y, z and w, which render u stationary.
,
If,
now, we write
we
see that the equations (14) to (17) are obtained by equating to zero
the four partial derivatives of g, with respect to x, y> z and w so that
In practice,
all the four variables are being treated on a uniform basis.
down by
setting
up
Examples
ellipsoid
EXAMPLES
231
We
We
g(x, y,
x,
>>
2
,
where
/x=0.
1,
z are
x, y,
...
()
write
zM
partial
The equations
AI, A lf x, y,
z.
and
(/v)
(11), (///),
These values of x,
y, z,
r2 .
^^
x,
y and
from
(v)
will
when
(/),
will
and
(v).
that,
With
the equations
(//'/),
(iv)
and
(v)
can be re
written as
2x
r^~
!_'.
1
c2
Multiplying these by
/
/,
2z
A"
Ai
a quadratic in
8
stationary values of r
which
is
r*
and (Jetermines, as
its
roots,
the two
232
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
2.
If
where
x
show
'
is
given by
We write
g(x, y,
z)=flx'+&V+c'2 a +>
( I
y and
z,
1
)
g(x, y, z)
r,
to
we obtain
y
=0,
2A
=0.
These give
or
ax=by~cz.
The equation
=1, determine
(/)
x,
.,,
(/)
y and
z.
Exercises
2
1.
2.
xyz=a*.
Find the extreme value of xy when
3.
,v
h^
fz 2 when
(w)
(MI)
x*+xy+y*^3k*.
Find the perpendicular distance of the point
4.
(a> b, c)
7.
8.
Find
the?
extttme Va lues of
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
233
subject to
9.
72
show
will
that
(D.C/./9J5)
be the values of
4(0a)(0 b)~ah.
(D.I/,
//ww. 7957)
Miscellaneous Exercises
Find the points of continuity and discontinuity of the following
1.
functions
2.
f(x) defined by
fin
where n
is
3.
l/)o, if r = i
(/I, ifi</<l,
(B.U. 1)52)
any integer.
4.
and
Draw
f"
i
L
the graph of
6.
Show
~>
oo
(')
tan^/
to J when * = ; to
three points of discontinuity which
whenO<x<J
7.
which
is
equal to
when 4<x<l
%xare
to
you
required
when x=0
and to
find.
to
whenx=l. has
(Patna)
/(0)=0.
234
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
d0W4
Find
8.
a
where
Care
,4, J0,
relation
S 5/it
J/H
where,
/r,
C sin A+sin A
sin
B=h,
constant.
is
9.
Cf sin
Find
V + ^0'(~r
\
in terms of
r,
/)'
when
r a ~a*cos 20.
10.
x
11.
Find
W
^ V i+
12.
show
If
cos fl+a
j,
that
*
13.
If ^
when iw=6,
If >>=cos
.v,
prove that
(M.T.)
14.
If
prove that
Assuming
that
,y
flo
prove that
=(^iivm
/
^ cosa
if e
cos (jc sin a) can be expanded
that the coefficient of x n is cos wa/w !
15.
show
16.
(a)
Give the
first
(b)
powers of or,
(B.U.)
three nonvanishing terms in the expansion of
sin"" 1
Show
in ascending
J sin x).
x4 of x/sinh x
is
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
Use Taylor's theorem
17.
g=
is
satisfying
prove that the only f unction /(x)
to
/(*) for
/(O)
all x,
/'(0)= 0,
given by
adinf
'
18.
z**xf(x+y)+yg(x
(I)
g,
\ry)
z=xf(ylx)+g(ylx),
(//)
Given that
19.
a function of u and
z is
= jc
t?,
/2xy,
while
= v,
<*>) g+f*y)j;ois
equivalent to 9z/av^0.
20.
21.
If M
If
= (l
ii^sin' 1
,2
22.
t2
2xy F3 r^, prove that
J_7w
;
then
tv
4cos 2 w
Prove that
'
if
dxdy
is
dy*
in x, y,
then
x .*?+ y
9w
3x+
ay
+,
. nM
8?l
a^
^2
^2
^2
(bF+a7
9* w
9 "
9 2u
i /
"+ 3 J*' ( 3x + 3? + 'a?
^)(*>
where
13.
show
that
3'/(r)
9 V(r)
3 V(r)
3?
236
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
24
^^ =
If
9*
dV
Ir
97
'
Ae~ a
prove
sin (\vt~bx).
that
H=Io
25.
(x
+y*
'
Show
26.
mean
1
to
that
value theorem
as,
/*,
27.
increases
=0
if
is
and /U)=log
(l
+ x)then
from
Show that
(/)
*<log
[1 /(I
to oo
A,
'0'
of the Lagrange's
*)!<*/( I
.Y)
where
0<x<l.
,wherel<x<0.
28.
slight error
x is
made
in
V5 * a
75
29.
'
da
cot C
sin
r~ir; ~.
sin B
sin
in
the
is
~,
db
cot
dc
c
.
when
(i)
31.
a=3, 6=~5,
Findlim
=4
(ii)
~~
32.
33.
</)
34.
Obtain
lim
Find
.7.,
lim tan(sin^sin(tan^)
z
sin x "" x cos ^^ sm x
x >o
35.
.(//)lim
(///)
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
237
cot2 x
(/) f(x) = (cos *)
36.
Having
(*?*0),/(0)
sin v
n
+jc +BJC 3 )/x
(tanxA:e
nonzero limit as x tends to zero, prove that n must be equal
'
maintains a
i
finite
37.
38.
from
3;cf 2)/(x
+ 3x+ 2).
*0 to
sin
if
1/>U?.
A:
==2rr,
Show
4(jcl)
has a single maximum and a single minimum value and that the function does
not lie between its maximum and minimum. Draw the graph of the function.
40.
Find the maximum and the minimum values of (1 x)"e x
.
Show
to
and that
that e x
it
*= + <.
(1
+ x)j(l~x)
41.
and
.J.
42.
Show that #(*)
the interval
<jc<n/2.
43.
sin
x tan
A:
(P. U. 1938)
in
value
between
ranges
8)
unity
log sec
is
(M.T.)
of,
2 cos
x+
>', where
1 and (adbc)y*Q.
(B.U.)
=i
oo
and
If
/3>/3.
Show
is
that
equal to
surface
is least
right cone
required
its
possible.
48. Prove that the volume of aright circular cylinder of greatest volume
which can be inscribed in a sphere, is \3/3 times that of the sphere.
Show
that the
maximum
is
>3nM:/9.
51. Find the greatest rectangle which can be described so as to have two
of its corners on the latus rectum and the other two on the portion of the curve
cut off by the latus rectum of the parabola.
52.
sm *
(B.U.)
CHAPTER XI
SOME IMPORTANT CURVES
The following chapters will be devoted to a discussion of
111.
such types of properties of curves as are best studied with the help
of Differential Calculus. It will, therefore, be useful if we acquaint
ourselves at this stage with some of the important curves which will
frequently occur.
112. Explicit Cartesian equations of Curves.
A few curves
whose equations are of this form have already been traced in Chapter
We now trace another very important curve
II.
,
which
known
is
as Catenary.
The following
trace
it
Since
(i)
cosh
on changing x to
x,
=s
we
"ol
see that
y=c cosh
=c cosh (.
\
\
c J'
Hence
(ii)
(111)
Thus, y
is
the curve
When x=0,
~j =sinh
which
is
positive
monotonically increasing in
when x
[0, oo
is
positive.
).
x=0
is
"
is,
0, for
^^
238
239
Note. In books on Statics it is shown that the curve in which a uniformally heavy fine chain hangs freely under gravity is a Catenary.
113.
We
Let/(/), F(t) be
write
f,
definitions.
11*31.
Parabola.
represent the parabola having its axis along xaxis and the tangent
at the vertex along >>axis, and latus rectum equal to 4a.
The point P(t) describes the part ABO of
y,
the parabola in the direction of the arrowhead
as the parameter, f, continuously increases from
oo to 0.
OCD
1132.
The
Ellipse.
x=a
cos 0,
y=b
Fig. 58
sin
59.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
240
marked on
a fixed straight
line.
Let the rolling circle start from the position in which the
line X'X.
generating point P coincides with some point O of the fixed
as origin and
the fixed line as *axis. When the
rolling
Fig.
circle
O/=arc PL
60
CP
We
x=OL=OILI=OIPM=aOa
sin
6)
= <j(lcos 0).
Thus
x=a(0sin
y=a(l cos
6))
6))
Note. While the circle makes one complete revolution, the point
describes one complete arch OVO of the Cycloid, so that
increases from
to
2n as the point P moves from O to O'.
The position K of the generating point which is reached after the circle
revolved through two right angles is shown as the verttx of the Cycloid.
The Cycloid evidently consists of an endless succession of exactly congruent portions each of which represents one complete revolution of the rolling
circle.
1134.
The curve traced out by
Epicycloid and Hypo cycloid.
a point marked on the circumference of a circle as it rolls without sliding along a fixed circle, is called an Epicycloid or Hypocycloid accord
jpg
We
is
an Epicycloid.
Let O be the centre and, a, the radius of the fixed circle. Let
the rolling circle start from the position in which the generating
point P coincides with some point O of the fixed circle. We take the
puint O as origin and OA as A^a is.
241
(x, y)
Fig.
61.
to
when
arc
Let
a0
J/~arc PL
Z_40C=0,
arc ^47
i.e.,
/_ICP=<f>
arc
PIb<t>
(/>=aejb.
/_
Therefore
x=OL
= OP cos + OP sin
TT)
cos 6
b cos
cos
b cos
sin 6
b cos
sin 6
b sin (0+<)
y LP
sin
Thus
ft
sin
(0+^
fl+fc
x=(a+b)
cos
b cos
y=(a+b)
sin
b sin
Epicycloid
a+b
btob
a+b
'
0,
b) cos
0+b
if
the rolling
circle.
Thus
x=(a
0,
Jir)
cos
0,
242
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
In making one complete revolution the rolling
cribe
p\q
2bno
circle will
des
circle.
be a rational number
circles
in its lowest
a
b
= p
i.e.,
aq~bp
or 2na.q.~27Tb.p.
In case a\b
is
Some
For a
epicycloid become
the
b,
(i)
x=2a
cos
y2a sin
Fig.
ing
The shape of
a sin 20.
will
roll
circle
the curve
0a cos 20,
equations of the
is
its
shown
^=
a sin
\a sin 30.
Now,
cos
30=4
cos 8
x=a
3 cos 0, sin 30
cos
0,
y=a
=3
sin
of
sin
04 sin
0.
0,
known
four
cusped
is
cycloid
243
also the
is
Show
Ex.
becomes a
that hypocycloid
114.
a=2b.
If f(x y) be a
f
fa, y)=0.
the implicit equation of the curve determined by the
points whose
coordinates satisfy it.
is
many
The degree of any term means the sum of the indices of x and
term and the degree of the curve means the highest of the
in that
Branches of a curve.
of degree w, we
an equation in,
in the rational
If,
algebraic
equation
replace
y,
as
of, x.
We
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
244
1141.
We
so that,
(x
+y2)xay 2 =0.
>
(a
0).
Cissoid of Diodes.
we
see, that
to a value of
x correspond two
values" of
which are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. The two values
of y determine the two branches of the Cissoid which are symmetrically situated about xaxis.
We consider
one branch,
y=>
and the form of the other branch can be seen by symmetry.
We have
dx
The following
trace
it
=~
particulars
will
enable us to
is
entirely
so
origin.
.(ill)
dy/dx=Q, when
the interval
[0, a]
a of x
is
outside
and
a,
the value
Also as x
a,
is
of dy\dx
is
y monotonically
is
Fig 64.
We
(x
+y 2 )x~a(x 2 y 2 )=0,
245
Strophoid.
i.e.,
We have
dy
__
dx
Some
particulars which
now
be obtained.
(/) The expression
x)l(aix) under the radical is positive
(a
a and a. Thus the curve entirely lies
and only if .v lies between
between the lines x~ a and x = fi.
if
(ii)
points
When .x=0
(0, 0)
and
When
(a,
0)
or 0,
lie
so
that the
I so
that the slopes of the two tandy/dx
(///)
gents at the origin to the two branches are 41. Hence y=x and
x are two distinct tangents to the two brandies at the origin.
v
at
.x=0,
infinity as
x ~> a so that
parallel to j'axis.
(/v)
dyjdx0
for values of
.v
given
by
a8
i.e.,
a.x
.x^O,
x=a(liV 5 )/
for
The value
0(1
belong to the interval [
f
a, a]
missible values of x.
Thus
for
for
only.
(v)
When x>a,
v>foo
for
oo
for the
other.
as shown.
Both the branches of the curve pass through the origin and have
246
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
1143.
(a
>
0).
Clearly,
are the
two branches of
this curve.
Also
dx
(/) The point (a, 0) lies on both the branches.
negative value of x corresponds a real value of y.
is
To no other
not real
for
0).
()
lies
(0, 0)
As x takes up
is
y >
oo
(iv)
and >
Also when
x >
oo
dy
= ^
t
rf*
~T~
When x
oo
oo
P3V*'
y'tfL
\2
a
4i
j
1 tends
j.
V* J
c x
to inanity.
*
wards to upwards.
We have the shape of the curve as in Fig. 66.
Note. The peculiar nature of the point ( a, 0) on
1144.
x3
ay
=0,
semicubical para
The
shape
is
shown
in
the
is
adjoined
Pig. 67.
11 45.
cartes.
It will be traced in
Chapter XVIII.
247
Putting
y=tx
in
2
the equation y (ax)=x* of
the
Cissoid,
at 3
at*
which are
its
parametric equations
We may
similarly
show
that
*~
3af
'
1+Y
__
3af
2
'
1+t 3
Folium
respectively.
is
OX,
and a
If
vector
OP=r
is
11 51.
we were
If
or clockwise.
0)
where
r is
negative and,
6,
has any
OX
revolve though 0. We
Let the revolving line starting from
produce this final position of the revolving line backwards through
r
is the
O. The point P on this produced line such that OP
\
required point
The
(
1,
(r,
97T/4)
6).
(1, 97T/4),
(1,
9ir/4),
(1,
248
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
'X
Fig. 68.
Fig. 69.
v\
Fig. 70.
Fig. 71.
11 52.
Let
(x, y)
and
(r,
be the cartesian and polar coordinates respectively of any point P in the plane.
9)
From
the
OMP, we
OJf/OP=cos o,
AfP/0P = sin 0,
The equations
get
(/')
y=r
and
(//)
sin d
..
(i)
(//')
determine
..
the
in
vice
versa
6.
Polar Equations of Curves. Any explicit or implicit rebetween, r and 9 will give a curve determined by the points
whose coordinates satisfy that relation.
11
fnitial line
249
will be
its
0,
0)
/=tf(l
+ cos
0)
= a[l+cos(
0)].
be noted that
may
r=a represents
It
a circle with
its
a and
;
9=b
the
by revolving
initial line
A
curves,
To trace polar
will now be treated.
varies.
generally consider the variation in r as
we
cos
1161.
r=a(l
The curve
(/)
(//)
(/'//)
is
Cardioide.
0).
When 00, r = 0.
When increases
initial line.
from
Tr/2 to
TT,
~..^
Fig. 73
11*62.
^ a

cos 20.
0(11
cos
0).
Lemniscate of Bernoulli!.
so that cos
a to 0.
2'y
decreases from
to
we need
consider
to ir/2
to ir/4, 20 increases from
and, therefore, r decreases from
When = ir/4, r = 0.
When increases from
(in)
y4
'
.*''
I
^v
Tr/4
to
values of 0.
When = 3ir/4,r=0.
When increases from
(iv)
fl
NX
Pig. 74
TT,
to
2rr
3ir/4 to
to that
250
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Hence we
to
and, therefore,
have the curve as shown.
increases
from
to a.
same
curve even
loops
=a
r4
=a
rewrite
sin 2 0)
we
of the lemniscate,
(cos
or
Therefore,
which
(r
r 2 sin 2 0).
cos 2
we obtain
is
11 63.
rw
=a m
(1)
r=a
or
1T^
'
/.*.,
For
(2)
is
m=
J.
cos
=0rcos
circle
(Fig.
and radius
(0/2, 0)
75
2,
x 2 +^ 2 =^x,
which
Fig.
cos m0,
m = \, 1, 2,
For w 1, we have
for
is
75)
with
its
centre at
(a/2).
we have
r^sstf" 1 cos
0),
# = r cos
or
a~x
which
is
straight
line
from
perpendicular
at a distance,
it.
(3)
For
w~2, we
r*=a
which
and
is
have
cos 20,
lemniscate.
Fig. 76.
(4)
/w m=
r
or
>X
we have
=a cos(20)
a 2 =r 2 cos 20
=r
or
2,
2
a 2 =x
Fig. 77
sin*0)
(cos
creases from a to oo
(iii)
(i'v)
When
When
initial line.
When
increases from
to
7T/4, r in
m=
F0r
(5)
it
It is
251
TT,
decreases from
to a.
oo
we have
J,
=a cos 2
or
or
2r=a(l+cos
which
a Cardioide.
For
(6)
0),
is
,
we have
i.e.,
=r
or
cos 2
=r(l+co"s
0)J2
= l+cos0,
or
v/hich
is
To
known
trace
Fig. 78.
form
2a
r ~~
1+cos
and note the following points about
(/)
(//)
It
is
decreases from 2 to
1164!
(/)
(//)
it
ra0,
initial line.
When
r
and, therefore,
to
increases from
increase from a to oo
TT,
1+cos
Spiral of Archimedes.
so that the curve goes through the pole.
(a>0).
r increases.
Also,
when
when
~>
>
oo
oo
oc
starting fron*
0.
252
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
1165.
Here
Hyperbolical Spiral.
r0:=a,(a>0).
r=flf/0.
(i)
(iV)
r is positive or
When
6

negative according as
increases,
is
positive or negative.
decreases.
r
\
Also
when 0
when
0,r>x>.
oo
(ill)
>
0.
Now
or
r sin
or
;>
a as
> 0.
curve
the
approaches
as drawn.
approaches
as
0.
line
r=aeJ>0
1166.
(ii)
Also when
(i/i)
(a,
(/)
r is
GO
also increases.
> GO
when
>
/*
>
always positive,
We thus
The
>
0,
Fig. 80.
justification
of the
adjective
Ex,
1. p.
269.
Fig. 81
1167.
r=asin30,
(D.U. 1949)
(i)
from
increases from
from
to
to a.
253
7T/6,
30 increases
(ii)
As
(///)
As
7T/2,
As
27T/3,
57T/6
may
and from
above the
If
ted and
initial line.
increases
we do not
1168.
r=a
beyond TT, the same loops of the curve are repeaget any new point.
sin 20.
Four leaved
rose.
is left
Fig. 83.
to the reader.
Its
shape
CHAPTER
XII
Section I
Cartesian Coordinates
12
1.
12 11.
tan
*=
=/'(*).
j
curve y=f(x)
&ny point
(x, y)
on the
is
Yyf'()(Xx),
where X,
are
the
...(i)
current coordinates of
on the
any point
tangent.
The normal to the curve y=f(x) at any point (x, y) is the straight
which
line
passes through that point and is perpendicular to the
tangent to the curve at that point so that its slopa is, !//'( jt).
Hence the equation of the normal at (x, y) to the curve y=f(x) is
(Xx)+f(x)(Yy)=0.
Implicit Cartesian Equations.
1212.
y)=Q
where dfldy*
0,
(x, y)
on
we have
'
dy
dx
the
=0.n d(Xx,
normal
at
any point
_(Vn
=0.
respectively,
254
255
three variables x, y, z by multiplying each of its terms with a suitable power of z. Then by Euler's theorem, ( 10'81, p. 199) we have
i.e.,
"^
'
dz
d'y~~'~
V_ Y\ df
yr__
8/
^Q
or
x.j
9.x
or
8f
+Y
cx
8y
+Z?8z
=0,
where, for the sake of symmetry, the coefficient r of 8//8 has been
replaced by Z.
The symbols
and
r are to be
differentiation.
dy _
~ dy
dx
Hence
9
*t
dt
dt
'
dx
_F'(t)
^f
(t)
and
'
the
normal
at
any point
and
[Xf(t)]f'(t)+[YF(t)]F(t)=0,
respectively.
Examples
1.
(x, y)
Find the equations of the tangent and the normal at any point
of the curves
(/)
y=c
cosh (xjc).
(Catenary)
(ii)
x m la m \y m lb m = l.
256
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
(i)
For
y~c
we have
cosh (xjc),
dy =
sinh
ax
x
respectively
(//)
X,
any
c cosh
=(A
(x
and
at
sinh
c J
cosh
^X
+
x^O,
Let
/(x,
y)^*
df
~~
dx
1=0.
tt
my
m *
Hence
or
is
or
xx
Another method.
it
homogeneous, we
yv
is
of degree m.
get
M **)%. +>*".
jW
so that
yw
Making
^
Putting
Z.mz
\~/ti
Z=z = l, we
257
is
^.
12*12, p. 254)
(cor.
obtain
am
bm
'
'
at
6=n/2
to the
Cycloid
x^a(9sin
6),
y=a(lcos
9).
Wejiave
r
a(
a0
dy
cos
= 2a
sin 2
=a
sin
rt
2a sin
civ
dy
dx
~i
cos
dy
d9
dd
"
dx
dx
dy
;
rftf
2i
2i
rf^
__
~" C
9
'
Thus
Also, for
7T/2,
we have
jc=0(7T/;2
a =
i.e.,
^Tr
1)
and j
a.
Hence the
or
=aTra
is
ya=l[*<i(i7rl)] or Y+r=Jair.
3.
may
be written
in
the form
x
Differentiating
we
get
sin
<f)y cos
(f>
+a
cos
1), a] is
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
268
(x,
y)
=**/A
But the
We
= tan
<f>.
write
...()
Equations
They
(/)
and
have now
(11)
give
or
cos 2 ^,
y$=a*
Substituting this value of y in
we
(//),
x*=flrsin
i.e.,
}>=0cos
<.
get
<f>,
x~a
i.e.,
sin 3 <.
Thus tan
<f>
is
a cos 3 <i=^^(x
T
cos
The
a sin 3 <i),
Y/
<f>
or
a sin 4 ^,
<f>
i.e.,
sin
2
y cos ^+fl(cos
<
</>
i.e.,
x
which
is
4.
sin
y cos
</)
<^f
a cos
2^=0,
Find
x cos
0+y
sin
6=p,
...(/)
x/a+ylb m =l.
...(/I)
In Ex.
(11) is
We rewrite
the equation
XGOB
taking X,
Y as
(/)
in the
0+Y
sin
form
0~p=0,
The equations
(in)
and
(/v)
>>.
b m sin
'
or
(a* cos
~\
The point
\l/(m
>
p~
(x, y) lies
1
cos S
1)
/6 W sin 0\l/(m
y ~(
\w/(w
1)
1)
Therefore
/6* sin
r
or
'
(0 cos 0)
which
is
(&sin0)
==P
Show that the length of the perpendicular from the foot of the
5.
ordinate on any tangent to the Catenary
y=c
is
cosh (x/c),
constant.
sinh x/c
The
foot
F+(rcosh
xjcx
sinh
_c
is
6.
free of x,
cosh x/r __
~~
cosh x/r
y and
is,
is
1. p.
the point
is
255).
(x, 0).
0) to the tangent
x/c
x sinh x/c)
therefore, constant.
is
,''*+
dy
(x, y)
(x,
+ (r cosh
of the Catenary
which
(x, y)
to the astroid
constant.
we
get
!''y*
yt
Yy= y r (X X
),
(x, y)
is.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
260
or
=x*
The tangent
with
y*
(/)cuts JVaxis
(0
fl*.
its
intersection
its
intersection
A'axis is
A(x^
on putting ^=0 in
Similarly,
with Faxis
0).
(/),
we
find
that
is
5(0, yl($).
AB=<x$a
Therefore
which
is
x and y and
free of
is,
therefore, a constant.
Exercises
I
xy=c f
at (cp, c/p).
(iv)
2
2
<v) (x +^ )A:~0(jc >' )=0 for jc=3a/5.
2
?
<v/) x (jc^)f0 (x+>>)=0 at (0, 0).
<iii)
(v/i)
x = 20cos^
2
(x 4y
2.
+/)*0>>
=0
at
x0/2.
0cos 2^,^=2a
)=^V
a sin 2^ at (9=^/2.
sin ^
Find the equation of the tangent to the carve c*U 8 fy t )=JcV
form x cos 3
3.
Show
in
the
= c.
3
0f>> sin
curveagainat (16/5,
3xy*2xy=l
meets the
at (1,1)
1/20).
4.
Prove that ths equation of the tangent at any point (4m 2 8m 3 ) of the
2
3
semicubical parabola x 3 =y is
and show that it meets the curve
m 1 ), where it is a normal if 9m a =2.
(D.C/. Hons., 1957)
again at (m\
,
y~3mx4m
is
parallel to yfaxis
and where
it is
parallel
to
(/)
6.
x*+y*=a*.
x 3 4^ 3 = 30xy.
(Folium)
Find the equations of the tangent and the normal to the curve
(//)
Show
it
cuts JTaxis.
(Delhi 1948)
x cos O+y
sin
/?=0,
if
sin n ^.
(P.I/. 7957)
261
Tangent
ordinate axes in
coordinates is
,4
at
and
any point of the curve Oc/a)l +(ylb$ =1 meets the coShow that the locus of the point with (OA, OB) as
2
Show
9.
li
y m =ax m
makes
x*/a +y /b
that the tangent at any point x, y)
l
\x
on the curve
in
t
intercepts
ax
ay
and
\)a+mx
(m
m(a\x)
Prove that the sum of the intercepts on the coordinate axes of any
tangent to
is
constant.
11.
constant.
ya
is
is
QaQ
3 cos 0),
y=a
3
(4 sin
09 sin 0)
x=ae u
fl
(sin
Show
0cos0), y=ae
fl
u
+ cos
(sin
0)
origin.
that the distance from the origin of the normal at any point
of
the curve
is
Show
makes angle i
0),
y=ae^
(cos
i0 2
sin 10)
+ 2/)
with
A'axis.
Prove that
(D.U 7955>
17.
xY
18.
If
p~ x
cos
0+y
sin 0,
prove that
p n = (tfCOS
(P.U. 1941
D.U. 7955)
262
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
p and
The tangent
20.
at
x3
y=x*
nusefcs it
again at
chat its locus is
of the curve
y^)
PQ
and show
(B.U.)
21.
from the
origin as
Acaxis
tangent.
Show
22.
at
Show
23.
at
3) is
(0,
122.
it
also a normal at
1, 1) is
Def.
the two
a point of
curves at that
at
point.
Examples
Find the angle of intersection of the parabolas
1.
/>
and
at the point other than the origin.
We
have
or
x=0
and
in (#),
we
>=4a^
Therefore
intersection.
(0, 0)
and (4a*6 f
4a*b*)
get
for
x=
points of
(i),
we get
or dy/dx=2a/y.
2ydyjdx=4a
Therefore, for the curve
(//),
we
n
^L
2x=46
(/),
(dyfdx) at
Differentiating
get
^V
~
Thus,
if
/,
wi
(//),
(4a%$,
(dy/dx)Q,i
= !/
dx 26
t/y
or
t/x
263
4a^)
=2a*/A*.
we have
ft^
2.
JF/w/
//?e
Let (x
r
,
y')
or
Differentiating the
first
equation,
we
get
dy
=_
dx](x', y')~
by"
ax
264
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Similarly for the second curve
__.
*L1
0ijc'__
~~~~
'
hy'
_r
L.
l'
'
aa ^ x
**._..
!'
we obtain
r=0
or
/.*.,
bl
a^
Exercises
1.
2.
(P.C7.
7955)
y=mx
ax*+2hxy+by*=l.
Hence
12*3.
Lengths of the tangent, normal, subtangent and subnormal at any point of a curve.
Let the tangent and the normal at any point (x, y) of the curve
meet the A'axis at Tand G respectively. Draw the ordinate PM.
Then
sub tangent
the lines
TM,
MG are
called the
Also
dy
From the
/i
we have
Tangent ^TTWMPcosec
(i)
figure,
Subtangent
^=
= TM = A/P cot ^ = y
Normal =GP==MP
(/'//)
265
=?
sec /r=
V
dv
(iv)
Exercises
1.
y*=4ax
is
constant.
2.
Show
y*x =a*(x*a
2
)
Show
4.
Show
(Banaras}
x=a+b log
Show
constant.
is
(P.C/.
1938}
is
constant.
8.
/<
= *<!.
Show
y=a
log
0
a
),
268
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Pedal equations or p, r equations.
12*4.
1241.
tesian equation
is
given.
(X, y) is
Yy=f'(x)(Xx)
y>
or
If,
cular
from
(0, 0)
to this
tangent,
we
have
Fig. 85.
yxf'(x)
Also
r*=x*+y 2
Eliminating x
y b3twe3n
...(Hi)
(/),
(il)
(/).
Example
Find the pedal equation of the parabola
Tangent at
(x, y) is
Yy^.(XX)
or
The
tangent
length,
(/')
is
given
by
<
ISO
From
which
is
(//)
and
(///),
267
we obtain
1.
Show
;
2.
Show
j 4 1 ;;
IP.*. 1955)
x=a
cos 3 0,
y=a
sin 8 0,
is
3.
Show
a
2a cos Q
sin 20,
43
2
9(/
4.
Show
^)=8//.
+ cos
(.sin
0),
is
r=
5.
Show
V2p.
x=a
(3
cos
(3 sin
0sin 8 0),
as
s
3/> (7fl
6.
Show
^)
=(10fl
r)
a
.
f >')=**>'.
is
s
l/P*+3/r'=J/r
Section II
Po/^fr Coordinates
125.
Let P(r,
d)
OP to L.
Produce
268
CALCULUS
Let
PT
be the tangent at
Let
and
let
^LPT=
Z_PQ=a so that
limit of a as
Q >
P.
We
=<>
^_
is
the
have
Also
the
Applying
"\ we
sine
formula
to
the
get
OQ
OP
Fig. 86
sin
=
sin
or
sin
sin
a)
(TT
a
*
sin (a
8r
sin (a
80)
80)
sin a
"""
sin (a
8^)
sin a
sin (a
sin (a
=2
89)
cos
sin
se
2 sin
or
5r
Let
80
P so
*
sin
~~ cpsJa4S0)
sin (a 80)
t
'
that 80 > 0, 8r
^
'
>
0,
and a
Therefore
1
dr __ cos
~~
dti
(^
"
sin
<
or
.
tan cj=r
^
r
dr
Note.
#1*,
Precise meaning of
<p.
positive direction
produced) has to
9
increases.
The
positive direction
269
Examples
Show
1.
inclined, at
is
a constant angle to
or
which
<=
<i
dO
,,'
do
tan
we get
6,
dr
tan" 1
a constant.
is
adjective 'Equiangular'.
2.
r=fl(l+eos
Let
P (r
r=6(l
0),
cos
6).
<
dr

be the angles
or
dO
__
2Ujos* 0/2
____
"~
2 sin 6]"2.GOs 0/2
_a(i+cos0) ~~
a sin
dr
=tan
tan
,1T

/)
**
*^
or
Hence
^i=*f + 2
r=6 (I cos
dr
_b
'd9~~
0),
we have
8m
'
or
tan cA=
Y
Hence
t/0
t
dr
fe(l
=.
cos0)
b sin
tan
,
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
270
Therefore,
^^
Tr/2
afc
right angles.
Exercises
Find for the curves
1.
(i)
cos
r=0(l
0)
(Cardioide).
m =a rn cos m 6m
m (cos m$ + sin wifl).
r a
(11)
cos 0. (Parabola)
(/v)
that the two curves
2
a
r =a cos 20 and r=a(lf cos 0)
(Hi) 2alr=*\ f
Show
2.
w w
sin
orthogonally.
4.
(i)
(Hi) Y
=a
r=ae
(vi)
Show
npp' be drawn
meet in
T, then
6.
cosec (0/2),
r=6
sec (0/2)
re
+ 0),
r=0((lf
(v) r
sin
204,
 16
sin 20
=ft.
P and
P'
r=a
r^=(l+cos 0)
whose vector ial angles are rr/3 and 2^/3 are respectively
perpendicular
Show
at the points
19
r=flfl/(l
r=alog0, r0/log0
(iv)
5.
(//)
parallel
and
each other.
9.
If
(Agra 1952}
=sin
get
.
<f>
or
p=r
which
is
We now
ordinates
9.
sin <,
r,
We have
of, r, w.r.
to
271
tan
O
j
cfc=?r ~j
*7\*
__r
+(dr/d0)_
11
/dr_\
if
we
write
r=l/,
so that
dr
~"~
w2
(//),
'
</6i
we
get
From
the
&OPT, we get
OT
OP =tan
or
Hence
polar subtangent
=r
d^
,
dr
d#
where
j
du
.
w=
get
Fig.
88.
= cot ^,
or
OG=OP cot
<A
du
~A* where
dtf
w=
and
272
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Note. The lengths PT and PGara sometimes called the lengths of the
polar tangent and polar normal at P. We have
>
r=OPseccp=rV[lftan q>]=r/\/rHr
8
PG=OPcosec<p=rV[l+cot <p]=<\/r
128.
is
('
r f
fa
1.
Pedal equations.
* VI
given.
Let
r~f(6) be the given curve.
We
...(/)
have
1
Eliminating 6 between
equation of the curve.
and
(i)
fdr
(//),
by eliminating
<f>
dQ
tan <=/
r
dr
p=r
'
sin <.
Exercises
Show
1.
is
constant.
2.
is
constant.
a9, the polar subnDrmal
3.
Show
4.
ra(Hcos0).
(Cirdioide)
(i7)
2^/r^=l
+e
(Hi)
r~a0 1(01).
Show
5.
*
rae L/)2
1.
r=aje
(//)
=a+b cos
Q.
is
C3nstant.
cos Q.
(Conic)
KXERCISE8
Find the pedal equation ofr m =am cos m0.
8.
Logarithmically differentiating,
dQ
=r
or
f^
Thus
pr
.
sin
mm
is
we get
=~m
which
273
tan/n 9
=cot w0 = ta
p=r
P
m9.
or
9.
(iV)
(v)
//r
1 j
<?
cos 0
rci(Mcos0).
(v) r(lsinj0) 2
(ix)
m =u m
a.
(iv)
r= o0.
(v/)
rasin/ii0.
(viii)
r^a + bcos$
iwfl.
r=/'lfll").
Hence show
a?
w^
is
subnormal of
(P.U. 1940)
Prove that the locus of the extremity of the polar subtangent of the
curve
!

4/(0)0
it
Henoe show
/'(R4
ttie
0).
the curve
r
is
(H
a cardioide.
12.
form
Show
Allahabad 1943)
r=^a sech
is
of the
CHAPTER
XIII
DERIVATIVE OF ARCS
On the meaning of the lengths of arcs. The intuitive
13*1.
notion of the length of an arc of a curve is based upon the assumption
that it is possible for an inextensible fine string to take the form of
the given curve so that we may then stretch it along the number
axis and find out the number which measures its length.
This assumption, which is not analytical, cannot be the basis
of analytical treatment of the subject of lengths of arcs of curves.
Also to define lengths of arcs analytically is not within the scope of
this book.
Hence we have to base our treatment on an axiom which concerns the numerical measure of lengths of arcs and we now proceed
to give it.
Axiom. If P, Q, be any two points on
a curve such that the arc PQ is throughout its
length concave to the chord PQ, then
Chord
PL
where
PQ<arc
and
QL
PQ<PL+QL
the curve.
Fig. 89
An
If P,
be any two
PQ
= l.
rfxs
PQ
near P that the
arc
,.
lim
Q+P
we take Q
chord
so
To prove it.
concave to the chord PQ.
Let PL be the tangent at P.
arc
PQ
is
Draw
Ai/)*
QLPL.
Let /_LPQ=a.
chord
PQ
<arc
we have
PQ<PL+LQ,
^ PQ
chord
or
chord
PQ
everywhere
cc+sm
a.
274
Fig.
90
275
DERIVATIVE OF ARCS
Let
*
P so
limiting position
From
(/),
that chord
and a >
we
PQ
PL
as its
0.
get
arcPQ
_^ ^ chord
^^*
~~
PQ
'
for
(cos
a+sin
a)
>
as a > 0.
132.
Length of arc as a function. Let y =f(x) be the equation
of a curve on which we take a fixed point A.
To any given value of x corresponds a value of y, viz. 9 f(x)
to this pair of number x and/(x) corresponds a point P on the curve,
and this point P has some arcual lengths 's* from A. Thus 's' is a
function of x for the curve y=f(x).
Similarly, we can see that 's* is a function of the parameter '*'
for the curve
;
(Parametric Equation)
x=f(t) y=F(t),
a function of for the curve
9
and
is
r=f(6).
Cartesian Equations.
13*3.
(Polar Equation)
To prove that
Let
fixed point
We
A on
the curve.
AQ=s+Ss
Let an arc
Q(x+8x
so that
PQ=Ss.
arc
From the
rt.
&PQN,
angled
by
we
have
or
L
Fig. 91
or
fchord PQ\*
L~a?cPe J
Let
>
P so
( 8s \
^J
or
'
()'='+()
MX
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULI^
276
We make a
is
measurincreases
s,
Thus we have
Cor 1. If x=f(y) be the equation of the curve, thenfunction of y and, as above, it can be shown that
Cor.
From the
2.
cos
rightangled
Aror,
= &*
L NPQ=
pQ s/
's'
is
a>
PNQ, we h ave
arc
chor
NPQ
Let
cos r
d/=
dx
_
.
J^
1=
dx
ds
Hence
003
Similarly,
*=
dx
'
ds
,
sin r
dt=
dy
,
ds
Parametric Equations.
134.
To prove
that
We
be
its coordinates.
Let
B,TC.PQ
From
the
A PNQ>
= SS.
we get
Let
the
277
DERIVATIVES OF ARCS
'
St
Bt
or
2
Let
We
that dsjdt
Q > /* so that
measure
ie
2
8y \
/
^Uf
in the limit
/,
increasing so
Thus
positive.
ds
:
It
dt
Polar Equations.
135.
To prove
)'+(dt )*T
that
Lot
'5
Let arc
AQ=s+$s
so that arc
PQ^bs.
Fig. 92
Draw PN.OQ.
Now
JP7V/OP=sjn 85 so that
PJVW
sin S^.
Again
ONjOP^cos 89
Hence
NQ^OQON
= r+8r~ r cos 80
=:rl
cos 80
+ 8r
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
278
From the
&PNQ
Dividing by
(S0)
we
get
we
get
~~^
PQ^
/chord
_
~~
Let
We
that dsjdff
> P.
is
Therefore
positive.
2
Thus
V
_
Cor.
2.
..,,,
sin
PN
s' is
r sin
= T sin 80
arc
80
"
~8lT
Us
chord
PQ
>
sm ^=r.
,
/.
1.
j~
or
Again,
cos
2r sin2
TQ
279
EXERCISES
2r sin 2
JSj+Sr
'
80
sin
arc
80^
S7~
^
'
chord
PQ
PQ
Sr \ 80
80
arc
8T
Let
>
chord
P
f r\
cos r
<i=(V r. 0.
i
^r N do .
.1
1+
,
dQ ) as
or
dr
Exercises
Find
1.
(i)
t/5/d[x
cosh
y=c
jc/c.
^==a log
(//)
3V=^ (~ x).
5
(///)
(v)
(v/i)
8ayx
4^f
ind
2.
3.
Show
2
(a jc
c/5/c/y
that ydsjdy
(v/)
).
logx=x
for the
2
.
curve
is
j^jhi^jz^
_i
~ g
tf^^rr)
>
fl
4.
(/)
(//)
(111)
d'v)
x=^a cos
^,
y^b
x=a cos 3
^,
^=sin 3 ^. (Astroid)
x=a(9
sin ^),
x=ae
sin 0,
(v) jc==fl(cos
Find dsjdB
5.
(/)
r=>ae
(iv)
r =00.
(v/i)
(v/ii)
6.
y=a(lcos
0f0 sin
0),
cos
0).
(Cycloid)
cos
y=a(sin
(Cardioide).
0).
(//)
(Equiangular spiral)
8
(v)
r=a(0 l).
Show
0.
cot a
sin ^ (Ellipse)
y=ae"
r=a(l+cos0).
(///)
x 3 =ay*.
(iv)
rfr
r0=a,
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
280
7.
Show
that r ds/dr
8.
Show
that
is
^r
.is
dr
If /?i and /? 2 be the p^rp^ndicular^ from tlv^ origin on the tangent and
9.
normal respectively at the point (x, y\, and if tan ^ dy/dx, prove that
and
/i a =.=a:
10.
Show
dr
r
2
V(r /?
"
2
)
pf(r],
^f
CHAPTER XIV
CONCAVITY CONVEXITY
;
POINTS OF INFLEXION
141.
Definitions.
Draw
P[c,f(c)] thereon.
We suppose
f'(c) is
some
Now
sider
finite
is
not parallel
Xaxis so that
number.
V"
+X
Fig. 93
(/)
may
of
be,
Fig. 94
Fig. 95
Xaxis).
it
may
A
be,
is
concave upwards or
direction of Xaxis).
is
concave downwards or
tangent at
say that P
P,
is
sides of
downwards
and Po.
P2 and P 3 are
flexion
lie
on
Pa
on the curve.
Fig. 96
281
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
282^
From these
direction
is
14 2. Criteria for concavity, convexity and inflexion. To determine whether a curve y~f(x) is concave upwards, concave downwards,
or has a point of inflexion at P [c,f(c)].
We take a point
the point P[c,/(c)].
lying near
is
QM
MR of this
f(c)+hf'(c).
MQ
283*'
c+h
is
= MQ~MR=f(c+h)f(c)hf'(c).
For concavity upwards
MQ >
MR,
at P, (Fig. 97).
i.e.,
RQ,
MQ <
For
i.e.,
positive
when Q
lies
on
either side of P.
lies
on
either side of P.
at P, (Fig. 98).
RQ is
when Q
negative
RQ
Q
MR,
is
is
positive
when Q
lies
lies
P.
i.e.,
f(c+h)f(c)hf'(c)
which are
By Taylor's
Case
Let
I.
/"(c)
is
>
we have
0.
for
positive
x=c,
every point x of which the second derivativef(x) ia positive. (3*51, p. 54). Let c+h be any point of thisThen c+yji is also a point of this interval and accordingly
interval.
interval around
/"(f
2 A) is
for
positive.
Also
/*
/2
!,
is
positive.
RQ >0,
for sufficiently small positive
Hence
Case
II.
Let
upwards at
f"(c)
<
P iff"(c) >
Case HI.
By
Let
downwards at
/"(O^O
0.
0.
Hence
h.
RQ <
P iff"
for sufficiently
(c)
<0.
fy///'"(c):0.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
:284
have
h*
so that
RQ=
3*
f'"( c
+e
h )> f r /"(c)=0.
f'"(x) has
Then
But A 3 /3
Thus RQ
Jhe curve has inflexion
Case IV.
at
Hence
P iff"(c)^0 andf"
Generalisation
Let
By
f(c+h)=f(c)+hf'(c) +
**
f"(c) +
^7!
/n
we have
~
1(C)
so that
off
n
(c)
c,
Also h n fn changes its sign or keeps the same sign while the
sign of, /i, changes, according as n is odd or even.
I
Thus
/i
is
RQ
n
(c),
if
even.
it
is
a curve has
IR
in
flexion at P[c,f(c)],
'n
Note. We have already remarked that the position of the point of inflexion on a curve is independent of the choice of axes so that, in particular, the
positions of x and y axes may he interchanged witnout affecting the positions or
the points of inflexion on the curve. Thus the points of inflexion may also be
For pomts \vhere
determined by examining d z xldy 2 just as we examine d zy/dx 2
the tangent is parallel to Xaxis, i e., where dy/dx is infinite, it becomes neces.
144.
Concavity and convexity with respect to a line. Let P be
a given point on a curve and, /, a straight line not passing through
Then the curve is said to be concave or convex at P with respect
P.
to /, according as a sufficiently small arc containing P and extending
to both 'sides of it lies entirely within or without the acute angleformed by, /, and the tangent to the curve at P.
Fig. 100
Fig. 101
is
convex to
at
in Fig. 100
and concave
inr
Fig. 101.
1441.
test
Fig. 103
Fig. 102
103,
(i)
positive)
A
is
curve lying above, the axis of. x (so that the ordinate y is
convex or concave wit h respect to the axis of x according
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
286
as
it
is
i.e.,
according a,ad*y/dx*
is
positive or negative.
A curve lying
(ii)
is
negative)
ding as it
is
negative or positive.
convex or concave at
is
d*y
dx*
y
ds positive or negative at P.
Examples
I.
.is
(P.U. 1932)
Now
dy
dx
~~~
d*y
which
i.e.,
is
1
~
always negative.
tive according as
2
Fie
104
rig. ju^
2.
iy.r.
5Aow
//ra/
to a?axis if
j=x
4 is
#>1.
We have
=
dx
~dx*
24,
that
but positive at
Therefore the curve
3.
is
(0, 0).
its points
of itfft&xion.
287
We have
Now,
V~>0
forx<l,
forx = l
"'=0;
dz v
for
1<*<2,
<0; forx=2,
for
*>2,
>0.
=0,
oo, 1),
<(2, GO ]
Therefore
the curve.
4.
Show
(1, 19)
x=l
and
(2,
and x = 2.
33) are the
2
(a
two points of
+x 2 )^=a 2^
inflexion
on
in
flexion.
'
Here
_
~
dy
dx
~~ a 2
dx*
"
*=Q
for
x= ^3^,
0,
2
2
It is easy to see that d y[dx changes sign as, x, passes
the
Hence
curve has inflexions at the
ach of these values.
through
corres
ponding points.
Thus
(V3a, V3a/4),
(0, 0),
(
Here, y,
is
dx
3
xl
(logy),
1
.
DIFFERENTIAL CALC0LUS
288
d'x
.y=0 or
log
>
=0
if log
y~2,
i.e., if
=e=
e*.
~~
or
^~
=l
and".
Therefore
Hence
9
(8, e )
y~
inflexion,
so that
(0,1)
and'
Exercises
y~e x
1.
Show
2.
that
is
convexity in the
is
is
Also,
fin
Also
of inflexion.
in
i*
x varying
(i)
(Hi)
* V'
yax*\bx +<QX
4
A*=^3.y
y ~~a 2
+x
3
4.v f 5.
[xi)
y*^x(x\\)*.
ny
(n)
(iv)
y=(x*
(yla).
(x)
*)/(3.x f !)
x~(y~\)(y2)(y3)"
ajx
xy^a* log
(xii)
Vl ' ;
'
(ix)
\d.
2
y x log
'
289
EXERCISES
Also, obtain the equations of the inflexional tangents
(7) and
jjto
the curves
(it),
(xi).
Show
1.
Show
8.
h.
y*(xay x*(x+a)
subtends an angle w/3 at the origin.
9.
of, x, for
54,y=U+ 5)^10),
has an inflexion and draw a rough sketch of the curve for
6<x<3, making
Show
10.
the
(MT.)j
inflexions.
ay*=x(xa)(xb)
has two and only two points of inflexion.
11.
(/)
(ii)
/,
y~a
sin
cos
f.
0
Show
12.
y*=f(x)
(Hi)
[f'(x)?=2f(x)f''(x).
13.
Show
the curve
(PV.)
y =(jffl) (.v6)
lie
on the
line
4/>.
(Luckjow)
CHAPTER XV
CURVATURE
EVOLUTES
Introduction, Definition of Curvature.
15'1.
In our everyday
language, we make statements which involve the comparison of bendFor instance, at
ing or curvature of a road at two of its points.
times, we say, "The bend of the road is sharper at this place than at
that." Here we depend upon intuitive means of comparing the
curvature at two points provided the difference is fairly marked. But
we are far from intuitively assigning any definite numerical measure
to the curvature at any given point of a curve. In order to make
'Curvature' a subject of Mathematical investigation, we have to
assign, by some suitable definition, a numerical measure to it and
this has to be done in a way which
may be in agreement with our
intuitive notion of curvature.
This we proceed to do.
We
Let
curve.
arc
AP=s,
arc
AQ=s\ 8s,
arc
PQ=Ss,
so that
Let
i/s
i/'+St/',
(i)
be the angle 8$
(//)
ratio 8(pj8s
and
(ill)
PQ
is
defined to
of the arc
PQ
is
defined to be the
lim
Q>P
'"
Ph
ds
290
defined to be
CURVATURE
Thus, by def.,
152.
Curvature of
circle is constant.
291
To prove
circle.
that the
curvature oj
of a circle
is
uniform
Let P,
circle
and
'
Also let
tangents PT,
We
let arc
QT at P and
meet.
have
Fig. 106
top
!_
""""
Us
Let
>
we have
~~
ds
its
Also,
r increases.
153
it is
circle is
Radius of curvature.
and
is
The
the reciprocal of
it is
=0,
circle at
any point
is
equal
t<?
its radius.
only
1531.
The expression ds}dfy for radius of curvature is suitable
for those curves whose equations are given by means of a
relation
it
may
tang&j^
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
292;
Ex.
(///)
(v)
at
(/v)
s=4a
s~c
sin
ty
log sec
(Cycloid).
(Tractrix).
15*4.
15 41.
Explicit equations
y=f(x).
Now,
tan Y
\b =
Differentiating, w.r. to
s,
dy
/
dx
we
get
dx
But, we have
(133, p. 275}*
is
Hence
_~
~"d^
d2y
y2
dx 2
Cor.
is positive or
P,
negative
or
d*yjdx*
positive,
negative ie., according as the
curve is concave upwards or downwards. Also, the equation (A)
shows that curvature is zsro at a point of inflexion.
according as
iSi
is
Tfhis
formula
is
specially useful
is
perpendicular
Implicit equations
f(x,
and
y)=0.
to?
CURVATURE
"
293
....... "
.....
<***
(/,)*
2
2
Substituting these values of dy\ dx and d yjdx in the formula
A) above, we get
the sign
Note.
"
is
or
according as fv
Parametric equations
At points where
f'(t)^0
negative or positive,
1543.
is
become simultaneously
be
x=f(t), y=F(t).
we have
*L_^/_>dx~f'(t)'
(l
will
"'
w
/
yf'(t)F"(t)F'(t)f"(t)
2
2
Substituting these values of dyjclx and d y/dx in the formula
above, we get
Lf(t)+F'(t)]*_
vhere the sign
Note.
ame form
is
or ~~ according as/'(0
The formula
is
'
>t<l
positive or negative.
If a curve passes
Newtonian Method.
1544.
at
is
the
x
origin, then
tangent
origin and the axis of
,
of curvature at the
as
through
the
x >
origin.
at the origin.
2
Now, x l'2y, assumes the indeterminate form 0/0
= hm
..
^
1
as
x >
0.
()
1
204
DirFBBBNTlAL CALCULUS
Also, from the formula (A) of
Thus at the
15 41,
we have
at the origin
<.=
Um
shown
It can similarly be
that
Yaxis
is
tangent,
=
lim
(g).
These two formulae are due to Newton.
1545.
If a curve
X 2 4V 2
lim
SX^
=lim
'X
V \
+~^
2 J
\2y
,~=lim[
2y
passes
is the

2y
= p, at the orgin.
Fig. 107
=OP
2
2
2
is the square of the distance of any point
Here, X +J
n
the
curve
the origin O and, j, is the distance of the
from
y)
P
from
at O.
the
Xaxis
point
tangent
,
P( x *
of a curve, and
If OT be the tangent at any given point
PAf, the length of the perpendicular drawn from any point P to the
tangent at O, then the radius of curvature
at
lim
OP 2
2PM'
P tends
to
as
M
its limit.
Fig. 108
Examples
1.
In the cycloid
x=a(/+sin
t),
j;=
cos
t),
CURVATURE
295
prove that
L
&
P=4acos
(P.U.1944)
We have
~a
dy
>
s t),
a sin
fc
a(
_ 2_8i ?
+0087)
1
g
QPO ,
8ec
2
1
*/
__
'~
,..__
'
_
11
rfx'
<
/.
2"ooB772
^sec
sin

2a cos 2
_
4a
cos
=4a
__
C08
"
>
COS*
2.
5Aoif
f/iar
Folium x*\y*=Zaxy
Differentiating,
/Ae curvature
is
we
8^2/30.
get
xl+^^^ + flx.
or
Again, differentiating
(/),
we
...(/)
get
+V [*J^.g..
Substituting 3a/2,
1 for x, y,
3fl/2,
dyjdx respectively,
"o )
8V2
f
we
get
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
296
3.
Dividing by y
Let x 
we
get
so that lim
= 2p.
(x jy)
x>0
0.2p+5.2p8=0,
or
p=4/5.
Exercises
1.
(//)
x=a (cos
sin
tlt
/),
y^a(sin
cos
t).
(D.U. 1953)
(Astroid)
y^=(a sin
t)it.
(//)
x*yxy*\ 2x y
2
(ill)
3.
is
2x*'\ly*\4x
Show
y+xyy
\2x 0.
equal to three times the length of the perpendicular from the origin to the
(Andhra 1951)
tangent.
4.
Show
is, a,
Show
2c cosh 2
6.
(tic)
Show
sinh
(//c),
where
cosh
is
y^~2c
cosh
t
.
the parameter.
x^ae
*
fi
fi
(sin 9
cos
0),
y=a?
(sin 0fcos 0)
twice the distance of the tangent at the point from the oiigio.
7.
8.
at
0),
x=tc smh
is
cos
TT/4.
5.
is,
(H
>>=flsin
Show
2a, 2a)
on the curve
jc
f
l
y=flU
+y i )
is
"~2a
is
parallel to xaxis is
CURVATURE
Prove that the radius of curvature
9.
is
297
at the
(65)1 n/(536).
10.
where
it
Show
11.
on the two
curves
which have the same abscissa varies as the square root of the ratio of the ordinal es.
Show
12.
the
is inversely proportional to the
length of the normal intercepted between
point on the curve and the Xaxis.
13. Show that 3V3/2 is the least value of
for j?=log x.
p
j
y=e x
:
15.
is least for
16.
Show
is
9a/lO.
=
p, being the perpendicular
(x, y).
(P.U. 1944)
17.
where
CD
18.
is
l,pC>
/a&
(Madras 1953)
Employ
generalised
___
show
cos 0)
sin0), y=a(\
;c=a(0
then
a
Pi
20.
ture
is 7.i
+P,
lfa l
at
21.
(a)
Prove that
if,
its
at
2
3
focus, then p varies as (SP)
any point
P on
the
(PC/ 1952)
a focal
(b) Pi Pi''are the radii of curvature at the extremities of
chord of a parabola whose semHatus rectum is / prove that
;
22.
Show
normal at P(x,
equal to 3 PG.
y)
fi/),
y=a
in G,
cosh 3 w,
the radius of curvature at
is
(B.U.1954)
298
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
23.
If x,
y are given
** 
dylds
p~
also,
show
show that
dxjd*
'
d*ylds*
that
jL/^iY
*2y
x=c log
24.
Show
LS+ V(c*+s
)], y
_ [V~ VA /
25.
f^\_
(Patna, 1952)
15*46.
terms of
ds\dty in
r=f(0).
and
its
derivatives
0.
From
the figure,
we
see that
_>
ds
_
~
ds
dO
ds
di
+ de
dQ
'
ds
IT
Fig. 109
tan
Now,
^= T
_T
'
860
>
i.
A.
or
"
TT
d<f>
r.
tt
ae
dff*
tie
_^V J
I
T"
77a
r.
CII+"
Also
...(3,
CURVATURE
where positive sign
From
(1), (2)
ds
is
and
we
(3),
obtain]
__
f
do
dp
f
J
dr
Therefore
where
and
r=
Cor. Since curvature is zero at a point of inflexion, thereforeat a point of inflexion on a polar curve,
ra
1547.
We know that
= 6 +<f>.
//
Differentiating w.r. to
r,
the relation
/?=r sin
we.
^,
have
=sm +r cos
A
Now
sin
^=r
,
cos
^=
dr
~~ds
300
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
AT
or
Note. The relation $^0+$ is true whatever be the position of the point
on a curve and the tangent at it relative to the initial line. We can satisfy
ourselves on this point, it we examine a few different curves, keeping in view
6 is the angle through which the positive direction of the initial line has
to rotate to coincide with the positive direction ot the radius vector ;
is the
angle through which the positive direction of the radius vector has to rotate to
coincide with the positive direction of the tangent which is that of, 0, increasing;
$ is the angle through which the positive direction of the initial line has to
rotate to coincide with the positive direction of the tangent.
or
For
Fig. 111.
or
A
15 48. Radius of curvature for tangential polar equations.
called
of
is
a
for
an'd
between
curve,
relation
holding
every point
p
i/>,
Also p,
is
pendicular.
gent at
Fig. 112
is
p=sX sini/'
y cos
&
CURVATURE
,301
p=x
which
is
Differentiating
(/),
ipy
sin
a relation between
;;,
i//,
to
r.
cos
we
i//,
(p
...(/>>
for
x,
get
sn
XT
Now
dx
,
a^
dx

=>rfs
^f^ sin
^
= x cos i^+>
(//) H'.r.
i//f
sn
Differentiating
dy
to
ds
dy
TTP
d*p
ds
d>,= }
(p,
dip
=x cos
ds
,,=? cos
p cos
t//
sin
/>
j//
sin T
<//
sin ^ cos
^.
i//,
we
get
dx
COS
=
=
x sin
x
p=x
i//
COS
cos
f>'
sin
y cos
ip
i//
or
For the
First
Example
m
m
curve r =a cos md, prove
Method.
By
logarithmic differentiation,
dr
~~~~
'
dO
r,1
that
,.
dd
m9
m
cos
6
sin
tan md.
dV*
rtn sec 2
*s}
rm*'Qd(fi
md
f
tan
dr
rn9.
we obtain
DIFFBBENTIAL CALCULUS
Hence
gec 2
_______
m 0_ tan m g
2
r2
1546, p. 298>
(See
r a sec 8
_
mQ
(cos mtt
Second
is
273
tpage
Method.
Its pedal
8,
*~ r~~dn
Hence
r.a m
Exercises
.r.
1.
Find the radius of curvature of the curve r=a cos H0 as a function of
2
(P.C/.)
Also, show that at a point where r=a its values is a/( 1 + /i ).
2.
ing curves
at
the point
(r, 0)
Kl+cos
3.
4.
at the origin.
(Allahabad)
2
0), p /r is
constant.
(P.U. 1954
5. Find the
following curves
radius of curvature at
the
point (p,
r)
/>.(/.
1955)
on each of the
6.
7.
Find the
(/)
(//)
pwA'm+1)
^.
a
/(+)
sin
8. Show that at the points in which the Archimedean spiral r=a$ interthe hyperbolical spiral rQa, their curvatures are in the ratio 3 : 1
CURVATURE
9.
If Pi> P2
be the
303
radii
the cardioide
r=a(lfcos
0),
r=a
(1
+cos
0) at the
line is drawn
through the origin meeting the cardioid
a*id the normals atP,
cos 0) in the points P,
meet in O; show
are proportional to PC and QC.
that the radii of curvature at P and
11.
r==fl(l
12.
inflexion
(0 raJVW'l)
Show
13.
(11)
on the curves
r
0=a2
(See Cor.
is
15'46, p. 299)
a point of inflexion on
thecurver=0e0/(l{0).
Show
14.
lies
r=aQ n has
and
between
fi
15.
Show
16.
Prove that
if,
=a (1+0)
any curve.
r/p=sin 9[l+<fr/</0],
where
p is
(PU.1951\
If
17.
is
Pn
_i_
mn
cuts
If Pn
log
is
given by
j*.
pn
u*=
sin ' ? 
is
if
given by
($F+ U )
18.
Delhi 1948)
n.
a f sin
20.
the tangent turns three times as fast as the radius vector and that the curvature
varies as the radius vector.
(Delhi, 1949)
distance,
p,
The
from
is
is
the
at
it.
distance,
p,
normal of /curvature
lies
p, is
positive or negative.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
304
The
clockwise direction.
Fig. 114
Fig. 113
Fig. 116
Fig. 115
From an examination of the figures above, we see that thecentre of curvature at any point of a curve lies on the side towards which*
the concavity is turned.
1551.
To find the
Xx
Yy
_
""
cos ($ +7T/2)
is
'sin
(4r
+7T/2)
or
Xx
sin
\p
COS
fir
CURVATURE
305
normal at a
if
Hence,
=y+p
But,
we know
sin ^
we hare
cos w.
that
X=x
cos
^~h ~
Another method.
Y=v4
If
we
have
'
nrn
'
/ft
* TD/1f
Also,
=x
p sin
^LP+POcos^
=}>+P
cos
Fig, 117
</r.
curve
p,
we can
obtain the
Evolute.
The locus of the centres of curvature of a
15*52.
is called its evolute and a curve is said to be an involute of its
evolute.
1553.
circle
The
whose centre
circle
is
Pand
its
306
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
We will now
determine expressions fpr the lengths of someimportant particular cases of the chords of curvature.
Let
(i)
PT
be the
tangent
and C
thfr
We draw
PC
as radius.
PI?
to A'axis
Clearly, /.
RSP= $
==
/_
SPQ
=2p
PQ=PS cos
Thus
the chord
of curvature

\\
sin
t//.
Xaxis
i/>.
cos
<Jr.
i/>.
is
(ft")
of the
pole O.
Z_S?# = 2p
sin
parallel
PR=PS sm_RPS=2p
Now,
Also,
circle
circle
TQP=<l>=:^SPQ.
sin /_TQP=:2f
PT=PQ
/.
Thus,
f/ie
sin
<f>.
<f>.
<?>
i//.
Examples
1.
(*>
J')
Differentiating,
we
get
d*y
Jf
(X Y) be the
y
2a
centre of curvature
CURVATURE
307
(0
4*2
14
Y=
4a*
UOX}t
To
= ^^~.
..(>
(/)
and
(//).
Thus,
a
27^r2
or
is
^_^ w
We
^,
v,
,,.
^ +j;3=a?.
..^.,
dy
tan
d 2y
1
.=
cosec
sec*
9.
.
sec* g coseo
sin 2
cos g,
 4 
=a sin3 0+3a
To
eliminate
0,
we

sec 4
cosec
cos 2
sin
...
(/)
...
(ii)
0.
There
(/), (//).
fore
or
or
(^7)'=^*
(cos
^f sin
0).
0sin
0)
In the curve
to Yaxis is
(x/tf),
the chord
of cuivature parallel
308
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
TT
d)>
Here
tan ^^r
AI
^0=
Also,9
dx*
x
=tan
sec*
.'.
/.
is
= a sec
x
a
=2p
which
^=
X
cos
= 2a,
constant*
Exercises
Show
y=b sin
18
2.
(a)
Show
(byfi (
3.
Shaw
xa (cos
it
Hog tan
J/),
y=
sin
the catenary
>>=0cosh
(xla).
Show that (210/16, 210 (16) is the centre of curvature for the point
5.
(3a/2, 3n/2) of the Folium x*+y*=laxy.
6. Show that the centre of curvature of the point P(a, a) of
xi +y*=2cPxy divides the line OP in the ratio 6:1; O being the
coordinates.
7.
Show
is
ftt
Show
that
(1, 1).
the curve
origin of
OTJKVATURB
9.
Find the
309
x+ y=ax*+by*+c**.
10.
Show
is
mx ).
(D.U. 1955)
2
(a) Show that the circle of curvature, at the point (am 2am) of the
parabola y*=4ax has for its equation
x*+y*6am2x4ax+4am*y=3a*m*.
(D.U. Hons. 1957)
11.
(b)
the ellipse
12.
Show
+ ^=
x==ae^ (sin
and
circle of curvature at
cos^),^=a^
(sin
0+cos
0),
14.
Show
spiral
spiral
is 2r.
r=ae
15. Show that
r=ae
16.
is
If cx
y=ae
parallel to
prove that
17.
If Cx
and
cv
18.
is
Show
{P
'
'
1948)
y=c
r=0(l
Jr.
of the cardioide
cos 0).
Lf c r
20.
Show
0)
m_ m C08 m Q
fl
is
2r/(ro4l).
21.
Show
that the chord of curvature through the pole for the curve
is
2/(r)//'(r).
(Lucknow)
br the chord of
curvature through the
22. Show that for the curve p~ae
,
pole is of constant length.
For the lemniscate r 2 =fl2 cos 20, show that the length of the tangent
23.
the
from
(B.U.)
origin to the circle of curvature at any point is r^3/ 3.
310
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
24. If P is any point on the curve r 2 =a2 cos 29 and Q is the intersection
of the normal at P with the line through O at right angles to the radius vector
OP, prove that the centre of curvature corresponding to P is a point of trisection
ofPQ.
(L.U.)
Pis any point on the curve r=a (1lcos 9) and Q is the intersection
of the normal at P with the line through the pole O perpendicular to OP, prove
that the centre of curvature at P is a paint of trisection of PQ remote from P.
25. If
OP: AP=l
P of the
Lemniscate
r2
=a2 cos
29
2;
29. Prove that the distance between the pole and the centre of curvature
n
w
is
corresponding to any point on the curve r =a cos
1555.
Two
X=x
Differentiating w.r. to
dX
p sin0,
9
ds dx
=
dif>
dY
cos
X we obtain
=1
dx
Y=y+p
dib
y
ds dx
sin
rfp
=.
* dx
dy
^x
= dy
ds dy
dip,
cos
Jxd* dsdx+
dp
dx,
rfp
COS ^
fc
From
(i)
and
...
(//)
(//),
CURVATURE
311
we square
Again,
one
(/)
and
(//)
and add.
Here, x
is
to its evolute.
evolute measured
from
dx)
dS
dx
dx'~
or
where,
c, is
constant.
on the
,
2 be the two points
evolute corresponding to the points L 1?
L2 on the original curve. Let p lf P 2 be
the values of, p, for L l9 L 2 and S 19 S 2 be
Afa
the values of 8 for
19
Let Af
Thus
i.e.,
arc A/,
M = difference
2
L L9 L 2
between
Fig. 120
we have shown
Thus
.= T
ax
according as,
p,
dx
or
dx
easy to see that the conclusion arrived at in this section remains the
same if we consider dSldx^dpfdx instead ofdS'dx^dpldx. It should, however,
be noted that the conclusion holds good only for that part of the curve for which
p , constantly increases or decreases so that d?/dx keeps the same sign.
Tt is
312
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Ex.
which
is
The evolute is
Let L,
27a^=4(x2a)
be
(Ex.
1,
p.
30)
LAM
We get
07/7
*i I C*
A
/ry
^IM^V

 ft/r\*^
A.("Y
*1
*\^^
AC*y y
Now,
8a,
fl,
this cubic
*
Fie 121
/.
(84','4\/2a), (8a,
4^20)
X^3x+2a,
4\/2a)
is
(x, y)
(Ex.
I4:a*.
/Thus A(2a, 0)
L(8<t,
Y=y
is
M.
1, p.
arc
2.
Show
Ex.
3.
Show
that the
that the
x~
it
120.
1).
306)
O(0, 0) and
on the
ellipse
CHAPTER XVI
ASYMPTOTES
161.
an
Definition.
straight line
said to be an Asymptote of
recedes to infinity along
from the straight line
is
P
P
tends to 0.
Illustration.
The
line
#=a
is
(Seell41>
y\ax)=x*.
moves to
infinity,
its
distance
from the
Ex.
What
ymx+c.
The
...(/>
must tend to
abscissa, x,
c,
(i)
may
M
X
Fig. 123
Fig. 122
as
x >
lim(>>~ mx
oo
c)=0,
313
be
314
DIFFEBENTIAL CALCULUS
Also,
lim (yl*
w)=lim
(y
0=0
or
lim (yly)~m,
when
x >
oo.
Hence
m=
lim (y/x),
X >
c=
lim (y
X >
oo
mx),
oo
(11)
Then
y=mx+c is an
(ymx)^c.
lim
let
X >
oo
asymptote
whiah are
m^lim
The asymptotes not
(xjy)
parallel to
any
way.
Ex.
Examine
1.
the Folium
for asymptotes.
xx
x J
Let
Jc
oo.
We then get
l[m
=Oor
(m+l)(/n
m+l)~Q.
real.
so that
either
ASYMPTOTES
To
put
mx) when
find lim (y
so that,
y+xp
Putting
/?, is
for
m=
315
l,
i.e.,
in the equation
(i),
we
oo
we
get
or
which
is
2
Dividing by x
Let # *
oo
we
get
We then have
3(c+a)=0
or
c=
a.
Hence
>>=
is
is
a or .*+}> 40=0,
we
start
Thus
(i)
(ill)
16*3.
Working
rules
for
determining
asymptotes.
Shorter
(ymx).
nate axes.
Let
x^k
..(t)
816
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
The
line
(t) is
PM of
distance
equal to x
y)
the
k.
fc)=0 whenj>
oo
oo
lim (x
or
,
we find
Yaxis,
fc
2,
etc., to
the
which
x=k2
Then x=fc,,
to*
etc. are
the required
asymptotes.
Fig. 124
We
y, so that
where
are polynomials in x.
Let y >
oo
We
(i)
by y
so that,
fc,
Let
is
fe
lf
(ii)
get
write
lim
The equation
m we
x=k*
gives
etc.,
be the roots of
<j)(x)
=0.
x~k
From
l9
we know
x=fc 2
etc.
that (x
(x fc 2 ),
fc,),
algebra,
factors of ^(x) which is the coefficient of the highest
in the given equation.
etc.,
are the
power y
m of
y
317
ASYMPTOTES
To determine
1632.
the
asymptotes
of
algebraic equation
Ur is a homogeneous expression
We writo Ur in the form
where,
where
<f>,(ylx)
is
So we write
x
"+("x
of degree,
(i)
r,
r,
in x, y.
at most,
in the form
)+*""*' ()+*"<*
(i )+
On
We
write
we
get
..(wJ+^f ..,(111,)+.,
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
318
1
Putting ^ n (m,)=0 and then dividing by x" , we get
Let x 
oo
K
=0
Therefore
or
Therefore
is
A,
if
^(
Similarly
etc.,
not
0.
Exceptional case.
Let
^(m,) =0.
If ^' n (m,)=0 but ^1(^1)^0, then the equation (vi) does not
determine any value of c l and, therefore, tho/e is no asymptote corresponding to the slope m v
Now
suppose
#'n('i)=0=^ _ 1 (m 1 ).
In this case, (vi) becomes an identity and we have to
examine the equation (v) which now becomes
fl
On
tion
oo
we
see that
is
'
which
dejf'ermines
c,', c,",
re
provided that
ASYMPTOTES
3 1 fr*
Thus
These
are
clearly parallel.
This
is
known
Important Note.
x=l andy=m
is
obtained by putting
in
<f>
<f>
similar way.
Fxunples
Find the asymptotes parallel
1.
curves
(x +>>*)* tfy*=0.
(//)
(i) The coefficient of the highest
the asymptote parallel to y axis is
(i)
of
jcyd*(jt+y)=<).
power y of y is x a.
ther
0.
The
coefficient of
Hence
xa
stant.
to coordinate axes,
is
x2
a con
is
a2
Also,
rfence
x
are the
two asymptotes
a=Q,
x+a~
parallel to }>axis.
It may similarly be shown that>> #~0, y 4^=0 are the twoasymptotes parallel to xaxis.
2. Find the asymptotes of the cubic curve
2x 3 x 2^ +2xy* +y* 4x 2 +8xy 4x + 1 =0.
Putting x=l,
separately,
we
<f>
The
y=m in
get
2m 2 +m 3
(m)=2m
^3 (w)=w
by
2m2
or
111=
Again,
cf
c. is
1,
1,
given by
4i+3/ I )+(4+8m)~0,
320
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
m=
1, 1, 2, we get c=2,
Putting
Therefore the asymptotes are
3.
4 respectively.
2,
x2
4y*
l
m (l
2
m)
<
m)
(w)=0, are
1.
1, 1,
i.e.,
...(0
x+1
the
is
^corresponding asymptote.
For
w=l,
cally true.
0.
c+0=0
c,
is
equation
i.e.,
2
(c
For
/w
/2)(2+6m)+c(28m)+l(l+m)=0.
= l, this becomes
2c'~6c?+2=0,
i.e.,
c=(3v^5)/2.
We have
parallel
cor
asymptotes
1.
thus obtained
all
Exercises
Find the asymptotes parallel to coordinate axes of the following curves
1.
ytxa^xa^O.
2.
x*y~3x*5xy+6y+2=Q.
4.
a2 /*2
y=xl(x*l).
Find the asymptotes of the following curves
3.
+W=i.
5.
x(yx) =x(yx)+2.
6.
x\xy)*\o?(x*y*)=o?xy.
1.
(x~y)*(x*+y*)W(xy)x*+l2y*+2x+y~0.
x 2y+xy*+xy+y*+3x=Q.
8.
(D.U. 1952)
(P.U.)
(P.U.)
'
10.
(xy+l)(xy2)(x+y)=Sxl.
y*x*y+2xy*y+l=Q.
11.
ylxy) =x+y.
12.
^V^
9.
/) 2
(P.U.)
(P.U.)
(B.U.)
ASYMPTOTES
2
321
~* 2 l.
13.
Xj>l)
14
xy***(x+y)*.
15.
(x+y)(xy)(2xy}4x(x2!*)+4x
16.
xy*x*y3x*2xy
17.
2*(>'3)
18.
(y~a) (x a*)=x'\
19.
Uf/r(x
20.
^SyVx'^SxM^ZJOH 3* 2 4>f50.
2
3
3
(A:j) (.v2v)(.v3r)2a(A' v )2aV2v)Ul>')^0,
21.
(L.I7.)
(L
3X*l)
2
tjty f^
x~1y\
U)
(L.U.)
0.
(L.U.)
y*
0.
(^ra)
(Lucknow}
a*.
)o 2 JC 2
a*:y~x).
(DehiHons. 1950)
22.
yW
Show
/(fl
* 2
).
no asymptotes
23.
jc^f^^^^).
24.
25.
aV 2 .v\2aJC).
26.
y x(xfl)
27.
Find the equation of the tangent to the curve
parallel to its asymptote.
28.
An asymptote
is
x3
2
.
2
3
^ 3ax which
is
correct definition.
16 33.
(/)
Some
deductions from
16 32.
n.
Hence the
result.
^ n (^)0,
so that
the line
n (yl*)
elementary algebra, (y/xrn^ is a factor of
n
converse!
t/
Also
a
x
is
of
factor
n
n
y,
i.e.,
hence, yr^x,
(ylx),
we see that if, y m x x, is a factor of U n then m v is a root of
By
<f>
<f>
^,(wt)
= 0.
factor, then a
consideration will show that the curve will possess asymptotes
parallel to x=0, i.e., to .yaxis.
little
DIFFERENTIAL OALOQLUS
322
(iit)
Case of
In this
fore,
case,
satisfies
iy
therefore,
m^
a root of
is
m=m
Un _ v
<f>n
_ 1 (m)=0,y
there
lt
<^ n (m)~0
is
/w^)
(>>
Also, since
(AI
parallel asymptotes.
f/ n
and
a factor of the
is
There
will
if
w is a root of
(ym^) is a
1
if
The
Note.
us to shorten
The first step mil always consist in fact or i sing the expression
highest degree terms in the given equation.
formed of
the
Examples
1.
so that,
terms.
y+x,
is
We have, now
We have
In the limit,
real
we have
xa
asymptote which
is
parallel
1.
y=
is
we get
i.e.,
when x >
<x>
1.
ASYMPTOTES
323
and
(i),
is
IB
when x >
oo
1.
2.
we
flO.y
^ f
0.
power y* of
y,
see that
4xH10=0,
is
+ 15xy
f 5x
i.e.,
2x+5=0,
one asymptote.
Factorising the highest degree terms,
we
get
x(2y
Therefore, the
f*)
x and
yjx >
In the limit,
4cM5.2c(li)2(i)+0=0
4c 2 +5c + l=0
or

r
C
Hence
are the two
It
is
ified
simplified
y=
5,
...(0
>
i
1.
J^~J and.y=
Jx
1,
more asymptotes.
(i)
and
(ty+x)*+5(2y+x).
+10
which gives
=0
and
4>>f 2x
+ l=0.
324
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Find the asymptotes of
3.
1+0
t+
i.e..
(x,y)
and yjx
oo
> 1
Therefore the
2=0, x
.v
i.e.,
/jr)
3>3=0.
4.
.*
when
.v
>
x and
,
v/x >
i
A'v42fhm
56^/xf7/x
'
"1
v
=0.
'
,;
L^^/^+^WC
4 "" 5
,,,,,.
^!^)
x~^+20,
or
as the limit
is
Similarly,
2x
Asymptotes by Inspection.
If the equation
of a curve of the
Fn _ a is of degree (w
when equated to zero
where
Fn
Let
where
ax+by+c=Q
Fn _ t
ax +by 40=0
is
is
of
it.
be a nonrepeated factor of
degree
(w
1).
Fn
The asymptote
We
\*rite
parallel
to
32&
ASYMPTOTES
p
ax+by+c+lim /~^0,
fni
when x
>
oo
a\b.
To determine the
>
x >
a*
Thus
is
on asymptote.
Exercises
Find the asymptotes of the following curves
2.
(xi)(;c2)(;cKx)+*
jx+1 0.
3.
4.
x(y ~lby+2b*)^y*3bx*+b*.
5.
6.
.x
2 2
+ ^2x 2 )(2>'
7.
(y HA7^2x
8.
x(y3)*^.4y(x~\)*.
9.
(a}x)
3 ><
16
5.
(/?
5Ay
}(y
}A'
)xV
jc)7/
l9xy23x
hx f 2/
3^>.
2
.
6A' 2
its
i2^
2x f
0.
asymptotes.
in (n
2)
points.
To
we have
to
solve
the two
equations simultaneously.
The
roots
of the
equation
xn
<l>
n (m
>
(3>'^,v)MM3vfAr)(xHr)h9^6A7f9y^6x+90.
10.
(7\l/.
+clx)
+x
+ ...... 0.
by Taylor's theorem
to
according
descending powers of x, we get
Expanding each term
...(/)
and arranging
326
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Aay^mx+c
is
an asymptote, the
coefficients
of x n and x*~ l
(11)
and,
Cor,
in
1.
n(n2)
The,
/i,
asymptotes of a
curv^e of the
it
points.
Cor. 2.
the form
Fn +Fn _ 2 =0
9
The
+F
*=<>.
Particular cases
3, and therefore the asymptotes cut the
(i) For a cubic, n
curve in 3(3 2) =3 points which lie on a curve of degree
1,
i.e., on a straight line.
32 =
Examples
1.
x*yxjP+xy+yP+xy=Q
and show
(P.U. 1955)
which
lie
on
the
line
x+y^0.
The asymptotes of the given curve, as may be
are
The
i.e.,
x 2yxy*\xy+y*2y=Q.
as
Here
F^tfy
Henee the points of
intersection lie
on the
line
(P.U. 1940)
easily
shown
ASYMPTOTES
Show
2.
327
of the quartic
2
lie
on a
=0,
circle.
are
is
.e.,
3,
lie
as
on the
circle
Find the equation of the cubic which has the same asymptotes
as the curve
I).
We
write
Fjssx
 Gxy +
1 1
xv 2  6y 3
= (xy)(x2y)(x3y).
Fjsx+y+1.
The equation of the curve can be written in the form /rs +jF1 =0
where F% has non repeated linear factors. Thus 7^=0 is the joint
equation of the asymptotes of the cubic.
The general equation of the cubic is of the form
or
where ax \~by\c
(0,
is
In order that it
we must have
1),
may
c=0,
6+6=0 or
Thus the required cubic
is
0)
and
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
328
Exercises
Show
1.
x9
0,
3.v>>0.
If a right line is drawn through the point (a, 0) parallel to the asymptote of the cubic (Jc a) 3 x 2y=Q, prove that the portion of the line intercepted
2.
by the axes
is
(C.C/.)
2
2
Through any point P on the hyperbola x / ~ 2ax, a straight line is
drawn parallel to the only asymptote of the curve x 3 f.y3 =30;t2 meeting the curve
in A and B
show that Pis the midpoint of AB.
3.
4.
Show
that y ^x + a
is
in P,
show
x(xy)+ay0.
5.
line
on which
lie
three points of
and
its
4r 2
2xy
asymptotes.
6.
~13*V+V
a
3
f32xV42.v 20x
i74>'
56vf
4,v f
16
0,
and show that they pass through the intersection of the curve with
(D.U. Hons. 1953)
7.
Find
ail
3x 3 f 2x*y Ix
Show
on a straight
8.
and
in three
Find the equation of the cubic which has the same asymptotes as the
curve
x* 6x*y\
\\xy*6y*ix+y+\
0,
and which touches the axis of v at the origin and passes through the point (3, 2).
(Delhi Hons. 1949, 1955)
9.
Find the asymptotes of the curve
4(*H y 1 )  17x
2 2
>'
2)
,
and show that they pass through the points of intersection of the curve with the
a
(Delhi Hons. 1951, 1959)
ellipse x + 4/4.
10.
90
and show that they intersect the curve again
straight line. Obtain the equation of the line.
166.
y=mx\
is
To show
Asymptotes by expansion.
which He on a
(D.U. Hons. 1957)
in three points,
that
ASYMPTOTES
329
Dividing by x we have
9
when x
*x>
...
]im(ylx)=m.
Also from (1)
(y
so that
when x>x
lini
From
is
(2)
..(2)
we have
and
(ymx)
r.
...(3)
we deduce that
(3),
(1).
with respect to
its
To
find
asymptote
y=mx\
c.
Let A^O. Let > t and >' 2 denote the ordinates of the curve and
the asymptote corresponding to the same abscissa x.
We have
f
By
taking
.v
+....)
we can rnako
sufficiently large,
We
as small as we like.
suppose that x
this expression is numerically less than A.
values of .r, the expression
A
lias
+ B/.v + C/A"
2

D/.v
..(1)
is
(2)
the sign of A.
Thus
large numerically.
Let
large
330
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
In this case, the curve lies on the same side of the asympotate
both for positive and negative values of x it will be above or below
the asymptote according as B is positive or negative.
If 5=0 and C^O, we will have a situation similar to that of
;
case
(1).
Ex.
y*=x(x~a)(x2a)l(x +3a),
and determine on which side of the asymptotes the curve
We have
a*
~2x
x ~8&
.....
Y
A
Y
2?" A
'
a2
a
i
*~
y=x3a+
lies.
3fl
i
2^
+ 27aS
8.v
u
viz.,
a 2 x ......
y=sx+3a*Ja*x ____
Therefore
y=x3a y=
9
are
the asymptote
we
x+3a
two asymptotes.
The difference between the ordinate of the curve and that of
y=x3a being
and below
It
it
when x
is
is
positive
negative.
the second
similarly be seen that the curve lies below
is positive and above it when x is negative.
easy to see that
may
asymptote when x
It
is
*=:
3a
is also
the curve
curve,
have
5*+
we
ASYMPTOTES
Equating the
coefficients
331
4: = 0.
60a 8
#:=
The
which
is
curve
lies
Ex.
difference
x~3tf,
asymptote
etc.
for the
2.
following curves
(Hi)
16*8.
Asymptotes
Lamma.
any
the
x*(xy)i
2
>>
0.
in polar coordinates.
Line.
line is
pr cos (6
a),
where, p, is the length of the perpendicular from the pole to the line
angle which this perpendicular makes with the initial line.
and
a, is the
OY
Let
given line
We
Y being
its foot.
0y=p;
If
(r, 6)
Z_
line,
we
have
Now,
~p= C oS /_YOP.
Fig. 125.
/>/r=cos(0
which
is
a), i.e.,
p=r
cos (0
a),
To determine
..(0
r/(0),
we have
p~r
is
/?,
and,
cos(0
a),
332
DIFPffiUBNCIAL CALCULUS
Let
(0.
P(r,
ff)
Draw OY
Draw PL
PM
OY
J_ the line
(ii).
Now.
OYOL
Fig. 126.
Now
>0 t
=pr
cos (0a).
when
..(ill)
Let
r> oo.
We have
Now when
oo,
=~
PM
cos (6
>>
a).
Oso that
l
>and
lim cos (0
or
0.
lim (0
a)=0
a)=7T/2,
or
This gives
a.
Join the pole O to the point at infinity on the curve i.e., draw
O a line parallel t'> the asymptote. This line is the radius
vector of the point at oo.
through
Draw through O a line perpendicular to the asymptote meetis the polar subtangent of the
point
ing it at Y. Then, by def.
at infinity on the curve.
127, p. 271).
(
OY
Thus
>
Note
point at
infinity, the
From
(///)
we
have,
when
r>
oo,
/>=lim
[r
cos (0a)]
lim
[r
lim
which
is
ASYMPTOTES
..
> p
hm
Hence the asymptote
orfei
r*j
</r
Oi is
Working
Change
as u >
^i
,
<fo
where ii=
*~
=
rcosf
r sin
oo re., as
r to
is
limf
where
..
=iim
33$
6Oif
(Oi0).
>0.
the limit
of 9
0.
Let
1?
this limit
its
limit as u > 9
0.
and 0+6i
be p.
Then
p=r
is
sin (0i0),
To draw
the asymptote.
initial line
(0 L
TT)
with the
OY=\im(d6ldu).
The
line
to
OY
is
the
asymptote.
Examples
I.
Here
a\r
an so that
~>
as u
> 0.
Here
w = 0/0,
Since
we have
dujde^lla
or
dOjdu^a.
Therefore
/.?.,
is
the asymptote.
r sin 0,
required
334
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Find the asymptote of the curve
a
__
2.
'
~cos0
Here
= ~(iCOS0).
"=
f
When
w >
0,
so that cos
cos 0) >
Now,
t/w
or
sin
rr
d9~
du
=

r
sin0
2a
de
TT
and
2a
d0
2a
TT
__r
=r

ar
i.e.,
sin^g
and
TT
sin
\/3
J,
4tf
), i.e.,
sm
oos
'
3.
r=o
7.
9.
rn
11.
sec
sinno=? o
rologO8
13.
r(le )=o.
15.
17.
C()s 9
sin
0=o*e
4.
rt
6.
2r 2 =tan 20.
8.
10.
""el"
5.
"
r=
8).
r sin /io=o.
r=o
tan
12.
rlogO==o.
14.
r(o
16.
r(Tr+0)^o^
(P.C/.)
0.
f 8)2oO.
6
.
equation
ryW+r'^/nitoH
+/t(e)0
(P.C/.
18.
Show
Hons., 1938)
ro/fi.
Find the asymptotes of the curve
r
cos
2o~o
sin 30.
(Delhi
Ho*s
194%)
CHAPTER XVII
SINGULAR POINTS
MULTIPLE POINTS, DOUBLE POINTS
171.
Introduction.
Cusps, Nodes and Conjugate points. The
cases of curves considered in
114, p. 243 show that curves with
implicit equations of tho form/(x, j>)=0 exhibit some peculiarities
which are not possessed by the curves with
explicit equations of the
form y=F(x). These peculiarities arise from tho fact that the
equation f(x, y)=0 may not
define, >', as a single valued function of*.
In fact, to each value of x
corresponds as many values of y as is tho
degree of the equation in y, and these different values of y give
rise to different branches of the curve.
We
11*4.
Fig(i)
Origin
is
127.
a point
Fig. 128 .
common
to the
(Fig. 127)
y*(ax)=x*,
and the two branches have a common tangent there.
Such a point on a curve is called a cusp.
(ii)
Origin
is
a point
common
to the
different
is
tangents there.
called a node.
335
n 41)
.
Stro
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
336
(Hi)
0,0)
is
a point
common
to the
ay*x(x+a)*=^Q
There
there.
is
called an
isolated
a,
1143)
is
no
0) which
or conjugate
point.
Fig.
172.
129.
Definitions.
isolated point
coincident or
branch.
Multiple point.
of a curve
has,
r,
is
17*3.
simple rule for writing down the tangent or tangents
at the origin to rational algebraic curves is obtained in the following
article.
SINGULAR POINTS
when
337
form
is
of the
...(/),
is
absent.
Let P(x, y) be any point on the curve. The slope of the chord
<OP is y\x. Limiting position of the chord OP, when P + O, is the
and y > 0,
tangent at O so that when x >
lim
()>/*)
=m,
From
On
(/),
we have,
taking limits,
after dividing
when x >
=0
0,
we
by
x,
get
so that
m=
bjb 2
if
Hence
ylx^bjb*
d.e.,
b,x+b 2 y^Q
is the tangent at the origin.
t;o
If& 2 =0but
6^62=0
(c A x
(first
6^0,
reference to Faxis,
form.
Let
...(ii)
This
it
Dividing by
x*
+... =0.
0,
we
+c 2m+c 3m 2 =0,
...(wi)
get
...(iv)
is
this case.
The equation of
is
y=mx,
Tvhen
obtain
is
a root of
(iv).
Eliminating
..(v)
m between
c^+CiXy+Csy^Q,
(iv)
and
(v),
we
...(vi)
as the joint equation of the two tangents at the origin. This can be
written down by equating to zero the lowest degree terms in (111).
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
338
The
does not, at
Illustrations.
(i)
The
origin is a
y=Q
( ill)
and
is
The
origin
axiby=Q are
(iv)
The
origin
is
xy
.3.
5.
(xH;y
a 2
) ==4fl jty.
+y2 )(2ax)=b2x.
2
2 2
2
2
8
(x +/) =a (x >> )
(x
x 2 )=x2 (bx)^
2.
y*(a
4.
a*(x*y*)=x*y*.
Example
Find the equation of the tangent at
and show
We
2) to the curve
1,
cusp.
point
1,
2).
To do
so
we
have to write
where X,
are the current coordinates of a point on the curve with
"reference to the newaxes.
The transformed eqation is
or
y
=0,
i.e.,
(rJf)
==0,
339
SINGULAR POINTS
which are two coincident lines, and, therefore, the point is a cusp
and the cuspidal tangent, i.e., the tangent at the cusp with reference
to the
new axes
is
(1,
2) is
Exercises
1.
rV+x
2.
(;c2)
3.
4
x*4ax*2ay* + 40V+3aVa ==0 a t (a, 0) and (20, a).
Show that the origin is a node a cusp or a conjugate point on the
4.
)=*V* )at(a,
2
=X>>l) at(2,
0).
1).
curve
2
2
y =ax +ax*
according
as, a, is positive,
17*4.
zero or negative.
be a multiple point of
the curve
f(x,y)=0.
In
10*94, p.
213,
we have
(x, y)
of the
curve
/(*.
is
y)=o,
given
by the equation
satisfied
dyjdx,
can b^
if,
Thus we see that the necessary and sufficient conditions for any
point (x, y) on/(x, }>)=0 to be a multiple point are that
/.(^y)=0,/w (x y)=0.
f
To find
we have
340
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
17*41.
To find
we have
Ay
Jf*+r
* +J **
dx
d?
<( Jv
f * +J
+f**y
*
+1
dx~) dx
point, where /y =0,/ .=0,
\
will
(/*,)
2
2
/* /,, >0, 0, <0.
2
If/a =/art =y^ =0 the point
order higher than the second.
2
(x,
will
y)
be multiple point of
Example
Find the multiple points on the curve
Let
/(*, y)
=x4
f*(x>
fv( x *
y)=
gives j;=0,
a.
Of these
a.
a,
(fl,n)
(a,
0),
(a,a).
To
follows
points,
multiple points,
On the curve.
we proceed
as
First method.
We have
Since at
(a,
0).
fJ
therefore,
by the equation
(2),
by
a
f 8a
= 0,
(a, 0)
are given
341
SINGULAB POINTS
real,
the point
a node. The
(a, 0) is
may
similarly be
Second method.
we
a, 0)
and
a) are
Differentiating the
get,
4x 3
&a 2yy l
Qay^
Differentiating again,
we
12x 2  12ayy^
From
this
^=
,
(/) for (a, 0),
for
(ii)
(fl, 0)^^=1,
(iii)
for(0, a),
Knowing the
get
6ay*y 2
see that
we
4a*x =0,
^^f,
 Qa yy 2  4a
2
6a*y\
/.*.,
=0.
i>.,^
/.e.,
^
their
equations.
Third method.
origin to this point.
(a, 0),
is
we
shift
the
or
The tangents
It
origin are
may similarly
y=
(a, 0),
therefore, are
\/(4/3)(*).
be shown that
0, 0)
and
(0,
a) respec
tively.
Find the position and nature of the multiple points on the following
curves
1.
x*(xy)+y*=Q.
2.
y*=*x*+ax*.
x*+y 2x 8 +3>> 2 =0.
3.
(D.U.1951}
(D. U. \950\P. U.)
(P. U.)
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
4.
5.
xy
2
>>
=(jcl)(jc2)
2
.
6.
ay*=(xa)*(xb)*.
7.
x*4ax*+2ay*+4a*x*3a*y*a*=Q.
9.
10.
x*+y(y+4a)*+2x*(y5a)*=5a*x*.
11.
X*+2x*+2xyy*+5x2y=Q.
12.
(2 y+xfl)
13.
(B. U.)
(P. U.)
5
4(l~x) =0.
2
8
(jc+>>) ^2>>*+2) =0.
(P (70
<
14.
(/a^hx^f
15.
xV 2 =(a+}0 2 (& 2
Find the
following curves
(P.V.)
2
30) ==0.
2
.y )
(P. U.)
equations of the
tangents at
b^a.
16.
17.
18.
19.
(y2)*=x(x\)*.
Show that each of the curves
(x cos
cc
sin
2
=c(;c sin <x.+y cos a) ,
cusp show also that all the cusps lie
a6)
on a
circle.
Fig. 130
Fig. 131
Fig. 132
Double cusp of
Fig.
1st species
133
SINGULAR POINTS
343
Fig.
Point of oscuinflexion
mon
In Fig. 130, the two branches lie on the same siue of the comnormal and on the different sides of the tangent.
mal and on
the
same
lie
on the same
side
of the nor
In Fig. 132, the two branches lie on the different sides of the
different sides of the tangent.
different
sides
of the
In Fig. 134, the two branches lie on the different sides of the
lie on the same, and on the other on
opposite sides of the common tangent. One branch has inflexion at
the point.
Examples
Find the nature of the cusps on the following curves
1.
(i)
y*=x\
(ii)
^xi^o.
y=xf
of first
species.
(11)
Two
branches of >>*
y=0
and
the origin
* 4 =0,
are the
two parabolas y
on
x*=0
lie
a double cusp of
first species.
344
D1FFBBENTIAL OALOTTLTJS
(7) Here
"^"^
Fig. 135
y~Q
branches
is
fore, is single.
Now, one value of .y is always positive and, therefore, the corresponding branch lies above Xaxis. Again
JT
QX
^> X
II
Thus, for the values of x lying between and 4^, the second
value of y is also positive and, therefore, the corresponding branch
lies above Yaxis in the vicinity of the origin.
Thus the cusp is of
the second species.
Show
2.
We rewrite the
we
see
that the
y*y
and solve
it for y,
so that
_.
or
opposite signs.
when x
>
is positive.
Again,
we have
sufficiently small in
numerical value,
numerical value,
sufficiently
small in
345
is
negative so that the values of y are imaginary.
take up negative values.
Thus x cannot
Exercises
Find the nature of the cusps on the following curves
14
3.
5.
7.
8.
x\xy)+y*=0.
x *+y*2ay2 =Q.
2
(y~x) +x'=0.
x*ax*ya*x*y+a*y 2 =Q.
2.
4.
a*
6.
x'
for singularities.
(a, 0).
(D.U. 1955)
distinct.
method of determin
Examples
1.
curve
Here, 2*y*=*
at the origin so that
To
find,
p,
i.e.,
it is
for
To do
x^Q, )>=(1/V 2 )*
a
the
this,
branch
we
which
touches
jc=0,
wa
write
p l9
and
triple point.
.e.,
X=
or
p^P
346
D1FFEEENTIAL OALOTLTTS
Let y *
Thus,
To
we have
so that
branch=
p, for this
find, p, for
+a/p=0.
a.
we proceed
YTe have,
+^1/"(0)+
as follows.
is
given by
....
ere
/(0)=0.
Also
we
write /'(0)=p,/"(0)
Making substitution
Equating
Thus we have
<7.
coefficients of x*
and
x*,
we
get
we get
2ap*=a, p*+2apq=l.
These give
=<
= 3V2
'
Show
is
r=a(2
and
cos
8+ cos
30),
V3a/2,
The radius
triple
vector,
a/2,
V30/2.
r,
0+ cos
2 cos
of, 0,
given by
30=0,
!>.,
2 cos
0+4 cos 8
03 cos 0=0,
tpr
cos
2
(4 cos
1)=0,
or
cos
Thus,
point.
r=0 when
0=0,
cos
0=7r/3,
0= J,
?r/2,
cos
0=
J.
is
a triple
347
SINGULAR POINTS
We now proceed
/
=a(2
to find
p.
03
sin
We have
2 cos
09 cos 30).
For 0=7r/3,
r^
y^Sa,
r2
=8a
r2
=0
r2
for 0=7T/2,
r 1==a
or 0=27r/3,
r^
Also,
r=0
y3a,
8a.
result.
Exercises
1.
Show
that the radius of curvature at the origin for both the branches
of the curve
is
2.
Find the radius of curvature at the point (1,2) for the curve
3.
Find the radii of curvature at the origin of the two branches of the
curve given by the equations
y=tt\x=\t 2
(For the origin /==
values of /).
1,
x*+y*=*3axy.
5.
3^y5
jc +ox
6.
7.
JC
two
(Folium).
Show
r=a(l42sin
and
(P.U.)
Jo),
is
CHAPTER XVIII
CURVE TRACING
We have already traced some curves
The general problem of curve tracing,
will be taken up in this chapter.
18*1.
and XII.
aspects,
in
Chapters II
in its elementary
18
I.
(/)
curve
which occur in
(ii)
its
curve
which occur in
its
if
the powers of
the powers of
symmetrical about
equation are all even
is
7axis
if
(MI) A curve is symmetrical about the line y=x if, on interchanging x and y, its equation does not change.
II.
Find out if the origin lies on the curve. If it does, write
down the tangent or tangents thereat. In case the origin is a multiple point, find out its nature.
Find out the points common to the curve and the coordinate
be any. Also obtain the tangents at such points.
there
if
III.
axes
Find out dyjdx and the points where the tangent is parallel
coordinate axes.
At such point, the ordinate or abscissa
generally changes its character from increasing to decreasing or vice
IV.
to
the
versa.
V.
Find out such points on the curve whose presence can be easily
detected.
VI.
(It
may
sary).
of the curve
lies in
it.
Such a region
is
348
for
349
CURVE TRACING
one variable in terms of the other, and find out the set of values of
one variable which make the other imaginary.
Examples
Equations of the form
183.
1.
We
(i)
(11)
It is
It passes
gents thereat.
(in) It
meets A^axis at
dy
r
ax
two tan
a node.
The tangents at
/M
(V)
is
and (
and
(0, 0)
a, 0)
fl,
0) are
fl
A(
which becomes
fl*2a x
(v)
(vi)
when
zero,
It has
x4 =0,
i.e.,
real values of
when x2 =(l
for
v'2)fl
s
.
no asymptotes.
We see that,
we
rewrite
it
as
2
x 2 must be nonnegative and
y to be real, a
a
and a. Hence the entire curve lies
therefore, x must lies between
between the lines x=a and x= a.
for
350
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
/P
'* A
(a.o)
VL
When x=0,
then ^=0.
When
goes on increasing
x=a
till
x=v
/
(
l+y'2)^
where dyjdx=0
decreases.
/A
<*
Fig. 137
(/)
is
()
*axcP
(IV)
ivhich vanishes
Since
Q,
i.e.,
origin
is
an
iso
(Hi) It
origin only
and yz +xz
Thus the
when
oxa =0,
2
i.e.,
whenx=J
CURVE TRACING
For x=(l
See
(vi)
(v)
(vi)
\S5)aj2,
which
lies
351
a and
between
a,
is
not reaL
below],
y=(x+a)
and
be
three asymptotes.
y= x*^* =x **^^>
Since
we
to be real,
jc
2
a 2 must be nonnegative,
i.e.,
must
a.
xa
Fig. 138
where we consider
s ig n
or
according as x
is
positive or
nega
tive.
When x=
responding point
Let
is
y=0.
Also jc=
a, is
a, 0).
a to
ao
Then, since
tfy/flbc
any of these values of x, and y= (x+a) is an asympwe have the part of the curve in the second quadrant as shown
notO
tote,
JC
a,
for
in Fig. 138.
fl
/2,
DIFFEBBNTIAL CALCULUS
352
We
A"
axis,
its
we
complete
'(/)
It is symmetrical
(n) It
'
_ ~~
dx
JC
v (x2
^__
2
}'
J>=1
Prom
ibut
it
will
(vi)
we
are the
two asymptotes.
it
x and y
to be real,
we have
<a
a2
>
0, i.e
1y*
>
0, i.*.,l
jc
or
>
and
mo
<y
<1.
Consider
first
quadrant.
CURVE TJUGINQ
and a^ y is
values of x lying between
y=Q so that (a, 0) is a point "on thfc curve
seen above, is the tangent there.
As x increases from a onwards, y which is positive
.
If
x=a,
must
stantly increase
con
the
first
shape
is
as
shown
Y*
Fig.
4.
139
y *=(xa)(xb)(xc).
We
(in)
(/)
symmetrical about
(/)
It is
(//)
(Hi) It
meets
meet 7axis
x=a
a<b = c.
a^b^c.
.Yaxis.
(/?)
x=b, x=c
nnd
(c, 0),
but
at (a,
it
docs not
respectively.
(iv)
(v)
It has
no asymptotes.
When x<a,
y*<0,
whena<x<&, .y 2 >0,
when b<x<c, y*<Q
2
whenx>c,
^ <0.
e.,
is
i.e.,y is
lies to
not real
not real
the
2
(vi) As y vanishes for x=a and x=fe,
some value of x between a and.&.
left
it
354
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
(viii)
As x
increases
beyond
c,
for
We
Fig. 140
have
S~2(a+b+c)(\lx)+(ab+bc+ca)(\lx*)
which >
oo
&s
x >
ao
inflexion.
It consists of
Case
II.
(a.oi
Fig. 141
355
CURVE TRACING
It is easy to show that (a, 0) is an isolated point, as
of case I shrinks to the point (a, 0).
if
the
oval
in case I,
it
inflexion.
Case
III.
a<b=c. The
equation, w>w,
is
Fig. 142
It is easily
shown that
(b, 0) is
a node and
easily
a=b=c. The
drawn.
equation, now,
Fig. 143
(Fig. 142).
is
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
356
is
a cusp and
"j^O
is
the cuspidal
tangent.
drawn.
easily
(Fig. 143).
5.
y*(ax)=x*.
This curve has already bsen considered in
1141, p.
244
also.
We note the
It is
(i)
(ti)
cusp.
(Hi) It
(iv)
x^a
(v)
Since
is
y*x*/(ax),
we
see that
and
is
positive,
i.e.,
is
real
only
when x
lies
between
a.
x=f#
or 0.
But X
Note.
1
1*4?,
to learn to trace
143 also
6.
It is neither
(/)
about the
(if)
Origin
is
a cusp, and
x=0
is
Faxis at
(10)
y+x=aia
asymptote at
its
'
(a/3, 20/3).
(t;)
(vi)
OtiBVE TRACING
Solving for y,
357
we obtain
Fig. 144.
If
7axis
is
<JC<3a, then >>>0, and if x increases from 0, y also inwill go on increasing with x till x =2a where dyfdx=Q.
When x increases beyond 2a, y will constantly be decreasing
y=0
for x=3a and is negative for x>3a.
If
creases ;
of the curve.
Taking all the above facts into consideration, we aee that the
complete curve is as shown in Pig. 144.
1
184.
Equation of the form y +yf(x) + F(x) = o.
7,
(i)
It
about the
(ii)
(///)
(tv)
curve at
(v)
it.
is
line
y=x.
is
y=x\l
(,
We
We have
is
re write
the
meets the
yx*+x*~ 0,
or
It
i).
358
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
so that
and
is
imaginary
if x s (x4.) is
negative
i.e.,
if
lies
between
4.
Fig. 145.
Thus, there
is
line
x=0
and x=4.
x=4
y=
and
are the
or 4.
When
x, starting
4x 8 =0,
i.e* 9
and
where
#=0
(4, 8).
(i).
from
4, increases,
then y
is
positive
and
also
constantly increases.
*
stantly increases.
Now, consider the branch
When x>4,
therefore,
x4
is positive.
4;c
(//).
When x < 0, x 4
4*3
is
positive
and
\/( x
4x*)
> y/x
=* x 1
so
CUBVB TRACING
359
Polar carves.
185.
8.
Fig. 146.
We first
is
have
_
=
^0
which
We
(fjL02)2>
r,
0, in
creases.
Also,
Thus
s=
_2
which > a as
> oo.
increases
is its
r~a(sec d+cos
0).
Here
1
+
,
\cos
(i)
(ii)
The curve
r
cos
x~
\
cos 9 ]=^a
/
+ cos

cos
line,
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
360
~
and
so .that
4 is
positive
when
lies
between
ir/2.
Fig, 147.
is
and
> oo as
>
Tr/2.
When 6 increases from TT to TT, r, remains negative and decreases in numerical value from oo to 2a and so the point P(r 6)
describes the part of the curve as shown in the fourth quadrant.
,
As the curve
point
will
initial line,
no new
2ir.
it is found convenient to
polar as well as the Cartesian form of their equaare obtained from the Cartesian and the others
from the Polar form.
18*6.
y,
10.
(/)
It is symmetrical
CUKVE TRACING
Origin
(//)*
is
a node on
361
tangents.
and
It
(Hi)
Faxis at
a, 0).
(iv)
On
no asymptotes.
changing to polar coordinates, the equation becomes
It has
0* cos 2
We see
that
cto~~
___
0)~
4
(cos ~0f sin"*
'
and
there
2
changes from ir/4 to ir/2, r remains negative and
therefore no point on the curve lies between the lines 0=7r/4 and
07T/2.
As
(vi)
Fig. 148.
11.
y*~x*+xy=Q.
It is
(i)
about the
line
(P.U.)
(iv)
On
coordinate axes,
nor
y=x.
:
(ii)
(1/1)
its
y~Q
tan
y=x,
asymptotes.
transforming to polar coordinates, we get
ra
tan 20.
(v)
ir/2,
and,
When
increases from
a
therefore, r
to
362
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
rf
Y4
Fig. 149.
When
$ increases
from
ir/2
to
2
37T/4, r
When
there
increases
from
to oo.
is
0=TT.
We
from
TT
as
increases
to 2?r.
y=x
and meets
it
in
the
x0,
x+y+a=Q is its
only asymptote.
cannot
both
be
00 x, y
negative so that no part of the curve
on the third quadrant.
(iv)
lies
It
On transforming
r
Now, r=0
dr^ __
46
for
to polar coordinates,
_
~
30 sin
we
get
cos
'
cosM~+sin
0=0 and 0=7r/2.
3a(cos
'"
sin
0)(l+sin
81
"(cos ^
+sin
cos
3
0)
0+sin
cos2 0)
363
CURVE TRACING
which vanishes only when
cos
sin
0=0,
For 0=7T/4,
i.e.,
r:=3a/
tan 0=1.
V2
i.e.,
0=7r/4 or
57T/4.
Yt
Fig. 150
Thus
from
/*
to
to 3a/\/2, as Q increases
monotonically increases from
and monotonically decreases from 30/ y'2 to 0, as 9
7T/4,
Tr/2.
It
13.
and
trace
(P.U.I 95 5)
it.
Let
Putting
/JC0
fv (x,
y)
and
/y =0, we
have
or
(a,
origin
Thus we see that fx and / vanish at the points (0, 0), (a, a)
Of these only (0, 0) is a point of the curve so that the
a).
is
364
DIFFERENTIAL OALODLUS
To
(i)
Fig.
(it)
It
we note the
it
it
at
151
0,
y0,
are the
two
tangents there.
(Hi)
(tv)
On
dr
r
so that
dr/dO^O
'
if
sin
^ 2a
1'
4a
and only
tan 0=1,
i.e.,
0=7T/4 and
186.
Parametric Equations.
trate the process.
x=a(Q+sin
(
co* 2 0)
57T/4.
(Fig. 151).
The
if
14.
0),
y=a(\+cos
TT, TT).
Yt
Fig.
152
0),
CURVE TRACING
We
have
dx
dy
~0(l+eos0), ~=
U0
de
^
dx
365
asin0.
ten?^
~ VjtlJL
Since dx/</0
is
increases, .v will
in the interval
The following
arid
dy/dx
0,
x,
y,
Intermediate
TT
an
increases
',
Intermediate
7T
an
increases
increases
y
dy/dx
2a
decreases
oo
CO
When
to TT, x increases but y decreases so
increases from
that the point moves to the right and downwards till it reaches the
position A' (an, 0) corresponding to 0~7r where, dyfdx being infinite,
the tangent is parallel to Faxis.
Thus the point F(x,
from
TT
to
AV A'
as
increases
TT.
It is easy to see that the point P(x, y) describes congruent portions to the right and to the left of the portion AVA' as
varies in
the intervals
...... (57T,
(TT, STT),
15.
x=^a
sin 20(1
+cos
20),
y=a
cos 2o(l
We have
:
=40
cos 30 cos
d0
dx
This shows that
0.
cos 20).
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
366
The
0,
x,
y and
dyjdx.
7T/2
00
7T
this
table
(Fig. 153).
so that the
same curve
will
be traced.
6
Fig. 153
viz.,
A,
B and C.
EXERCISES
367
Exercises
Trace the following curves
1.
3.
2.
3ay'=x*(xa).
ay*=x(a
2
*=x 2
4.
).
5.
8.
+x2)=a2x.
(B.U.)
2
2
2
2
X (y +x )=a (x*y 2
9.
13.
y(a
6.
(4x*).
10.
;c=0 8 (ajc).
15.
yV+x )=0
y x=a(x
19.
/x =x K
20.
=x
22.
21.
a y
23.
25.
a2
;c
).
(D.U. 1955)
(2ax)(xa).
36;>
^(jc
l) (7;t
26.
x(yl)(y2)(.v3).
28.
30.
r log
r=a(0 sin
29.
31.
r=alog0.
32.
33.
r=a^
34.
sin 30.
sin 0.
x*+y* = 5ax y
37.
x*=ay*axy*.
39.
x(yx)=(y+x)(y
cos 8
2
cos
0=a
0=
cos 20.
2
(L.U.)
sin 30.
0=a.
e).
36.
38.
2
+x*).
(/*{/.)
rat6cos0.
0=a
^5)
24.
2
27.
cos
(#
18.
).
2
2
flVx^a 2 * 1 )
16.
(2;cl)=x(;tl).
+y2 )=a(x*y 2
14.
17.
>>
).
;v
x(x
41.
40.
.v
42.
<flx?&lf**\.
43.
44.
axy=x*a*.
45.
(jt}a).
=Q
2
has a cusp at the origin and a
46. Show that the curve x*(x+y)y
rectilinear asymptote x+y=*\ and no part of the curve lies between the lines
4 and that it consists of two infinite branches, one in the second
and
quadrant and the other in the first and fourth. Give a sketch of the curve.
x0
x=
**(* +J0 a
49.
x a (y+l)y2 (x4).
51.
2xy=x*+y*.
(L.U.)
(P.U.)
48.
y(xy)*=(x+y).
50.
yx(*
52.
x4
m2>fy
(B.U.)
(B.C/.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
368
lies
53.
55.
Show
between
54.
r(l
x=
x=~l
4 and
x0 and x=3
or between
curve.
(Af.T.)
56.
Show
xy*x'*ylx*2xy+y +x2y+\=Q,
has double point at (0,
1)
'
find its
57
\x=a(0~sin0),>'=a(l"cos0).
58.
60.
61.
x=0(3 cos0
62.
63.
0+0
x/=log (1+cos
64.
x=a
59.
65.
x=a(0+sin
cos 3 0),
sin
x=fl(co$
log
x/a=2
sin
0),
y=a
^^=a(sin
0)~cos
0+tan
(sec
0log
0)
(sec
0,
1
(3 sin
0sin
00
cos
y/a=sin
y=a log
0+tan
0)
0).
0).
cosec 0+cot
66.
x=a cos
67.
x=0(sin
68.
*==0(0+sin
.y=a(2+sin
+i
C03
0/(3+cos
0log
0).
sin 30),
cos
0) sin
.

ylb=2
2
0)
(cosec
0+cot
0)
CHAPTER XIX
ENVELOPES
One parameter family of Curves.
191.
function of three variables, then the equation
If f(x y, a) be.any
y
f(x,y,*)=o,
determines a curve corresponding to each particular value of
The
a.
totality
values to a,
The
is
variable, a,
which
is
is
said to
The equation
The equation
y=mx 2am am 3
is
m.
the
We now
introduce the concept of the envelope of a oneparameter family of curves by means of an example CDnsidered in the
next
article.
'
19*2.
y^mx+afm,
where, w,
is
a, is
...(i)
some constant.
The two members of this family corresponding, to, the param l and Wjf 8m of the parameter, m, are
metric values
~
m
369
..()
370
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
We
4ine
shall
keep
tends .towards
(ii).
The two
lines
As 8w >
0, this
tion on the
line
(//)
(//), (///)
intersect at (#, y)
which
lies
on
where
1
N
its posi
(ii).
This point
is
of the line (ii) with another lino of the family when the
to coincide with the former.
There will
family.
The
family of lines.
To
the
(//), we notice that
a
on
such
the
line
are
of
*m
y)
point lying
given by
ooordinates
(x,
x=
2a
m*
y= m
Eliminating m, we obtain
lines.
is
kept fixed.
Determination of Envelope.
Let
/(x,y,a)0,
j^be
and
f(x,y,
a+Sa)=0,
..(/)
ENVELOPES
371
(/),
satisfy the
(11)
equation
f(x, y, a +8a)
_ /(*,
g
Let Sa >
common
to
(/)
0.
and
JF,
a)
(11)
viz.,
/a(*,J>,)=0.
..(/v)
(i)
and
(/v)
lead
satisfy the
to an equa
tion
This
is,
To
Rule.
/(*,J>,a)=0,
eliminate, a, between
f(x, y,
where fax,
is
y, a)
and
are the
then (w)
(v/)
being the parameter.
Illustration.
Tve eliminate, a,
is
To
is
a)=0,
(/)
and
(/v) for x, y,
we obtain
*=#(),
.(v)
y=*(a),
..(vi)
y <x.x fl/a=0,
between (v/7) and
obtained by differentiating
The eliminant
which
y,
If,
which
a)=0, andfa(x>
(vii) w.r.
(w'O
to a.
is
initio
in
192.
372
DIFFEKENTIAL CALCULUS
The
Theorem.
195.
a curve
evolute of
is
the
env3lope of its
normals.
are the normals and PT,
the tangents at two
of a curve. L is the point of intersection of the tan
QT
QR
PR,
points P,
gents.
LPRQ = LTLT'=W,
arc
Applying
PRQ, we
PQ=Ss.
sineformula to
the
A.
get
sin
/_RQP
P:=sin /_RQP.
^ ~
sin
or
chord
Let
Lim P/?=sin
Q+P
L RPT^ir/2.
~~ 1 = P.
1
.
normals at
envelope.
To prove
1961.
family
is
a point on
We have to
its
that
envelope.
show that
if for
family
we have
/,=/w=0,
then, for such a point,
we
will also
have
/a=0.
From
(i),
we
get
Putting
dfldx=dfldy=Q, we get
9//9a=0.
Hence the
result.
ENVELOPES
Thus the
is
373
in general,
the envelope
of a family of
Let
/(*,?, a)=0,
...(/)
by eliminating a between
(/)
and
Let
=$
(a)
The equation
every value of a.
We
(Hi) satisfy
differentiate
(/)
the equation
w.r. to a,
regarding
(i)
jc,
identically,
as
i.e.,
(/)
for
functions of a,
we obtain
o that
3/
dx
which, with the help of
dx_
df
'
(//),
dy
'
</<x
^dy
'da
+ 9/_
a<x
becomes
...(IV)
^f()+^*'(a)=0.
The slope of the tangent at an ordinary point
"V of the family is
(x, y)
of a curve
Also the slope of the tangent at the same point to the envelope
<///)iB*'(a)#'(a).
We see from (iv) that these two slopes are the same. Thus
the slopes of the tangents to the curve and the envelope at the common point are equal. This means that the curve and the envelope
have the same tangent at the common point so that they touch.
N ote. If for any point on a curve, 3 ffox and 3 ffoy are both zero, then
the above argument will break down, so that the envelope may not touch a
curve at points which are the singular points on the curve.
7
We
DIUFBBBNTIAL CALCULUS
374
Examples
Find the envelope of the family of semicubical parabola*
I.
Differentiating
w.r. to a,
(/)
*Y
we
Eliminating a between
we
(//),
(i)
and
get
y=o,
which

y=0
i.e.,
.
155
iff
cusps,
member
of the family.
2.
where a
is
a constant and
we
which
is
a parameter.
to m we
Differentiating w.r.
Eliminating m,
is
get
get
the envelope.
consists
of two
ines
x0 and x=a.
If
we
x+a
we
x=a is tangent
(x=0)
is
the locus of
its
to each curve.
0,
b sin
0)
on
is
ax
^Jby^^tf^ip
cos
Thus, (i)
the parameter.
is
//v
"~~sin 0~~
Differentiating
(/)
ax
partially w.r. to 0,
sin
cos
<T +
by GOB
sin
__
is
we have
,..v
"*
l)
375
ENVELOPES
(//).
tanvan v = 
to eliminate 6 between
(i)
and
()*
(/),
we
get
or
or
which
is
4.
/z^
two parameter
a, 6, flre
a+b=c
fomg
constant.
(B.U. 1954)*
eliminate one parameter and express the equation of
have
given family in terms of the other.
c,
tz
We will
&
=c
We
a,
so that
ia
~0
or
ca

which gives
 ^
/(
or
or
which
is
(/),
we
get
a.
OALOTTIJJ8
f'W>
ewehpt
$) ,:$w4';&?
off he family" of
lines
,(0,
the parameters
We
Differentiating
(/)
and
(11)
and
(iv),
a,
we
(//).
get
b
,
(Hi)
fr6m
da
'
From
to the parameter,
w.r.
we
xfa+y/b
r =
y\b
=:xc w or a
^n
'
.x
x'/a
^
or
L
[From
L
(/)
v
and
elimi
(//)]
/J
v
^^
(//),
we
get
or
xn/(n+l)
as the required envelope.
Show that the envelope of a circle whose centre lies on
6.
parabola y*=4ax and which passes through its vertex is the cissoid
Now,
(a/
2at) is
y*(2a+x)+x*=0.
any point on the parabola.
the
(B.U. 7953)
Its distance
from
is
is
or
Differentiating
(i),
Substituting
x*+y*2at*x4:aty=Q.
t, we get
4a/x 4oy=0, or /= y\x.
this value of t in (/), we get the required
...(vi)
w.r. to
envelope.
377
ENVELOPES
7.
drawn at
lines
radii vectors
line
P at
vectorial
angle,
a)=tf(l
rsin (0
eliminate
(a)
(r
+cos
cos
from
we
Qa)
tan
cL
get
sin a.
a)^
(1)
sin 9 cos a
(4) gives
and
(2),
we
= r sin
+a
Qa).
0/(r cos
(3),
+r
as
.
.(3)
..(4)
0a
r cos
a __
C S
y(r
..(2)
them
a=a.
a =0,
rewrite
r sin
__
..(I)
a).
is
'
its
OP is
The angle a
Now,
be
drawn through
r cos (6
To
If a
'
cos
0'
we obtain
sin 2
0_
"~~
2ar cos 0)
'
or
r 2^02_oar cos
which
is
0a
2
,
i.^.,
r=2a
cos
1.
',
4.
Show
(11)
a6=c 2
is
af 6==c
a hyperbola having
is
an astroid.
its
378
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
5*
ag the evolute of a curve as the envelope of
*~A*I>
9on5idcri
find the evolute
of the parabola y*=4ax.
its
normals,,
6.
may
t2
UAO* +(ylb)% =1
Find the envelope of the curves
9.
(B.U. 1952)
6=1.
10.
2
y =4ax
Show
11.
lemmscate
r2
13.
=4a2
cos
(B.U. 1955)
20.
Find the envelope of the circles described upon the radii vectors of
'*V+y a /6*= las diameter.
Find the envelope of a family of parabolas of given latus rectum and
parallel axes,
when the
is
y=px+q.
(P.U. 1931)
that the envelope ol the straight line joining the extremities of
2
a pair of
semiconjugate diameters of the ellipse * 2 /a 2 +rV6 =l is the ellipse
14,
Shnw
15.
Find the envelope of straight lines drawn at right angles to the radii
vectors of the following curves
through their extremities
n
n cos n.
(i) r=*a+b cos 6.
(//) r =a
:
Gcota
(///)r=<*
(B.U. 1953)
16.
Find the envelope of the circles described on the radii vectors of the
following curves as diameter
.
///= i + e cos 9.
Find the envelope of the curves
(/)
17.
(//)
n. n cos
a
jfQ,
a+
18.
Show
b =c .
(P.U. 1955)
that the family of circles (x0) 8 +V 2 =fl 2 has no envelope.
(P.U. 1942)
Miscellaneous Exercises II
1.
Show
+ ~~b
VflHhfr/
'
f b) and
that
(DV.
1956)
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
its
37 9*
2.
If the polar equation of a curve be r**a see* ie, find an expression for
radius of curvature at any point.
3.
Show
that
06
cos
x=a(cos 0+0 sin 8), y=0(sin
is the involute of a circle.
4.
Find the radii of curvature of the curve
nVa 1* 4 **,
for the points *=0 and x~a.
5.
If a curve be given by the equations
'
0>,
2=f 22,
2 
2
of curvature in terms of
to the axis
a curve passes through the origin at an inclination,
of x, show that the diameter of curvature at the origin is the limit of
(x*+y*)l(x sin <ty cos a)
when x * 0. Hence show that the radius of curvature at the origin of the curve
y*+ lay 2ax 0,
find the radius
6.
is
t.
If
242a.
7.
If P,, p f be the radii of curvature at the extremities of two conjugate
semidiameters of an ellipse semiaxes a, b t prove that
1948
that the projections on the Xaxis of radii of curvature at the
of >>=log cos x and its evolute are equal.
points
corresponding
m m cos
and Q is the intersec9.
If P is any point on the curve r =a
/up
tion of the normal at P with the .line through O at right angles to the radius
vector OP, prove ihat the centre of curvature corresponding to P divides PQ
the ratio / m.
cot
Prove that if
10.
The equation of the equiangular spiral is r=ae
O be the pole and P any point on the curve, then a straight line drawn through
Oat right angles to OP. intersects the normal at P in C such that PC is.this
(M.u.y
radius of curvature at P.
8.
Show
11.
Show
that the
^?
cos 28
at the point whose vectorial angle is */6 is perpendicular to the initial line and
that the centre of curvature at the point at a distance 420/12 below the initial
line.
12.
Show
that a point
*=3
P on
the curve
2
HK
380
DIFFERENTIAL CALOTTLTT3
18.
Show
19.
Find points
5xH3y4a=0,
(B.U.)
on
of* inflexion
x(xya
(M.T.)
)*=b'.
P is
22.
If
is
of the
curve
r=atan(0/2).
is.
(B.U.)
r=0(lfsinO).
23.
curve
r=*
Show
y*=4ax
for the ends of the latus
and
rectum have
that they cut the curve again in the point (9a, qp 6n).
25. Show that the centre of curvature at every point of the curve
Avhere
it
r=0(0
meets the positive side .of initial
26.
Show
that
sin 0)
line is the pole.
(PU.)
may be
given
dx 1
rf
_1
Show
27
its
asymptote and
28.
(2ax)=A,
by
r^=a(l+cos
e)
^ind prove that the greatest distance of the tangent to the curve
point of the axis is >l2a.
30.
Show
of dinate to
is constant.
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
Show
31.
0)cos
,
381
II
y/a=sin
0,
0,
the portion of the A'axis intercepted between the tangent and the norrral at
any point is constant.
32. Find the nature of the double poiut on the curve
it
33.
Show
34,
Show
+(;/*)
<*/*)
is
1
la
sin2
cos 2
$ f 1 Ib
If
given curve.
Show
36.
that there
as the parameter
is
Ua) 2 + y 2 ~2y
37.
point
at P.
The tangents
38.
at any point
x=a(0
'0'
of
+ sin 0),.v=0(Hcos
0)
normal to the curve at the point where it meets the next span on the right "
cot (0/2)^= n/2.
prove that
is
Show
39.
the Astroid
x=^a cos 3 0,
is
y=a
the curve
2
2(jc*+/)=fl (*
 y2
i
2
)
to>
is
40.
find the
tangents
sin 3
is t
(0 the tangent at
are i/ and?ri/,
P meets
R whose
parameters
QR is constant,
ihe
tangents at Q and R intersect at right angles on a circle,
(Hi)
(j'v) the normals at P, Q and R are concurrent and intersect on a concentric
(11)
circle.
2
P, Q are any two points on ay =x* such that PQ always passes
9
8
a
or
fixed
on
the
curve
)
show that the locus of the
(at
through
point
lying
point of intersection of the tangents at P, Q is the parabola
41.
42,
again at
where
Tangent
OX is
show
of the
at any point
that
cot 2 LXOP+ tan
Jfaxis.
DIFFBBENTIAL CALCULUS
43.
Show
that
x=0/4
is
r =a( I
414.
cos
(Birmingham)
0).
straight line
#+y sin
?$=0(cos
is
//(I*) ~*nl(ln)
45.
Show
XCOS a+ysin
a=/(<x),
is the point
*=/'(<*) sin a /"(a) cos a
y=/'(a) cos a /"(a) sin a
Discuss the nature of singularity at the origin of the curves,
a
2
5
2
(i) j>a=*(jc l).
(//) x 0(x a>0 ==0.
Show that the curve

(M.U.)
>46.
47.
G0.J7.)
has a cusp at the origin and an infinite series of nodes lying at equal distances
from each other.
Trace the following curves
48.
:
(i)
'(///)
49.
(11)
y=a sin
>^2cV+a2^ 2 0.
/.
The tangent
the parabola
is
evolute again.
50. If p be the radius of curvature of a parabola at a point whose distance
measured along the curve from a fixed point is, s, prove that
.and
its
P
9
2
[Hint. P '=</V<ty ]
52. Show that the radius of curvature at a point of the evolute
curve
rn
53.
(a)
lias a single
(r, e) is
/
of the
l~l\*
1).
cusp of the second kind at the point (0,
Show that the radius of curvature of the curve /(r, 8)=0
(b)
is
rcosecy
is
2p cos ?
where
(D.U. 1956)
ANSWERS
467.]
JPages
Page
4.
Ex.
Page
3.
(//)
a,
(iv) nit
i) 1,
9.
Ex.2.
Page
0.
(/)
1710.
10.
Ex.2.
Ex.3.
Page
x1 <2.
(ii)\xl\ <$.
xl <e.
x2 <5.
(iv)
(in)
(i)l<x<5. (//) 3<x<l. (in) l<x<3,
(/)
14.
Ex.4.
(J) (1,00)
The entire aggregate of real numbers excluding the numbers
is any integer.
(2 + l)ir, where
(/') The set of intervals
(')
when n
is
any
36.
Page
1.
(I) 7T/6.
2.
(in)
<v/i)
(*)
[!.
(iv)
(/)
Page
1].
0]
27T/3.
(IV)
[co
(v)
+ lir),
J
>
1],
[1, oo
].
(vi) [0, oo ].
(viii)
[1, oo
].
(ix) [1, oo
]
(^"0
The
numbers (H+i)^.
(xiii)
[1,
Increasing in
in
and decreasing
!)TT,
oo
[00,00].
,
and
0]
in [0,
oc ].
in
(v)
(ii)
Decreasing in
[00
continuous.
6.
7.
11)
x=0
and x = l.
x.
57.
f
6667.]
(/)
continuous.
(//)
discontinuous,
333
oo
].
[0, oo].
i*v)
Increasing
Increasing in the set of inter
discontinuous.
(i)
Discontinuous for
2.
3.
[Pages
1].
in
51.
2.
].
entire aggregate
[0, QO],
Decreasing
vals [(2n
Page
[1,
(Ill) 7T/3.
3.
(//)
The
<xiv)[oo,0],
(Hi)
7T/4.
real
[00
(/I)
[0, 1).
The
of
integer.
(ill)
continuous.
384
DIFFERENTIAL 'tEBptHTMf*
(iv)
(vii)
Page
Page 75,
4.
(vi)
discontinuous.
(/)
13.
() ,V
412.
Ex.1.
Page 76.
Ex.1.
(/)
2,
2x/(x+3)
2
2
.
2(lx )/(l+x
(//)
1/2A
2 2
)
(n/)3x.
Ex.2.
(/v)
1/V2.
78.
Ex.
Page
continuous.
(v)
74.
Ex.
Page
discontinuous,
[Page 7489
3.
2x+>>+l=:0,
4Ar=^j4.
(0)8, 2; 2,
(ft)
79.
Ex.1.
2.
1/16, 1/32
(c) 1/4, 1/32
1/2, 1/4.
4, 3, 4; 2, 2, 2; 2, 7,8.
1,
2.
Ex.3.
Page
83.
Ex.2,
(i)
(Hi)
Page
(xl)/2A
(3x*+xI)l2x%.
(//)
(2x~*+5x~l'*)/l2.
(iv)
(1+7^/6".
85.
Ex.
2.
(i)
2x+5.
(ii)
2(x+2)(3x+6).
(Hi)
Page
86.
Ex.2.
(Hi)
Page
(/)
(4x+6).
(tf)
x(x+2).
[(x'
87.
Ex.2.
(iv)
(v)
Page
(2x+3) (10x3)/2x^.
89.
(i)an(ax+b)
1
.
2 2
() 2x/(l +x )
_. r
,..
(w)
 
[Pages 9197
ANSWERS
91.
Page
3.
(m)
mx m ~i
cos
(v)
(x cos
(v/ii)
Ex.
Page
(ii)
...
(in)
{V)
sin^*
xm
cos x.
sin x)/x 2
(ii)
(iv)
sin 2x.
(vi)
sin x.
2
(/)
tan
r.
(//)
wx.
sin
cot
+2feo;f
r.
c).
tan
(ii'i)
r.
'
cos
,.
;
(iv)'
v
sm
(V/)
* 8e
2x.
2
x
'
x)'
93.
(i)
(i/i)
(//)
a
N/(
+^)/v/ (+*x
sec(cosec x)
(/v)
Page
(/)
92.
Ex.
Page
Ex.
(vii)
)
x.
96.
Ex.
1.
(i)
(/V)
/X)
Ex.
Page
385
Vx
'
1+cosVx2
...
__ 2
8l
'
2.
1.
97.
n
Ex.
B
(/)
,>
cot x.
(ii)
,...,
ain
(in) e
cos x.
cot (log x)
(v >
(wi).
sin (log
v
" x);

secx.
....
(viii)
jifr,
e 2 ".2x log
xe*
,.
(w)
x
.
lo
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
386
Page
97.
a 2 cos 2 x
sin 2x).
!
sin 2
(x/v)
100.
Ex.
tanhx.
() sinh 2x
sec 2 x tanh x 4 tan x sech 2 x.
(i)
(///)
Page
ft
/V(**)
2
log a
Page
Pages 97105]
102.
Ex.
4.
(i)
(cosx)
(/v)
(tan x)
eo
tan
x. log x\.
tau x
(cot x)
(v)
+ lo
^)
(logx)*(log>gx
sin
x/
i;a
,x)
(co
x2
(2
11
sm
x)
3
'
1
log
f"
'
.v
1
'
9x 2
4.v_
2(1
"3(2~Tx
r)
4
)
+4(3 j
_
(vm)
Page
+ 15jc* + 36)/3(JC
(2.x*
(v/i)
sin
.v
;r
.
.r
log
+3)
'
X* fcot .vf
f 4).
(.v
log .v)'
\
log
<?.r.
104.
Ex.5,
(i)
(i/)
(///)
:2
'
Ex.6.
Page
CO
1.
(//)
105.
Ex.
3.
(/)
2x cos x 2
m x cos x.
(ii)
sin 2x.
(///)
l/2y'.v.
'
(iv)
(v)
eV/Jf /2 v/x.
(v/)
]/(l
+x
2
)
ANSWERS
[Pages 105106
Page
387
105.
.
*2
2.
sec 2 x\/(cot x)
~
5.
 1
1.
2x e
4.
2jcsec 2 x 2
3.
'.
(jc
.,
cos x
sin x).
l
2
Page 106.
COS J JC
Xy/( I
'
(lX
^,^
o
/
/'/I
"
^9v
9.
"
10.
(tanx
12.
X2 )
"
2 3/ 2
log
13.
(1
~\'"*i
(i
.'
.(5x)
15.
A'
16.
"
l
\"
f 7.Y)/
7
(
6.7
'"1
}7.x
"
V2 3(
1.
14
"
11.
hotl(f.Y
i.
y
A
*'j_/
7"'""'
"Vx)"
'.)
v)~4(l
8.v"":V(r
!3.r)
"f>(l
2
).
"
17.
x log
.v
log ex\x
.Y
(xt)
l
.
cosooli
18.
sin'.v.
.Y).
.'5.Yv(l
'
.v.
I
'
.x
v/(l
2a
21
"'
^/
(l
log (^
x)
(a
26.
(sin.v)
.v
log
j
b
los log
.v.
sin
lopRinX
r/
.cot.x.lo^lO.
xf
log sin
cot
.v
^cos
^.
axl
[cos (x log x)
log
^v2ax
27.
.x
.cos""
25.
10
.v
^)
loo;
_____
24
22.
v
23.
(cos
sech ax.
28.
29.
[Pages 106111
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
388
30
W
*2 ~1
~'
31
32
'
2x cos
Page 106.
9x 4
33.
sin
(3* 7)
log (1
5x) x
cot S
eax [a(l
34.
+x2
cosec
cot x,e
w/sin
7
oosec 2
37.
a*
38.
V3/(sec
cfcth
^(sec
x)
tan^x)]/^ +x
(fe
2
).
_/2/sin
'
/r1
cosech 2
36.
*~
w/sinx"
cot x.
x.
3x).
39.
40
'
(1x 3 )"^.
41.
Page 107.
42.
(i)
43.
(I)
45.
l/(x*+l).
(H)
x/(x^l).
0.
(ii)
tan
x cos x/log
sin
sin
_1
,
^o,
~
47.
48.
1,
(sin
x+x cos
__
(x cos xfsin
(sin x)
_/(lx2
(1/1)
tan
t.
x.
3/.
x log
.
x)
log sin x)
49.
1.
x(2+2tanlogx+secMogx).
tan * [sec2 xl g (1 S ^)+tan x(xlogx)^]
(logx)
cog
cos""1 x)
Page 111.
1.
/'(O) exists
/x
but/
2.
Differentiable at
the origin for
3.
/(x)
is
5.
/(x)
is
6.
x=0
m > 3.
does not.
for
m>
2.
/'(x)
is
continuous at
Continuous when x
(0)
is irrational
Differentiable for
or zero
value.
no
and discontinuous
ANSWERS
Pages 112120]
Page
112.
10.
11.
(i)
12.
Discontinuous at
derivable at
Continuous.
(//)
;
Discontinuous.
derivable at
2.
Page 115.
5.
Page
116.
Page
119.
3/2.
^v'r
4
..?.
L (x2)*+
10
L(X~I)"
Page
(x+2)+
J'
f
r
( 1)"
^ ( X __ jp,
(v
+ i
^])
(jr+o)"* J'
120.
3.
(!)
!f
w+1
fl)
(X + tf)"*
2 sin [(n
+ l)
cot~ 1 (
]
'
(+l)^, where
sin
7.
(j)
l)i( w
(ii)
l)
n J
(M
1)
1)
cosec" a sinn
d=cot~ 1 x.
sin n&,
where
[(x
coBa)/sin
390
[Pages 121126
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Page 121.
2.
(i)
<7'0
(iv)

sin.
(x
J/ITT).
cos(6x
+ /wr)]
TV t 2 cos (x+imr)
(v) 4
(4x+n tan
17^'cos
4)]/8.
i
(3x+n tan
)
Page 123.
1.
e'f ^
(/)
(iii)
.v
cos
(.v
v
TT)
f
I
/l2
*
i
)2
.v
^".?
f3x 2
3(W 1)^008
+ J(2)7T]4
[X
(iv)
*.
fi
e"[log
xpfjX
V3
'
jr
fT 3 2
!.
5.
Page
([
2
x)y n
x ;vh2
x~*~
1
I)""
!....}(
4.
3)ir.
(i~l)
"<'
v
".
+(2tt
125.
23
Page 126.
4.
W
2
.
^(0) = w(m= 
2 2 )(m2
4
a
)
(2n
 (2/i  2)]
.... [w
.... [(2
4.
>Wi=0, ^ J n=(l)" 1
22
42
62.
.[/
.[(2n~2)
126.
56.
6.
1)* m*J.
[(2
3*)(/iS5).
Page
[x+K/i
X2
2
)
(2n
+/].
4/n
.(22)
2
.
2
.
I)*].
ANSWERS
Pages 127156]
Page
391
127.
If n
9.
Page 135.
Ex.3.
Ex.4.
is
even, y n (Q)
0
if
odd, y n (0)~n
is
(3/f 5)
= (6V2l)/ti.
(n)V5.
(/).
(//7)log(e
1).
139.
Page
2.
the function
3.
is
is
for
steadily increasing;
d<[
1,
00
2]
steadily decreasing.
Increasing in
2,
1]
and
[0, 1]
decreasing in
11,0], [l,oo).
5.
and
Increasing in
4.
Decreasing
[2, oo
i, 1
in (oo
decreasing in
and
2]
fO, 2]
(00
;
1],
and
increasing in
[1, oo
[
).
2, 0]
).
Page 140.
6.
o.
:it>,
Page 144.
2
4.
ar
A
cos />.V
& 2
~Jt 2
^
2t
f
fl(l*36)^A' 3,
V
..+^j
fl
24ft)
!
....
J/l
^cos^ftflx+wtan
)
150.
Page
Ex.
2.
i:m.
Ex.
3.
max.
Ex.
5.
s.
Page 153.
Page
55/27,
8
1
min.
1109,
21).
10,
27.
156.
1.
2.
3.
min. 37.
(/) max. 38
Max. for x 2a and minimum
Max. forxl, min. for x^2.
;
(11)
for
min.
4.
2^3/9.
5.
6.
7.
= 3</.
e
12.
rain,
13.
max. values
value
miii. values
integer,
.v
11.
14.
4.
and
log [(ae
e) log tfj/log a.
'
(27T+3v/3)/6
(87r+3y/3)/6.
negative integer.
392
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
[PagOS 156169
Page 156.
min. values :J(5ir+3 x/3+2),
15.
max. value
VT
17.
~4
mm. value V3
.
,.v
(i)
least value
least value
18.
(ii)
min.
min.
any
is
0,
2/3v/S
A'
max. values
1
V
V .
max. 1,2/3^6.
max.
greatest value
greatest value
max. values
(/)
(in)
where n
min. values
(if)
(27r3 v/3+2).
(77+3^32), ^
max.
(a$
+b%
0,
2/3V3.
fi
integer.
Page 157.
max. c*l(a+b).
The required values are the roots of the quadratic equation
20.
21.
(a~r*)(b
r~*)=h*, in
r.
Page 163.
1.
9,6.
4.
V(40/3),
5.
9.
3.
vW3), h/(>/3).
Diameter of the semicircle = 40/(Tr +4)
Height of the rectangle =20/(7r+ 4)
Breadth y^ depth \/%a.
15(^
10.
18.
Page 164.
21.
3V30&M
22.
26.
(3v/8ir)*.
28.
Length 2
and girth 4J ft.
30.
ft.,
girth 4
aft.
25.
3^3/4.
2V37T/27.
ft.
now be
If
Page 168.
Ex.3.
(0f
(H)**l2e.
(Hi)
(/v)
()f
(tfi)
.
(iv)
i.
(vi) 2a/6.
Ex.4.
(/).
Page. 169.
Ex.
5.
limit is
1.
(v) 2.
ft.
Page 170.
Ex.3,
T\.
(i)
1.
(iii)
cofc itx
Change
(v) .
(0 i
to cot \Ttx.
(v) 4.
173.
Ex.
Page
J.
(//)
2/7T.
(iv)
Page
393
ANSWERS
Pages 170188]
2.
(i)
0.
(ii)
3.
(iii)
1.
2.
(i)
0.
(ii)
1.
(iii)
20/7T.
2.
(i)
(ii)
0.
(iii)
3.
(i)
(ii)
e' 1
(iv)
1.
(iv)
2
7r /6.
(iv)
1.
1.
(v)
0.
(vi)
174.
Ex.
Page 175.
Ex.
Page 176.
Ex.
1.
1.
(iii)
(v)
Page
e.
e.
(vi)
(vii)
e*.
(viii)
J.
6.
e.
177.
1.
e~\
2.0.
5.
3.
9.e~*
2A
13.
e"
17.
e~~
iV
10.
4.
5.
11.
\4, e
1 2
15.
18.
*.
e"
16.
".
alogrt.
22.
'
<>
A /37T/6.
2.
7.
e~^
12.
2.
2 /7r
21.
1.
1
""
01 .
a^ b
4.
*'*
20.
19.
2.
23.
1.
Page 178.
...aj\
25.
<?/:>.
26.
29.
aV.
30.
24.
(a,a,<i 3
28.
iflV.
33.
lie/24.
27.
f"(a)l'2f'(a).
16.
31.
Page 187.
7.
2.v
*
gjc+
*4
^5
x *2
Page 188.
Y4
Y2
11.
12.
i+xHg*
12
!+ A
14.
log sin 3
+ (x 3)
13.
cot 2
^^
J+J
cosec 2 3
+
C ot
3 cosec 2
3.
TB
394
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
J
15.
Page
14f29(x2)+16(;c2) 43(*2)
3
.
188.
<ReacU* >*
Page
LP ft ges 188215
cos
cos x
in place of ee*
).
202.
a
ae * sin
2.
fofl;r cos
&>>,
,
eB ' g*",
(i)
ye^
(ff)
.
&*[yx+yl].
log
'
(ixy)
4.
3'
(1xy)*'
(l
0.
8.
]/c*r.
Page 203.
n_3.
2
Page 205.
Ex.
1.
sin
0,
cos
0, r
cos 0, sin Q,
cosec 0, cosec 0.
Page 209.
2.
4%.
6.
3J.
Page 215.
1.
3.
4.
(M cot
(
(oosyxys'my)lx
2.
4x\2y.
x cos M
+*)(! +J
sin
y+z
)(25 f>2)/( 1
xy)*.
5.
()
..
sin
(i)
>'(>;
sin
cos jf(sin
(/v)
x_+cos x
log cos
log_sin
jc
_
8x
~~dFidz
'
j')
cos
>>)
log x).
8JL
8Fl 8y
8y~~
8F/8z
'
"'
1).
395
ANS\VKKS
Pages 216233]
Page 216.
14
Page 228.
1.
min. at
(i)
(5,
min. at[J(6
(ill)
(i7)
).
rain, at (0, 0) if
t/
>
at (2, i).
max. at (2, 1).
(v) min.
at (
2, 0).
1, 0).
(v/i) max.
(vi) min. at (0, 0), (
extreme
value.
(v//7) No
1 + 4m +2/i),
(ix) max. at [&n( I +4w f!2/i),
min. at [^71(744^ + 12^), ^7r(l 4 2mf 2/?)],
where m and w are integers.
(x) max. at (,
).
2.
max. value 112 at (4, 0) min. value 108 at (6, 0).
(iv)
Page 229.
3.
2(x
x 2 )(/;/
/2
1
MJh)l\ 2( n h ?L2
2
1
i)
Page 232.
1.
30'.
(/)
2.
2
fl
3.
2k^(a*
3a*.
(//)
2
(Hi)
3w 2
and Ja (max.)
(uiiu.)
ab~\b*).
4.
......
'
'
v/14
/14
v'
6.
71
'
""8 O
'2
'
Miscellaneous Exercises
Page 233.
1.
Zero
2.
is
+ i,
whore w
continuity.
3.
4.
1,
5.
(/)
(11)
(Hi)
1.
All integral values of ,v.
All integral values of x.
x0.
x=
I.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
396
[Pages 233260
Page 233.
Page
6.
jc=0,
7.
1.
234.
(CA)+ sin
sin
(B Cf+sin
sin
(cos
_.
,4(c~os
cos
C)
......
',
_ lf x _
Jv
JA Av3
16
3a 4
^
r6
(7cos 5)'
(l)n!
J.W.
where
tan
^=a
sin
a/(x+a
cos a).
Tfg
Page 236.
30.
(i)
31.
.
33.
(i)
34.
2.
35.
(i)
!;(//)
1
1.
;(ffi)
32.
()
1.
continuous,
i.
(Hi) 0.
2a/b.
(//)
Page 237.
43v2

38.
40.
(3db)l(a3c)
43.
min. (max.)
47.
if,
ad
5TT/3.
a max.
is
(min.)
and (b+d)l(a
c) is
Height=2(3i;/7r)*,radius
= (l/V2)(3i;/7r)^
where
is
the
27r{l
51.
The
(V2/3)} radians.
('
52.
2a \
2a\
2a \
C^'VS)' (3
3>
V3')'
ax being the equation of the parabola.
(3'
y* =
is I
least value
and the
is
(l/e)
Page 260.
.
(i)
(ii)
6Vx+a
(Hi)
.
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
3lJC8>^+9a=0
8x^31^ + 42^0.
x .y^O.
x+y=3a x y+a=Q.
x cos 3 5+^ sin 3 0=c x
13x~16);=2a
x+^^0;
sin 3
8
v cos ^
+ 2c*
cot 20 Q.
ANSWERS
Pages 260279]
397
Page 260.
5.
(0
(0, a)
(a, 0).
(11) (
(^.T>
>
/2a, y*a)
(V4a,*/2a)
(1. *
6.
Page 262.
"
'
Page 264.
1.
(i)
ir/4.
(/)
m h+m(a
2
3,
tan" 1
(ii)
/z0.
b)
two
V 16
The
Page 265.
a sin 2
3.
0,
a tan
sin 2 0, a sin 2
cos 0, a sin 3
tan
0.
Page 270.
(00/2. () 7r/2fw0.
1
(i) ir/2. (ii) tan .?.
1.
4.
(v)
2ir/3.
(v/) 7T/2.
Page 272.
6.
(i)
7.
()
0.
0/02.
/><*>/(
a^ 3
2fl
cos s 0 cosec
(i) 2fl
4.
g^ ^
ft
(//)
1+0M2+20
C")
tf
_2
sin 0.
2
).
Page 273.
2
9.
(i)
l/2J
1
(iv)
(v/)
(viii)
2
.
= l/r 2 +a 2 /r
2
8
=/J [o m +(l
l/p
4
=^l/r +l/a
e 2 !
2
(//)
4
.
r 1 .=(#s
yj^rsina.
a2 +2ar)/>
(v)
J
)r
J.
(v/7)
3
.
(ix)
Page 279.
'
x
cosh
CO
'
,
<
2.
I)]
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
398
[Pages 27929(>
Page 279.
4.
2
2
2
2
v'(^ sin 0+6 cos 0).
2
2
cos
3 sin
v/(a cos'
(/)
(ii)
(iv)
v/2tf e
(/)
2acos
5.
sin 2 0).
sin J0.
2tf
(ill)
a m lr m
(v) 00.
0/2.
(//)
ay (sec
<V(l+
(iv)
(vii)
f/>
(v)
)
a(0
l
.
+l).
m m~
v/2a
(v//7)
20).
cota
a cosec a e G
(111)
(v/)
l
/r
Page 288.
Concave downwards
Concave upwards in
2.
3.
in [0,
[
TT]
downwards
6.
in [ir/4, 5ir/4J.
For x^blZa.
(/)
(Hi)
(v)
j
(v/)
(ii)
("')
For x
(v/7)
ttf/v'.
For
(/.v)
x=
(v/)
ae* }
(/'/')
are
x\y.
(///)
are
x
9x
0,
5 and
(\ \>
"f
.x
y'*>
2j'l
0.
,'{(9.x+<>)>)
3 v /3v
{
0.
Page 289.
...
For*
2,
(4
i
v 'l8).
(....lT).
f].
(0,0).(///)
Psge 292.
Ex.
(i) c
(zv)
<
sec
'
1
tan
(/'/)
i//.
(v)
>{i.
4aoos^.
2fl
see 3 !/.
Page 296.
at.
2.
(i)
1/2.
(//)
1.
(HI)
3(a.vj)
(/v)
'
Y
/
(0, 0).
(.v/7)
9.
3\
(\ae
and
*
(1,3)
Inflexional tangents to
Inflexional tangents to
()).
\ '3).
(v//7)
(1,
(0, 2).
*(
Inl.
/:K
ANSWERS
Pages 297321]
399
Page 297.
10.
Wla.
2tflb,
14.
[(log2)/2, l/v/2].
20.
(8,
3).
Page 298.
9
23.
25.
(c +s*)lc.
Page 302.
(r*+aWn*r*f
,
*
'
r*r*n*+~2a*/i*
/(+ l)r"i.
(i/i)
3.
o/2.
(/v)
vfy'o").
3
5.
(i)
2p
/o
(")
(f'O r*//</>.
(m) a
6.
7
(/)
Page 303
10.
a.
12.
(3<i/2.
(/)
.U
(\/.
(//)
1/3).
Page 309.
9.
11.
(a\b)(x*+y
2
)
O//)2 _
^
* 2 fy 2
(0)
>o2
;
Page 315.
Ex.2.
Page 320.
1. * = 0,
y U/ = 0.
.r
(/)
yv
A*^ : ui,y^().
5.
.v=(),
7.
y=.Y
2, y~.v3.
9.
y
10.
x,
3,
y=0, y
y = x + ].
y x+2,
.Yfy =
= a.
\y
Lj</.
3.
r.v
(//)
13.
K&'2fl)=<>.
)'
/7
(Hi)
x=a. y6.
6.
y^xia, x^=a.
8.
.x
I
i
=0, y 0,
().
y (),
.Yfy=h v /2,
.v
i:l,y=
Page 321
13.
y = (>,
15.
x+y=2,
16.
yA'= 1.
14.
*=!.
4.
17.
19.
xhya^0.
20.
fl.
4.
18.
/c.
x\ajX.
2.
x=l.
12.
4.
y = xV2.
11.
;c
y =o
400
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
[Pages 321334
Page 321.
21.
22.
27.
x=y+
x=0.
Page 325.
1.
3.
3(>>x) 42=0.
5.
6.
X4.X 41=0,
7.
;>42
8.
10.
2.
3y+
x=
^=2^ + 1, y=*2x+2.
jp=x t
Page 328.
5.
7.
6.
3y+*=l.
y
8(^x)+7=0. 2(^3x)+3 =0.
8.
x3
9.
y=2x8 4l, y=
10.
x 4^=0, 2x
106^381x4105=0.
3(2^+^)45=0,
3
x=0.
6x 2 .y4llx7 3
6j
2*
1,
x+2j=0.
x^=2j,
3^
Page 331.
Ex.
(f)
tote according as
(//')
The curve
y=zx\\.
accordiug as x
Page 334.
lies
positive or negative.
is
+ ^2r sin
1.
tf=rsin
2.
3.
rcos6b=a.
4.
r cos
5.
2ram0=a,2e=ir.
6.
0=7r/4.
7.
r sin
rsmf/ 6
5.
00,
/>
\
9.
10.
12.
15.
(1
0).
r sin
8a^=0.
cos 0)42a=0.
7r(r
 )=
W TT
>v
7i0=/W7r where
n cos
is
rcos0=0.
AWTT
any
a=rsin(0.l).
System of
(04i7r)=0.
0a=;Q
parallel lines
integer.
integer.
11.
0=0.
13.
y+a=0.
y~ae
W7r
where n
14.
is
any integer or
zero.
16.
^411=0.
17.
^T\V
19,
a=2r
(ft\
==rr
(cos
sin
ei
6 )>
where
6 l is
0+sin 0)=0.
ANSWERS
Pages 338347
401
Page 338.
I.
4.
x=0, >=0.
>>==*.
2.
5.
Page 339.
1.
*=a.
(yl) =
2(*2a) =
3.
x=0.
y=x.
2.
V3>'v'2(**)
3.
bx~ay.
(x2).
V3(y*).
Page 341.
1.
Cusp at
(0, 0).
3.
Node
at
(0, 0).
Node
Node
at (a, 0).
at (2, 0).
2.
Cusp at
(0, 0).
Page 342.
4.
5.
6.
b\a
is less
b).
13.
No
14
(0,
multiple point.
0) are triple point
(fa,
0) are
cusps
node at
(a,0).
15.
(0,
a) is
point according as
a double point
a
16.
17.
18.
Page 345.
Single cusp of
Single cusp of
1.
2.
first species.
first species.
3.
4.
5.
7.
8.
Oscuinflexion.
6.
Page 347.
2.
2^2.
5.
VV17,
7.
3.
V2.
4.
6.
a,
*/2,
5*
402
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
C/O*'
Page 367
Page 367
85'
AXSWEAS
403
404
DlFfffiBENTIAL CALOTTLtfS
Pages
Page 368
405
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
406
[PagQS 377382
Page 377.
b*=l.
(iii)
,.
x=a
c*(
(ii)
cos
cos
'
0.
'
(iv)
(v)
(pX2
(VI)
2.
=C
2
.
x^+^=ci
(i)
(ii)
x^+^ = ci
(ii)
xyc=0.
(iff)
Page 378.
3.
2xy=c*.
(i)
5.
6.
(jc^j+j^j;)
9.
12.
13.
The
straight line
= 2a.
7.
p*xpy+(a+ap*+pq)=().
cos
,...,
r sin
(///)
16.
(i)
Kae(a
r 2 (e 2
1)
7T/2)
2/ er cos
cot a
Gr=
*)
cot a
CO
fl
e
2
0+2/ =0.
Page 379.
17
+ p)
Miscellaneous Exercises
II.
Page 379.
2a see 3
2.
4.
(0/2).
4:4/2
a.
Page 380.
2
14.
(9/
17.
(Jfl.
6/).
" UlS
1Q
a).
/2256 5
5
448i* \
'
3375V
'
(b '
Page 381.
28.
>'=xi*.
1) is an isolated point
(1,
(5, 3) and (5,
5) ate the
two points of inflexion.
x~a tanh a, .y^sech a is the required curve.
36.
382.
Page
x sin \t\y cos fat a sin /, x cos \ty sin ^/..3fl cos ?/.
40.
32.
47.
(/)
Isolated point.
(//)
INDEX
(Numbers refer
to
pages)
Discontinuity, 38
Double points, 336
Acceleration, 79
Angle of intersection,
of two curves, 262, 268
Approximate calculation, 207
Arcs, 274
, Derivative of, 274
Astroid,212,257
Asymptotes, 313
by expansion, 328
by inspection, 324
parallel to axes, 315
Cardioide, 249
Catenary, 238, 259
Cauchy's Theorem, 137
Cissoid, 244
Fnyelopes, 369
Epicycloid, 240
Equations,
,
Radius
of, 291
254
Composite, 209
Continuous, 37
Exponential, 23, 97
Homogeneous, 199
Hyperbolic, 67, 97
Implicit, 209, 292
,
,
Implicit, 243,
Intrinsic, 291
Inverse, 21, 88
 Inverse Hyperbolic, 70, 99
Inverse Trigonometric, 30, 93
Logarithmic, 25, 96, 100
20
, Monotonic,
of a function, 34, 86
of two variables, 193
Transcendental, 35
Trigonometric, 26, 89
,
Derivative, 72
,
of arcs, 274
Partial, 196
Sign of, 136, 150
Determinant, 107
Differentials, 206
Differential Coefficient, 72
Differentiation, 72
, Logarithmic, 100
of function of a function, 86
of implicit functions, 209
, of inverse functions, 88
Partial, 196
Repeated, 217
Geometric Interpretation,
Graphical representation, 14
Greatest values, 149
H
Homogeneous
functions, 199
Hypocycloid, 240
Successive, 113
292
Implicit Functions, 209,
Indeterminate forms, 165, 185
FFEBENTIAL OALOITLUA
408
Infinite limits, 48
179
, series,
Inflexion, 281
Inversion of operation, 53
267
Remainder, 142
Repeated derivatives, 217
Rolle's Theorem, 130
Right handed, 42
Left handed, 42
,
,
M
Maximum value, 148,
Minimum value, 148,
Mean value theorem,
223
223
133, 137
Modulus, 9
Monotonic functions, 20
Multipliers, 230
N
Newtonian Method, 293
Node, 336
Normal, 259
Numbers, Irrational, 5
Rational, 2
Real, 6
,
,
Maclaurin's 142
Sign of derivative, 136, 150
Singular points, 335
Smallest values, 149
,
,
,
,
,
interval, 13
Euler's, 199
Lagrange's, 133
Leibnitz's 121
Maclaurin's 142
Mean value, 133, 137
Rolle's, 130
Taylor's, 140, 220
on
limits, 52
Total differentials, 200
,
Singular, 335
13
Tangent, 254
Tangential Polar equations, 300
Taylor's Theorem, 140, 220
Theorem, Cauchy's, 140
Open