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Why did Dickens start the novel with so many contradictions?

Dickens started the novel with so many contradictions to give us a view of the
extreme differences between the classes at that time. The nobles were living
in comfort and luxury and the common people were living in poverty and
misery . The king of England was too busy with his wars to worry about his
own people’s poverty. The king of France and the nobles were concerned with
their own pleasure and wealth. Both kings were too busy to worry about the
poor hungry lower classes that began to make plans to get rid of their rulers
.Speak about the terrible conditions in France in the setting scene
People were living in terrible poverty and misery. And the nobles were ·
.spending money carelessly and enjoying their lives
Crime spread everywhere. People received cruel punishment even for small ·
to have his hands cut off, his ‫ يحكم عليه‬crimes. *A youth could be sentenced
.and his body burned alive ‫ كماشه‬tongue torn out with pincers
.As a result, there were secret plans and steps taken for a revolution ·
To revenge, trees were growing in the woods of France to be cut down to ·
‫ المقصلة‬make boards used in making, silently, a terrible machine (the guillotine
‫ عربات‬The poor suffering people of France prepared the rough carts (tumbrels ·
.that would carry those who would be punished at the guillotine later on (‫الموتى‬

.Speak about the state of disorder found in England in the setting scene
.In England there was no order or protection ·
took place in houses ‫ مسلحيين‬by armed men ‫عمليات سطو جريئة‬Daring robberies ·
. ‫ الطرق السريعة‬and on highways
.Highwaymen used to disguise and attack mails, robbing and killing ·
.There was boiling anger. Prisoners quarreled with their jailers ·
Thieves stole – boldly – diamond jewels from round the necks of people at ·

1.Why were the passengers all wrapped up?

= Why were the travelers in the Dover mail suspicious of each other?
They were wrapped up in heavy coats to hide themselves from each other. At
those times, people feared each other because there were many crimes on the
roads. People could be attacked by highwaymen. So they suspected each

?Why were private messages delivered in code.

At those times, people feared each other because there were many crimes on
the roads. People could be attacked by highwaymen everywhere. They
suspected each other. So private messages were delivered in code in order not
.to be recognized
?What surprising news did Mr. Lorry tell Luice.2
He told her about her father who she supposed was dead. Her father was
found alive after spending 18 year in the Bastille. He was set free and taken to
.the house of one of his servant in Paris
How was the Manette's family affected after the sudden disappearance of.3
?Dr. Manette
Dr Manette disappeared suddenly and mysteriously. His wife feared that some
enemy might have sent him to prison by a letter from the king. She tried to
search for him everywhere but couldn't find him. She became deeply sad and
.died from a broken heart
Lucie who was told that her father died became orphan and was left alone in
.the world

Commentry parts
” .Wait at Dover for Mam'selle“.1
This is the message that Jerry brought to Mr. Lorry from Tellson's bank. The
message was asking him to wait for Lucie Manette at Dover. The message was
.written in a code in order not to be discovered by others
”.Recalled to life“ .2
Mr. Lorry said these words to Jerry to give to people at Tellson's bank in reply
to their request to wait at Dover for Lucie Manette. The message was also told
in a code in order not to be recognized. The message refer to Dr. Manette
. …………………………who
”.I was happy. I will be more than happy to carry out the request“.3
Mr. Lorry said these words to Lucie when they met her at Dover. Mr. Lorry was
asked to wait for her. He, here, is expressing his happiness for her trusting
this business: take her to her father who was ‫ بـ يقوم‬him. He hopes to carry out
thought to be dead. Her father was found alive. And they would go to Paris to
.identify him and recall him back to life
I am a man of business. I have business to do When you hear what I have to“.4
”.say, only think of me as a speaking machine. In truth I am not much else
Mr. Lorry said these words to Lucie when she stopped him, asking if they didn’t
meet before. Mr. Lorry in a business-like manner asked her not to stop him
once more. In fact Mr. Lorry used to repeat the word “business”. He loved his
bank too much. He felt that he was responsible for it. So he had to tell her the
.story and take her to see her father
But he has been-been found. He is alive. Greatly changed, it is too“.5
.”probable; almost a wreck
Mr. Lorry tried to encourage Lucie with these words. Lucie felt too sad after
hearing that her father who was thought to be dead, was in Prison for eighteen
his loss of memory ‫ تسببت فى‬years. Of course his long imprisonment caused
...……………………………………and left him a man without life
We are going there: I, to identify him if I can, and you, to restore him to life,“.6
”.love, duty, rest and comfort
Mr. Lorry said these words to Lucie when he was telling her the surprising
. ..…………news about her father. He father was
”.I'm going to see his ghost! It will be his ghost, not him“.7
Lucie said these words to Mr. Lorry when he told her the surprisingews about
her father. Her father was…………………………………………………..………… .
.Lucie was afraid to see that man who must have been a wreck
What an idea! If it was ever intended that I should go across salt water, do“ .8
”.you think God would have put me on an island
Miss Pross said these words to Mr. Lorry when he asked if she accepted to
accompany Lucie to France. Miss Pross loves Lucie so much that she was
.ready to go anywhere for her sake
Chapter 3 The wine shop

Speak about Saint Antoine as a part of Paris and about the people who lived .1
.of the people ‫ بؤس‬there, giving an example of the misery
?How do you know that the people of St. Antoine were poor =
St. Antoine was a poor street in Paris. Its people were hungry and miserable.
When the barrel of wine was broken, they left their work and fought like beasts
to drink the muddy wine that ran along the street. They had never ‫وحوش‬
tasted wine before because of their poverty. They knew nothing but black
.bread and death
How did Defarge make use of the Doctor’s presence after he had been set .1
Defarge, Dr Manette’s old servant-kept him in a locked room. He used to allow
the Jacques (a revolutionary group) to watch Dr. Manette- an ex-Bastille
prisoner. He wanted to fill them with great hatred for the nobles and to urge
them to revolt against their injust ruler. This shows the seeds of revolution ‫يحث‬
.in Defarge’s heart
?On what occasion did Defarge accuse Gaspard of rashness .2
Defarge accused Gaspard of being rash when Gaspard wrote the word BLOOD
on the wall with the muddy wine in the street. He meant that a revolution
would break out and make blood flow as the red wine did in the street.
Defarge [as a leader of a revolutionary group working in secret (Jacques)]
.didn’t like anyone to feel their anger against the aristocrats
?What foreshadows the revolution in this chapter .1
Dickens, here, prepares us for the revolution and its happenings. Explain=
.The word blood Which Gaspard wrote on the wall ·
.The wine shop – the meeting place of the revolutionists ·
.The knitting work of Madam Defarge ·
."The revolutionary group called "Jacques ·
Are you a subject for the mad hospital? Why are you writing in the public“ .1
Defarge said these words to Gaspard, the man who wrote the word blood on
the wall. He blamed him for doing so in front of people. Defarge was the leader
of the "Jacques" a group working for the coming revolution. The word blood
here refers to the blood path of the nobles after the breaking out of the
It is not often that these miserable beasts know the taste of wine or“ .2
”.anything but black bread and death
So Much the worse! A bitter taste it is that such poor cattle always have in“=
” .their mouths, and hard lives they live
One of the Jacques said these words to Defarge and the other two men
drinking at the bar. They were all speaking about the poor people who ran to
drink the muddy wine. The people in Saint Antoine led a terrible life. They were
their rights. That’s why they began to plan ‫ يحرم من‬neglected and deprived of
.to get rid of the nobles
.”I show him to a chosen few, to whom the sight is likely to do good“ .3
Defarge said these words to Mr. Lorry when he asked him about the three
people who were looking at Dr. Manette. Defarge used to show them Dr.
Manette to increase their hatred for the aristocrats. The men, he was going to
show them the doctor, were members in groups working for the revolution. To
encourage them to get rid of the nobles he used to show them the victim of
.the Bastille
Chapter 4 five years later
?‫ إدانة‬denunciation/ ‫تهمة‬What was Charles Darney's accusation .1
?against Darney ‫دليل ضد‬/‫ الشهادة‬What was the evidence=
in London? Who were the witnesses brought ‫ تم محاكمته‬Why was Darnay tried=
?him? And how was he saved ‫ يشهد ضد‬to testify against
Darnay was put to trial in London because *he was accused of being a spy and
.of helping the French king in his wars against the king of England
He was accused of travelling between England and France and informing the*
French of what armies the king of England was preparing to send to Canada
.and North America
Six witnesses were brought to testify against him; John Barsad, Robbert Cly,*
.Lucie Manette, Dr. Manette, Mr. Lorry and another one
Stryver showed Barsad as a spy and traitor and Cly as a thief. So their*
witness was valueless. *Sydney Carton (Stryver’s assistant) helped Darnay a
great deal by drawing the attention of Stryver to the great physical similarity
the witness of the man ‫ أبطل‬between Carton and Darnay. This disproved ‫تشابه‬
who said that he saw Darnay waiting for someone in a hotel in a town where
.he was spying on the English army
Stryver said that Darnay was an innocent victim whose secret family affairs
.caused him to travel between the two countries

?How was Charles Darney acquitted in his first trial in London .1

The sixth witness gave evidence against Darnay when he said that he saw
.Darnay in a hotel in a town where there were soldiers
However Darnay was saved by the help of Sydney Carton. Carton drew the
attention of Stryver to the similarity between him and Darnay. Then Stryver
disproved the evidence of the sixth witness who could not identify the man he

?‫ مكيدة‬How was Darnay a victim of a wicked plot .1

Although he was a member of a noble family, Darnay didn't like the bad ways
.his uncle was doing to the poor people. So his uncle planned to get rid of him
Papers were put secretly in his drawers by his servant who was hired by John
Barsad. He was brought to trial in the Old Bailey and was falsely accused of
.being a spy working against the king of England
Six witnesses were brought to testify against him and he was coming near
.death. However, by the help of Carton, he was set free
?What were the good and weak points in the character of Sydney Carton .2
Carton is a memorable character. He had many weak points as well as good
Carton was a man of great powers and a good heart. He was clever and*
intelligent. He was useful to Stryver. He prepared all the cases for him. Carton
was frank; he told Darnay that he didn’t like him. Carton’s love was pure and
unselfish. He didn’t ask Lucie to return his love because he would bring her to
.misery. He gave his life to save Darnay for her sake
However Carton was sad, lonely and aimless in life. He was not successful in*
life. He was a perfect jackal working for the lion. Carton was careless. To forget
.drinking and liked mixing with bad friends ‫ يدمن‬his pains, he took to
Look at that gentleman over there and then look carefully at the prisoner."(1
"?What do you say? Are they very like each other
Stryver, the lawyer defending Charles Darney in his first trial in London, said
these words to the sixth witness. The sixth witness said that he saw Darney in
a town where there were soldiers, exchanging papers with people there.This
witness could have sent Darney to death. However Stryver could disprove this
witness when Carton drew his attention to the similarity between the prisoner
.and him
The sixth witness couldn't identify the man he saw in that town and Darney
.was set free
It's the wisest thing to expect and the likeliest. But I think their not agreeing"(1
".and requesting more time is in your favour
Carton said these words to Darney. Carton asked Darney if he was expecting
good or bad news about his case. Darney said he was expecting the worst.
Unlike Darney, . ‫ حكمة‬Carton – here – shows his admiration of Darney's wisdom
.Carton was optimistic about Darney's trial
",I have an obligation to you for life –in two senses"(2
Darney said these words to Mr. Stryver, the lawyer who defended him in his
first trial in London. Stryver praised himself for saving Darney's life as well as
his reputation. And here Darney is thanking him for this. Charles Darney was
. .………………………………………accused of
.”You have acted as if you do, but I don’t think you do“(1
Darnay said these words to Sydney Carton in answer to Caron’s question if he
thought Carton loved him. After the trial Carton and Darnay went to dine
together. Darnay thanked Carton for saving his life in court. But Carton who
was jealous of him asked if he thought he liked him. Darnay was surprised and
said that Carton acted as if he liked him but he did not believe that Carton
.really liked him
You're still like a see-saw, aren't you? Up one minute and down the next;"(1
".now in good spirits, now in despair
This part was said by Carton to Stryver when the latter commented on the
Carton. Carton felt desperate in life. He was careless and ‫ متقلب المزاج‬moody
had led a strange life since childhood. He used to work for his friends at school
.and never did his own work. And now he is doing the same for Stryver
Sydney Carton
A life you love beside you

The corner echoed and re-echoed with the tread of feet, some as it seemed in
".the room, some coming, some going and not one within sight
?”What did Charles Dickens mean by “echoing footsteps*
Early in the novel, the “echoing footsteps” is introduced at the corner of Soho
to link the quiet, happy life there with the mad dangerous footsteps in Paris.
This is Dickens’s habit of preparing the reader for what is to follow. These
footsteps will not surround only the Manettes but also all the persons present
at the tea time (Darnay – Carton – Miss Pross – Mr. Lorry). All these persons will
be dropping to Paris one by one for different aims starting with Mr. Lorry and
.ending with Carton
.Speak about Write short notes about Miss Pross(2
She was an English woman who had been caring for Lucie since she was a
child. She treated Lucie like a daughter, and was willing to give her life for
Lucie. She was an unselfish woman who was ready to make herself a slave
to her. She was from those women who were happy to be servants for ‫عبده‬
beauty which they had never had, and to bright hopes that they had never
shone upon their dark lives Mr. Lorry respected her much more than any other
.rich woman
Quotations with model answers on chapter 5
I don't want dozens of people who are not at all worthy of ladybird to come"(1
".here looking for her
Miss Pross said these words to Mr. Lorry when she was telling him about her
worries about Lucie. Miss Pross was complaining about
. ……………………………………………
.”To the best of my understanding he is afraid of the whole subject"(2
These words were said by Miss Pross to Mr. Lorry when the latter asked her if
she had ever heard the doctor mention anything about his prison days to Luice
Manette. She answered him saying that the doctor was afraid to talk about the
.whole subject or he would lose his mind once again
I have imagined them to be the footsteps of the people who are to come"(3
"into my life, and my father's
Lucie said these words to Darney when he asked her about the echoing
footsteps. These footsteps refer to the footsteps of the angry people after the
breaking out of the revolution. These footsteps would interfere in the
.………Manettes' lives

Questions with model answers on chapter 6

rude character”. Give an ‫ وقح‬The Marquis of Evremonde was an insolent(1
.example to show this
the poor people. ‫ يهين‬The Maquis was a hateful character. He used to insult
Even when he ran over the child (Gaspard’s son) with his carriage, he said it
wasn’t his fault and blamed the people for keeping their children in his way
He didn’t care about the dead boy. Moreover he gave his father . ‫عقبة فى طريقه‬
.the death of his child ‫ يعوضه عن‬a coin to make up for
?What event in Paris led to the murder of the Marquis(2
On his way back to his palace the Marquis de St Evremonde killed Gaspard’s
child under his carriage. The Marquis was haughty. When he had known that
the child died, he was only anxious about his horses. Later he threw out a gold
coin to the child’s father and thought that everything was all right. He called
do anything. They kept ‫ يجرؤ‬the people “dogs” but none of them dared to
for his son’s ‫ ينتقم‬looking at the Marquis with hatred in their eyes. To revenge
.death, Gaspard followed the Marquis and murdered him in his bed
?What was the point of difference between Darnay and his uncle(3
Although he was one of the Evermonde family, Darnay didn’t like his family's
life. Darnay told his uncle that the name of their family was hateful to the
French people because of the cruelty they did to them. The Marquis saw this a
.‫ دليل إحترام‬sign of respect
Darnay said that he gave up his father’s wealth because it was built on misery.
‫ نفد‬It was a tower of waste, debt, hunger and suffering. The Marquis criticized
‫ عار‬him a shame ‫ واعتبره‬this saying Darnay had a weak character and regarded
.in their family
Quotations with model answers on chapter 6

”.Be a brave man. It is better for the poor little thing to die so, than to live“ (1
Defarge said these words to Gaspard who was crying hard because the
Marquis's carriage ran over him. Defarge was trying to comfort him and
prevent him from attacking the Marquis. Gaspard got mad on seeing his child
run over under the wheels of the Marquis’s carriage. Because he was one of
the suffering people, Defarge saw it was better for the child to die than to live
.and lead a miserable life like them

”.We have done wrong, and we are reaping the fruits of our wrongs“(2
Darnay said these words to his uncle when he was telling him about his
who ‫ ضد الرستقراط‬intention to live in England. Charles was an anti-aristocrat
and his ‫ لقب اجتماعى‬social title ,‫ ميراث‬his Evermonde heritage ‫ رفض‬rejected
country. For him, his family’s wealth was based on the misery of the poor
people. That’s why they were hated by all. He wanted to repay the poor people
.for the wrongs his family did to them

”.Drive him fast to his tomb. This from JACQUES“(1

This is the message Gaspard left attached to the knife he used to kill the
Marquis who had killed his child. The Marquis's carriage ran over Gaspard's
child. He didn't care about the feelings of his father and threw a coin instead of
his dead child. Being one of the Jacques (the group preparing for the
revolution), Gaspard was so angry that he followed the Marquis and killed him
.in bed

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