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DISCOVERING COMPUTERS 2003

STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 1

Introduction to Computers
Chapter Overview

his chapter introduces basic computer concepts such as what a computer is, how
it works, and what makes it a powerful tool. You also learn about the
components of a computer. Next, the chapter discusses computer software,
networks, and the Internet. The many different categories of computers and computer
users also are presented. This chapter is an overview. Many of the terms and concepts
introduced are discussed further in later chapters.

Chapter Objectives
After completing this chapter, you should be able to:

Explain the importance of computer


literacy
Define the term computer
Identify the components of a
computer
Explain why a computer is a
powerful tool
Differentiate among the various
types of software

Explain the purpose of a network


Discuss the uses of the Internet and
the World Wide Web
Describe the categories of computers
and their uses
Identify the various types of
computer users
Understand how a user can be a Web
publisher

Chapter Outline
I. The digital revolution [p. 1.02]
The digital revolution is upon us, as computers extend into more facets of daily
living. Being computer literate means ___________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
II. What is a computer? [p. 1.04]
A computer is ______________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

1.1

1.2

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS

A. Data and information [p. 1.04]


Data is ______________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________
Information is ________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________
Computers process data to create information.
A user is _______________________________________________________
Hardware is __________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________
Software is __________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________
B. Information processing cycle [p. 1.05]
Input is ________________________________________________________
Output is _______________________________________________________
Computers process input ( _____________ ) into output ( ______________ ).
Storage is ______________________________________________________
The information processing cycle is __________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
III. The components of a computer [p. 1.05]
A. Input devices [p. 1.05]
An input device is ________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Common input devices: ___________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
B. Output devices [p. 1.06]
An output device is _______________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Common output devices: __________________________________________
C. System unit [p. 1.06]
The system unit is ________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
The system unit circuitry usually is part of or is connected to the motherboard.
Two main components on the motherboard are the CPU and memory.
The central processing unit (CPU) is ______________________________
____________________________________________________________

CHAPTER OUTLINE

1.3

Memory is ___________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________
D. Storage devices [p. 1.06]
A storage device records and retrieves ________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
A storage medium is the physical material on which a computer keeps the
data, instructions, and information.
Common storage devices: __________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
E. Communications devices [p. 1.08]
Communications devices enable ____________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Communications devices: __________________________________________
IV. Why is a computer so powerful? [p. 1.08]
A computers power is derived from its:
A. Speed [p. 1.08]
_______________________________________________________________
B. Reliability [p. 1.09]
_______________________________________________________________
C. Accuracy [p. 1.09]
_______________________________________________________________
The phrase garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) points out ___________________
_______________________________________________________________
D. Storage [p. 1.09]
_______________________________________________________________
E. Communications [p. 1.09]
_______________________________________________________________
V. Computer software [p. 1.10]
A computer program is _______________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
With some programs, you must install the program instructions on the computers
hard disk. When the computer executes the program, the instructions are loaded
from the hard disk into the computers memory.
Two types of software are system software and application software.

1.4

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS

A. System software [p. 1.12]


System software consists __________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Two types of system software are the operating system and utility programs.
1. Operating system [p. 1.12]
An operating system (OS) is ____________________________________
____________________________________________________________
2. Utility programs [p. 1.12]
A utility program is ___________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
3. User interface [p. 1.12]
The user interface controls how you enter data and instructions and how
information displays on the screen.
With a graphical user interface (GUI) you interact ___________________
____________________________________________________________
B. Application software [p. 1.13]
Application software consists _______________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Popular application software includes ________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Sources of application software:
1. Packaged software [p. 1.13]
Packaged software is __________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
2. Custom software [p. 1.14]
Custom software is ____________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
3. Freeware, public-domain software, and shareware [p. 1.14]
Freeware is _______________________________________________

_________________________________________________________
Public-domain software is ___________________________________

_________________________________________________________
Shareware is ______________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

CHAPTER OUTLINE

1.5

4. Application service provider [p. 1.15]


An application service provider is ________________________________
____________________________________________________________
C. Software development [p. 1.15]
A computer programmer is ________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
A systems analyst designs _________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
VI. Networks and the Internet [p. 1.16]
A network is _______________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
The Internet is ______________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
People use the Internet to _____________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
VII. Categories of computers [p. 1.19]
Computer categories are based on size, speed, processing capabilities, and price.
The six major categories of computers are:
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
VIII. Personal computers [p. 1.19]
A personal computer is ______________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Two popular series of personal computers are the PC and the Apple Macintosh.
Major categories of personal computers:
A. Desktop computers [p. 1.20]
A desktop computer is ____________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
A tower model has _______________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
An all-in-one computer is __________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
A workstation is _________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

1.6

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS

B. Notebook computers [p. 1.22]


A notebook computer is ___________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
IX. Handheld computers [p. 1.23]
A handheld computer is ______________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
A PDA (personal digital assistant) is ____________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Some handheld computers are Web-enabled. Other Web-enabled devices:
A Web-enabled cellular telephone allows _____________________________

_______________________________________________________________
A Web-enabled pager is ___________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

X. Internet appliances [p. 1.24]


An Internet appliance is ______________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
XI. Mid-range servers [p. 1.25]
A mid-range server is ________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
XII. Mainframes [p. 1.26]
A mainframe is _____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
XIII. Supercomputers [p. 1.26]
A supercomputer is __________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
XIV. Elements of an information system [p. 1.27]
An information system is comprised ____________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
For an information system to be successful, all of these elements must be present
and work together.
XV. Examples of computer usage [p. 1.28]
Different categories of users rely on computers for a variety of purposes.

CHAPTER OUTLINE

1.7

A. Home user [p. 1.29]


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
The digital divide is ______________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
B. Small office/home office user [p. 1.31]
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
E-commerce is __________________________________________________
C. Mobile user [p. 1.32]
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
D. Large business user [p. 1.33]
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Telecommuting is ________________________________________________
E. Power user [p. 1.35]
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Multimedia combines _____________________________________________
XVI. Computer user as a Web publisher [p. 1.36]
In addition to being a recipient of information on the Internet, users can provide
information to other connected users around the world.
Publishing a Web page is _____________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

1.8

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS

Users publish Web pages for a variety of reasons:


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Photo communities are _______________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

SELF TEST

1.9

Self Test
Matching
1. ____

input device

2. ____

output device

3. ____

system unit

4. ____

storage device

5. ____

communications
device

6. ____

packaged software

7. ____

custom software

8. ____

freeware

e. free software donated for public use with no


copyright restrictions

9. ____

public-domain
software

f. box-like case that protects a computers internal


electronic components from damage

shareware

g. enables computer users to exchange items with


another computer

10. ____

a. copyrighted retail software that meets the needs


of a wide variety of users
b. allows a user to enter data and instructions into
a computer
c. writes the instructions necessary to process data
into information
d. tailor-made programs developed at a users
request to perform specific functions

h. collection of computers connected together via


telephone lines, modems, or other means
i. copyrighted software provided by an individual
or company at no cost
j. records and retrieves items to and from a
medium
k. any component that can convey information to
a user
l. copyrighted software distributed free for a trial
period

True/False
____

1. Through computers, society has access to information from all around the
globe.

____

2. Without software, most hardware is useless; hardware needs instructions from


software to process data into information.

____

3. A mouse contains keys that allow you to type letters of the alphabet, numbers,
spaces, punctuation marks, and other symbols.

____

4. A peripheral is any internal device that resides inside the system unit.

____

5. Storage differs from memory in that it holds items only temporarily while the
processor interprets and executes them, whereas memory can hold items
permanently.

____

6. When two or more computers are connected together via communications


media and devices, they form a network.

____

7. A computer program might load into memory from the hard disk each time
you execute the program.

____

8. Hardware is the key to productive use of computers.

____

9. Most users connect to the Internet in one of two ways: through an Internet
service provider or through an online service provider.

____ 10. Few SOHO (small office/home office) computer users communicate with each
other through e-mail.

Multiple Choice
____

1. How does information differ from data?


a. information is a collection of raw unprocessed facts
b. information can include words, numbers, images, and sounds
c. information is organized, meaningful, and useful
d. information is processed to produce data

____

2. What are examples of input devices?


a. the keyboard and the mouse
b. the central processing unit (CPU) and memory
c. the printer and the monitor
d. all of the above

____

3. What component is not considered a peripheral?


a. the keyboard
b. the CPU
c. a microphone
d. a monitor

____

4. Why is a computer so powerful?


a. because it can perform the information processing cycle operations with
amazing speed, reliability, and accuracy
b. because it can store huge amounts of data
c. because it can communicate with other computers
d. all of the above

____

5. Word processing, spreadsheet, database, and presentation graphics software


are what type of software?
a. system software
b. operating systems
c. application software
d. utility programs

____

6. Instead of installing software on their computer, some people run programs


from the Internet and opt to use what for their software needs?
a. an Internet service provider (ISP)
b. an online service provider (OSP)
c. an application service provider (ASP)
d. an executable service provider (ESP)

____

7. Why do people use the Internet?


a. to meet or converse with people around the world
b. to access sources of entertainment and leisure

SELF TEST

1.11

c. to shop for goods and services


d. all of the above
____

8. What is a workstation?
a. a large, expensive, very powerful computer that can handle hundreds or
thousands of connected users simultaneously
b. a mainframe computer powerful enough to function as a server on a
network
c. an expensive, powerful desktop computer designed for work that requires
intense calculations and graphics capabilities
d. a popular type of handheld computer that often supports personal
information management applications

____

9. What is the fastest, most powerful category of computers and the most
expensive?
a. personal computers
b. minicomputers
c. mainframe computers
d. supercomputers

____ 10. A local law practice, accounting firm, travel agency, and florist are examples
of what type of computer user?
a. mobile user
b. small office/home office user
c. power user
d. large business user

Fill in the Blanks


1. A(n) ____________________ is someone that communicates with a computer or
employs the information it generates.
2. During processing, a computer processor places instructions to be executed and data
needed by those instructions into ____________________.
3. A graphical user interface uses visual images such as ____________________ that
represent programs, instructions, or some other object.
4. You are considered ____________________ when your computer connects to a
network.
5. The worlds largest network is the ____________________, a worldwide collection
of networks that links together millions of computers.
6. A(n) ____________________ computer can perform the information processing
cycle operations by itself without being connected to a network.
7. A(n) ____________________ is a computer that manages the resources on a
network.
8. Users typically access a mid-range server via a(n) ____________________, which
is a device with a monitor and a keyboard.
9. Some Web sites use a(n) ____________________, which is a video camera with
output that can be displayed on a Web page.

10. A(n) ____________________ is a freestanding computer, usually with a touch


screen that serves as an input device.

Complete the Table


CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS
Category
Physical size
Personal computer Fits on a desk
(desktop or notebook) or on your lap

Number of simultaneously
connected users
_____________________
_____________________

General price range


________________
________________

_______________

Fits in your
hand

_____________________
_____________________

Several hundred
dollars or less

Internet appliance

__________
__________

Usually one

________________
________________

_______________

__________
__________

Two to thousands

$5,000 to $850,000

Mainframe

Partial to full
room

_____________________
_____________________

________________
________________

_______________

__________
__________

Hundreds to thousands

Several million
dollars and up

Things to Think About


1. Do the four operations in the information processing cycle (input, process, output,
and storage) always have to be performed in order? Why or why not?
2. Why is each component of a computer system (input devices, system unit, output
devices, secondary storage devices) important?
3. Why is software the key to productive use of computers?
4. Why do mobile users often have notebook computers equipped with a modem?

PUZZLE

1.13

Puzzle
All of the words described below appear in the puzzle. Words may be either forward or
backward, across, up and down, or diagonal. Circle each word as you find it.

Interprets and carries out instructions

Organized, meaningful, useful data

Allows interaction using visual images

Data entered into a computer

Worldwide collection of networks

Freestanding computer, usually with a


touch screen

PC designed to connect to a network


Computer that can perform all information
processing activities

Can handle thousands of connected users

Often supports PIM applications

More powerful than a workstation

Process data into information


Collection of unorganized facts

Combines text, graphics, sound, video,


and other elements

Software provided at no cost to a user

Collection of connected computers

Electronic and mechanical equipment

Result of processing data

Small image that represents a program

People who write computer instructions

Temporarily holds data and instructions

Manages network resources

Software distributed free for a trial period

Box-like case housing computer circuitry

Instructions to process data into


information

Device with a monitor and a keyboard

Where data is held for future use


Fastest, most powerful computer

Communicates with a computer or uses


the information it generates
Expensive and powerful desktop
computer

SELF TEST ANSWERS

1.15

Self Test Answers


Matching
1. b [p. 1.05]
2. k [p. 1.06]
3. f[p. 1.06]
4. j[p. 1.07]
5. g [p. 1.08]
6. a [p. 1.13]
7. d [p. 1.14]
8. i[p. 1.14]
9. e [p. 1.14]
10. l[p. 1.14]

True/False
1. T [p. 1.03]
2. T [p. 1.04]
3. F [p. 1.05]
4. F [p. 1.06]
5. F [p. 1.06]
6. T [p. 1.10]
7. T [p. 1.10]
8. F [p. 1.11]
9. T [p. 1.18]
10. F [p. 1.31]

Multiple Choice
1. c[p. 1.04]
2. a [p. 1.05]
3. b [p. 1.06]
4. d [p. 1.08]
5. c[p. 1.13]
6. c[p. 1.15]
7. d [p. 1.17]
8. c[p. 1.21]
9. d [p. 1.26]
10. b [p. 1.31]

Fill in the Blanks


1. user [p. 1.04]
2. memory [p. 1.06]
3. icons [p. 1.12]
4. online [p. 1.16]
5. Internet [p. 1.17]
6. stand-alone [p.
1.21]
7. server [p. 1.21]
8. terminal [p. 1.25]
9. Web cam [p. 1.31]
10. kiosk [p. 1.34]

Complete the Table


CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS
Category
Physical size
Personal computer Fits on a desk
(desktop or notebook) or on your lap

Number of simultaneously
connected users
General price range
Usually one, or many
Several thousand___
networked_________
dollars or less_____

Handheld computer

Fits in your
hand

Internet appliance

Fits on a____ Usually one


countertop___

Several hundred___
dollars or less_____

Mid-range server_

Small cabinet
___________

Two to thousands

$5,000 to $850,000

Mainframe

Partial to full
room

Hundreds to thousands
__________________

$300,000 to several_
million dollars_____

Supercomputer___

Full room___
___________

Hundreds to thousands

Several million
dollars and up

Things to Think About


Answers will vary.

Usually one________
__________________

Several hundred
dollars or less

Puzzle Answer