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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 30, NO.

3, MARCH 2015

1147

Capacitor Voltage Balancing of a Five-Level ANPC


Converter Using Phase-Shifted PWM
Kui Wang, Member, IEEE, Lie Xu, Member, IEEE, Zedong Zheng, Member, IEEE, and Yongdong Li, Member, IEEE

AbstractFive-level active neutral-point clamped (5L-ANPC)


converter is an attractive topology for high-power medium-voltage
motor drives. This paper presents a capacitor voltage-balancing
method for the 5L-ANPC converter, including the voltage balancing of dc-link capacitors and flying capacitors. In order to ensure
that the series-connected or high-voltage switches of the 5L-ANPC
converter are operated at fundamental frequency and the other
switches are operated at a constant switching frequency, phaseshifted pulse width modulation is used to control this converter. The
relationship between the average neutral-point current and zerosequence voltage is investigated, and an optimum zero-sequence
voltage is calculated to regulate the neutral-point potential. The
voltage across the flying capacitor is also regulated by adjusting
the switching duty cycles of two PWM signals, which varies the
operation time of redundant switching states in each switching period. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify
the validity of this method.
Index TermsActive neutral-point clamped (ANPC), capacitor
voltage balancing, multilevel converter, phase-shifted pulse width
modulation (PWM), zero-sequence voltage.

I. INTRODUCTION
ULTILEVEL converters have been widely used in
high-voltage high-power applications since 1981 [1].
Among the existing multilevel converters, neutral-pointclamped (NPC), flying-capacitor (FC), and cascaded H-bridge
(CHB) multilevel converters are three classical multilevel
topologies that are the most widely used in the industry [2][7].
However, when the number of voltage levels increases, not only
the complexity to control the voltage across the dc-link capacitors in the NPC converter and the FCs in the FC converter, but
also the number of clamping diodes in the NPC converter, FCs
in the FC converter, and isolated transformer windings in the
CHB converter is greatly increased [8][10].
Modular multilevel converter (MMC) is an emerging multilevel converter topology which gains increasing attentions in

Manuscript received December 31, 2013; revised March 9, 2014; accepted


April 17, 2014. Date of publication April 29, 2014; date of current version
October 15, 2014. This paper was presented in part at the IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, Denver, CO, USA, September 1519, 2013.
Recommended for publication by Associate Editor F. H. Khan.
K. Wang, L. Xu, and Z. Zheng are with the State Key Laboratory of
Power System, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China (e-mail: wangkui@tsinghua.edu.cn; xulie@tsinghua.
edu.cn; zzd@tsinghua.edu.cn).
Y. Li is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University,
Beijing, China, and also with the School of Electrical Engineering, Xinjiang
University, Urumqi 830046, China (e-mail: liyd@tsinghua.edu.cn).
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2014.2320985

recent years [11][17]. It is comprised of a number of cascaded


half-bridges without transformer and the output voltage can
reach to hundreds of kilovolts. The most successful commercial
application of MMC is in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC)
transmissions [15][17]. When used in medium-voltage motor
drives, it suffers from low-frequency fluctuation in the floating
capacitors [12]. Therefore, the MMC would not be suitable for
constant-torque loads that require the rated torque in a low-speed
region.
Five-level active neutral-point clamped (ANPC) converter is
an attractive multilevel topology, which is more suitable for
high-performance medium-voltage motor drives [18][25]. Its
dc-link is subdivided into two parts and only four switches and
one FC are needed for clamping per phase; hence, the costs, volume, and control complexity can be reduced. The main problem
of this topology is the unequal voltage stresses of switches and
voltage balancing of the dc-link and FCs [19][23].
A new four-quadrant medium-voltage drive using this fivelevel ANPC topology is described in [19]. The direct torque
control method based on space-vector PWM (SVPWM) is used
to control this converter. A proper combination of three-phase
switching states is selected to produce the voltage vectors to
regulate the desired output voltage and balance the neutralpoint (NP) potential and FC voltages while maintaining the
same line voltage. However, the large number of redundant
voltage vectors and redundant switching states makes the control
method fairly complex. A five-level virtual-flux direct power
control for the five-level ANPC converter was implemented
in [20]. The switching frequency of the series-connected or
high-voltage switches is higher than the fundamental frequency,
which will increase the switching losses.
A phase-disposition PWM (PD-PWM) with zero-sequence
voltage injection method was proposed in [21] to control the NP
potential of the 5L-ANPC converter. The redundant switching
states are utilized to control the voltages across the FCs. However, the calculation and selection of zero-sequence voltage is
very complex and the switching frequency is not constant for
the outside switches with PD-PWM. In [22], a control strategy
based on selective harmonic elimination PWM was proposed
and the voltage across the FCs was balanced by swapping the
switching patterns. The NP voltage was regulated by adding
or subtracting a relatively small pulse to the switching pulse
signals [22], [23]. This method is very suitable for the highpower and low switching-frequency applications. However, the
voltage regulation ability is not strong due to the low switching
frequency and the capacitor voltage ripple will be high.
This paper focuses on the voltage-balancing issue of the 5LANPC converter, including the voltage balancing of dc-link

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 30, NO. 3, MARCH 2015

TABLE I
SWITCHING STATES OF THE 5L-ANPC CONVERTER

Fig. 1.

Single phase of the 5L-ANPC converter.

capacitors and FCs. The series-connected or high-voltage


switches are operated at fundamental frequency and the other
switches are controlled with PS-PWM, which can minimize the
higher silicon demand of the converter and lower the switching
losses. In order to balance the NP potential, the relationship between the average NP current and zero-sequence voltage under
PS-PWM is discussed and an optimal zero-sequence voltage
can be obtained easily. The voltage balancing of the FCs is also
achieved by adjusting the switching duty cycles of two PWM
signals slightly, which essentially varies the operation time of
the redundant switching states in each switching period. With
this method, the voltage-balancing control of the NP and FCs are
decoupled. The NP potential and FC voltages can be controlled
to a given value precisely and rapidly.
This paper is organized in the following way. In Section II,
the operating principles of the 5L-ANPC converter and the modulation method are introduced first. The NP potential-balancing
method based on zero-sequence voltage injection is discussed
in Section III, and the voltage balancing of FCs is discussed
in Section IV. In Section V, simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the proposed method, and finally,
conclusions are summarized in Section VI.
II. OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND MODULATION METHOD
A single phase of the 5L-ANPC converter is shown in Fig. 1.
Each phase of this converter consists of eight switches and an
FC. If the voltage across the FC is assumed constant and is
equal to Uc , then the voltages across the upper and lower dclink capacitors are 2Uc . So Sx3 , Sx3 , Sx4 , and Sx4 require two
switches connected in series or high-voltage switches to bear a
higher voltage 2Uc . All the switching states V0V7 are listed
in Table I, where x represents phase (a, b, or c), if x and iNPx
are the corresponding FC current and NP current and iox is the
phase current. Since (Sx1 , Sx1 ), (Sx2 , Sx2 ), (Sx3 , Sx3 ), and (Sx4 ,
Sx4 ) are complementary switch pairs and Sx3 and Sx4 require
the same switching signal, only Sx1 Sx4 are given in Table I.
The NP of the dc-link is referred as the zero potential.
From Table I, it can be seen that Sx3 and Sx4 are turned
OFF when the output voltage is negative and turned ON when
the output voltage is positive. So the series-connected or highvoltage switch pairs (Sx3 , Sx3 ) and (Sx4 , Sx4 ) can be operated
at fundamental frequency based on the polarity of the phase
voltage. The other switch pairs (Sx1 , Sx1 ), (Sx2 , Sx2 ) together

with FC Cf x can be regarded as a three-level FC converter


phase, so classic PS-PWM can be used to control the switch
pairs (Sx1 , Sx1 ) and (Sx2 , Sx2 ).
Defining the switching functions of switches Sx1 Sx3 be
Sf x1 Sf x3 , respectively, the instantaneous output voltage Vox
can be written as
Vox = [2 (Sf x3 1) + Sf x2 + Sf x1 ] Uc .

(1)

If Uc is selected as the base voltage value, then the range of


the output phase voltage is [2, 2]. In order to operate Sx3 at
fundamental frequency, Sf x3 can be decided as follows:

1, 0 uox 2
Sf x3 =
(2)
0, 2 uox 0
where uox is the reference output phase voltage. Then the reference modulation voltage urefx of (Sx1 , Sx1 ) and (Sx2 , Sx2 ) can
be written as follows:

uox /2,
Sf x3 = 1
urefx =
(3)
(uox + 2)/2, Sf x3 = 0.
The diagram of PS-PWM used for the 5L-ANPC converter
is shown in Fig. 2. The carrier signals for switches Sx1 and Sx2
are two triangular waves phase shifted by 180o . The resulting
PWM signals are switching functions Sf x1 and Sf x2 to control
the corresponding switches.
III. VOLTAGE BALANCING OF THE DC-LINK CAPACITORS
A. Modeling of the Average NP Current
From Fig. 1 and Table I, it can be seen that the load current
flows out of the NP when Sx3 and Sx2 are switched ON or Sx3
and Sx2 are switched ON. So the instantaneous NP current iNPx
can be written as

(1 Sf x2 ) iox , Sf x3 = 1
iNPx =
(4)
Sf x3 = 0
Sf x2 iox ,
If the carrier frequency is higher enough than the fundamental frequency, then the reference modulation voltage and phase
current can be assumed constant in a carrier period. So the duty
ratio of Sf x1 and Sf x2 in a carrier period is equal to the reference modulation voltage urefx . Based on (2)(4), the average

WANG et al.: CAPACITOR VOLTAGE BALANCING OF A FIVE-LEVEL ANPC CONVERTER USING PHASE-SHIFTED PWM

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If um id > 0, then (7) can be written as


iNP = (um ax im ax + um id im id um in im in )/2

(9)

where im in , im id , and im ax are the phase currents corresponding


to um in , um id , and um ax .
After zero-sequence voltage injection, the average NP current
can be written as


iNP = (um ax im ax + um id im id um in im in )/2


= iNP (im ax + im id im in ) uz /2.

(10)

If um id < 0, then (7) can be written as


iNP = (um ax im ax um id im id um in im in )/2. (11)
After zero-sequence voltage injection, the average NP current
can be written as


iNP = (um ax im ax um id im id um in im in )/2


= iNP (im ax im id im in ) uz /2.
Fig. 2.

Diagram of PS-PWM used for the 5L-ANPC converter.

NP current of a single phase in a carrier period can be written


as

(1 uox /2) iox , 0 uox 2
(5)
iNPx =
(1 + uox /2) iox , 2 uox 0.
Then, the total average NP current is
iNP = iNPa + iNPb + iNPc
= (ioa + iob + ioc ) (|uoa | ioa + |uob | iob + |uoc | ioc )/2.
(6)
For a three-phase three-wire system, there exists ioa + iob +
io c = 0. So (6) can be written as
iNP = (|uoa | ioa + |uob | iob + |uoc | ioc )/2.

(7)

B. NP Potential-Balancing Method
As a most important freedom degree in the carrier-based
PWM, zero-sequence voltage does not influence the output line
voltage and current. It leads to different pulse patterns and so
results to different NP currents [26]. If a zero-sequence voltage
uz is injected into the three-phase reference voltages, the actual
phase voltage and reference modulation voltage can be written
as
 
uox = uox + uz
(8)
urefx = urefx + uz /2.
In order to operate the series-connected or high-voltage
switches at fundamental frequency, the polarity of the initial
three-phase voltages cannot be changed after zero-sequence
voltage injection. Defining the minimal, medium, and maximal values of uoa , uob , and uoc be um in , um id , and um ax ,
respectively, since um ax + um id + um in = 0, there must exist
um ax > 0 and um in < 0, only the polarity of um id is uncertain.

(12)

According to (10) and (12), the average NP current is linearly proportion to the zero-sequence voltage. In order to ensure the polarity of the three-phase voltages unchanged after
zero-sequence voltage injection, according to (8), the region of
zero-sequence voltages is limited to
uref ,m in uz /2 1 uref ,m ax

(13)

where uref ,m in and uref ,m ax are the minimal and maximal values
of uref a , uref b , and urefc , respectively. Then, the maximal and
minimal values of uz are

uz m ax = 2(1 uref ,m ax )
(14)
uz m in = 2uref ,m in .
The two boundary values of average NP current after zerosequence voltage injection can be calculated by plugging uz m ax
and uz m in into (10) or (12). According to the actual upper and
lower dc-link capacitor voltages, the demanded NP current that
is used to balance the NP potential can also be calculated easily
[21]
INP,ref = Cd

udc2 udc1
Ts

(15)

where Cd is the upper/lower dc-link capacitor and Ts is the carrier period. Suppose that the two boundary values corresponding
to uz m ax and uz m in are INP,m ax and INP,m in . Then, an optimum
zero-sequence voltage uz ref can be calculated by adopting the
linear interpolation algorithm
uz ref =

uz m ax uz m in
INP,ref
INP,m ax INP,m in
+

uz m in INP,m ax uz m ax INP,m in
.
INP,m ax INP,m in

(16)

With this optimum zero-sequence voltage uz ref , the NP potential can be balanced effectively with the most appropriate
NP current. The control block diagram of the NP potentialbalancing method is shown in Fig. 3.

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Fig. 3.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 30, NO. 3, MARCH 2015

Control block diagram of the NP potential-balancing method.

IV. VOLTAGE BALANCING OF THE FCS


In order to balance the FC voltages, another freedom degree
of the 5L-ANPC converter is used: redundant switching states.
From Table I, it can be seen that the redundant switching states
for voltage levels Uc and Uc have different effects on the FCs.
The load current flows out of the FC when Sx2 and Sx1 are
switched ON and into it when Sx2 and Sx1 are switched ON. So
the instantaneous FC currents if x can be written as
if x = (Sf x1 Sf x2 ) iox .

(17)

The average FC current in a carrier period is


if x = (dx1 dx2 ) iox

(18)

where dx1 and dx2 are the duty cycles of Sf x1 and Sf x2 in a carrier period, respectively. When using classic PS-PWM, dx1 and
dx2 are equal. So, under ideal and steady-state conditions, the
average FC current is zero and the FC voltage can be naturally
balanced. This characteristic can also be easily obtained in the
FC multilevel converter when PS-PWM is used [27][30]. However, it also may diverge under nonideal and dynamic conditions
if not controlled.
According to (18), a way to regulate the average FC current
is to adjust the duty cycles of Sf x1 and Sf x2 , which varies the
operation time of redundant switching states (V1, V2) or (V5,
V6) essentially. So the PS-PWM method should be modified
slightly to achieve this goal.
Taking Uf x > Uc and iox > 0 as an example, the FC needs to
be discharged. As shown in Fig. 4, there are two cases that should
be considered respectively: 0 urefx 1/2 and 1/2 urefx
1, but the consequences are the same. If the duty cycle of Sf x1
is decreased by t symmetrically, and the duty cycle of Sf x2
is increased by t symmetrically, the output voltage remains
unchanged, but the average FC current becomes negative and

Fig. 4.

Voltage balancing of FCs: (a) 0 u re fx 1/2 and (b) 1/2 u re fx 1.

can be written as
if x =

2t
iox .
Ts

(19)

WANG et al.: CAPACITOR VOLTAGE BALANCING OF A FIVE-LEVEL ANPC CONVERTER USING PHASE-SHIFTED PWM

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TABLE II
CIRCUIT PARAMETERS USED FOR SIMULATION

Fig. 6. Simulation results of m = 0.2: (a) dc-link capacitor voltages and


(b) FC voltages.

Fig. 5.

Simulation results: (a) phase voltage and (b) line voltage.

It is similar for Uf x < Uc or iox < 0. If the duty cycle of


Sf x1 is increased by t symmetrically, and the duty cycle of
Sf x2 is decreased by t symmetrically, the average FC current
is positive
if cx =

2t
iox .
Ts

(20)

The time width t is very small and can be controlled by a


PI regulator or a hysteresis comparator. With this method, the
FC voltage can be balanced easily.

Fig. 7. Simulation results of m = 0.8: (a) dc-link capacitor voltages and


(b) FC voltages.

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 30, NO. 3, MARCH 2015

Fig. 8. Simulation waveforms of zero-sequence voltage and reference modulation voltages: (a) m = 0.2; (b) m = 1.15.

Fig. 9. Dynamic simulation results with m = 0.2: (a) dc-link capacitor voltages and (b) three-phase FC voltages.

V. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS


A. Simulation Results
Simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink are presented
to verify the proposed voltage-balancing method. The circuit
parameters used for simulation are summarized in Table II.
Figs. 58 show the performance of the proposed capacitor
voltage-balancing method under steady states with different
modulation indices. Fig. 5 shows the phase voltage and line
voltage with the modulation index m = 0.8. The phase voltage
has five levels and the line voltage has nine levels. Fig. 6 shows
the voltages across the dc-link capacitors and FCs with m = 0.2,
and Fig. 7 shows the voltages across the dc-link capacitors and
FCs with m = 0.8. The capacitor voltages under different conditions are all balanced with the proposed voltage-balancing
method.
Fig. 8 shows the waveforms of zero-sequence voltage and
reference modulation voltages before and after zero-sequence
voltage injection. When the modulation index is very small,
according to (13), the span of the zero-sequence voltage is very
wide. When the modulation index reaches to the maximal value
of 1.15, the span of the available uz is very small and the primary

role of the zero-sequence voltage is to avoid overmodulation,


which will make the voltage-balancing effect not so well.
In order to demonstrate the dynamic performance of the
voltage-balancing method, Figs. 9 and 10 give the simulation results under dynamic states with m = 0.2 and m = 0.8,
respectively.
As can be seen from Figs. 9(a) and 10(a), the upper and
lower dc-link capacitor voltages are controlled balanced first
and, suddenly at t = 2 s, are set to 5% higher and lower than
the nominal value. The two voltages diverge and stabilize at the
given values rapidly. At t = 6 s, the dc-link capacitor voltages
are controlled back to the nominal value and balanced again.
The situation is similar for the FCs. The three-phase FC voltages are controlled to 1/4 of the dc-link voltage at first and,
suddenly at t = 2 s, are set to 20% higher than, equal to, and
20% lower than the nominal value, respectively. As shown in
Figs. 9(b) and 10(b), the three voltages diverge and gradually
stabilize at the new given values. At t = 6 s, the three voltages
are controlled and balanced again.

WANG et al.: CAPACITOR VOLTAGE BALANCING OF A FIVE-LEVEL ANPC CONVERTER USING PHASE-SHIFTED PWM

Fig. 11.

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Experimental prototype.

Fig. 10. Dynamic simulation results with m = 0.8: (a) dc-link capacitor voltages and (b) three-phase FC voltages.

B. Experimental Results
A low-power three-phase 5L-ANPC converter prototype has
been built up to verify the proposed control method, as shown
in Fig. 11. The circuit parameters are the same as the simulation
parameters in Table II. In the experiments, the capacitor voltage
control method is investigated with various modulation indices.
For the voltage-balancing control of FCs, the time width t is
set to 20% of the initial time width in the experiments.
Fig. 12 shows the experimental results of the phase voltage,
line voltage, and phase current with modulation index m = 0.8.
Figs. 13 and 14 present the steady-state voltage waveforms of
dc-link capacitors and FCs with modulation indices m = 0.2
and m = 0.8, respectively. It can be seen that the voltages of
dc-link capacitors and FCs are all well balanced. The voltage
ripples increase with the load current.
Fig. 15 shows the dynamic-state waveforms of load changes
from full load to half load and then to full load again with
m = 0.2 and m = 0.8. It can be seen that the dc-link and FC
voltages remain stable during the whole process.
Fig. 16 shows the dynamic-state waveforms when the capacitor voltages are controlled to different values. The voltages
of dc-link capacitors and FCs are controlled balanced at the

Fig. 12. Experimental results of (a) phase voltage (100 V/div), (b) phase to
phase voltage (200 V/div), and (c) phase current (5 A/div).

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 30, NO. 3, MARCH 2015

Fig. 15. Experimental results of load step changes with (a) m = 0.2 and
(b) m = 1.0. From top to bottom: phase current (10 A/div), dc-link capacitor
voltages (25 V/div), and FC voltages (25 V/div).

Fig. 13. Experimental results of (a) dc-link capacitor voltages (2.5 V/div) and
(b) three-phase FC voltages (1 V/div) with m = 0.2.

Fig. 14. Experimental results of (a) dc-link capacitor voltages (2.5 V/div) and
(b) three-phase FC voltages (1 V/div) with m = 0.8.

Fig. 16. Dynamic experimental results of dc-link capacitor voltages (5 V/div)


and three-phase FC voltages (10 V/div) with (a) m = 0.2 and (b) m = 0.8.

WANG et al.: CAPACITOR VOLTAGE BALANCING OF A FIVE-LEVEL ANPC CONVERTER USING PHASE-SHIFTED PWM

beginning. At t = 2 s, the upper and lower dc-link capacitor


voltages are set to 5% higher and 5% lower than the nominal
value. The FC voltages are set to 20% higher than, equal to, and
20% lower than the nominal value. All the capacitor voltages
gradually stabilize at the new given values. At about t = 6.5 s,
all the capacitor voltages are set back to the nominal values and
balanced again with the proposed voltage-balancing method.
The above simulation and experimental results demonstrate
that the proposed voltage-balancing method has an effective and
powerful control to the NP potential and FC voltages.
VI. CONCLUSION
A capacitor voltage-balancing method for the 5L-ANPC converter using PS-PWM is proposed in this paper. The seriesconnected or high-voltage switches can be operated at fundamental frequency and the other switches are operated at the
same constant switching frequency. The voltage balancing of
dc-link capacitors is achieved by zero-sequence voltage injection. The relationship between the average NP current and the
zero-sequence voltage is discussed, and it can be concluded that
the average NP current is linearly proportional to the zerosequence voltage under PS-PWM. So, an optimum zerosequence voltage can be calculated to regulate the dc-link capacitor voltages. The voltages across the FCs are regulated by
adjusting the duty cycles of the PWM signals, which essentially
varies the operation time of redundant switching states in each
switching period. Simulation and experimental results verify the
validity of this method.
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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 30, NO. 3, MARCH 2015

Kui Wang (M11) was born in Hubei, China, in 1984.


He received the B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical
engineering from the Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in 2006
and 2011, respectively.
He is currently a Faculty Member with the
Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua
University. His research interests include multilevel converters, control of power converters, and
adjustable-speed drives.

Zedong Zheng (M09) was born in Shandong, China,


in 1980. He received the B.S. and Ph.D. degrees
in electrical engineering from the Department of
Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing,
China, in 2003 and 2008, respectively.
He is currently a Faculty Member with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University.
His research interests include power electronics converters and high-performance motor control systems.

Lie Xu (M11) was born in Beijing, China, in 1980.


He received the B.S. degree in electrical and electronic engineering from the Beijing University of
Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, in 2003, and
the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from The University of
Nottingham, Nottingham, U.K., in 2004 and 2008,
respectively.
From 2008 to 2010, he was a Research Fellow with
the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Nottingham. He is currently
a Faculty Member with the Department of Electrical
Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing. His research interests include multilevel techniques, multilevel converters, direct acac power conversion, and
multilevel matrix converter.

Yongdong Li (M08) was born in Hebei, China, in


1962. He received the B.S. degree from the Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China, in 1982, and the
M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the Department of Electrical Engineering, Institut National Polytechnique
de Toulouse, Toulouse, France, in 1984 and 1987,
respectively.
Since 1996, he has been a Professor with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. He was also an Invited Professor
with the Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse
and the Dean of the School of Electrical Engineering, Xinjiang University,
Urumqi, China. His research interests include power electronics, machine control, and wind power generation.