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Risk Management for Hazardous Chemicals

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MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET


CHEMICAL NAME

CRC PRESS/LEWIS PUBLISHERS DISCLAIMER: THE INFORMATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS PRESENTED


HEREIN ARE BASED ON SOURCES BELIEVED TO BE RELIABLE. CRC MAKES NO REPRESENTATION ON ITS
COMPLETENESS OR ACCURACY. IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE USER TO DETERMINE THE CHEMICAL'S
SUITABILITY FOR ITS INTENDED USE, THE CHEMICAL'S SAFE USE, AND THE CHEMICAL'S PROPER DISPOSAL. NO
REPRESENTATIONS AND/OR WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, OF THE MERCHANTABILITY OR
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR OF ANY OTHER NATURE, ARE MADE WITH RESPECT TO THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THIS MSDS OR TO THE CHEMICAL TO WHICH INFORMATION MAY REFER. CRC NEITHER
ASSUMES NOR AUTHORIZES ANY OTHER PERSON TO ASSUME FOR IT, ANY OTHER ADDITIONAL RESPONSIBILITY OR
LIABILITY FOR THE USE OF, OR RELIANCE UPON, THIS INFORMATION.

ACETONE

HAZARD WARNING INFORMATION


HEALTH

FIRE

REACTIVE

OTHER

DEGREE OF HAZARD
0 = Minimum Hazard
1 = Slight Hazard
2 = Moderate Hazard
3 = Serious Hazard
4 = Severe Hazard

COLOR CODING
HEALTH = BLUE
FIRE = RED
REACTIVITY = YELLOW
OTHER = WHITE

OTHER CODES
OX = Oxidizer
ACID = Acid
ALK = Alkali
COR = Corrosive
W = Use No Water

SECTION I - GENERAL INFORMATION


Characterization

RCRA Number

Ketone

EPA Class

U002

DOT Proper Shipping Name

Toxic Waste

Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Number

Acetone

67-64-1

DOT Hazard Class and Label Requirements

DOT Emergency Guide Code

Flammable Liquid

26

DOT Identification Number

Chemical Formula

UN 1090/UN 1091

C 3H6CO

Synonyms

Dimethylketone; 2-propanone; pyroacetic acid; pyroacetic ether; methyl ketone.

SECTION II - HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS AND IDENTITY INFORMATION


Hazardous Components (specific identity)

Acetone

(derivation: From oxidation of


cumene; dehydrogenation or oxidation of
isopropyl alcohol with metallic catalyst; vapor
phase oxidation of butane; by-product of
synthetic glycerol production).

1 ppm = 2.42 mg/m3

OSHA Exposure Criteria

NIOSH Exposure Criteria

PEL:
1000 ppm
2400 mg/m3

REL (10 hour):


245 ppm
590 mg/m3

STEL:
1000 ppm
2400 mg/m3

STEL:
Not
Established

Immediately Dangerous to
Life and Health (IDLH)

ACGIH Exposure Criteria

TLV:
750 ppm
1815 mg/m3
20,000 ppm
STEL:
1000 ppm
2400 mg/m3

SECTION III - PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS


Boiling Point
Vapor Pressure (mm Hg)

Specific Gravity (H2O = 1)

133F (56C)

0.79
Molecular Weight

180 at 69F (20C)

58.08

Vapor Density (Air = 1)

Freezing Point

2.00

-140F

Solubility

Miscible (also miscible with alcohol, ether, and chloroform).


Appearance and Odor

Colorless liquid with a fragrant, mint-like odor.

SECTION IV - FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA


Flash Point (method used)

1.4F (-17C) closed cup

NFPA Classification

Explosive Limits in Air % by Volume

LEL: 2.5%

UEL: 12.8%

Autoignition Temperature

Class 1B Flammable Liquid

869F (465C)

Extinguishing Media

Carbon dioxide, dry chemical, alcohol foam.


Special Fire Fighting Procedures

Wear full protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Heat will build pressure
and may rupture closed storage containers. Fight fire from a distance if possible. Keep fire-exposed
containers cool with water spray. Vapors are heavier than air; they may travel a distance to flashback
and cause fire.
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards

Explodes when mixed with nitric-sulfuric acid mixture in narrow container. Violent explosion may occur when mixed with permonosulfuric acid. Poisonous gases are produced in fire.
1996 by CRC Press, Inc.

Risk Management for Hazardous Chemicals

Page: 2

SECTION V - REACTIVITY DATA


Conditions to Avoid

Do not allow acetone to come into contact with any of the incompatible chemicals listed below. Avoid contact with fire or high heat sources. Acetone is highly volatile. Do not use in confined spaces.

Stability
Stable

Unstable

Incompatibility (materials to avoid)

Nitric-sulfuric acid mixtures, oxidizers, acids, chromium trioxide, sulfuric acid-potassium dichromate; chloroform and a base (caustic soda); hydrogen peroxide; nitrosyl perchlorate; sodium hypobromate.

Conditions to Avoid

Hazardous
Polymerization
May Occur

Working in confined spaces or closed, poorly ventilated areas with acetone; combining with acids or oxidizers.

Will Not Occur

Hazardous Decomposition or By-products

When heated to decomposition, acetone emits acrid, irritating smoke and fumes. Reacts to form explosive
peroxide products with 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, hydrogen peroxide.

SECTION VI - HEALTH HAZARD DATA


Primary Route(s) of Entry:

Inhalation?

Absorption (skin)?

Ingestion?

Health Hazards

INHALATION: Eye, nose, and throat irritant. Produces narcotic effects. Headache, nausea, dizziness,
muscle weakness, loss of coordinated speech, drowsiness, dryness in the mouth.
ABSORPTION: Skin contact can result in irritating rash or burning feeling. Can cause severe eye burns
leading to permanent damage. Can result in sensitization following repeated contact.
INGESTION:

Headache, dizziness, dermatitis, stupor, vomiting, and possibly coma.

Carcinogenicity

NTP Listed?

Unknown Human
Unknown Animal

No

IARC Cancer Review Group?

OSHA Regulated?

Target Organs?

No

29 CFR 1910.1000
(Table Z-1)

Respiratory system; skin;


eyes; CNS.

Medical Conditions Generally Aggravated by Exposure

Respiratory function impairments (asthma, etc.); Nervous disorders; Skin conditions (dermatitis).
Emergency and First-aid Procedures

Eye contact: Immediately flush large amounts of water for 15 minutes (minimum), occasionally lifting
eyelids, seek medical attention. Skin contact: Remove all contaminated clothing. Immediately wash
area with large amounts of soap and water. For inhalation: Remove the person from exposure. Provide
respiratory assistance and CPR. Transfer promptly to medical facility. If swallowed, seek medical attention immediately. Never try to give an unconscious person anything by mouth.

SECTION VII - PRECAUTIONS FOR SAFE HANDLING AND USE


Steps to be Taken in Case Material is Released or Spilled

Remove all ignition sources. Restrict persons not wearing protective equipment from entering area of
spill or leak until clean-up is complete. Ventilate area. Absorb liquid in dry sand or other material and
deposit in sealed containers. Alert appropriate state or federal response agencies.
Preferred Waste Disposal Method

Incineration (with afterburner and scrubber).


Precautions to be Taken in Handling and Storage

Acetone is highly volatile. Do not store with incompatible chemicals since violent reactions can occur.
Store in tightly closed containers in a cool, dark, well-ventilated area away from fire, sparks, and flame.
Use non-sparking tools on containers. Ground and bond metal containers during transfer operations.
Other Precautions and Warnings

Bulk storage of acetone is not recommended. Containers may explode in fire or under conditions of
extreme heat (do not store outdoors or in direct sunlight).

SECTION VIII - CONTROL MEASURES AND PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT


Respiratory Protection (specify type)

Exposures above 250ppm: MSHA/NIOSH approved full-facepiece respirator with organic vapor cartridge. Greater protection is obtained from a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) with full facepiece and pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
Ventilation

Local exhaust or general mechanical systems recommended.


Protective Gloves

Solvent Resistant Butyl Rubber

Eye Protection

Chemical Goggles and/or Face Mask

Other Protective Clothing

Rubber Apron

Work/Hygiene Practices

Always wash hands thoroughly after using chemical; never bring food, drink, or smoking materials into
vicinity of chemicals.

1996 by CRC Press, Inc.

Risk Management for Hazardous Chemicals

Page: 3

ACETONE
C2H6CO

CAS: 67-64-1

3
H 3C

CH3

IDENTIFICATION AND TYPICAL USES


Acetone is a colorless liquid with a sweet, fragrant,
mint-like odor. It is used in the manufacture of a large
number of compounds, such as acetic acid, chloroform,
meityl oxide, and methyl isobutyl ketone. It is also
used in the manufacture of rayon, photographic films,
and explosives. As a common solvent, it is found in
paint and varnish removers, and for purifying paraffins.
It is used as a spinning solvent to clean and dry parts of
precision equipment. It is used in specification testing
of vulcanized rubber products. Acetone is also used as
a chemical intermediate in the production of pharmaceuticals and plastic or resin materials. Acetone is also
used in the production of drugs of abuse.

1 Acute Health Effects


The following acute (short-term) health effects may
occur immediately or shortly after exposure to acetone:
Skin:

Irritation/rash or burning sensation on contact.

Eye:

Burns which can lead to permanent damage.

Lung: Irritation causing coughing and/or shortness of


breath. Higher exposures can cause drowsiness, headache, and, possibly, coma.
CNS:

Inhalation of high concentrations of the vapor


may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and possible loss of consciousness.

0 Chronic Health Effects


The following chronic (long-term) health effects may
occur at some time after exposure to acetone and can
last for months or even years:

RISK ASSESSMENT: HEALTH


General Assessment
While no carcinogenic or mutagenic effects in humans
have been reported, human exposure to acetone can
result in harmful effects. Such exposures can occur in
three ways: inhalation, absorption, and ingestion.
Each presents a low-to-moderate level of toxicity. The
acute toxicity in test animals was found to be low. Reports of human exposures show a need for some concern.
Inhalation of acetone vapors in high concentrations
(above 10,000 ppm) produces dryness of the mouth and
throat, dizziness, nausea, uncoordinated movements,
loss of coordinated speech, drowsiness, and in extreme
cases, coma. Human systemic effects from inhalation
include changes in brain wave signatures (EEG),
changes in carbohydrate metabolism, nasal effects,
conjunctiva irritation, respiratory system effects, weakness, and vomiting.
Ingestion can result in vomiting, stupor, shallow
respiration, and possibly coma. Systemic effects include kidney damage and metabolic changes. Skin or
eye contact produces severe irritation and possibly
damage (to eyes).

Cancer Hazards: According to information presented


in the references, exposure to acetone does not currently lead to carcinogenic or mutagenic effects. There
are no reports to support any claims of reproductive
hazards.
Sensitivity: Exposure to the skin may result in allergy
(sensitization). If allergy develops, very low future
exposure can result in skin irritation and rash. Repeated exposure can cause chronic irritation of the eyes
and lungs.
Other Chronic Effects: High exposures over time may
damage the liver and kidneys. Long-term exposures
can also cause chronic nose and throat irritation.

Recommended Risk-Reduction Measures


Personnel should avoid direct contact with acetone.
Unless a less toxic chemical can be substituted for a
hazardous substance, engineering controls are the most
effective method of reducing exposures. The best protection is to enclose operations and/or provide local
exhaust ventilation at the site of chemical release.

1996 by CRC Press, Inc.

Risk Management for Hazardous Chemicals

Page: 4

While not always operationally feasible, isolating operations can also reduce exposure. Using respiratory
protection is less effective than the controls mentioned
above, but is still advisable whenever working with
acetone. A NIOSH-approved, full-facepiece organic
vapor respirator is sufficient for low exposures. A selfcontained breathing apparatus (SCBA) with full facepiece and pressure demand is the recommended respiratory protection of choice. If a full facepiece is not
available, then chemical goggles should be worn to
protect the eyes. Whenever a chemical splash hazard
exists, a face shield and a rubber apron should be worn.
To prevent hand and skin exposures, butyl rubber
gloves should be worn.
Administrative controls should also be in place to
minimize the potential for human exposures. These
may include written procedures or policies which specify the methods and techniques that will be practiced
whenever personnel are to work with acetone.
All personnel should receive training on the use,
hazards, protective measures, emergency actions, and
other precautions per 29 CFR 1910.1200 (Hazard
Communication), prior to the first assignment in an
area where acetone is used or stored.

exposure is contingent upon the proper handling of the


chemical substance. Accidental spills, large or small,
can result in fire, explosion, and possible contamination
of the surrounding environmental mediums (water, soil,
and air).
Acetone is considered a highly flammable liquid.
Because of its low flash point and relatively high boiling point, it is classified as a Class 1B flammable liquid
(per OSHA 29 CFR 1910.106). Its low auto-ignition
temperature and low flash point, together with its high
vapor pressure make it a dangerous fire and explosion
hazard. It is also incompatible with a number of commodities. Potentially explosive reactions can occur if
acetone is mixed or comes into contact with oxidizers
and/or acids. These characteristics require special consideration during any emergency involving a leak or
spill of acetone.
The proper disposal/destruction method for acetone
is to burn it in a chemical incinerator equipped with an
afterburner and air scrubber.
Acetone can enter the environment through manufacturing, unchecked discharge into effluents from industrial or municipal waste treatment plants, and
through spills.

Other methods to reduce exposure include:

1 Acute Ecological Effects

;
;
;
;

Where possible, enclose operations and use local


exhaust ventilation at the site of chemical release.
If local exhaust ventilation or enclosure is not
used, respiratory protection should be mandatory.
Always ensure that proper protective clothing is
worn when using chemical substances.
Wash thoroughly immediately after exposure to
acetone and at the end of the work shift or before
eating, drinking, or smoking. Never wear clothes
contaminated with acetone at home. Family
members can be exposed.
Hazard warning information should be posted in
the work area. As part of an on-going education
and training program, all information on the health
and safety hazards of acetone should be communicated to all potentially exposed workers.

Acute (short-term) toxic effects may include the death


of animals, birds, or fish, and death or low growth rate
in plants. Acute effects are seen 2 to 4 days after animals or plants are exposed to acetone. This chemical
has a slight acute toxicity to aquatic life. Acetone has
caused membrane damage, size decrease, and germination decrease in various agricultural and ornamental
crops. No data are available on the short-term effects
of acetone on birds or land animals.

0 Chronic Ecological Effects


Chronic (long-term) toxic effects may include shortened
life span, reproductive problems, lower fertility, and
changes in appearance or behavior in exposed animals.
These effects can be seen long after first exposure(s) to
toxic chemicals. Acetone has slight chronic toxicity in
aquatic life. No data are available to evaluate the longterm effects of acetone to plants, birds, or land animals.

RISK ASSESSMENT: ENVIRONMENT


General Assessment

6 Water Solubility

The environment is at risk of exposure during transportation, storage, disposal, or destruction of acetone.
In almost every scenario, the threat of environmental

Acetone is highly soluble in water. Concentrations of


up to a 1000 milligrams and possibly more will readily
mix with a liter of water.

1996 by CRC Press, Inc.

Risk Management for Hazardous Chemicals

 Persistence in the Environment


Acetone is slightly persistent in water, with a half-life
of between 2 to 20 days. The half-life of a pollutant is
the amount of time it takes for one half of the chemical
to be degraded. Approximately 50% of acetone will
eventually end up in air; the rest will end up in water.

O Bioaccumulation in Aquatic Organisms


Some substances increase in concentration, or bioaccumulate, in living organisms as they breathe contaminated air, drink contaminated water, or eat contaminated food. These chemicals can become concentrated
in the tissues and internal organs of animals as well as
humans.
The concentration of acetone found in fish tissues
is expected to be about the same as the average concentration of acetone in water from which the fish was
taken.

Recommended Risk-Reduction Measures


Proper training of all transporters will reduce the likelihood of a mishap or accident resulting in a leak or spill
to the environment. The correct use of DOT labeling
(per the MSDS) on all containers, trucks, and rail cars
will enable emergency responders to react properly and
quickly to any disaster thereby reducing the potential
risk to the environment and to personnel.
Storage of acetone should be segregated from incompatible chemicals to minimize the risk of crosscontamination or contact. Buildings designated for
storage should be equipped with appropriate fire protection systems (alarms, sprinklers, emergency lighting,
portable extinguishers).
If a spill or leak to the environment has occurred,
fire department, emergency response, and/or hazardous
materials spill personnel should be notified immediately. Cleanup should be attempted only by those
trained in proper spill containment procedures. Contaminated soils should be removed for incineration and
replaced with clean soil. If acetone should contact the
water table, aquifer, or navigable waterway, time is of
the essence. It is readily miscible in water and, therefore, total containment and remediation may not be entirely possible. When such spills occur, the local
and/or state emergency response authorities must be
notified. A comprehensive emergency response or disaster preparedness/recovery plan should be in place
prior to any operations involving the use, transportation, storage, or disposal of acetone. If acetone is

Page: 5

spilled or leaked, the following specific steps are recommended:

;
;
;
;
;
;
;

Restrict persons not wearing protective clothing


from area of spill or leak until cleanup is complete.
Remove all ignition sources.
Ventilate area of spill or leak.
Absorb liquids in vermiculite, dry sand, earth, or a
similar material and deposit in sealed containers.
If applicable, stop flow of leaking liquid or gas. If
leak source is a cylinder and the leak cannot be
stopped in place, remove leaking cylinder to a safe
place in the open air, and repair or allow cylinder
to empty.
Keep acetone out of a confined space, such as a
sewer, because of the possibility of explosion
(unless the sewer is designed to prevent the buildup of explosive concentrations).
It may be necessary to dispose of acetone as a
hazardous waste. The responsible state agency or
the regional office of the federal Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) should be contacted for
specific recommendations.

RISK ASSESSMENT: BUSINESS


General Assessment
Accidents or mishaps involving acetone can present a
significant threat to business operations. The loss or
damage of equipment or facilities can significantly effect fiscal viability. Lawsuits that may result from personnel injury, public exposures, and/or environmental
contamination will also require a serious expenditure of
resources.
Media attention surrounding an injury, illness, or
environmental damage can also result in a loss of profits and loss of current as well as future business.

Recommended Risk-Reduction Measures


Company attorneys, safety and health professionals,
and environmental specialists should be involved in the
development of any procedures that deal with or address safety and health issues. A company official
should be pre-designated as a public relations officer
with specific training in dealing with the press. Corporate plans and policies should be developed, approved,
and implemented long before any need for such arises.

1996 by CRC Press, Inc.

Risk Management for Hazardous Chemicals

Page: 6

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1996 by CRC Press, Inc.