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Labor sector addresses multi-dimensional socio-economic aspects affecting
labor welfare, productivity, living standards of labor force and social security.
To raise living standards of the work force and achieve higher productivity, skill
upgradation through suitable training is of utmost importance. Manpower
development to provide adequate labor force of appropriate skills and quality to
different sectors is essential for rapid socioeconomic development. Employment
generation in all the productive sectors is one of the basic objectives. In this
context, efforts are being made for providing the environment for selfemployment both in urban and rural areas. During the Ninth Plan period,
elimination of undesirable practices such as child labor, bonded labour, and
aspects such as ensuring workers safety and social security, looking after labour
welfare and providing of the necessary support measures for sorting out
problems relating to employment of both men and women workers in different
sectors has received priority attention.
The improvement of safety, health and working conditions depends
ultimately upon people working together, whether governments, employers or
workers. Safety management involves the functions of planning, identifying
problem areas, coordinating, controlling and directing the safety activities at the
work site, all aimed at the prevention of accidents and ill health (figure 1).
Accident prevention is often misunderstood, for most people believe wrongly
that the word accident is synonymous with injury. This assumes that no
accident is of importance unless it results in an injury. Construction managers
are obviously concerned with injuries to the workers, but their prime concern
should be with the dangerous conditions that produced the injury with the
incident rather than the injury. On a construction site there are many more
incidents than injuries. A dangerous act can be performed hundreds of times

before it results in an injury, and it is to eliminate these potential dangers that

managers efforts must be directed. They cannot afford to wait for human or
material damage before doing anything. So safety management means applying
safety measures before accidents happen. Effective safety management has
three main objectives:
To make the environment safe;
To make the job safe,
To make workers safety conscious.

Due to rapid industrialization, industrial workers are exposed to several
types of hazards and accidents. Every year lakhs of workers are injured due to
mechanical, chemical, electrical and radiation hazards and it leads to partial or

disablement. So in recent years, greater

attention is


to health and

safety due to pressure from government,







The efficiency of workers depends to a great extends on the environment in
which the work. Work environment consists of all the factors, which act and
react on the body and mind of an employee. The primary aim is to create an
environment, which ensures the greatest ease of work and removes all causes of
Occupational health and safety is a discipline with a broad scope involving
many specialized fields. In its broadest sense, it should aim at:
a) The promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental
and social well-being of workers in all occupations.
b) The prevention among workers of adverse effects on health caused by
their working conditions.
c) The protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from
factors adverse to health.
d) The placing and maintenance of workers in an occupational environment
adapted to physical and mental needs.

e) The adaptation of work to humans.

Successful occupational health and safety practice requires the collaboration
and participation of both employers and workers in health and safety
programmes, and involves the consideration of issues relating to occupational
medicine, industrial hygiene, toxicology, education, engineering safety,
ergonomics, psychology, etc.
Occupational health issues







occupational safety issues because the former are generally more difficult to
confront. However, when health is addressed, so is safety, because a healthy
workplace is by definition also a safe workplace. The converse, though, may not
be true - a so-called safe workplace is not necessarily also a healthy workplace.
The important point is that issues of both health and safety must be addressed in
every workplace.
Work plays a central role in people's lives, since most workers spend at
least eight hours a day in the workplace, whether it is on a plantation, in an
office, factory, etc. Therefore, work environments should be safe and healthy.
Unfortunately some employers assume little responsibility for the protection of
workers' health and safety. In fact, some employers do not even know that they
have the moral and often legal responsibility to protect workers.


Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and
not merely the absence of diseases. Its a positive and dynamic concept which
means something more than the absence of illness.

Statutory provisions:
According to factories Act, 1948, the statutory provisions regarding the
health of the workers are stated in the sections 11 to 20.
Cleanliness (sec 11):
Every factory shall be kept clean by daily sweeping or washing the floors
and workrooms and by using disinfectants where every necessary. Walls, doors
and windows shall be repainted or varnished at least once in every 5 years.
Disposal of wastes and effluents (sec 12):
The waste materials produced from the manufacturing process must be
effectively disposed of wastes.
Ventilation and temperature (sec 13):
There must be provision for adequate ventilation for the circulation of
fresh air. The temperature must be kept at a comfortable level. Hot parts of
machines must be separated and insulated. The State Government may make
rules for the keeping of thermometers in specified places and the adoption of
methods which will keep the temperature low.
Removal of Dust and fumes (sec 14):
If the manufacturing process used gives off injurious or offensive dust
and steps must be taken so that they are not inhaled or accumulated. The
exhaust fumes of internal combustion engines must be conducted outside the
Artificial humidification (sec 15):

The water used for this purpose must be pure. The State Government can
frame rules regarding the process of humidification etc. The water used for
humidification shall be taken from a public supply or other source of drinking
water and must be effectively purified before use.

Overcrowding (sec 16):

There must be no overcrowding in a factory. In factories existing before
the commencement of the Act there must be at least 9.9 cubic meters of space
per worker. For factories built afterwards, there must be at least 4.2 cubic meters
of space. The chief inspector of factories can also prescribe the maximum
number of workers who can work in each work room.
Lighting (sec 17):
Factories must be well lighted. Effective measures must be adopted to
prevent glare or formation of shadows which might cause eye strain.
Drinking water (sec 18):
Arrangements must be made to provide a sufficient supply of wholesome
drinking water. All supply points of such water must be marked drinking
No such points shall be within 20 ft. (or 7.5 meters) of any latrine,
washing place etc. Factories employing more than 250 workers must cool the
water during the hot weather.
Toilet facilities (sec 19):
Every factory must provide sufficient number of latrines and urinals.
There must be separate provisions for male and female workers.

Latrines and urinals must be kept in a clean and sanitary condition. In

factories employing more than 250 workers, they shall be of prescribed sanitary
Spittoons (sec 20):
A sufficient number of spittoons must be provided at convenient places,
in a clean and hygienic condition. The State Government may take rules
regarding their number, location and maintenance.


Safety is a measures or techniques implemented to reduce the risk of injury, loss
and danger to persons, property or the environment in any facility or place
involving the manufacturing, producing and processing of goods or
Employers must have an overall safety program including relative site specific
safety information where applicable. The safety training program should cover
topics such as:

accident prevention and safety promotion

safety compliance

accident and emergency response

personal protective equipment

safety practices

equipment and machinery

chemical and hazardous materials safety

workplace hazards

employee involvement

Employers must document all training. Creating a training matrix will help keep
track of who has been trained, when they were trained, the training topic, and
when it is time for refresher training. Employees must also sign an official signin sheet provided by the employer that can serve as proof that employees
received proper training. The sign in sheet must have a broad description of
what is being covered in the training. Tests or quizzes on the presented material
can help gauge employee understanding of the material and highlight topics that
need to be reviewed.
The non-English speaking population is consistently growing in many industries
and it is important that employers provide bilingual training for those workers,
Most employees display attitudes of disinterest and dread at the thought of
attending a safety training, which can leave the trainer feeling frustrated and
unappreciated. It is the trainer's duty to make safety training fun and
educational, which will help the trainees to retain the information, enjoy the
course, and apply the learning to their work and lives.

Statutory provisions:
According to factories Act, 1948, the statutory provisions regarding the
safety of the workers are stated in the sections 21 to 41. They are
Fencing of machinery (Sec 21):
In every factory, every dangerous part of any machinery, every moving
part of a prime mover and every flywheel connected to prime mover the headrace and tail-race of every water wheel and water turbine, and every part of an
electric generator, motor or rotary converter, every part of transmission
machinery, must be securely fenced by safeguards of substantial construction.
Work on or near machinery in motion (Sec 22):


It is necessary to examine any part of the machinery while it is motion.

The examination and lubrication of the machinery, while in motion, should be
carried out only by a specially-trained adult worker wearing tight-fitting
Employment of young persons on Dangerous machines (Sec 23):
A young person should not be allowed to work at dangerous machines
unless, has been sufficiently instructed and received sufficient training.
Striking gear and devices for cutting off power (Sec 24):
In every factory, suitable striking gear or other efficient mechanical
appliance has to be provided, maintained and used to move driving belts.
Self-acting machines (Sec 25):
No travelling part of a self-acting machine in any factory and no material
carried thereon shall be allowed to run on its outward or inward traverse within
a distance of 18 inches from any fixed structure which is not a part of the
machine, if a person is liable to pass over the space over which it runs.
Casing of new machinery (Sec 26):
All machinery driven by power, every set-screw, bolt or key or any
revolving shaft, spindle, wheel or pinion, spur, worm and other toothed or
friction-gearing has to be properly encased or guarded in order to prevent
danger to the workmen.
Prohibition of employment of women and children near cotton openers (Sec
Women and child workers are prohibited to be employed in any part of a
factory for pressing cotton in which a cotton opener is at work.


Hoists, lifts, lifting machines (Sec 28&29):

Lifting machines, chains, ropes and lifting tackles must be of good
mechanical construction, sound material and adequate strength and free from
defects. They are to be properly maintained and thoroughly examined by a
competent person at least once in every 6 months.
Revolving machinery (Sec 30):
The maximum safe working peripheral speed of every grindstone or
abrasive wheel shall be permanently affixed. Safe working peripheral speed of
every revolving vessel, cage, basket, flywheel, pulley or disc has also to be
Pressure plant (Sec 31):
In any factory operation is carried on at a pressure above the atmospheric
pressure, effective arrangements shall be taken to ensure that the safe working
pressure is not exceeded.
Floors, stairs and means of access (Sec 32):
In every factory all floors, steps, stairs, passages and gangways shall be
of sound construction and properly kept and maintained.
Pits, sumps, openings in floors (Sec 33):
Every fixed vessel, sump, tank, pit or opening in the ground or in a floor,
which may be a source of danger shall be either securely covered or securely
Excessive weights (Sec 34):
No person is to be employed in any factory to lift, carry or move any load
so heavy as is likely to cause him injury.


Protection of eyes (Sec 35):

The state government may require the provision of effective screens or
suitable goggles if the risk of injury to the eyes is caused from particles or
fragments thrown off in the manufacturing process or from exposure to
excessive light.
Precautions against dangerous fumes (Sec 36):
In any factory, no person shall be allowed to enter any chamber, tank, vat,
pipe, flue or other confined space in which dangerous fumes are likely to be
present to an extent involving risks to persons.
Explosive or inflammable dust, gas (Sec 37):
All practicable measures have to be taken to prevent explosion by,
effective enclosure of plant and machinery, removal or prevention of the
accumulation of dust, gas etc and exclusion or effective enclosure of all possible
sources of ignition.
Precaution in case of fire (Sec 38):
Every factory has to be provided with adequate means of escape in case
of fire. Effective and clearly audible means of giving warning in the case of fire
have to be provided. A free passage-way giving access to each means of escape
in case of fire has to be maintained.
Power to require specifications of defective parts or tests of stability (Sec
The factory inspector to serve on the manager of a factory to furnish
specifications of defective parts or he may order the manager to carry out tests
as he may specify and to inform him of the results.


Safety of buildings and machinery (Sec 40):

Every factory should adopt the measures to ensure the safety of the
buildings and machinery. The factory must employ the required safety officers
according to the number of workers working in the factory.
Power to make rules (Sec 41):
The state government has the power to make rules to supplement the
provisions relating to safety contained in the act.
Occupational accidents/disease:
Work-related accidents or diseases are very costly and can have many
serious direct and indirect effects on the lives of workers and their families. For
workers some of the direct costs of an injury or illness are:
a) the pain and suffering of the injury or illness;
b) the loss of income;
c) the possible loss of a job;
d) Health-care costs.
It has been estimated that the indirect costs of an accident or illness can be
four to ten times greater than the direct costs, or even more. An occupational
illness or accident can have so many indirect costs to workers that it is often
difficult to measure them. One of the most obvious indirect costs is the human
suffering caused to workers' families, which cannot be compensated with
Identifying hazards in the workplace:


Some occupational diseases have been recognized for many years, and affect
workers in different ways depending on the nature of the hazard, the route of
exposure, the dose, etc. Some well-known occupational diseases include:
a) Asbestosis (caused by asbestos, which is common in insulation,
automobile brake linings, etc.)
b) Silicosis (caused by silica, which is common in mining, sandblasting,
c) Lead poisoning (caused by lead, which is common in battery plants, paint
factories, etc.)
d) Noise-induced hearing loss (caused by noise, which is common in many
workplaces, including airports, and workplaces where noisy machines,
such as presses or drills, etc.)
Importance of management commitment on health and safety:
In order to develop a successful health and safety programme, it is
essential that there be strong management commitment and strong worker
participation in the effort to create and maintain a safe and healthy workplace.
An effective management addresses all work-related hazards, not only those
covered by government standards.
All levels of management must make health and safety a priority. They
must communicate this by going out into the worksite to talk with workers
about their concerns and to observe work procedures and equipment. In each
workplace, the lines of responsibility from top to bottom need to be clear, and
workers should know who is responsible for different health and safety issues.

Importance of training:


Workers often experience work-related health problems and do not realize

that the problems are related to their work, particularly when an occupational
disease, for example, is in the early stages. Besides the other more obvious
benefits of training, such as skills development, hazard recognition, etc., a
comprehensive training programme in each workplace will help workers to:
a) Recognize early signs/symptoms of any potential occupational diseases
before they become permanent conditions.
b) Assess their work environment.
c) Insist that management make changes before hazardous conditions can
Health and safety programmes:
Effective workplace health and safety programmes can help to save the lives
of workers by reducing hazards and their consequences. Health and safety
programmes also have positive effects on both worker morale and productivity,
which are important benefits. At the same time, effective programmes can save
employers a great deal of money. For all of the reasons given below, it is crucial
that employers, workers and unions are committed to health and safety.
a) Workplace hazards are controlled - at the source whenever possible.
b) Records of any exposure are maintained for many years.
c) Both workers and employers are informed about health and safety risks in
the workplace.
d) There is an active and effective health and safety committee that includes
both workers and management.
e) Worker health and safety efforts are ongoing.



"During the pre-independence period, industrial relations policy of the British
Government was one of laissez faire and also of selective intervention. There
were hardly any labour welfare schemes. After independence, labour
legislations have formed the basis for industrial relations and social security.
These legislations have also provided machinery for bipartite and tripartite
consultations for settlement of disputes. Soon after independence, the
government at a tripartite conference in December 1947 adopted the industrial
truce resolution. Several legislations, including the following, were enacted to
maintain industrial peace and harmony: Factories Act, 1948, Employees State
Insurance Act, 1948 and Minimum Wages Act, 1948. The payment of bonus act
was passed in 1965.
In the early 1990s, the process of economic reforms was set in motion when
the government introduced a series of measures to reduce control on industries,
particularly large industries. The workers have opposed economic liberalization
policy for fear of unemployment while entrepreneurs have welcomed it in the
hope of new opportunities to improve Indian industries. The new economic
policy has directly affected industrial relations in the country, because the
government has to play a dual role, one of protecting the interest of the workers,
and second to allow a free interplay of the market forces. Economic reforms, by
removing barriers to entry, have created competitive markets. Fiscal


stabilization has resulted in drastic reduction in budgetary support to the public

sector commercial enterprises while exposing these enterprises to increased
competition from private sector.
Labour and Labour Welfare sub-sector consists of six main programmes viz.
Labour Administration, Rehabilitation of bonded labour, Assistance to Labour






programme, Employment Services and Sanjay Gandhi Swavalamban Yojana.

Manpower, employment policy and labour welfare in India: post-independence
developments such as:
1. Manpower: trends and magnitude.
2. Employment policies and programmes.
3. Labour welfare: legal framework and initiatives.
4. Women workers: legislations and empowerment.
5. Industrial relations and labour laws.
6. Restructuring of labour laws: the great debate.
7. Labour laws and welfare: India and ILO.
8. Labour reforms: India and WTO. II. India's Five Year Plans at a glance. III.
Edited extracts from India's Five Year Plans on employment and labour related
Improvement of communications, mobility of Factory Inspectors
For the quick transmission of messages relating to factory accidents, gas leaks,
fires and disasters in the area a broad network of office/ residential telephones is
an essential-requisite for the Factory Inspector, the concerned Dy.Chief


Inspector of Factories, the Chief Inspector to higher authorities. Quick

transmission of such messages to the area Factory Inspector and others not only
facilitates a prompt inquiry into the mishap and its causes but also enables the
concerned authorities to bring into action the various control measures in the
case of disaster.
Labour and labour welfare
Labour sector addresses multi-dimensional socio-economic aspects affecting
labour welfare, productivity, living standards of labour force and social security.
To raise living standards of the work force and achieve higher productivity, skill
up gradation through suitable training is of utmost importance. Manpower
development to provide adequate labour force of appropriate skills and quality
to different sectors is essential for rapid socioeconomic development.
Employment generation in all the productive sectors is one of the basic
objectives. In this context, efforts are being made for providing the environment
for self-employment both in urban and rural areas. During the Ninth Plan
period, elimination of undesirable practices such as child labour, bonded labour,
and aspects such as ensuring workers safety and social security, looking after
labour welfare and providing of the necessary support measures for sorting out
problems relating to employment of both men and women workers in different
sectors has received priority attention.
The Central Board of Workers Education through its regional offices is striving
to educate the workers to help to avoid wasteful expenditure, adopting cost
effectiveness and by enhancing productivity of qualitative nature. They have
been conducting the following programmes:


Rural Awareness Programme.

Functional Adult Literacy Classes.



Short-term programmes for the unorganized sector to educate them on

their rights, ethics and hygiene.


Participative Management.
Orientation Courses for Rural Educators.
Leadership Development Programme for Rural Workers.

Quality of Work Life (QWL)

The success of any organization is highly dependant on how it attracts, recruits,
motivates, and retains its workforce. Today's organizations need to be more
flexible so that they are equipped to develop their workforce and enjoy their
There is no doubt that to prosper and expand at work is beneficial to both
national health and the balance of payment. If quality of life at work can be
improved it will benefit and reward not only the individual employee but also
the company, its customers and society as a whole. That is why we find it
necessary to talk about working-life quality.
Therefore, organizations are required to adopt a strategy to improve the
employees quality of work life'(QWL) to satisfy both the organizational
objectives and employee needs. These case lets discuss the importance of
having effective quality of work life practices in organizations and their impact
on employee performance and the overall organizational performance.
Many people think that striving for the good life is selfish, but you cannot be
something for others if you do not feel good in yourself.
All companies strive to create real value for the surrounding world (customers,
clients, users and society as a whole). Creating real value is not a matter of just
money. It starts with the individual person. Creating real value means becoming
more valuable to yourself and your surroundings.


Working-life quality deals with these three elements:


personal quality of life in your work

developing mastery

Experiencing real fellowship with colleagues and managers and contributing to

the creation of real value for customers and the surrounding world through your