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A Modeling Approach to Restoring Pool

Riffle Structure in an Incised, Straightened


Channel of an Urban Stream

Pool-Riffle Structure in Natural Channels


Riffle-Pool Sequence: The development
of alternating deeps (pools) and shallows
(riffles) is characteristic of both straight
and meandering channels with
h t
heterogeneous
bed
b d materials,
t i l containing
t i i
gravel, in the size range of 2 to 256 mm.
In general, riffle-pool sequences occur
with bed slopes < 2%.

University of Tennessee
Civil & Environmental Engineering

Keil J. Neff
John Schwartz

Pool-riffle structure, capable of


supporting diverse biological ecosystems,
is frequently degraded in urban streams
b
because
off channel
h
l incision and
d the
h loss
l
of channel-scale helical flow patterns,
which are responsible for initiating poolriffle sequences.

Knox County, Tennessee

Andrew B. Dodson
Michael S. Hamrick
Roy Arthur
Knighton 1988

Stream Impairment in Beaver Creek

Study Reach on Beaver Creek

Anthropogenic Impacts to the Stream System


Watershed land use changes (e.g., urbanization,
deforestation)
Channelization reduces habitat complexity and flood
refugia for fish
Habitat loss or modification
Water withdrawals; Pollutant Discharges

Historically re-located
Channelized
Lack of pool-riffle sequences
Velocity homogeniety
Urbanization Impacts
Undersized channel
40 square km
270 m length
Channel evolution stage III
Beaver Creek, TN, 2010.

Urbanization impacts watershed hydrology resulting in


hydromodification of in-stream hydraulics and rapid
adjustment of channel morphology thereby disturbing
natural geomorphic and ecological processes in stream
systems.

Beaver Creek, Knox County, Tennessee

Beaver Creek Stream Rehabilitation

303d listed (TDEC)

Habitat loss due to alteration in stream side


Loss of biological integrity due to siltation
One p
pollutant source: Channelization

Objectives

Design and construct stable pool-riffle sequences


Diversify
e s y hydraulic
yd au c regime
eg e (self-maintaining
(se
a ta
g
velocity acceleration/deceleration flow fields)
Enhance habitat and biotic diversity
Evaluate utility of River2D hydrodynamic model
and triangulated irregular network (TIN) editor in
AutoCAD Civil 3D in design
Stabilize failing banks
Test cost-effective method for stream
rehabilitation

Other studies: Dworak, Mallison, Cantrell

Limitations

Design Framework
Work with existing channel

Minor expansion (bank erosion/failure; absence of


trees)
Minor constriction (large trees on banks; minor scour)

Laterally confined
Undersized channel
Very mild slope
Sediment starved
Monetary budget

Bank stabilization
Substrate placement
Integrate cross-sectional
area into bed design at
riffles
Low flow concept
Beaver Creek, TN, 2010.

A
Acceleration/deceleration
l
i /d
l
i
bed slope controlled
Riffle crest
Minor sinuosity

Design Framework

Iterative Design Approach


Survey

High flow concept


Acceleration/deceleration
Geometry controlled
Submerged riffles
Hydraulic refugia
Scour/deposition
Conservation of mass
Q=VA; V1*A1=V2*A2;
A2>A1 V2<V1

River2D

AutoCAD Civil 3D

Design Channel

Additional Design Criteria

Spacing
S
i
off pool-riffles
l iffl
sequences
Defining riffles
Substrate

River2D Modeling

Initial Assessment
Trimble Total Station Survey
Dominant breaks in slope
Approximately 2 meter resolution

Establish control reach


Benthic Macroinvertebrate Survey
Index of Biotic Integrity Survey
Global Water Continuous Level Logger
Installation
Bedload Sediment Collection
Rapid Geomorphic Assessment
Bed and bank shear tests
3D Acoustic Doppler Velocity Measurements

Evaluate hydraulics
High/Low flow regimes
Placement of in-stream structures

Evaluate bank shear stresses


Placement of bank stabilization structures

Evaluate bed shear stresses

Assess available fish habitat

Size substrate

River2D Modeling
R2D Model User Manual (Peter Steffler University of Alberta)
Two dimensional, Depth Averaged, Finite Element Model
Basic mass conservation equation and 2 (horizontal)
components of momentum conservation
Modeling Steps
Create a preliminary bed topography file from survey data
using R2D_Bed program. Define boundary polygon of area
to be modeled.
Define boundary conditions (discharge and downstream
water surface elevation) and define roughness.
Create, triangulate, and smooth mesh. Define breaklines at
toe and top of bank.
bank Add additional nodes at critical
positions.
Run River2D to solve for velocity and depth.
Model outputs: 2 (horizontal) velocity components and a
depth at each node.

River2D: Current Condition - Hydraulics

Channelized, uniform hydraulic regime, devoid of


riffles, 1 minor pool (local scour from in-stream tree).

River2D: Current Condition


Habitat at Low Flow
Green Side Darter
- low flow

Northern Hogsucker
- low flow

Poor/fair combined (depth, velocity, channel index)


suitability.

River2D: Current Condition


Habitat at High Flow
Green Side Darter
- high flow

Northern Hogsucker
- high flow

Combined (depth, velocity, channel index) suitability.

Creating Design Channel utilizing Civil 3D

Longitudinal Profile of Design Reach

Interactive TIN Editing to


create riffles, riffle/runs, pools,
bank stabilization features,
features and
log vanes.

TIN modified by adding hard


and soft breaklines, modifying
the underlying nodes, and
eventually transforming the
surface to represent multiple
stream rehabilitation channel
designs.
designs

Design Features

Visualizing Design in Google Sketchup

Removal of trees
Excavation of the banks
Addition of hydraulic structures
Addition of bank protection
Addition of habitat features/substrate material

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Design Channel River2D Output

Refining the mesh with the design bed


modifications
Interpreting and using the output

River2D: Design Condition


Habitat at Low Flow
Green Side Darter
- low flow

Northern Hogsucker
- low flow

High flow

Improved combined (depth, velocity, channel index) suitability.

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River2D: Design Condition


Habitat at High Flow
Green Side Darter
- high flow

Northern Hogsucker
- high flow

River2D: Weighted Usable Area


Low Flow
Greenside Darter
Northern Hogsucker

Existing
7
207

Design
101
446

Existing
11
771

Design
196
1023

High Flow
Greenside Darter
Northern Hogsucker

Improved combined (depth, velocity, channel index) suitability.

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Construction

Winter 2010 (weather dependent)


Project agent on-site or available at all times
High degree of accuracy required
Sediment sizing
Paint substrate in each riffle/run
Invert elevations
Placement of structures

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Measurements of Success

Project Partners

Stability of bed form and stream bank


Survey (reach and cross-sections)
Visual assessment of structures

Improved habitat
Benthic macroinvertebrate survey
Index of biotic integrity

Increased leaf litter (organic carbon cycling)


Stability of riffle/run substrate

Beaver Creek Task Force


Knox County
y Stormwater Division
University of Tennessee CEE
Tim Gangaware Water Resource Research Center
Greg Babbit EcoFlow Consulting
Americorps CAC Water Quality Team
Ecological Engineering for Stream Rehabilitation Class
Knox County Parks and Recreation

Bed load sampling

Diverse hydraulic patterns


Velocity measurements

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