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IMPRISONMENT: EFFECT TO THE SOCIAL CONDTIONS OF INMATES IN

BJMP IN SANTA CRUZ, LAGUNA

A Thesis
Presented to
The Faculty of the College of Criminology
Union College
Santa Cruz, Laguna

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Degree of
Bachelor of Science in Criminology

By
EDWARD BRIONES SERAFICO
September 2014
Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Introduction
Society in the local and global scales has always given stigma to
incarcerated persons who had been jailed for a considerable number of years
and condemnation is eminent even they had suffered and served their
sentence for release and rejoin with their respective family members sooner
or later. Apparently, the effect of their incarceration carries the social scars
due to the horrible wounds inflicted upon their entire being causing them
decadence

and loss of credibility prior and subsequent to their release.

Toward this end, the prison cell is the living graveyard among inmates as
they are hoping against hope to live a life anew once released from the steel
walls of jail.

But somehow, due judicial consideration, justice delayed is

justice denied is the name of the game.


As disclosed by Dr. Mckune (2013), Assistant Director of the Division of
Mental

Health

and

Substance

Abuse

for

Kentuckys

Department

of

Corrections, the number of men and women behind bars is growing in


fastest rates, and once they are released, they wont be coming back, and
this can be done only to refocus on mental health services by concentrating
on helping them to prepare life after prison. Among others, programs for life

after imprisonment would be housing, health services, employment, and reestablish positive relationships with family members and friends after their
release from jail.
In the local scenery, President Aquino (2014) recounted how his father,
the late Ninoy suffered for seven years in jail during the Marcos
administration. However, his father was lucky enough to have been released
due to sickness, and ultimately sought medication in Boston, but however, in
his return to his beloved homeland, he had made his last trip to the great
beyond when he was murdered at tarmac at Manila International Airport, and
nowhere the mastermind could had been identified even at this point in time.
Based on the above premise, it was therefore imperative for the
researchers to conduct a study on imprisonment and its effect to the social
list of inmates at BJMP in Santa Cruz, Laguna, in the hope that the findings of
this study would be of great value to prison authorities, released inmates,
families, and future researchers.
Background of the Study
This study is an analysis of the imprisonment and its significant effect
on selected incarcerated persons relative to their social conditions at Bureau
of Jail Management and Penologyin Santa Cruz, Laguna.
The rationale behind the selection of the said jail is anchored on the
accessibility to the dwelling places of the researchers and with utmost

consideration to the financial and timeframe constraints during the actual


gathering of data.
Theoretical Framework
Summarized theories are drawn hereunder as these helped the present
researchers in farming out relevant citations for the resolutions of their basic
problem areas propounded in the study.
In the theory shared by Burrington (2011), the life of inmates in jail is a
blunder to the maintenance of credibility in the community, as well as
building self-confidence and creating opportunities while behind the steel
walls in preparation for their exit from the living grave yard to live a life anew
in the respective communities where they originally dwelled.
A parallel theory has been pronounced by Deming (2011) that
imprisonment of selected inmates subsequent to their release, created social
stigmas of character assassinationdue to their status as ex-convicts, as well
as profound effects on family unity and stability with neighborhoods in the
respective dwelling places they used to live before.
Niched on the above theories, the present researchers were indeed
placed on the proper position to see in their study the framework which
served as the resolute guide to elicit basic problem areas investigated.
Conceptual Framework

A research paradigm as shown in Figure 1 served as guide for the


present researchers to resolve their problem areas investigated with lesser
difficulty.
In Frame 1, this includes the independent variables serving as input or
load relative to the demographic profile of inmates in terms of gender, age,
civil status, educational attainment, offense committed, and length of years
sentenced.
As shown in Frame 2, these are intervening variables fused as
throughput, the transformation process in transforming input into output on
how extensive are the programs of BJMP delivered to the inmates while in jail
as to education and livelihood.
Independent Variables
Dependent Variables

Intervening Variables

Input
Output

Throughput

Demographic Profile
Inmates

BJMP Programs

Enhancement
Social Conditions

.gender
. age

.education. social control


. livelihood

. civil status
. educational attainment
. offense committed
.length of years sentenced
Frame 1

Frame 2

. social mobility
Frame 3

of

Figure 1: Research Paradigm


In Frame 3, this has bearing on the degree of effects of the programs of
BJMP to enhance the social conditions of inmates as dependent variables
classified as output or outcome with respect to social control and social
mobility.
There is a strong linkage between and among the independent,
intervening and dependent variables, as there are defects in the input, the
throughput is paralyzed hence it cannot convert the former into a better
output.

In other words, the degree of criminal offenses made by the

respondents lingered them to suffer from considerable number of years in


jail, and therefore, without educational and livelihood programs delivered by
the BJMP, no amount to enhance their social conditions for enjoyment
ofsocial control and social mobility in the free society subsequent to their
release.
Statement of the Problem
This study is focused on the imprisonment and its effects tothe social
conditions of inmates in BJMP in Santa Cruz, Laguna.
Specifically, it seeks answers to the following questions:
1. What is the demographic profile of inmates in terms of:
1.1.gender,
1.2.age,

1.3.civil status,
1.4.educational attainment,
1.5.offense committed, and
1.6.length of years sentenced?
2. How extensive are the programs of BJMP delivered to the inmates
as to:
2.1. education, and
2.2. livelihood?
3. What is the degree of effects of the programs of BJMP to enhance
the social conditions of inmates with respect to:
3.1.social control, and
3.2.social mobility?
Hypotheses
The following hypotheses drawn in null and working forms served as
basis for acceptance or rejection at five percent (5) level of significance.
Null (Ho1-3) There is no significant difference in the personal profile
of inmates, the extensiveness of the programs of BJMP delivered to them,
and no degree of effects to the enhancement of their social conditions.

Working (H1-3) The higher is the personal profile of inmates, the


more extensive are the programs delivered to them by the BJMP, and the
greater is the degree of effects to the enhancement of their social conditions.
Therefore, it is certainly confirmed that there is a strong linkage
between the null and working hypotheses for simple reason that the
rejection of the former, simultaneously supports the latter. At this point, the
rejection or support to the null or working hypothesis respectively, would be
the basis for valid findings and reliable conclusions as basis for viable
recommendations.
Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are hereby advanced for realization:
1.

To determine the personal profile of inmates in terms of gender,


age, civil status, educational attainment, offense committed, and

length of years sentenced;


2. To evaluate the extensiveness of the programs delivered by BJMP to
the inmates while in jail with respect to education and livelihood;
and
3. To analyze the degree of effects of the programs of BJMP in
enhancing the social conditions of inmates with respect to social
control and social mobility.
Scope and Limitation of the Study

The coverage of this study is to look deeper into the imprisonment of


inmates and its effects on their social conditions at BJMP in Santa Cruz,
Laguna within research timeframe from 2014 to 2015.
It is limited to the three (3) areas of investigation, namely: 1.) the
demographic profile of inmates in terms of gender, age, civil status,
educational attainment, offense committed, and length of years sentenced;
2.) the extensiveness of the programs of BJMP delivered to the inmates as to
education and livelihood; and 3.) the degree of effects of the programs of
BJMP in enhancing the social conditions of inmates with respect to social
control and social mobility.
It is limited further to the employment of descriptive method of
research in gathering and treating the data for the said problem areas with
the use of one (1) set of locally constructed questionnaire with five-scale of
alternative answers and subsequently distributed to the randomized
respondents.
Importance of the Study
The findings of this study are of great value to the following sectors:
BJMP Authorities.They will examine the strengths and weaknesses of
their programs in terms of education and livelihood delivered to the
inmatesand thus overhaul and streamline the same to fully enhance the

social conditions with respect to social control and social mobility within and
outside the steel walls of the prison cell.
Inmates.They will be benefited of the educational and livelihood
programs delivered to them by the BJMP while in jail geared toward
enhancement of their social conditions for the enjoyment of social control
and social mobility upon their release.
Future Researchers. The findings of this study would serve as data
bank for future researchers, particularly BS Criminology, Law, Sociology and
Psychology students, who wish to pursue researches of similar in nature in
order to strengthen further the results of this present investigation.
Definition of Terms
For a clearer understanding of this study, the following terms are
operationally defined:
BJMP. This is the acronym for Bureau of Jail Management and
Penology in Santa Cruz, Laguna as venue of the study.
Demographic Profile. This has bearing on the individual
characteristics of inmates in terms of gender, age, civil status, educational
attainment, offense committed, and length of years sentenced.
Education. An educational program in formal and non-formal
settings,delivered by the BJMP to inmates to develop and enhance in them

theoretical knowledge and practical skills in preparation for them to live a life
anew with their family members upon release from jail.
Effect. This is the result of the BJMP programs delivered to inmates in
enhancing their social conditions within the jail and even upon their release
sooner or later, as they rejoin their family members.
Imprisonment. Confinement of persons in jail due to their offenses
they had committed by virtue of competent court decisions for conviction or
simply awaiting trial as in the case of inmates who are the actual
respondents of this study.
Livelihood. It is a program delivered by BJMP to inmates while in jail
as means of support within, and even upon their release for survival.
Social Conditions. A pleasant companionship among inmates as a
result of viable programs delivered by BJMP in the development and
enhancement of their social control and social mobility within the jail in
preparation for their release in order to live a life anew with their respective
family members in the community.
Social Control.It is the sum total of the instrumentalities, such as:
sanction, norms, rituals, cultural heritage, and role assignment, which
maintains and repairs a certain balance in terms of entry and exit in a social
system.

Social Mobility.This refers to a change of position of individual within


a social structure of a socio-cultural system, such the case of inmates who
are reformed in jail are given pardon or granted parole for their temporary
liberty in the respective communities where they originally came from.

Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES AND STUDIES

Summarized literatures and studies are reviewed hereunder as these


were found with closed similarity and significant bearing to the present
study. Their inclusion served as basis for designing a conceptual frame of
reference in which this study is premised for the present researchers to
resolve their basic problem areas with lesser difficulty.
Related Literatures
Foreign
As propounded by Morris (2012), the modern prison is basically
enmeshed in crisis of identity.

A prison was onced unquestionably an

institution geared for punishment, custody, and control.

But penologists

have been striving to meet a new concept and goal of treatment and
rehabilitation.

The prison is a ghetto for its inmates.

Within its walls it

confines, houses, feeds, clothes, educates, and polices its population.

It

compresses into its minuscule territory many of the tormenting problems of


an urban society, such as: overcrowing, poverty, violence, racial friction, and
a pervasive sense of alienation and despair.
Glasser (2013) in his bibliographic citation supportive of the above
viewpoint, conceived that the typical prison often called a penitentiary, is a
large institution surrounded by a high wall or fence and designed to confine
adult

criminals

misdemeanors.

who

have

been

convicted

of

felonies

or

serious

Consistent with their basic functions, prisons are usually

classified as:1.) maximum security, identifiable as such by the walls and


towers for armed guards as well as the restrictive rules for the control of the
inmates; 2.) the medium security which substitutes a fence for the walls and
towers and tolerate a more permissive code of behavior; and 3.) minimum
security which eliminates walls and fences and euphemistically termed open
institutions.
Within the sphere of the foregoing contexts, Fox (2011) viewpoint has
direct bearing with the above literatures when he strongly confirmed that a
jail is a smaller local correctional facility that receives short-term prisoners
convicted of minor offenses.

It often servesadditionally as a place of

detention for persons accused of crime and awaiting trial.

Correctional

institutions for juveniles, if they accept only the very young juvenile
delinquents, are designated as either training schools or home for boys or
girls.
Local
In the local scenary, Padilla (2014) upon commenting on the
retroactive effect of a revised illegal possession of firearms law in which he
was convicted for six-year sentence, has this to say that life of a prisoner in
the New Bilibid Prison is of enormous difficulty in coping with the prison
regime along problems on identity loss, identity construction, and identity
maintenance once release for a new life in the community. He went on by
saying that like the counterparts outside the prison walls, elderly prisoners
suffer from a variety of age-related health problems, including poor mobility,
impaired vision and hearing and depression.
Abelgas (2014) in his follow-up documentary report disclosed that a
life of prisoners convicted of reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment due to
rape and murder, can be devastating in their late years as these can have
profound effects on family unity and stability. By all means, this is especially
true for those whose offence arose within the family setting or is felt as
shameful by other family members as in the case of many sex offenders. At
this juncture, sex offenders lost hope to live a better life in the community
where they belong due to stigmas of character such as nonce, rapist and
murderer attached to their names by their neighborhood.

By all meansTaberna (2014) who claimed that affluent offenders live a


luxurious life while in prison as compared to those poverty stricken prisoners
who were released upon serving their sentence for long years in jail, and
thus no hope to live a good life upon their return to their respective
communities.
The foregoing citations of foreign and local origins, possibly guided the
present researchers uproot the unexplored areas of investigation which by all
means suggested avenues of approach to the solution of similar difficulty
relative tothe imprisonment and its effect on the social conditions of inmates
in BJMP in Santa Cruz, Laguna.
Related Studies
Foreign
In the study made byButtler(2009) on the psychological impact of
imprisonment on the physical and emotional conditions of inmates in Idaho
country jail, revealed that such impact can be felt among prisoners within
the jail and even they were released in their elderly years as the
incarceration duration has been found devastating on their family unity and
solidarity in the respective communities as their permanent dwelling place
prior to competent court convictions of the crimes they had committed.
A parallel study was launched by Chappell (2010) on imprisonment and
its effect on inmates sojourn in jail in Idaho revealed among others that

those who were convicted at the young age and released at the elderly age,
signified report that offenders who had served their sentence and apparently
were granted parole, were too old to start life anew for simple reason of a
short span of years of their stay in the respective communities they used to
reside prior to locking them behind bars by police authorities while awaiting
conviction by proper court authorities.
A collateral study was initiated by Hattery (2012) on the life in prison
among middle adulthood inmates in selected county jails in Chicago. He
employed a field research in order to gather and treat the data for the
resolution of the problem areas propounded.

Among others, his findings

revealed that strict discipline was rigidly held under no circumstances should
prisoners ever communicate with each other.

As a result, a high rate of

insanity among inmates as caused by the lack of social intercourse among


themselves inside the jail.
Local
In the local scenery, Marfori, et. al. (2014) conducted a study on the
effectiveness of correctional education program in San Pablo District Jail. A
descriptive method of research was employed for this purpose utilizing
purposive sampling technique for equal representation of the target
respondents.

Their findings revealed that educational program developed

and enhanced the theoretical knowledge and practical skills of inmates in


preparation for their life anew in the community upon their release.

Pamatmat (2014) spearheaded a study on the effects of facilities of


BJMP on the health status of inmates in Laguna Province, utilizing a
descriptive design with the issuance of one set of locally constructed
questionnaire with five-Likert scale of optional answers. Among others, his
findings revealed that psychological facilities of BJMP affected the emotional
and social aspects of inmates as they were concern of their family members
back home, and their close associations with their fellow inmates in the said
jail.
In the study made by Guisando, et. al. (2014) on the effects of
incarceration of persons in BJMP on their families in Santa Cruz and the
adjacent municipalities in Laguna utilizing descriptive survey method with
the employment of structured interviews for gathering and treating the data
for this purpose.

Among others, their findings revealed that the basic

household needs of the families were greatly affected, including the


nutritional and educational needs of children of inmates at the said provincial
jail.
At this point, though the foregoing studies are not exactly identical
with the present study in terms of venue and timeframe, but both are
collateral with one another with respect to the basic problem areas
investigated along the demographic profile of inmates, the extensiveness of
the programs of BJMP delivered to them, and the degree of effects of the said

programs in enhancing the social conditions of inmates in Santa Cruz,


Laguna.

Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This portion gives careful consideration on the research design,


population and sampling technique, research instrument, data gathering
procedure and statistical treatment of data in order to elicit answers to the
basic problems advanced in Chapter 1 of this study.
Research Design
The researcher employed the descriptive method in gathering and
treating the information and data for the forgoing areas of investigation.
As disclosed by Meyer (2010), descriptive method deals with a
situation demanding various techniques of data gathering, such as: on-thespot observations, structured interviews and questionnaires which eventually
under the option of the researcher at the time the process of investigation is
made.

Prior to the actual gathering of data, the researcher studied carefully


the population parameter, knowing the fact that the data in descriptive
method are susceptible to distortion through introduction of bias into the
research design.
And thus, in order to safeguard the data from distortion, particular
attention was made by the researcher in ensuring the discreteness of the
population parameter representing female workers in Pagsanjan, Laguna;
and the data were organized and systematically presented so that valid and
accurate conclusions were drawn from them.
Population and Sampling Technique
Systematic sampling technique was used in the selection of sample
representing the female workers in Pagsanjan, Laguna from the population
parameter of one-hundred fifty (150) in order to come up into fifty (50) as
the actual respondents of this study.
As cited by Wandelt (2011), systematic sampling technique is the most
practical way in the selection of the actual sample by just simply assigning
even or odd scheme of numbers to the target population parameter, and
then systematically distribute and retrieve the questionnaire during the
actual gathering of data.
Research Instrument

Only one set of questionnaire was issued to the actual respondents of


this study.

For objectivity, relevance, and suitability to the main problem

along violence against women and its effect to the female workers in the
said municipality, the items in the major instrument were based on the
sequence of the basic questions raisedin the study.
The tentative draft of the questionnaire was submitted to the thesis
adviser for judgmental validation and subsequently submitted to the Panel of
Experts during the pre-oral defense in order to improve further organization
and contents of the said instrument.
The improved draft was then tried out on five (5) dry-run subjects who
were not included as actual respondents of this study,

wherein their

responses were statistically treated using the Spearman (Rho) formula in


order to ensure the validity and reliability of the said instrument.
And thus, with the Rho value of one (1), the major instrument was then
declared as valid and reliable.
In order to make the questionnaire simple by avoiding guesswork and
assured one-hundred percent (100%) responses from the said respondents,
five-Likert scale of optional answers was reflected.
The scale with equivalent range of weights and verbal interpretation is
given below:
Scale

Weight

Verbal Interpretation

4.21-5.00

Always

3.41-4.20

Often

2.61-4.40

1.81-2.60

Seldom

1.00-1.80

Never

Sometimes

Data Gathering Procedure


As there was approval by the thesis adviser to conduct an actual
gathering of data, letters of request addressed to the different business
establishments in Pagsanjan, Laguna were prepared requesting permission to
issue one set of questionnaire to their female workers. The contents of the
said letters of request were done with utmost humility and courtesy, as well
as assurance of the observance of strict confidentiality of the information
and data gathered from the said workers.
The distribution and retrieval of one set of questionnaire were done
personally by the researcher in order to clarify questions which were found
highly technical in nature by the actual respondents.
Statistical Treatment of Data
The responses of the actual respondents were tallied and tabulated in
order to produce the frequencies and equivalent percentages as basis for
application of the following formulas:

Weighted mean formula was designed to determine the weight as basis


for centrality of the responses wherein verbal interpretation was reflected.
WM=Esf
N
Where:
WM=weighted mean
Esf=sum of scale and frequency
N=number of cases
Standard deviation formula intended to know the variability or spread
of data around the mean.
SD=V Ex2
N
Where:
SD=standard deviation
Ex2=sum of deviations
N=number of cases
T-test formula for samples of equal size designed to know the effect of
violence against women particularly, the female workers, as basis for
acceptance or rejection of the null hypothesis at five percent (5%) level of
significance.

T= M1 M2
VEX12+EX22
N1(N2-1)
Where:
T=t-test
M1=mean of the first sample
M2=mean of the second sample
EX12 and EX22=sum of deviations of the first and second
samples
N 1 and N2=number of cases of the first and second
samples
For speed and accuracy of the statistical computations, the responses
of the said respondents were computerized in order to produce the data
matrix.