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National Headquarters, Civil Air Patrol

ACE Program
Aerospace Connections in Education
Grades K - 6

105 South Hansell Street Maxwell AFB, AL 36112


Web Site: www.capmembers.com/ae PH: 877- 227- 9142 Email: ace@capnhq.gov Fax: 334- 953- 6891

National Headquarters, Civil Air Patrol

Aerospace Connections in Education


ACE Program for K-6 Educators

K-6 ACE CREDITS


CAP NHQ Deputy Director of Aerospace Education: Dr. Jeff Montgomery

ACE Program Visionary and Development Director: Susan Mallett


Lead Curriculum Development: Angie St. John
Lead Editors: Carla Chin, Nancy Darragh, Lydia Drennan, Megan Tucker,
Beppie Walerius, Janice Wright
Curriculum Contributions: Susan Mallett, Marie Berry, Susan Clayton, Debbie Dahl,
Jennifer Johnson, Catherine Kenny, Christina Kirkland, Joel Kirkland, Dawn McCord,
Teresa Messick, David St. John, Judy Stone, Amy Williams
Website & Literature Resource Index: Stacy Griffin, Teresa Holley
Artwork: Microsoft Clipart, NASA, Civil Air Patrol products, others with permission
Cappy (ACE Mascot) Artwork: Sandra Carmichael
ACE Certificate Graphic Art Assistance: Barb Pribulick
IT Development: Alex Nelson
Special thanks to:
Civil Air Patrol National Headquarters, for approving and supporting the ACE Program
Air Force Association, CAPs long-time supporting partner for AE initiatives
CAPs Drug Demand and Reduction Program, for resources and support
NASA, whose public domain educator resources were used in curriculum development
Additional Sponsors, whose financial assistance has allowed the ACE Program to
impact more of Americas elementary students (For a complete listing of sponsors,
please visit the ACE teachers page at www.capmembers.com/aceteachers.)
ACE teachers, who use the ACE Program to educate, excite, and inspire students

(2011) Civil Air Patrol curriculum is not copyrighted; however, any copyrighted material that we received
permission to use is noted as such.

National Headquarters, Civil Air Patrol

Aerospace Connections in Education (ACE) Program


105 South Hansell Street Maxwell AFB, AL 36112
Email: ace@capnhq.gov PH: 877-227-9142 Fax: 334-953-6891
Website: www.capmembers.com/aceteachers

Grade 6 Table of Contents


ACE Program Overview ...................................................................................................................... 2
Teacher Implementation Guidelines............................................................................................. 3
School- Wide Implementation Guidelines ................................................................................... 5
Lesson Information, Tips, & Suggestions................................................................................... 7
Drug Demand Reduction (DDR) Connections ........................................................................... 8
Forms....................................................................................................................................................... 11
Class Progress Chart ........................................................................................11
Sample Parent Letter ........................................................................................12
Award Nomination Forms.................................................................................13
Lesson Evaluation Form ...................................................................................19
Pre-Test/Post-Test Record Sheet .....................................................................20
Pre- Test/Post- Test ........................................................................................................................... 21
Academic Aerospace Lessons ....................................................................................................... 25
Lesson #1: Air-mazing Experiment .................................................................25
Lesson #2: Target ........................................................................................... 29
Lesson #3: Wing Ratios ...................................................................................39
Lesson #4: Junk Rocket ...................................................................................49
Lesson #5: Strange New Planet .......................................................................59
Lesson #6: What's Hidden Below? ....................................................................65
Lesson #7: Payload Packaging Challenge ........................................................73
Lesson #8: Super Stars ....................................................................................83
Lesson #9: Milky Way Fraction Hunt ................................................................95
Character Aerospace Lessons .................................................................................................... 101
Lesson #1: Let Your Good Character Take Flight ...........................................101
Lesson #2: Should You Judge a Book by Its Cover? ........................................117
Lesson #3: Attitude Determines Your Altitude ...............................................125
Lesson #4: There is no "I" in Team ................................................................141
Lesson #5: Rocket to Success........................................................................151
Lesson #6: This, Again? ................................................................................157
Physical Fitness Aerospace Lessons ....................................................................................... 165
Lesson #1: Sportsmanship - It's the Ultimate ................................................165
Lesson #2: Im so Dizzy, My Head is Spinning ...............................................173
Lesson #3: Rocket Golf .................................................................................179
Lesson #4: Moon & Mars Message Relay........................................................195
Lesson #5: *From Football to Flight ..............................................................207
Lesson #6: NASA Fit Explorer Challenge - Crew Strength Training ................215
Website and Literature Resources Index ............................................................................... 225
* The footballs provided by CAP to the sixth- grade students should be used with
physical fitness lesson #5, From Football to Flight.
CAPs ACE Program (2011)

ACE PROGRAM OVERVIEW


History
In March 2007, the Civil Air Patrols (CAP) National Board voted to expand CAPs school
programs to encompass the elementary grades to address Americas need for youth
development at an earlier age. Accordingly, CAP developed a Junior Cadet prototype
program for field testing in Academic Year (AY) 2007-2008.
In 2008, the program entered its second and final year of field testing and became part of CAPs
Aerospace Education (AE) mission to expose students to the world of aerospace in hopes of
inspiring the next generation of the aerospace workforce, as well as providing teachers an
engaging theme through which to teach school curricula. Additionally, through the theme of
aerospace, the program continued to promote good character and physical fitness, as these are
much desired traits for the aerospace field, or any profession. A new name for the program,
Aerospace Connections in Education (ACE), was created to better describe the program and to
be more appealing to all grade levels involved, kindergarten through sixth grade. Approximately
300 teachers and 7,000 students participated to field test this program. After the prototype
program completed its second year of field testing with successful results, the program became
available to any teacher or school in the nation beginning with the 2009-2010 school year.
Description
The ACE Program is an aerospace education program for elementary teachers (K-6) who are
regular senior members or teacher members, known as aerospace education members (AEMs),
of the Civil Air Patrol (CAP). The ACE Program curriculum was designed by educators and
incorporates fun, hands-on activities with lesson plans that meet national standards of learning.
ACE provides engaging and meaningful cross-curricular aerospace lessons that support
science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) initiatives and enrich most school systems
standard core school curricula. Additionally, many lessons promote good character and
physical fitness. The goal of this program is to help foster good-natured, healthy citizens who
will develop an interest in and appreciation for aerospace as CAP seeks to inspire the
aerospace workforce of the next generation.
The aerospace-themed lessons are divided into three categories that are pertinent to the
success and well-being of elementary students:
1) Character: In developing a future aerospace workforce and citizens of integrity, the ACE
program seeks to foster good character traits in young people that will be of value to the
students and our country as they become productive citizens and enter the workforce.
2) Physical Fitness: As part of the ACE Program, students are encouraged to engage in
physical fitness activities and maintain physically healthy habits that will last a lifetime. The
aerospace-themed lessons help emphasize the importance of physically fit astronauts and
pilots and will help motivate the students to participate in physical fitness exercises. CAP
encourages young people to say no to drugs and yes to healthy eating and exercising habits.
3) Academics: Although the lessons in the categories of character and physical fitness are
correlated to national standards of learning, the lessons found in the academic category
relate directly to traditional academic subjects such as science, math, social studies, and
language arts. These lessons are designed to fit easily into and supplement the classroom
teachers core curriculum subjects. In addition, these lessons support STEM initiatives.
Basic Participation Requirements
1) Have current membership in the Civil Air Patrol as an AEM or Senior Member.
2) Be an instructor in an elementary school setting (homeschools included).
3) Register to participate online at CAPs eServices if committed to program fulfillment.
4) Teach a minimum of 12 ACE Program lessons to your students.
5) Submit completion form located online at e-Services at https://www.capnhq.gov.
CAPs ACE Program (2011)

CAPs ACE TEACHER IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES


1. Review the information and lessons in the ACE binder.
Students must have an opportunity to be taught at least 12 ACE lessons for their grade
level, as each grade has its own unique set of ACE lessons. Lessons may be taught in any
order, and more than 12 lessons may be taught, if desired. A lesson considered for
omission may just be the lesson that would make a big impact and/or inspire students to
select a career in aerospace! If the entire school is participating, the administrator will
provide further guidance, as per the School-Wide ACE Implementation Guidelines.
2. Provide students with an overview and purpose for participation in the program.
Assist the students in defining the term aerospace. Simply, the term refers to air and
space; space being referred to as an area beyond Earths atmosphere. Explain that ACE
stands for Aerospace Connections in Education and that this program will connect all
subjects to aerospace in some manner. Students will see how aerospace can be used to
learn math, science, reading, social studies, and even good character and physical fitness!
Describe some of the lessons in which the students will participate, which may include a fun,
quick aerospace demonstration or lesson. Students may find it interesting to consider an
aerospace career such as: being in charge of designing attire for astronauts or pilots;
designing space experiments; becoming a mechanic who works to repair space vehicles or
aircraft; being a weather forecaster on Earth (or some other planet); designing games that
can be played in space; being a doctor and monitoring the health of pilots or astronauts; or
being a teacher and teaching from space! The possibilities are endless! While completing
the ACE Program, students will have fun and learn at the same time! They may forget the
real meaning of ACE and instead think of the term as meaning aerospace is cool in
education! Remind students that the word ace also means top-notch, first-rate, and the
best of the best. They can all become ace students! (Consider having an ACE Lift-off
Celebration for your class if your entire school is not participating. See #2 on the SchoolWide Implementation Guidelines for ideas.)
3. Distribute ACE T-shirts, if applicable. (T-shirts are provided based on available funding.)
Encourage students to wear their ACE T-shirts on scheduled ACE lesson days, or keep the
shirts in the classroom for ACE Day wear until the end of the program, when the shirts can
be taken home.
4. Administer the ACE pre-test to the students. (optional) Administering the pre- and
post- test is optional, but strongly encouraged by CAP, and your school administrator may
require it to measure student learning. Each grade level has its own unique test. Each test
question reflects the lesson from which the question is derived. The pre-test, given prior to
beginning the ACE lessons, is the same as the post-test, given after the last scheduled ACE
lesson is taught. If the tests are administered, calculate the average pre-test grade and
post-test grade for your class and enter these two averages when completing the online
ACE completion form. Data from these tests will give academic credibility to the program
and help provide support for continuation of the program.
Best method of administering the ACE pre- and post-test:
1) Distribute the pre-test to students. The test may be read orally to students if needed.
2) Store the completed pre-tests in a secure location for grading at the end of the program.
3) After the last scheduled ACE lesson is taught, administer the post-test. Grade ONLY the
questions on the pre- and post-test that relate directly to the ACE lessons that were
actually taught to the students during the school year. Omit test questions that were not
used. Count the total number of questions used on the test, set the EZ grader to the
number, and grade the pre- and post-tests accordingly. The highest score possible on
each test is 100.
CAPs ACE Program (2011)

Civil Air Patrols ACE Teacher Implementation Guidelines, continued

5. Begin teaching ACE lessons. Lessons may be taught in any order and may be adjusted
as deemed appropriate for the ability of students and the availability of resources, including
time. An important aspect of this program is the option of inviting guests into the classroom
to present lessons to the students. Some suggested volunteer instructors include: the
school principal, counselor, other school staff members, parent volunteers, and community
members. If a CAP or Air Force Association (AFA) volunteer is desired, initial contact
information for a CAP unit or AFA chapter can be obtained by entering your zip code at
http://cap.findlocation.com/ and http://www.afa.org/contact_link_search.asp, respectively.
Teacher presence with a guest presenter is needed to assist with the class and to connect
the guests presentation to future classroom lessons.
6. Consider a method of acknowledging good student work in the ACE Program.
- Make a laminated index card for each student (or use the ACE badge template located
on the ACE teacher page at http://www.capmembers.com/ae) and place a colored star on
each students ACE card or badge to reflect satisfactory completion of each ACE lesson.
- Have one or two ACE Student(s) of the Week recognized in the classroom,
emphasizing that ace means top-notch and first-rate! Laminate 1-2 airplane shapes
labeled ACE Student of the Week and attach the picture(s) of the student(s) in the
pilots seat of each plane. Give the student(s) a pilots scarf to wear, if so desired.
The ACE Student(s) of the Week can be the line leader(s) and special helper(s) for the
week.
7. Submit ACE award nominations for national recognition by April 25. Submit any
teacher, student, or school ACE Award nominations NO LATER THAN APRIL 25 of the
current school year. Please read the criteria listed for the award nomination carefully to
ensure each nominee meets requirements to be considered for the award. Nomination
forms
are located in the curriculum
binder,
as
well as
online
at
www.capmembers.com/aceteachers. Award winners will receive a plaque, a monetary
award, and national recognition in CAPs AE newsletter.
8. Administer the ACE post-test to students if the pre-tests were administered at the
beginning of the program. See the detailed information about the pre- and post-tests
provided in #4 of the implementation guidelines on the previous page. Determine the class
pre-test average and post-test average, and record it on the ACE Completion Form online.
9. Complete the online ACE Completion Form located at https://www.capnhq.gov AT
LEAST 3 WEEKS PRIOR to your last day of school. The absolute last day to submit a
completion form is June 15.
Have the following information readily available to help expedite the completion process:
1) CAP ID# and your eServices password
2) ACE pre-test and post-test class score averages (if administered)
3) Lesson category and lesson number for six ACE lessons that you wish to evaluate
You will rate six ACE lessons from 1 (very poor) to 5 (excellent). Brief comments are
helpful.

Failure to submit an online ACE completion form that denotes successful completion
will result in ineligibility to participate in the future.
CAPs ACE Program (2011)

SCHOOL-WIDE ACE IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES


Schools that have requested school-wide participation in Civil Air Patrols ACE Program should
select one of the implementation options listed below that works best for the entire school. This
level of participation takes a great deal of coordination among grade levels and with specialists
in the school to ensure that the program is conducted most effectively for all involved. For a
school-wide program to work, there must be a commitment from all teachers to fulfill the
expectations of the administrator, who is the ultimate decision maker in this process. Each
participating teacher in the school should have a clear understanding of the school
administrators expectations, as well as CAPs expectations and guidelines, to include the ACE
Teacher Implementation Guidelines.
NOTE: PE teachers, counselors, and science lab teachers are commonly referred to as
specialists in the ACE Program.

Option 1)
Each classroom teacher for each grade level is responsible for conducting a
minimum of 12 ACE lessons in his/her classroom. A classroom teacher or grade level
representative may coordinate with specialists (see Note above) to have the
specialist(s) teach additional ACE lessons to the students beyond the minimum of the 12
that will be conducted in the teachers classroom. The classroom teacher or grade level
representative will provide the specialist(s) a copy of any designated lessons to be taught
by the specialist(s). With this option, the classroom teacher implements 12 lessons in
his/her classroom, and if other specialists teach the remaining ACE lessons for the
specific grade level, the entire ACE curriculum will be taught to the students in that
particular class/grade level, thus maximizing the impact of the program.
Option 2)
Each classroom teacher for each grade level is responsible for conducting a
minimum of 8 ACE lessons in his/her classroom, and the counselor and PE specialists
are each responsible for teaching a minimum of 2 other lessons to the teachers classes
in order that the classes all receive a total of at least 12 lessons. The grade level
representative should provide the PE teacher and counselor copies of designated
character and physical fitness lessons to be presented to students at their grade level.
Thus, all teacher participants have contributed equitably to successful program
implementation.
Option 3)
Each classroom teacher for each grade level is responsible for teaching a
minimum of 6 ACE lessons in his/her classroom, and the counselor and PE specialists
are each responsible for teaching a minimum of 3 lessons in order that all classes
receive a total of at least 12 lessons. The grade level representative should provide
copies of the character and physical fitness lessons the counselor and PE teacher are to
present. (Note: If a PE teacher OR counselor is NOT participating, then only the
specialist that IS participating would teach all 6 grade level lessons of their particular
area, which would be either physical fitness or character education. Classroom teachers
would not teach any lessons of the particular category of the participating specialist.)
Option 4)
No specialists are involved. Each classroom teacher for each grade level is
responsible for conducting a minimum of 12 ACE lessons in his/her classroom.
If the school has a participating science specialist, the classroom teacher will still conduct a
minimum of 12, 8, or 6 ACE lessons (as noted in options 1, 2, and 3) in his/her classroom. The
remaining lessons necessary to provide students an opportunity to receive 12 total ACE lessons
may be conducted by other school specialists, to include a science specialist, as agreed upon by
the teacher(s), the specialist(s), and the school administrator, who has ultimate authority over the
implementation of the school-wide ACE Program.
Consider inviting guest instructors into the classrooms for the program, as explained in
the ACE Teacher Implementation Guidelines.
CAPs ACE Program (2011)

Civil Air Patrols School-Wide ACE Implementation Guidelines, continued

1. All teachers should understand the selected school-wide ACE implementation method as well as
CAPs expectations and guidelines expressed in the ACE Teacher Implementation Guidelines.
2. Schedule dates for all teachers to teach ACE lessons, or allow individual classroom teachers to
be responsible for selecting their own days and times to present ACE lessons. The program can
be conducted twice a month, once a week for a specified time, or as scheduled when
appropriate for the school or teacher.
3. A school-wide assembly to introduce and lift off the ACE Program is strongly encouraged. The
purpose of an ACE Liftoff celebration is to explain the program to the students and get them
excited! If a school-wide liftoff event is not conducted, consider a culminating end-of-the-year
ACE celebration, or an aerospace field day. Some ideas that have been used in the past are:
- Have a theme for your program such as, Lets Orbit with Energy and Fire Up for Fitness.
(used by Hayneville Road in Montgomery, AL the 2008-2009 ACE School of the Year)
- Invite the principal to explain the ACE Program to the students, relating how all areas of the
school curriculum (math, science, English, etc.) relate to aerospace. Additionally, he/she
may describe some careers that relate to aerospace, explaining that there are many career
options other than being an astronaut or pilot, and there are aerospace jobs that are possible
without ever leaving Earth! There are: doctors and nurses to monitor the health of pilots and
astronauts; teachers to teach from space; scientists to design experiments to be performed
in space; mechanics, electricians, and engineers to design and work on aircraft, spacecraft,
and rovers that go to other planets; clothing designers to create protective and improved
clothes for pilots and astronauts; and weather forecasters to help pilots and astronauts fly
safely. Finally, the principal can remind students that the word ace also means top-notch,
first-rate, and the best of the best. Encourage the students to really be ace students!
- Have a rocket launch outdoors. Select either a rocket powered by air, a combination of air
and water, or powered with a solid-fueled engine. (Rocket kits are available at hobby and
large discount stores. A local CAP unit or a JROTC class at a local high school may have a
Rocketry Club that would conduct a great rocket launching experience for the students.)
- Invite a pilot or other interesting person to speak about aviation or space hobbies or careers.
- Invite model high school students to share the importance of academics, character, and
physical fitness with students.
- Have some students share some poems about aviation or space.
- Have a paper airplane competition.
- Have someone sing an aerospace-related song, such as the ACE Boomerang theme song
(performed by Charlotte Ritchie) or You Were Born to Fly (performed by Sara Evans).
- Launch a hot air balloon. (For ideas and instructions, click hot air balloons at
http://members.gocivilairpatrol.com/aerospace_education/general/index.cfm.)
- Create a PowerPoint slide show presentation of aircraft, the space shuttle, the ISS, and/or
planets for students to watch while listening to aerospace type music.
- Coordinate with a local aviation group to have an airplane fly-over. Consider consulting a
CAP unit in your area (http://cap.findlocation.com/), a military base, a private pilot, or your
local emergency team for a potential aircraft fly-over.
4. Consider scheduling a time in the computer lab at least 3 weeks prior to the last day of school for
all teachers to submit their online ACE completion forms (available at https://www.capnhq.gov) in
order to confirm all completion forms for the school have been submitted.
5. If all the classroom teachers at the school complete the program, someone from the school
should request a school ACE plaque by emailing the request to ace@capnhq.gov.
CAPs ACE Program (2011)

ACE LESSONS: Helpful Information, Tips, and Suggestions


Lesson Design
Lessons may be taught in any order from any category. Ultimately, a variety of lessons are included
in order for teachers to select ACE lessons that correlate to and enrich the curriculum already being
implemented in the classroom or school.
In the academic category of ACE lessons, each grade level has at least one lesson regarding the
following aerospace topics: air, airplanes, rockets, and space, which may include topics such as
planets, the space shuttle, and/or astronauts. The academic lessons have an aerospace theme, but
truly are cross-curricular as they seek to have students apply skills and concepts in science, math,
language arts, and even social studies, in some cases.
ACE character lessons stress good character traits such as honesty, caring, fairness, respect,
responsibility, and trustworthiness. Aerospace is blended, sometimes subtly, into these lessons, but
ultimately, these lessons serve to emphasize good character, which is important for all career fields,
not just aerospace-related careers!
The ACE physical fitness lessons are designed to address elements of physical education. A variety
of ACE K-6 physical fitness lessons stress teamwork, game strategy, good nutrition, cardio activity,
motor skill development, hand-eye coordination, and living a healthy lifestyle. Dont feel as though
these lessons are only appropriate for PE; many fit well into other academic subjects!
Lesson Planning
Please feel free to make adjustments to ACE lessons as needed to accommodate the ability
level of your students and your available resources such as time and materials.

Review the supplies needed for a lesson ahead of time! There are a few K-6 lessons in
which you may ask the students to start collecting and bringing supplies from home such as
plastic soda bottles and tops of egg cartons. Then when you are ready to conduct a lesson
that requires plastic soda bottles or egg cartons, for example, you will be ready.

If an ACE lesson requires students to make something, consider making it on your own first.
This will help you provide better instruction and guidance for your students. Additionally,
you will have a visual model to show the students to give them a better idea of what they
are making and how to make it.

When a lesson directs you to a website to watch a video clip, obtain additional information,
or access an interactive game for students, please check the URL (website address) ahead
of time to make sure it works. Occasionally, URLs change without notice. In the event you
go to a website provided in an ACE lesson that no longer works, please email us at
ace@capnhq.gov with the link provided in the ACE lesson so that we may try to find the
updated URL, if one exists, and correct it on the lesson. You may find that some ACE
lessons refer to NASA Explores, which we are aware is no longer available, but CAP still
wishes to provide credit to them for their contributions.

If you find something that doesnt work, a typo, or a correction that needs to be made in a
lesson, please notify us at ace@capnhq.gov. Additionally, if you have some helpful
information that we can add to a lesson or have a helpful tip to share with other ACE
teachers, please let us know. Well work to share the helpful information.

If you are required to teach character for 10-15 minutes each day, consider dividing ACE
character lessons into small segments in order to teach a particular ACE character lesson
over the course of several days as opposed to all at once in one day.

Consider teaching extra ACE lessons around the holidays or after administering
standardized tests.

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

ACE LESSONS: Drug Demand Reduction (DDR) Connections


When your school focuses on activities for Red Ribbon Week or other initiatives to help students
Just Say No to Drugs, consider implementing these Drug Demand Reduction (DDR)
messages into the ACE lessons for which CAP supplied a classroom set of aerospace items:
Kindergarten: Earth Squeeze Ball (Coming in for a Landing, Academic Lesson #4)
Tell students that Earth is a wonderful planet. Just like we need to do things such as pick up
trash, plant trees, and reduce smoke in the air to keep the Earth healthy, there are things we
should do to stay healthy or to become healthy if we get sick. When we are sick, we take
medicine that our parents or doctor provides us. It is always very important to only take
medicine when a family member, doctor, or school nurse gives it to us. Never take any
medicine from a friend or a stranger! Stay healthy, and live a long time on this beautiful Earth.
1st Grade: Balsa Planes (Plane Art and Plane Chart, Academic Lessons #3 and #4)
Ask students what a real plane needs to fly. Point out that one thing a plane needs to fly is fuel.
Just like people take a car to a gas station to get gas, a plane also has to have gas to give it
energy so its engine(s) will work. Ask students what kind of fuel they put in their bodies to keep
it going. Tell students that if they put the wrong fuel inside them, their bodies will not work as
well. Too much candy and too many soft drinks can be bad. Additionally, if they put things that
do not belong in their bodies, such as cigarette smoke or someone elses medicine, those things
can harm their bodies and cause damage. Remind students to never take candy from
strangers, stay away from cigarette smoke if at all possible, and never take someone elses
medicine. Putting the right stuff in our bodies will help keep us flying for a long time.
2nd Grade: Finger Rockets (Rocket to the Planets, Academic Lesson #8)
Ask students what they see when a real rocket takes off and starts roaring into the sky. Confirm
that yes, they see a trail of smoke, and thats where smoke should come from from the end of
a rocket sailing into the sky. Tell students that smoke is not meant to come from our mouths
due to cigarettes. Encourage students to just say no to ever trying cigarettes. Remind them it
is a bad habit that can make them smelly, can stain their teeth yellow, and even worse, damage
their lungs. Our lungs help us to breathe, and if they are damaged by cigarettes, we will not be
able to breathe well, and if we cannot breathe, we cannot live. Tell students to let the rocket be
a reminder for where smoke belongs coming out of a rocket, not from them!
3rd grade: Foam Airplanes (Foam Flyers, Academic Lesson #4)
Ask students what gave their plane the energy to spin the red propellers. Confirm that the
energy released by the spinning rubber band caused the propellers to spin. Ask students what
they do to give their bodies energy. Tell students that if they put the wrong fuel inside them,
their bodies will not work as well. Too much candy and too many soft drinks can be bad.
Additionally, if students put things that do not belong in their bodies (such as cigarette smoke,
someone elses medicine, illegal drugs, etc.), those things can harm their bodies and cause
damage. Remind students to never take candy from strangers, stay away from cigarette smoke
if at all possible, never take someone elses medicine, and always say no to drugs! Putting the
right stuff in our bodies will help keep us flying high, naturally.

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

4th grade: Fun Shuttles (Fun Shuttles, Academic Lesson #4)


Tell students that before the first space shuttle went into space for the first time in 1981, it had to
be tested. Scientist, engineers, mechanics, and others worked diligently on all the parts and
tested them before the shuttle was assembled and before it ever went into space. Testing
spacecraft and aircraft is necessary for the safety of those on the ground and in the air.
Experimenting with and testing parts of aircraft and spacecraft are important to make sure
everything works correctly before putting human lives at risk during flight. The testing of some
things, however, is very dangerous. Ask students if they can name some things that would be
dangerous to test or experiment. Point out that NO ONE, not even adults, should experiment
with or test illegal drugs, or drugs that are not prescribed by a doctor. Tell students that if
anyone ever hands them something and says, Try this; just test it out; youll like it, they should
refuse! Testing drugs or alcohol could have very damaging effects. Tell students they could get
hooked on it, or even worse, die from it, even if theyre just testing it out. Some things are
meant to be tested, like parts of a spacecraft, while other things, like drugs and alcohol, are not!
5th grade: Power Planes (Forces of Flight, Academic Lesson #2)
Ask students to review the forces of flight by naming them and explaining how each affects a
Frisbee or an airplane. Ask students to take a piece of notebook paper, drawing paper, or
poster board and divide it in half, lengthwise like a hot dog. Have students draw a line down the
middle of the paper to separate the paper into two sections. Have students write drag along
the left edge of the paper and thrust along the right edge of the paper. In the drag section of
the paper, have students illustrate that drugs and alcohol can drag them down. On the right
side of the paper, have students illustrate things that thrust (or propel) them forward.
Conversely, students could do this same activity by dividing another piece of paper or poster
board in half the other way, drawing a line across the middle of the paper, labeling the top as
lift and the bottom as weight.
6th grade: Footballs (From Football to Flight, Physical Fitness Lesson #5)
Ask students how a football travels through the air. Confirm that the football spins or spirals as
it flies through the air. Remind students that they should never abuse drugs, prescription or
otherwise, or alcohol as it will cause their lives to spin or spiral out of control! Tell students to
leave the spinning to the football, and make good, healthy choices about what they put into their
bodies so that they will not lose control of their lives to drugs or alcohol!
Additional ideas from CAPs DDR:
Put signs on doors that read, Close the Door on Drugs!
Put signs on trash cans that read, Drugs are Trash!
Have everyone wear boots to school on the same day to Stomp out Drugs.
Wear a shirt backwards to Turn Your Back on Drugs.
Have students wear red, white, and blue clothing to promote the theme Take a Stand
for a Drug-free Land.
Wear sweatshirts and/or sweatpants to school one day to promote the theme Being
Drug Free is No Sweat.
Wear a bandanna to school to promote the theme Band Together Against Drugs.
Have the students trace their shoes and then design them for the theme Stomp Out
Drugs.
Make a banner that reads: The students in room ___ pledge to keep all hands off
drugs." Display handprints of each child with their name under the banner.

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

10

ACE Class Progress Chart


Teacher: ___________________________________
Put X in the square if the student does not meet expectations of successful completion for each lesson
or project. Put an A if the student was absent for the section. Success is determined by the students
participation, cooperation, adherence to directives, and respect for self and others during the lesson or
activity. Indicate success with a check mark.

Student Name

A
1

A
2

A
3

A
4

A
5

A
6

A
7

A
8

A
9

C
1

C
2

C
3

C
4

C
5

C
6

P
1

P
2

P
3

P
4

P
5

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
CAPs ACE Program (2011)

11

P
6

To: Parents
From: YOUR CHILDS SCHOOL
Date:
Are you seeking a worthwhile way to be involved and participate at school this year? If so, you
might want to consider volunteering to teach an easy, 30-60 minute lesson in your childs
classroom. Thanks to the Civil Air Patrols new Aerospace Connections in Education (ACE)
Program, we have an opportunity for you to help foster outstanding character development in
your childs classroom, as well as to help spark student excitement about the field of aerospace
as a possible career choice, as well as an academic accelerator.
The Civil Air Patrol is a non-profit, humanitarian organization with a distinguished history that
began in 1941 and has three main missions: 1) homeland security/emergency services/disaster
relief; 2) cadet programs; and 3) aerospace education. In the process of working to develop
responsible youth and inspiring Americas next generation of aerospace workers, CAP developed a
new elementary program known as the ACE Program. Our school is one of a number of schools
across the country that has the opportunity to participate. Due to our participation, our
students receive complimentary ACE T-shirts and an aerospace item such as a balsa airplane, a
rocket, Frisbee, etc. Teachers receive lesson plans in which the overall goal is to motivate,
inspire, and educate students about the field of aerospace while simultaneously propelling
educational excellence, outstanding character, and physical fitness. Upon completion of the
program, students will receive ACE certificates at the end of the school year.
How can you participate in this program? Consider making a commitment to teach at least one of
the ACE lessons to the class at the time designated by your childs teacher. The lessons are
written in an easy, step-by-step manner and are self-explanatory. You will be given time to
review and prepare for your presentation. This opportunity is so beneficial because students will
see you in action as a positive, caring role model, and will see a partnership between the home and
school that is working to achieve a common goal to provide an exceptional educational
experience for each of them.
Please be part of making a positive difference in our school. If you would like to participate,

please complete the following and return it to your childs teacher by the following date:
______________.

Childs Name _________________________________ Teacher __________________________


Parent Name ___________________________________________________________________
Phone # ___________________________ E-mail _____________________________________

Check the category or categories in which you are interested. The teacher will contact you
pertaining to available time(s).

____Academics
CAPs ACE Program (2011)

____Character ____Physical Fitness ____Any category is fine

12

ACE Program Awards


The Civil Air Patrol (CAP) and the Air Force Association (AFA) wish to honor outstanding
achievement in the ACE Program. The following awards, therefore, have been established: ACE
Program Student of the Year, ACE Program Teacher of the Year, and ACE Program School of the
Year. We wish to acknowledge schools that go above and beyond to make the program a
successful and integral part of the learning experience. The ACE Program would not be possible
without the enthusiasm and willingness of dedicated teachers to present the program to their
students, and the students are the inspiration and purpose for the program. Without the
elementary students, there would be no need for such a program. It is CAPs desire to award and
publicize the great work of our schools, teachers, and students.
Award nomination forms are available online at www.capmembers.com/aceteachers, as well
as on the following pages. The deadline to submit nominations is April 25 of the current
school year.
Why should you take the time to submit a nomination?
Individuals and groups take pride in being honored for outstanding achievements. Additionally,
being honored and sharing success stories may inspire others and/or spark new ideas that can
spur students, teachers, and schools onto greater achievements. Not only will the award winners
receive national recognition through the Civil Air Patrols AE newsletter and website, but award
winners should publicize their achievement in their local community to help showcase the great
accomplishments taking place within their local schools.
Along with national publicity, as mentioned above, the following prizes are provided to
winners:
ACE Student of the Year: plaque and $50
ACE Teacher of the Year: plaque and a $250 grant to be used as needed
If a complimentary trip to an aerospace workshop/conference is available, he/she
will have the option to accept the pre-determined workshop/conference event.
ACE School of the Year: plaque and $250 grant to be used as needed
Again,
all
award
nomination
forms
can
be
downloaded
online
at
www.capmembers.com/aceteachers. Along with the nomination form, submit any additional
information, pictures, student samples, news articles, or other material to support your nominee.
Providing details and specific examples are important criteria in the selection process. Completed
nominations may be submitted by the methods listed below, and you will receive an email
confirmation upon our receipt of the nomination material.
Email: ace@capnhq.gov (Email is preferred. Documents and pictures may be sent in separate
emails if the files are large.)
Fax: 334-953-6891
Mail: 105 South Hansell Street, Maxwell AFB, AL, 36112
All nominations must be received by April 25 of the current school year. Winners will be notified by
May 10.
NOTE: Prizes may be subject to change due to available funding.
CAPs ACE Program (2011)

13

ACE Program Student of the Year Nomination Form


(form can be downloaded at http://www.capmembers.com/aceteachers)

AWARD DESCRIPTION
The ACE Program Student of the Year Award is provided to a student who has proven himself or
herself to be a future scientist, engineer, pilot, astronaut, or other STEM-related professional. Not
only does he/she exhibit enthusiasm for aerospace, but he/she also has the qualities that make
him/her a model student with traits such as good character; the desire to learn; the desire to excel;
the ability to work well with others; and the determination to live a physically fit, healthy, and drugfree lifestyle. Ultimately, this individual has impressed upon his/her teacher and classmates that
he/she has the right stuff (reference to Americas first seven astronauts), and even if a STEMrelated career does not become a reality, he/she will be a successful, contributing member of
society. Receiving this award will honor the student's standout performance in the ACE Program
and will help fuel the students interest in aerospace as he/she may be part of the future aerospace
workforce of America.

CRITERIA FOR SELECTION


1.
2.
3.
4.

Must be an elementary student in grades K 6.


Must have participated in at least 12 ACE lessons with his/her class.
Must have at least a C average in all academic subjects.
Must have displayed enthusiasm for and interest in aerospace while maintaining good
character and striving to be physically fit.
5. Must have impressed upon his/her teacher that he/she has the right stuff and could easily
be a future scientist, engineer, pilot, astronaut, or other STEM-related professional.
6. Students teacher must be an aerospace education member (AEM) of Civil Air Patrol.

PROCEDURE FOR NOMINATION


Any of the students current teachers may nominate a student who meets the criteria for the selection of ACE
Student of the Year. Complete the nomination form and either email (preferred), fax, or mail the completed
form and any attachments. Please turn in all nomination documentation by April 25 of the current school
year so that the winner can be announced before school is out for the summer. Submit/attach any pictures,
student work samples, or other material to support the nomination. Photos of student(s) engaged in ACE
activities while wearing ACE shirts is preferable.
Email: ace@capnhq.gov
Fax: 334-953-6891 Mail: 105 South Hansell Street, Maxwell AFB, AL, 36112

PLEASE TYPE or PRINT


1. Name of student ______________________________________________________________
2. Students grade level ______
3. Name of School ______________________________________________________________
4. Name of students teacher submitting nomination. ___________________________________
Teacher phone # or email address: _______________________________________________
5. In how many ACE lessons did the student successfully participate? __________
6. As one of the students teachers, explain (in no more than one page) why you feel the nominee
is deserving of the ACE Student of the Year Award. Be sure to include information about the
students character (and leadership skills if applicable). Include information about the students
interest in and participation in aerospace activities.
CAPs ACE Program (2011)

14

ACE Program Teacher of the Year Nomination Form


(form can be downloaded at http://www.capmembers.com/aceteachers)

AWARD DESCRIPTION
The ACE Program Teacher of the Year Award is provided to a teacher who has done an
exemplary job of implementing the ACE Program in his/her classroom. This teacher has a passion
for teaching and incorporating aerospace into his/her instruction. Not only does he/she inspire
students, but this teacher also inspires other colleagues. By the excitement generated in his/her
classroom and the extra effort to share the information about the ACE Program with other teachers
and the community, this individual is deserving of the ACE Program Teacher of the Year Award.
Self-nominations are accepted and encouraged.
CRITERIA FOR SELECTION
1. Must be an Aerospace Educator Member (AEM) or regular Senior Member of the Civil Air
Patrol.
2. Must be a certified elementary teacher who is employed at the school.
3. Must have done an exemplary job in completing the ACE Program and promoting
aerospace education.
4. Must have had at least 12 ACE lessons taught IN HIS/HER CLASSROOM.
PROCEDURE FOR NOMINATION
Any administrator, teacher, or parent within the school may nominate an individual (including himself or
herself) who meets the criteria for selection for ACE Teacher of the Year. Complete the nomination form
(type or print clearly) and either email (preferred), fax, or mail the completed form and any attachments.
Submit any pictures, student samples, news articles, or other material to support the nomination. Turn in all
nomination documentation no later than April 25 of the current school year so the winner can be announced
before school is out for the summer.
Email: ace@capnhq.gov
Fax: 334-953-6891 Mail: 105 South Hansell Street, Maxwell AFB, AL, 36112

1. Name of Nominee ____________________________________________________________


2. Name of School _____________________________________________________________
3. Nominees Title (e.g. teacher, counselor, etc.) and Grade Level(s) of ACE Instruction:
___________________________________________________________________________
4. Name of person submitting this nomination. (Self nomination is fine and encouraged).
____________________________________________ Title ___________________________
5. Did the nominee complete the pre/post-tests with his/her students? ___ Yes ___ No
6. Did the nominee have any method of acknowledging successful student completion of ACE
lessons? ____ Yes ____ No If yes, please briefly describe.

7. How many ACE lessons were conducted in the nominees classroom? ______
lessons, how many did the nominee personally teach? ______

Of these

(In good faith and honesty, please include any lessons in the above totals that the nominee is scheduled
to teach before the end of the year.)
CAPs ACE Program (2011)

Continue to the next page for numbers 8-11.

15

8. Did the nominee have students wear T-shirts on ACE lesson days? ____Yes ____ No
9. Did the nominee include parent, school, or community volunteers in ACE Program
implementation? ____ Yes _____ No (If yes, please briefly provide details in #11.)
10. Did the nominee provide reports or photos to local media to promote the program to the
community? _____ Yes ______ No (If yes, include details in #11.)
11. Explain why you feel the nominee is deserving of the ACE Teacher of the Year Award. Use as
much space as is needed to explain. Remember that you can send accompanying documentation
(e.g. letters of recommendation, pictures, news articles, etc.) to support the nomination.

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

16

ACE Program School of the Year Nomination Form


(form can be downloaded at http://www.capmembers.com/aceteachers)

AWARD DESCRIPTION
The ACE Program School of the Year Award is provided to a school that has gone above and
beyond to make aerospace an important part of their schools atmosphere and instruction. The
type of school deserving of this award has students who know what it means to be part of the ACE
Program and who are excited about participating. Additionally, the school is filled with teachers
who do their best to make the ACE Program a visible and viable part of their classroom instruction.
The school, as a whole, has exemplarily met or exceeded the ACE Program school-wide
implementation guidelines.
CRITERIA FOR SELECTION
1. Participating teachers must be Aerospace Educator Members (AEMs) or Senior Members
of the Civil Air Patrol.
2. All grade level teachers at the school should be registered participants in the program.
3. Participating classes should have each completed at least 12 ACE lessons.
4. School must have executed the ACE Program and promoted aerospace education in an
enthusiastic, exemplary manner.
PROCEDURE FOR NOMINATION
Any current principal, assistant principal, counselor, or teacher within the school may nominate their school
provided the school meets the ACE School of the Year criteria. Complete the nomination form and either
email (preferred), fax, or mail the completed form and any attachments. Please turn in all nomination
documentation no later than April 25 so that the winner can be announced before school is out for the
summer.
Submit any additional information, pictures, student samples, news articles, or other
material to support your schools nomination for ACE School of the Year.
Fax: 334-953-6891 Mail: 105 South Hansell Street, Maxwell AFB, AL, 36112
Email: ace@capnhq.gov

PLEASE TYPE or PRINT


1. Name of School ______________________________________________________________
2. Person submitting nomination ________________________________Title _______________
3. # of teachers participating in the ACE Program at each grade level (participation is defined as
being a CAP member and teaching at least 6 ACE lessons in the teachers classroom to students)

K _____

1 _____

2 _____

3 _____

4 _____

5 _____

6 _____

Other participants (i.e. counselor, PE, librarian, etc.) _________________________________

4. # of teachers who will have completed pre/post tests by the end of the year ______
5. # of teachers who had a method (beyond verbal) of acknowledging successful student
completion of ACE lessons _______ Please briefly describe method(s) in #8.
6. Average # of teachers who had their students wear T-shirts on lesson days _____
7. Did each class have at least 12 ACE lessons taught to them? ____ yes no ____

Continue to the next page to complete number 8.


CAPs ACE Program (2011)

17

8. Explain why your school is deserving of the ACE School of the Year. Use as much space as is
needed. Be sure to include the following in your answer:
a. Description of schools ACE Lift-Off or ACE culminating event (if applicable)
b. Information regarding guest speakers or parent involvement specifically related to
the ACE Program (if applicable)
c. Any student success stories related to the ACE Program
d. Details of how aerospace education was promoted at the school aside from
teaching ACE lessons (if applicable)
e. Details of how aerospace was used to promote good character and/or physical
fitness beyond presenting the ACE lessons (if applicable)
f. Efforts to promote the ACE program to the community (if applicable)
g. A list of participating teachers and the number of ACE lessons they each personally
presented to their class (include PE & counselor if applicable)

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

18

ACE Lesson Evaluation Form


Use this form to help you remember your experience with the ACE lessons. The online ACE
completion form on eServices at https://www.capnhq.gov will have a place for you to rate lessons.
Remember, if you are a classroom teacher, your students should receive a MINIMUM of 12 ACE
lessons, 6 of which should be taught in your classroom or under your supervision in the event
you are utilizing PE teachers, counselor, or other educators at your school to help.
Ratings:

Grade

5 = Excellent 4 = Good 3 = Okay 2 = Poor


NP = not present when lesson was taught

Category: academic,

Lesson #

Rating

1 = Very Poor/Recommend replacing

Comments

character, or PE

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

19

Class Pre- and Post-Test Grades


Use this form to record your students pre- and post-test results. Disregard scores
of students who transferred in or out during the ACE program.
The online ACE completion form on eServices located at https://www.capnhq.gov will
have a place for you to enter the average pre-test and post-test grade if you
administered these tests.

Student Name

Pre-Test Grade Post-Test Grade


(out of 100%)

(out of 100%)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

Average score:
CAPs ACE Program (2011)

20

Grade 6 ACE Program Pre __ or Post __ Test


Name: ______________________________Date ___________
Write the letter of the correct answer in the blank beside the number.

SCORE: ______

Character
_____ 1.

_____ 2.

_____ 3.

_____ 4.

Lesson 1 Let Your Good Character Take FLIGHT

(out of 100%)

All of the following are examples of good character except:


A. being loyal
C. writing well
B. practicing honesty
D. tolerance of others

Lesson 2 Should You Judge a Book by its Cover?

The most common reason people are stereotyped into a specific category is:
A. the way they look
B. their name
C. the class they are in D. their age

Lesson 2 Should You Judge a Book by its Cover?

When we disregard the differences in people: their race; their gender; their culture;
their speech; or their talents, we can begin to pull everyone together in a team that
will be successful due to a feeling of:
A. diversity
B. acceptance
C. hard work
D. role models
Lesson 3 Attitude Determines Your Altitude

People who work hard to get through difficulties faced in life are said to have
_____________ their obstacles in life.
A. erased
B. succumbed to C. tolerated
D. overcome
Lesson 4 There is No I in TEAM

_____ 5.

When teams work together for the common good of all, such as in the International
Space Station endeavor, each person has to have a strong sense of which of the
following?
A. cooperative spirit
C. aerospace experience
B. scientific knowledge
D. micro-gravity training

_____ 6.

When you are doing what is right and/or following a worthy dream in which you
believe, what is the best way to handle any ridicule you may encounter?
A. succumb to it
B. persevere
C. retaliate in anger
D. press charges

_____ 7.

Lesson 5 Rocket to Success

Lesson 6 This, Again?

Which term refers to something that we do repeatedly in our lives without giving
much thought to the action?
A. practice
B. habit
C. reinforcement
D. trial

Physical Fitness
_____ 8.

Lesson 1 Ultimate Frisbee

When one plays a game with integrity, responsibility, fairness, and a good attitude,
he/she is displaying which of the following?
A. bad habits B. good exercise C. good sportsmanship
D. a good appetite

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

21

_____ 9.

Lesson 2 (title provides answer)

When an astronaut enters the gravitational atmosphere of Earth after an


extended period in the micro-gravity environment of space, sometimes the blood
rushing out of the brain and back into the lower parts of the body will cause the
astronaut to have periods of disorientation. This is reflected in what condition?
A. leg cramps B. dizziness C. nausea D. thirst

Lesson 3 Rocket Golf

_____ 10. In golf, what term refers to the number that shows the maximum amount of
strokes (golf swings) that it should take to get the ball from the tee box into a
particular hole?
A. strike B. birdie C. bogie D. par
_____ 11.

Lesson 3 Rocket Golf

How is the winner of a golf game determined?


A. golfer with the highest score
C. golfer with the lowest score
B. golfer with the most bogies
D. golfer with the highest average

Lesson 4 Moon & Mars Relay

_____ 12. Which of the following is least likely to improve a teams chances of winning a
game?
A. arriving early
B. speed
C. practice
D. good communication
Lesson 5 From Football to Flight

_____ 13. What term means the ability to change the bodys position? (It requires
balance, coordination, speed, reflexes, and strength.)
A. ability
B. repetition
C. agility
D. strength training
Lesson 6 Crew Training

_____ 14. Strength training involves physical fitness activities to increase which of the
following?
A. bone and muscle strength
B. hand-eye coordination
C. dexterity and flexibility
D. communication skills
Academics
Lesson 1 Air-Mazing Experiment

_____ 15. Which of the following is true about air pressure?


A. Slower moving air has a lower pressure than fast moving air.
B. Faster moving air has a lower pressure than slow moving air.
C. Low pressure follows high pressure.
D. All of the above are true.
Lesson 2 - Target

_____ 16. If your paper airplane hits below your target on the wall, what should you
adjust? (Reminder: An elevon is a combination of an aileron and an elevator.)
A. Bend one elevon up slightly and the other down slightly.
B. Bend both elevons down slightly.
C. Bend both elevons up slightly.
D. Adjust the rudder.
CAPs ACE Program (2011)

22

Lesson 2 - Target

_____ 17. Which of the following best shows a roll to the left?
A.

B.

C.

D.

Lesson 5 Strange New Planet

_____ 18. Which of the following is the biggest problem with studying celestial objects
from Earth?
A.
B.
C.
D.

_____ 19.

We are close to the object.


The Earths atmosphere can distort appearances and pictures of celestial objects.
We do not have powerful telescopes to study celestial objects from Earth.
Scientists on Earth get too distracted because of all the other events happening on
Earth.

Lesson 6 Whats Hidden Below?

An airplane flies over an area to take pictures of a disaster below caused by a


tornado. This type of gathering of information without actually having to be on the
actual site is an example of what?
A. sonar frequency B. delayed data
C. remote sensing
D. satellite imaging
Lesson 7 Payload Packaging

_____ 20. What is payload?


A. money
B. valuable cargo/luggage

C. an airplane
D. a type of rocket

Lesson 8 Super Stars

_____ 21. Which of the following best describes the age of stars according to many
scientists?
A. hundreds of years old
C. millions of years old
B. thousands of years old
D. millions and billions of years old
Lesson 8 Super Stars

_____ 22. Which color indicates the hottest star?


A. blue B. white C. yellow D. red
Lesson 8 Super Stars

_____ 23. What kind of star typically has the longest life?
A. a high temperature, massive star
B. a low temperature, less massive star
C. a medium-sized star
D. Stars typically live for the same amount of time regardless of temperature
or mass.
Lesson 9 Milky Way Fraction Hunt

_____ 24. Which of the following is true about the Milky Way Galaxy?
A. Our solar system contains our galaxy. C. It is one of many in the universe.
B. It only contains our solar system.
D. All of these answers are true.
Lesson 9 Milky Way Fraction Hunt

_____ 25.

first 1/2 of change + 2nd quarter of balloons + first 1/3 of engine + last 1/3 of change =
A. change
B. chance
C. hallegine D. challenge

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

23

Grade 6 ACE Program Pre-Test/Post-Test Answer Key

1. C.
2. A.
3. B.
4. D.
5. A.
6. B.
7. B.
8. C.
9. B.
10. D.
11. C.
12. A.
13. C.
14. A.
15. B.
16. C.
17. D.
18. B.
19. C.
20. B.
21. D.
22. A.
23. B.
24. C.
25. D.

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

24

Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


Air-mazing Experiment
Grade 6 Academic Lesson #1
Topic: air pressure (science)
Length of Lesson: 30 minutes
Lesson Reference: Steven Spangler
http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/product/1479
Objectives:
Students will make predictions and use critical thinking skills.
Students will see Bernoullis principle in action.
Students will illustrate the movement of air molecules.
Students will explain Bernoullis principle.
National Science Standards:
Content Standard A: Science as Inquiry
Content Standard B: Physical Science
- Motions and forces
- Transfer of energy

Background Information:

In the early 1700s, Daniel Bernoulli (pronounced burr-new-lee) determined that faster
moving air has a lower pressure than slower moving air. Slow moving air has a higher
pressure. The lower pressure creates a suction effect while the higher pressure results in
a push. This helps to explain in part why wings of an airplane lift into the air. Air moves
faster over the top of the wing than air moving underneath the wing; therefore, there is a
push occurring underneath the wing while there is a pull above the wing. (Angle of
attack, or the orientation of the wings to the air, is also responsible for lift.)

Lower pressure creates


suction, which helps the
wing move up.

Faster air; lower pressure


Slower air; higher pressure

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

Higher pressure helps


push the wing up.

25

NOTE: Before conducting this experiment in front of the class, practice inflating the wind
bag with one breath.
Also, view a video of this demonstration at
http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/content/experiment/00000062. Scroll down and
click the video tab located by the experiment tab.
Materials:
- 2 wind bags (provided by CAP for ACE teachers; available at many teacher stores,
including Steven Spanglers at http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/product/1479)
- notebook paper and pencil
- dry-erase board/chalkboard and marker/chalk
Lesson Presentation:
1. Tie a knot in one end of the windbag.
2. Ask students if anyone has ever referred to them as a windbag, one who talks and
talks. Ask students if someone feels he/she has good lungs or lots of air power.
Invite someone who fits these descriptions to come to the front of the room.
3. Have the volunteer hold the open end of the windbag while you hold the other end
of the windbag, making sure the windbag is fully extended.
4. Ask the class how many breaths they think it will take the volunteer to fully inflate
the windbag. Listen to predictions.
5. Tell the class that we sometimes make a hypothesis (an educated guess), and as we
obtain data (information), we may change our hypothesis. Tell the class that they
will begin to obtain some data.
6. Have the student blow 5 times directly into the bag.
Remind the student to close the opening of the bag after
blowing into it each time. He/she does not want the air to
escape while taking the next breath! After 5 breaths,
use your hand to push the air in the bag all the way to the
end of the bag. Ask students if they want to change their
hypothesis about the number of breaths it will take to inflate the bag now that
they have some new information. Listen to new predictions. Then, push all of the
air out of the bag by pushing it toward the open end of the bag.
7. Tell the volunteer that you want to have a race with him/her to see who can blow up
the bag the fastest and with the least number of breaths. Take a second windbag;
tie a knot in the end of it. Invite two other students to come to the front of the
room to hold the end of the windbags for you and the other volunteer. Ask the
students holding the knot end of each windbag to count the number of breaths of
air that are blown into the windbag. Tell the volunteer that you are racing that you
will give him/her a head start. Conduct a countdown and begin!
CAPs ACE Program (2011)

26

8. Once the volunteer has started blowing into the bag, stand about 10 inches away
from the opening of your bag, take a deep breath (just one breath!), and blow into
the bag. Students will be surprised to see your windbag magically fill up using only
one breath of air! Quickly trap the air in the bag by grasping and closing the open
end of the bag after you see it inflate.
9. Ask students if they can explain what happened. Explain to them that you created
a stream of fast moving air from your lips that was directed toward the center of
the opening of the bag. The slower moving air molecules surrounding the faster
moving air molecules had a higher pressure; thus, the higher pressure pushed air
molecules outside the wind bag toward the lower pressure center that the
individual created by blowing into the bag from several inches away. Faster moving
air has a lower pressure than air moving slowly. Low pressure creates a suction-like
effect, so the lower pressure helped pull in other surrounding air molecules outside
the bag, which helped to fill the bag quickly. High pressure follows low pressure.
Tell students that this information about air pressure was discovered by scientist
Daniel Bernoulli in 1739, and this information became known as Bernoullis principle:
faster moving air has a lower pressure than slow moving air. The student who held
the wind bag directly to his/her mouth cut off the supply of all air molecules
outside the bag. Explain that you chose to utilize the air molecules outside the
wind bag by using your knowledge of Bernoullis principle.
10. Ask students if they can think of practical applications for this information. In
other words, why would it be important to know Bernoullis principle? Explain that
in weather, areas of high pressure follow low pressure. Also, with hurricanes, a
pressure that is falling means the intensity of the hurricane is increasing. Another
way to put this information to good use is using it to remove smoke from a room or
building. If there was a major cooking accident in your kitchen that resulted in the
kitchen being filled with smoke, you should leave space between the door leading
outside and a fan to help remove the smoke. Firefighters refer to this technique as
Positive Air Flow.
Finally, Bernoullis principle helps explain how an airplane flies. Use the background
information to explain how Bernoullis principle helps an airplane stay aloft.
11. Ask students to draw the windbag experiment to illustrate what is happening with
the air and pressure. Underneath their picture, ask them to explain Bernoullis
principle.
12. Invite a volunteer to share his/her drawing and explanation with the class. Ask the
volunteer to draw his/her picture on the board. Confirm correct ideas and redirect
incorrect drawings or explanations.

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Summarization:
Ask students what they learned today. Review Bernoullis principle.
Character Connection: Tell students that in life, we experience a kind of pressure that
seems to push or pull us in different directions. Remind students that despite the
pressure that may come from others, they need to stand strong and do what is right. Just
like the fast moving air energized the slower moving air and helped to pull the air into the
windbag, encourage the students to create a kind of positive pressure that helps energize
their peers to move in the right direction and make good decisions.
Ask students to recall the amount of time it took to inflate the wind bag when you utilized
air molecules outside the bag by using your knowledge of Bernoullis principle. It took
much less time and effort to fully inflate the wind bag compared to the student who was
trying to inflate the bag using only the air molecules generated from himself/herself.
Point out to the students that when you obtain help, you can usually get a job done faster.
When you try to do big jobs on your own, it can be extremely time consuming. Teams of
people work together in organizations and companies to get jobs done efficiently and
quickly. Encourage students to be team players and help one another.
Assessment:
teacher observation
student answers to class discussion questions
student pictures and written explanations
Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
Have students use the steps of the scientific process to write about the windbag
experiment.

Have students create short stories or skits to demonstrate how forming and
pursing goals and maintaining high moral integrity can overcome negative peer
pressure.

Allow students to create an illustration to help explain why an airplane is able to fly
through the air.

side view of airplane wing

Picture: http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aero/Experiment1.htm

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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program

Target
Grade 6 Academic Lesson #2
Topics: airplane surface controls, motion, design, probability
(science, math)
Length of Lesson: 30 - 60 minutes
Reference: Elements of this lesson came from NASA at
http://connect.larc.nasa.gov/connect_bak/pdf/flightd.pdf.
Objectives:
Students will
Students will
Students will
Students will

define and demonstrate roll, pitch, and yaw.


experiment with surface controls to adjust flight paths.
convert fractions to decimals.
calculate percentages and determine probability from data.

National Standards:
Math
Number and Operations
- work flexibly with fractions, decimals, and percents to solve problems
Understand and apply basic concepts of probability
- use proportionality and a basic understanding of probability to make and test
conjectures about the results of experiments and simulations
Communication
- Organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication
Connections
- Understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to
produce a coherent whole
- Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics
Representation
- Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate
mathematical ideas
Science
Content Standard A: Science as Inquiry
Content Standard B: Physical Science
- Motions and forces
- Transfer of energy
Content Standard E: Science and Technology
- Abilities of technological design
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Background Information:

(The information and picture below are from


http://spaceday-cert.donet.com/media/documents/SpaceDayToolkit.pdf)

Pilots use different terms to describe the particular ways an aircraft moves forward:
Pitch: Aircraft nose moves up or down
Roll:
One wing of aircraft tips up while the other tips down
Yaw: Nose of airplane moves left or right while remaining level with the ground
Pilots use several control surfaces (movable sections on the aircrafts surface) to better direct an
aircrafts movement. These include:
Elevator: Section on horizontal part of tail that controls pitch
Aileron: Section at rear edge of wing near tip that controls roll
Rudder: Section attached to vertical part of tail that controls yaw

Materials:
- 5 pieces
- 5 pieces
- 5 pieces
- 5 pieces

of green construction paper


of blue construction paper
of yellow construction paper
of orange construction paper

1 piece of red construction paper


tape
Target Data Sheet (included)

NOTE: For this lesson, students need to have knowledge of converting fractions to
decimals and decimals to percents. This motivational lesson provides practical practice and
application of these math skills.
For homework, prior to teaching this lesson, ask students to make their best
paper airplane. If they do not know how to make a paper airplane, you may
suggest that they research designs, or you may provide the instructions on how to
make the Simple Paper Airplane included in this lesson. Tell students that they
will need their paper airplane during class tomorrow.

Have 5 target areas set up prior to the beginning of class the next day. To assemble the
target areas, join 4 different colored pieces of construction paper together using tape.
Place a reasonably sized red circle (or square) in the middle of the 4 pieces of
construction paper to represent the bulls-eye. Label the colored squares as A, B, C, and D,
as illustrated.
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Lesson Presentation:
1. Ask students to take out their paper airplane and a pencil. Tell students that they
will use math and science to determine how well they can hit a target.
2. Prior to target practice, inform students that they will
learn or recall a few things about airplanes. (A fifthgrade ACE lesson provided instruction on pitch, roll, and
yaw.) First of all, airplanes can travel forward, but they
can also roll, pitch and yaw. Demonstrate roll, pitch, and
yaw with a paper airplane.

Roll:
Tell students to imagine an imaginary
horizontal line running through the nose of the airplane to the back end of
the plane. If the airplane rotates left or right on this imaginary line, it is
rolling.
Demonstrate roll by tipping one wing down (the other wing
automatically goes up), keeping the body of the airplane (the fuselage) in the
same place. (You may wish to use a straw to represent the imaginary axis.)

Pitch: Tell students to imagine a line running through the plane from wingtip
to wingtip. If the airplane rotates up or down on this imaginary line, it is
pitching. Holding the wings level, pitch the nose up (move the nose up and
the tail goes down). Tell students when the nose goes up, the plane is
pitching upward. Tip the nose down, and tell students that when the nose of
the plane goes down and the tail is up, the plane is pitching down.

Yaw: Tell students to imagine a vertical line stabbing the plane right in its
mid-section. If the plane twists left or right along this imaginary axis, it is
yawing. Tell students to think of a swivel chair. Turn the nose of the
airplane to the left and tell students that this is an example of the plane
yawing to the left. Then, demonstrate a yaw to the right.

3. (optional) To reinforce or help students better understand roll, pitch, and yaw, have
the students kinesthetically demonstrate roll, pitch, and yaw. Tell them to roll by
leaning at their waist to their left or right. Tell them pitch by bending forward at
their waist and raising their back and head up and down (like bowing to a king or
queen). Tell them to yaw by spinning to their left or right on one foot (like being in
a swivel chair).
4. Call out roll, pitch, and yaw positions to students and have students orient their
paper airplane appropriately.
pitch up

pitch down

yaw left

yaw right

roll left
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roll right

31

5. Tell students that an airplanes control surfaces (moveable sections on an airplanes


surface) such as a rudder, aileron, and elevator, affect how the plane rolls, pitches,
and yaws. (See background information.)
6. Have students make 2 small cuts a few centimeters apart at the
back of each wingtip if they have not done so. State that these
movable parts are called elevons and that an elevon is a combination
of an aileron and elevator. (See background information.) Tell
students that they can bend the elevons slightly up or down, and
this will change the flight path of their airplane. (Teachers: You
elevons
may want students to experiment with the elevons to find out on
their own how adjusting the elevons affects flight, or if time is an issue you may
want to provide instructions. For example, if their plane is flying too low, they can
slightly bend both elevons up slightly, and the plane will move up. If their plane is
flying too high, they can lower the elevons to bring the plane down. If students
have one elevon up and one down, it affects roll to the left or right.) Tell students
that their paper airplane does not have a rudder (the moveable piece on the vertical
tail of the aircraft), so they cannot control yaw.
7. Distribute a Target Data Sheet to each student, and divide students into 5
groups. Tell students that they will line up in front of a target area (the colored
pieces of construction paper taped to the wall). They will take turns tossing their
plane toward the red bulls-eye. After their toss, they will move to the back of the
line and make a tally mark on their data sheet in the correct box to indicate where
the nose of their airplane hit the target area. For example, if they toss it and it
hits the A piece of construction paper, they should put a tally mark in the A box
on their data sheet. Tell students they have 8 times (or other amount determined
by the teacher) to toss their plane at the target. Once they have completed all
tosses, they should answer the remaining questions on the data sheet. Discuss how
to complete the chart by putting an example on the board if necessary.
8. Direct each group to their target area and allow them to begin.
9. As time permits, allow students to share some results from their data sheet.
Determine who has the best aim.
10. Ask students to explain how they used math and science to determine how well they
can hit a target with a paper airplane. (Possible discussions: Newtons laws of
motion help explain why the plane moves: inertia, F=MA, action/reaction. Also,
students used the scientific method by asking, What will happen if I toss it like
this? They hypothesized, analyzed, drew conclusions, and made adjustments. They
were able to count and create a percentage to describe their accuracy in hitting a
target. It is more specific to say, I can hit the bulls-eye 70% of the time, rather
than saying, I am good at hitting a bulls-eye with a paper airplane.)
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Summarization:
Ask students to summarize what they learned from todays lesson. In sharing lessons
learned, ensure that someone explains pitch, roll, and yaw. Remind students that science
and math help to explain and provide a better understanding and description of events.
Ask students what would happen if they practiced these skills (tossing airplanes at a
target, converting fractions to decimals, and converting decimals to percents) every day.
In theory, they should become better and better. Remind students that while practice
may not make perfect, it does make one better. Encourage students to practice good
character skills daily and work on being the best person they can be.
Assessment:
teacher observation
Target Data Sheet
Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
Have students determine the overall percentage of hitting a target for girls versus
boys.

Complete the Flight Direction Challenge Point Worksheet. (a NASA worksheet)

Have students use their own personal data from their Target Data Sheet to
create a page that provides information like that on the Flight Direction Challenge
Point Worksheet.

Source: NASA at http://www.ueet.nasa.gov/StudentSite/dynamicsofflight.html

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http://connect.larc.nasa.gov/connect_bak/pdf/flightd.pdf
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elevons

NAME ___________________________________
1. How many total times did your teacher say that you are to toss the plane for this

activity? ______
2. Each time after you toss your paper airplane, place a tally mark in the target
picture below to indicate where your airplane struck the target area.
A

http://connect.larc.nasa.gov/connect_bak/pdf/flightd.pdf

3. Complete the chart below:


# of times it
hit this area

Total # of times you


threw the plane

Source: NASA

Write a fraction indicating how


many times you hit this area.

What % of the
time did you hit
this area?

A
B
C
D
Bullseye

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Create a pie graph to represent the


flight results on the left.

Source: http://connect.larc.nasa.gov/connect_bak/pdf/flightd.pdf
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ANSWER KEY

Create a pie graph to represent the


flight results on the left.

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

Source: http://connect.larc.nasa.gov/connect_bak/pdf/flightd.pdf

37

Source: NASA at http://www.ueet.nasa.gov/StudentSite/dynamicsofflight.html

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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


Wing Ratios
Grade 6 Academic Lesson #3
Topics: wings, forces of flight, area, ratios (science, math)
Lesson Reference: NASA Quest

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/aero/wright/teachers/pdf/math/Aspect_Ratio_of_Wings.pdf

Length of Lesson: 30 - 45 minutes


Objectives:
Students will review the forces of flight and Bernoullis principle.
Students will calculate areas and ratios.
Students will determine which wings with given dimensions produce less drag.
National Standards:
Math
Number & Operations
- understand and use ratios and proportions to represent quantitative
relationships
Algebra
- model and solve conceptualized problems using various representations, such
as graphs, tables, and equations
Geometry
- understand relationships among the angles, side lengths, perimeters, areas,
and volumes of similar objects
- use two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional objects to
visualize and solve problems such as those involving surface area and volume
Measurement
- understand, select, and use units of appropriate size and type to measure
angles, perimeter, area, surface area, and volume
- solve problems involving scale factors, using ratio and proportion
Problem Solving
Science
Content Standard A: Science as Inquiry
Content Standard B: Physical Science
- Motions and forces
- Transfer of energy
Content Standard E: Science and Technology
- Abilities of technological design

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Background Information: (from NASA Quest at


http://quest.nasa.gov/aero/planetary/atmospheric/forces.html)
In aeronautics, there are four important forces. These four
forces are called lift, weight, thrust, and drag. Each force works
in a specific direction. The magnitude of each force can vary from
weak to strong. All of these four forces are hard at work when an
airplane is in flight. They often work in opposite directions from each other, but together
they make flight possible.
Weight: An airplane has weight, just like every other object that exists around Earth. We
know that Earth exerts a gravitational force on us. We call that force weight. When you
weigh yourself, you are actually measuring the force of Earth's gravity on your body.
Remember that there are two parts to a force: magnitude and direction. The direction of
your weight force is toward the Earth. The magnitude of your weight force is how heavy
you are.
Airplanes have a weight force, too. Even as they fly many feet above the Earth, their
weight force is pulling them toward the Earth. Since they are so heavy, the magnitude of
their weight force is very great.
Lift: When objects lift off the ground, it means that the lift force is stronger than the
weight force. If the weight force were stronger, then the object would not lift into the
air. If an airplane can create enough lift force to overcome the weight force, then the
airplane will fly. Such a great lift force is generated by the air flowing over the wings of
the airplane.
Thrust: We make air flow over the wings by moving the wings through the air. As the wing
moves through the air, the air molecules flow over and under the wing which generates lift.
We need thrust to get the airplane moving forward so that the air can begin flowing over
the wings. Thrust is provided by the propulsion system. Engines can be mounted on the
wings or fuselage. They propel the airplane along the runway and forward through the air.
The force that is created by the engines is called the thrust force. The direction of the
thrust force is based on where the engines are pointing.
Drag: As an airplane is thrust through the air, it must push aside all those air molecules
that are moving around in the space in front of it. As a wing moves through the air, the air
separates and some of the molecules follow along the top of the wing wile others flow
underneath the wing. The same thing happens with the rest of the airplane. The air
molecules must separate so that the airplane can move through the air. Air molecules
resist being separated by the airplane. This resistance is called drag. Drag can slow the
forward motion of the airplane.

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Materials:
- Wing Ratio copies (copy included)
- wing designs (copy included)
- dry erase board/maker or chalkboard/chalk
Lesson Presentation:
1. Ask students to name and review the forces of flight. (This should be fairly easy
for students who participated in the ACE Program in fifth grade.) Allow them to
come to the board to illustrate their explanation if necessary. If students struggle
with this review, use the background information provided to review the concepts.
Be sure to review Bernoullis principle (covered in the ACE academic wind bag
lesson). Bernoullis principle states that faster moving air creates a lower pressure
than slower moving air. As air flows faster over the top of the curved airfoil shape
of a planes wing, a lower pressure exists above the top of the wing which acts a
pull above the wing. Slower moving air below the wing has a higher pressure,
which helps push the wing up. This pressure differential creates lift for the wing.
2. Show students some different wing designs. (Either draw some shapes on the
board, or create a transparency of the Types of Wings page at the end of this
lesson.) Ask students how the design of the wings may affect flight.
3. Read the following information from NASA Quest to the students. (Make sure
students understand the mathematical term area which means the size of a
surface or the number of squares that would be needed to cover the surface.)
When engineers design a new airplane, the size and shape of the wings are a very
important issue. Wings provide the majority of the lift for the airplane, but they also
cause drag. Remember that drag is a force that opposes the thrust force. Engineers are
always trying to find ways to increase lift and reduce drag caused by the wings.
In their efforts to increase lift and reduce drag, engineers use a mathematical formula
called the "aspect ratio.'' The aspect ratio'' is simply a comparison between the length
and width of the wing: length of the wing / width of the wing = aspect ratio.
Experiments have shown that a wing built with a higher aspect ratio tends to create less
drag than a wing built with a smaller aspect ratio - even when their area remains the
same!
4.

Write the aspect ratio equation on the board:

length of wing = aspect ratio


width of wing

5. Go over an example of what this means with the students.


airplanes on the board.

Draw two model

Assign wing measurements to plane #1 as length = 6 units and width = 3 units.


Assign wing measurements to plane #2 as length = 9 units and width = 2 units.
Ask the students to calculate the area of each planes wing. (The area of each
plane equals 18 square units.)
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Ask students to calculate the aspect ratio of each model plane.


Plane #1s aspect ratio is: 6 divided by 3, which equals 2.0
Plane #2s aspect ratio is: 9 divided by 2, which equals 4.5
Ask students which airplane the engineers would rate as having the best lift and
least amount of drag? (plane #2 because it has a higher aspect ratio than plane 1)
6.

Ensure understanding by asking a student to define aspect ratio. Ask a student to


explain how engineers determine if a wing will create more or less drag.
(Experiments have shown that an airplane with a higher aspect ration will create
less drag than an airplane with a similar aspect ration even when the area remains
the same.)

7.

Distribute the worksheet Aspect Ratio of Wings worksheet. Go over the


instructions and allow the students to complete it. Remind students that they
should not use a ridiculous length and width combination for wing measurements,
such as 2 units long and 100 units wide.

8.

Either collect the worksheets or go over the worksheets with the students.

9.

Discuss any revelations or new ideas that were made after students complete the
worksheet.

10. Ask students why a real glider commonly has long, slender wings. Confirm that a
glider has no engine; it cannot produce thrust while in flight. It, therefore,
requires a wing with an extremely high aspect ratio. This helps it achieve the
greatest amount of lift with the least amount of drag.
Summarization:
Ask students how the shape of a planes wings can affect flight. (It affects the amount of lift
and drag on the plane.)
Character Connection: Remind students that sometimes, it is not what you have but what you
do with what you have that makes a difference. Just like the area of the wings of the planes
were the same in many cases, the way the wings were designed in terms of length and width
made a big difference in the amount of life and drag experienced by the plane. Encourage
students to always do their best with what they know and have!

Assessment:
teacher observation
Aspect Ratio of Wings worksheet

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Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):

Using foam plates and wing templates, allow students to experiment with different
wing shapes. The lesson plan and templates are available at
http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/136206main_X.Gliders.pdf.

Build a real flying styrofoam replica of the 1902 Wright


glider. Plans are available at
http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/Wright/ROGER/1902model.htm.

Build a real flying balsa replica of the 1902 Wright glider.


Plans are available at
http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/Wright/model1902.htm.

Associated Website:
A teacher workbook with student readings about many different kinds of aircraft,
includes language arts worksheets
http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/projects/aero/ExploringAero/PDF/Aircraft%20Types.pdf

Aspect Ratio of Wings ANSWER KEY

Even though each wing has the same area, 100 square units, Wing ``C'' has the greatest aspect
ratio, and Wing ``A'' has the smallest aspect ratio. This implies that Wing ``A'' creates more drag
than Wing ``C''.

For part II, answers will vary! Possible wing dimensions and aspect ratios for part II:
length = 100 width = 2 aspect ratio = 50
length = 50 width = 4 aspect ratio = 12 R2 (12.5)
length = 20 width = 10 aspect ratio = 2
length = 25 width = 8 aspect ratio = 3 R1 (3.125)

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Four Basic Wing Designs

Source: NASAs Exploring Aeronautics: The Science of Flight


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extra information about wings

Source: NASAs Exploring Aeronautics: Student Logbook


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The Aspect Ratio of Wings


Name ________________________________________________
Examine the three wings drawn below, calculate the area and aspect ratio of each wing, and
fill in the following table. Then, rank the wings according to the drag that each will create,
given their aspect ratios. Rank the wing with the least drag, number 1 and the greatest
amount of drag, number 3.

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The Aspect Ratio of Wings (part II)


Name ________________________________________________________

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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


Junk Rocket
Grade 6 Academic Lesson #4
Topics: rockets, motion (science, math)
Length of Lesson: 50 minutes
(depending on what the teacher wishes to do with the lesson)
Objectives:
Students will be able to identify the main parts of a rocket.
Students will construct and launch a rocket.
Students will apply Newtons laws of motion.
National Standards:
Science:
Math:
Standard A: Science as Inquiry
Understand measurable attributes of
Standard B: Physical Science
objects and the units, systems, and
- Motions and forces
processes of measurement
Standard E: Science and Technology
Formulate questions that can be
- Abilities of technological design
addressed with data and collect,
Standard G: History of Science
organize, and display relevant data to
Unifying Concepts and Processes
answer them
- Evidence, models, and explanation
Select and use appropriate statistical
methods to analyze data
Technology:
7. Understanding of the influence of technology on history
8. Understanding of the attributes of design
11. Ability to apply the design process
Background Information: (from http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/space/teachers/rockets/principles.html)
The science of rocketry began with the publishing of a book in 1687 by the great English
scientist Sir Isaac Newton. His book, entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica,
described physical principles in nature. Today, Newton's work is usually just called the Principia.
In the Principia, Newton stated three important scientific principles that govern the motion of all
objects, whether on Earth or in space. Knowing these principles, now called Newtons laws of
motion, rocketeers have been able to construct the modern giant rockets of the 20th century
such as the Saturn 5 and the Space Shuttle. Here now, in simple form, are Newton's laws of
motion.
1. Objects at rest will stay at rest and objects in motion will stay in motion in a straight line
unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
2. Force is equal to mass times acceleration.
3. For every action there is always an opposite and equal reaction.

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Newton's First Law (background information continued)


Rest and motion can be thought of as being opposite to each other. Rest is the state of an object when it
is not changing position in relation to its surroundings. If you are sitting still in a chair, you can be said to
be at rest. This term, however, is relative. Your chair may actually be one of many seats on a speeding
airplane. The important thing to remember here is that you are not moving in relation to your immediate
surroundings. Even if you were sitting in your chair at home, you would still be moving, because your
chair is actually sitting on the surface of a spinning planet that is orbiting a star. While sitting "still," you
are, in fact, traveling at a speed of hundreds of kilometers per second.
Motion is also a relative term. All matter in the universe is moving all the time, but in the first law, motion
here means changing position in relation to surroundings. A rocket blasting off the launch pad changes
from a state of rest to a state of motion.
The third term important to understanding this law is unbalanced force. If you hold a ball in your hand and
keep it still, the ball is at rest. All the time the ball is held there though, it is being acted upon by forces.
The force of gravity is trying to pull the ball downward, while at the same time your hand is pushing
against the ball to hold it up. The forces acting on the ball are balanced. Let the ball go, or move your
hand upward, and the forces become unbalanced. The ball then changes from a state of rest to a state of
motion.
In rocket flight, forces become balanced and unbalanced all the time. A rocket on the launch pad is
balanced. The surface of the pad pushes the rocket up while gravity tries to pull it down. As the engines
are ignited, the thrust from the rocket unbalances the forces, and the rocket travels upward. Later, when
the rocket runs out of fuel, it slows down, stops at the highest point of its flight, and then falls back to
Earth.
Now that the three major terms of this first law have been explained, it is possible to restate this law. If an
object, such as a rocket, is at rest, it takes an unbalanced force to make it move. If the object is already
moving, it takes an unbalanced force, to stop it, change its direction from a straight line path, or alter its
speed.
Newton's Second Law
This law of motion is essentially a statement of a mathematical equation. The three parts of the equation
are mass (m), acceleration (a), and force (f). Using letters to symbolize each part, the equation can be
written as follows: f =ma. The equation reads: force equals mass times acceleration.
The mass of a rocket changes during flight. Its mass is the sum of all its parts. Rocket parts include:
engines, propellant tanks, payload, control system, and propellants. By far, the largest part of the rocket's
mass is its propellants. But that amount constantly changes as the engines fire. That means that the
rocket's mass gets smaller during flight. Acceleration of a rocket has to increase as its mass decreases.
That is why a rocket starts off moving slowly and goes faster and faster as it climbs into space.
Newton's second law of motion is especially useful when designing efficient rockets. To enable a rocket to
climb into low Earth orbit, it is necessary to achieve a speed, in excess of 28,000 km per hour. A speed of
over 40,250 km per hour, called escape velocity, enables a rocket to leave Earth and travel out into deep
space. Attaining space flight speeds requires the rocket engine to achieve the greatest action force
possible in the shortest time. In other words, the engine must burn a large mass of fuel and push the
resulting gas out of the engine as rapidly as possible.
Newton's second law of motion can be restated in the following way: the greater the mass of rocket fuel
burned, and the faster the gas produced can escape the engine, the greater the thrust of the rocket.
Newton's Third Law
A rocket can liftoff from a launch pad only when it expels gas out of its engine. The rocket pushes on the
gas, and the gas in turn pushes on the rocket.
With rockets, the action is the expelling of gas out of the engine. The reaction is the movement of the
rocket in the opposite direction. To enable a rocket to lift off from the launch pad, the action, or thrust,
from the engine must be greater than the weight of the rocket. While on the pad the weight of the rocket is
balanced by the force of the ground pushing against it. Small amounts of thrust result in less force
required by the ground to keep the rocket balanced. Only when the thrust is greater than the weight of the
rocket does the force become unbalanced and the rocket lifts off. In space where unbalanced force is
used to maintain the orbit, even tiny thrusts will cause a change in the unbalanced force and result in the
rocket changing speed or direction.
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Background information continued:

One of the most commonly asked questions about rockets is how they can work in space where there is
no air for them to push against. The answer to this question comes from the third law. Imagine a
skateboard. On the ground, the only part air plays in the motions of the rider and the skateboard is to slow
them down. Moving through the air causes friction, or as scientists call it, drag. The surrounding air
impedes the action-reaction.
As a result, rockets actually work better in space than they do in air. As the exhaust gas leaves the rocket
engine it must push away the surrounding air; this uses up some of the energy of the rocket. In space, the
exhaust gases can escape freely.

Science of the Foam Rocket (and junk rocket, which uses a rubber band as the engine)
(from the Foam Rocket lesson in the NASA Rockets for Educators Guide)
The foam rocket receives its entire thrust from the force produced by the elastic rubber band.
The rubber band is stretched. When the rocket is released, the rubber band quickly returns to its
original length, launching the foam rocket in the process. Technically, the foam rocket is a
rocket in appearance only. The thrust of real rockets typically continues for several seconds or
minutes, causing continuous acceleration, until propellants are exhausted. The foam rocket gets
a quick pull and thrusting is over. Once in flight, it coasts. Furthermore, the mass of the foam
rocket doesnt change in flight. Real rockets consume propellants and their total mass
diminishes. Nevertheless, the flight of a foam rocket is similar to that of real rockets. Its motion
and course is affected by gravity and by drag or friction with the atmosphere. The ability to fly
foam rockets repeatedly (without refueling) makes them ideal for classroom investigations on
rocket motion.
The launch of a foam rocket is a good demonstration of Newtons third law of motion. The
contraction of the rubber band produces an action force that propels the rocket forward while
exerting an opposite and equal force on the launcher.
In flight, foam rockets are stabilized by their fins. The fins, like feathers on an arrow, keep the
rocket pointed in the desired direction. If launched straight up, the foam rocket will point upward
until it reaches the top of its flight. Both gravity and air drag act as brakes. At the very top of the
flight, the rocket momentarily becomes unstable. It flops over as air catches the fins and
becomes stable again when it falls back nose forward.
When the foam rocket is launched at an angle of less than 90 degrees, it generally remains
stable through the entire flight. Its path is an arc whose shape is determined by the launch
angle. For high launch angles, the arc is steep, and for low angles, it is broad.
When launching a ballistic rocket straight up (neglecting air currents) the rocket will fall straight
back to its launch site when its upward motion stops. If the rocket is launched at an angle of less
than 90 degrees, it will land at some distance from the launch site. How far away from the
launch site is dependent on four things. These are: gravity, launch angle, initial velocity,
atmospheric drag.
Gravity causes the foam rocket to decelerate as it climbs upward and then causes it to
accelerate as it falls back to the ground. The launch angle works with gravity to shape the flight
path. Initial velocity and drag affects the flight time.

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Materials: Materials will vary depending on which rocket you wish to construct.
Junk Rockets - Material List:
rocket picture with parts labeled (attached)
balloon (optional)
Common household junk items to include some
of the following:
file folders, meat trays, cone shaped drinking
cups, pipe foam insulation, stryrofoam easter
eggs, film canisters, toilet paper cylinders, paper
towel cylinders, index cards, etc.
glue
hot glue (to be used by adult only)
tape
rubber bands
straws
Foam Goddard Rockets Material List:
pipe insulation foam cut into approximately 14 pieces (Pipe
insulation tubes are available at hardware stores and come in
five foot lengths. You can get 4 rockets from one of these
tubes. For a class of 30, youll need 8 tubes. The cost varies,
but the average is around $1 per tube.)
zip/cable ties (one per rocket)
washers (one per rocket)
size 64 rubber bands (one per rocket)
cool temperature hot glue and glue gun
scissors
foam paper plates
Additional Materials regardless of rocket selected:
- Rocket Report student copies (copy included)
- Measuring devices such as rulers, preferably meter sticks or tape measures
NOTE: Students may work in pairs to make a junk rocket. If making foam Goddard rockets,
however, allow each student to make his/her own. The foam rockets are easy and quick to
make. Allow students to use the rocket made in this lesson for their PE rocket golf activity.
This lesson could be taken in a number of different directions. This lesson could be used to
emphasize rocket history and/or the science of flight, including in-depth information on
Newtons laws of motion. Additionally, this lesson could focus on mathematical principles.
Finally, if making true junk rockets, this lesson could simply be experimental, allowing students
to experiment with design and action/reaction. Please consider what you wish to emphasize
and plan accordingly to take the lesson in the direction you prefer with the time you have
allotted for it. (It is possible to use the paper rockets used in the ACE character lesson
Rocket to Success.)
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Lesson Presentation:
1. Tell students that they will make rockets today if someone can explain how rockets
work. Enter into a discussion about how rockets work, sharing information appropriate
for your students from the background information.
Putting Newton's Laws of Motion Together
(from NASA Quest at http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/space/teachers/rockets/principles.html)
An unbalanced force must be exerted for a rocket to lift off from a launch pad or for a craft in
space to change speed or direction (first law). The amount of thrust (force) produced by a
rocket engine will be determined by the rate at which the mass of the rocket fuel burns and
the speed of the gas escaping the rocket (second law). The reaction, or motion, of the rocket
is equal to and in the opposite direction of the action, or thrust, from the engine (third law).
2. Tell students that they will not be making a rocket that uses engines that burn liquid or
solid fuel today, but Newtons laws of motion will explain how their rocket will works as
well.
3. Explain to students how they will make rockets today based on the rocket making
method you have selected for your class. Instructions for making junk rockets and
foam rockets are on separate pages following this lesson plan.
4. Once the rockets are complete, distribute the Rocket Report data sheet. Even if
each student made his/her own rocket, have students work in pairs or groups of 3 to
complete the Rocket Report sheet. Go over the directions with the students.
Demonstrate possible launch angles to the students using a protractor and
demonstrating an angle with the rocket. Launching parallel to the floor would be 0.
Discourage students from launching at a 90 angle (straight up), as the rocket should
technically come right back down in the same or close to the same place, so the
distance traveled should be 0 or close to it. If you prefer for students to conduct
option A or B on #2 on the report sheet, make that announcement and ensure students
understand that you have made the choice for them. Remind students that for each
launch, they should try to apply the same amount of force (stretching the rubber band
in the same way) each time for more accurate test results.
5. Once rockets are complete, everyone should prepare for launch. Safety goggles may be
worn during the launch. Provide additional safety guidelines such as not aiming the
rocket at anyone.
6. After allowing sufficient time to complete the Rocket Report sheet, bring students
back together to discuss their findings. If they kept their original rocket for the
experiment, they may have noticed that launching at 45 resulted in the rocket
traveling the greatest distance. Launching at 60 and 30 or 70 and 20 probably
resulted in the rockets traveling about the same distance, but less than a 45 angle,
considering they applied about the same amount of force (stretching the rubber band
approximately the same amount each time) each time.

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If students created two additional different rockets for the experiment, ask students
to share what they learned from their experiment. Did a shorter rocket body increase
the distance traveled? If so, why? (less weight) Did larger or smaller fins affect the
distance traveled or observable rocket performance, making the rocket more or less
stable?

Summarization:
Ask students what they learned today. Ask student volunteers to explain Newtons laws of
motion and provide an example for each law.
Character Connection: Remind students that in life, sometimes we feel like rubber bands. We
get stretched in different directions, and sometimes our patience gets stretched very thin.
Unlike a rubber band that gets stretched too much and snaps, we should not allow our patience
to snap. Ask students to name ways they can deal with frustrations. Remind students that
taking deep breaths, walking outside, and even calmly voicing their feelings can help them when
they feel they are about to snap. Flying high and soaring to success does involve stretching,
but when we snap, we crash! Encourage students to stretch and reach for the stars, yet be
aware when they are getting stretched too thin so that they can handle the situation correctly
in order to maintain flight.

Assessment:
- teacher observation
- rocket construction

- answers to class discussion questions


- Rocket Report sheet

Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
Discuss in depth how the junk rocket or foam rocket works using the explanation
provided in the background information.

Allow students to continue to experiment with their rocket.

Have a rocket launch contest to see whose rocket can travel the farthest distance.

Have students launch at a 90 angle (straight up) and calculate the altitude of their
rocket using the information and altitude tracking materials available at

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/space/teachers/rockets/act9.html.

Allow students to complete a more detailed rocket launch experiment using NASAs
Foam Rocket activity located in NASAs Rockets Educator Guide available at

http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/topnav/materials/listbytype/Foam_Rocket.html

Associated Websites:

Practically everything you would want to know about rockets is in this NASA publication
available at http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/280754main_Rockets.Guide.pdf.
Space and Its Exploration: rockets
http://adc.astro.umd.edu/adc/education/space_ex/rockets.html
Brief history of rockets: http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/space/teachers/rockets/history.html
Rocket Principles (Newtons laws of motion explained)
http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/space/teachers/rockets/principles.html

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HOW TO MAKE JUNK ROCKETS


1. Place all junk items where students may select the parts for their rocket. Tell
them to use their rubber band as the engine.
2. Either allow the students individually or in a group to experiment on their own to
make a rocket that flies OR guide students through the process of making their
junk rocket using the example provided below.
The T.P. Tornado! is an example of a junk rocket. It is made from a toilet paper cylinder,
a cone shaped drinking cup (the shape of which can be made with cardstock paper), one
rubber band, one drinking straw and the fins are made from sturdy paper (an index card or
file folder). A round washer may be used in place of the straw. When cutting the tip of
the cone-shaped cup, make sure it leaves a very small hole just large enough to thread the
rubber band.

Source: Civil Air Patrols Model Rocketry Book


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HOW TO MAKE FOAM GODDARD ROCKETS


(known as the Goddard Rocket at Civil Air Patrol)

Attach
the fins.

1.

Obtain a piece of pipe insulation foam approximately 14 in length.

2.

Thread a size 64 rubber band through the hole of a washer so that half of the rubber
band is on one side of the washer and the other half is on the other side. Take the
rubber band loop on one side of the washer and pass it through the rubber band loop
on the other end of the washer. Pull down on the washer while holding onto the loop
you just passed through the other loop of the rubber band. Your washer should now be
attached to the rubber band.

3.

Place the foam in a vertical position, resting atop a table.

4.

Put the rubber band loop over your index finger, and with the washer hanging down,
lower it into the top of the pipe insulation foam.

5.

Leaving a small piece of the rubber band loop outside of the foam, have a friend attach
the cable tie several centimeters from the top of the foam. (Make sure the washer is
below the spot where the cable tie will be tightened onto the foam.) Pull the cable tie
as tight as possible! Cut off the excess piece of tie as close as possible to the foam.
This may leave a sharp edge, so place a dab of hot glue over the sharp point. When the
glue dries, it will be smooth.

6.

Design your own fins for the rocket on the Styrofoam plate and cut them out.

7.

Place cool temperature hot glue on the FINS and attach them to the tail of the
rocket. Do not let the tip of the glue gun touch the foam. It melts it!

8.

To launch, use one hand to hold the body of the rocket and use your finger on your
other hand to stretch the rubber band forward. Release and watch it soar!

Created by: Ben Millspaugh Source: Civil Air Patrols Model Rocketry Book
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ROCKET REPORT
Name(s)_____________________________________________________

1. Record the data requested in box 1. (Youll be launching your rocket three times.)
2. You Decide: A or B?
A. Using your original rocket, change the angle at which you are launching. Launch it three
times, using your new launch angle each time. Record how far it flew each time. What was
the average distance your rocket flew.
B. Build another rocket, changing the length of the rocket or fin design. Launch rocket #2 three
times using approximately the same launch angle used in the first set of test flights. Record
how far it flew each time. What was the average distance your rocket flew?

3. Repeat step #2, continuing with the option you chose (A or B).
Box 1

Dont forget to include your unit of measurement for recording distances!

At what approximate angle are you launching your rocket? (e.g. 45) ___________
Predict how far your rocket will fly. ______________
Flight 1:

__________

Flight 2:

__________

Flight 3:

How far did your rocket fly?_______


__________ Average: ___________

Difference between your distance prediction and the average distance: ______________
Percentage of difference between your prediction and average distance: (Divide the number above by your
prediction number) _________________

Box 2: Did you choose option A or B? _______ (If you chose option B, your launch
angle should be the same as what you recorded in Box 1.)

At what approximate angle are you launching your rocket? ___________


Predict how far your rocket will fly. ______________
Flight 1:

__________

Flight 2:

__________

Flight 3:

How far did your rocket fly?______


__________ Average: ___________

If you chose option A, describe the change you made to your second rocket.

Box 3:

At what approximate angle are you launching your rocket? ___________


Predict how far your rocket will fly. ______________
Flight 1:

__________

Flight 2:

__________

Flight 3:

How far did your rocket fly?_______


__________ Average: ___________

If you used option A, describe the change you made to your third rocket.

On the back of this paper, explain what you learned from this experiment.
CAPs ACE Program (2011)

Adapted from the Foam Rocket Report Sheet in NASAs Rockets Educator Guide

57

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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


Strange New Planet
Grade 6 Academic Lesson #5
Topics: observation, exploration, communication
(science, language arts)
Length of Lesson: 45 minutes
Lesson Reference:
This lesson is adapted from the lesson Strange New Planet located in Mars Activity

Book: K-12 Classroom Activities Booklet.

(http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/classroom/pdfs/MSIP-MarsActivities.pdf)
Special thanks to Jackie Allen at the 14th Annual Space Exploration Educators Conference
for presenting a quick and modified version of Strange New Planet, as some of those
ideas are presented in this lesson.

Objectives:
Students will perform various observations.
Students will simulate pre-launch reconnaissance, a flyby, an orbit, and and landing.
Students will determine the challenge of performing celestial observations from Earth.
Students will determine the importance of planning and asking questions.
Students will practice effective communication and teamwork.
National Science Standards:
Content Standard A: Science as Inquiry
Content Standard B: Physical Science
- Properties in matter
Content Standard G: History and Nature of Science
- Science as a human endeavor
- Nature of science
- History of science
Background Information:
(from http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/questions/question37.html)

The earliest record of an existing telescope is from a patent application in Holland on


October 2, 1608. The application was made by Dutch spectacle maker Hans Lippershay
(sometimes found as Lipperhey).
Lippershay applied to be granted exclusive rights to make and distribute an instrument
that would allow you to see distant objects as if they were nearby. The instrument
consisted of a positive lens at one end of a narrow tube and a negative lens at the other
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end. His claim for the invention was soon challenged by a couple of other men and the
Dutch authorities eventually ruled that the situation was confused, and refused to grant a
patent to anyone.
The telescope went on, regardless of who invented it, to be one of the most important
scientific instruments of the 1600s. For example, it allowed for observations of
phenomena in the Universe which eventually led to the acceptance of the sun-centered
solar system. Galileo was the first one who used the telescope for astronomy, making
wonderful discoveries about our Moon, the moons of Jupiter, and other things. A
photograph of one of Galileo's telescopes is shown below. However, Galileo did not invent
the telescope.

Materials:
paper towel or toilet paper tubes (one per group)
rubber band (one per group)
pieces of blue cellophane (one per group) (available at most art/craft stores)
exploration data sheet (one per group)
colored pencils (one set per group)
at least one spherical object made to look like a strange new planet
For example, decorate a medium-sized Styrofoam ball with various colors, including
blue. You may place small alien or bug stickers randomly on the planet. You may
use a toothpick to insert into the ball and place a grape on the other end to
represent a moon. You might spray something on the planet or moon to make it
smell. The possibilities are endless!
cloth, box, or other material to hide the spherical object(s)
NOTE:
Create telescopes by using a rubber band to attach a blue piece of cellophane
over one end of each paper towel/toilet roll. Overlap the piece of blue cellophane in
order to have two layers of cellophane covering one end of the paper towel/toilet
paper tube.
Decorate the spherical object(s) as desired to make them interesting to observe
and that require careful observation up close from all angles.
Place the spherical object(s) relatively close to one another at the front of the
room. Cover these objects with a cloth or box.

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Lesson Presentation:
1. Divide students into groups of at least 3 but no more than 5 members per group.
2. Distribute one telescope and one data sheet to each group.
3. Ask the students if they have ever been interested in exploring and what methods
they use to explore something. Tell them that they will be space explorers today.
4. Ask one member from each group to take the telescope and line up across the
back of the room. While group members are making their way to the back of the
room, ask students if anyone knows who invented the telescope. (While Galileo is
credited for being the first person for using the telescope for astronomy purposes,
Hans Lippershay is the first person to have applied for a patent for his telescope
invention.)
5. Instruct the other group members who are seated to turn and face the back of the
room until instructed to do otherwise.
Pre-launch Reconnaissance
6. Instruct the explorers with the telescope to look toward the front of the room
where the objects are covered. Tell them that you are going to uncover the
object(s) in just a moment and that they will observe the object(s) using their
telescope. Ask the students with the telescopes to close one eye and look through
the telescope with their other eye. (The blue cellophane should be at the end of
the tube towards the object(s) as opposed to being against ones eye.)
7. Reveal the object(s) at the front of the room just long enough for students to
observe. After about thirty seconds, cover the object(s) and instruct the students
with the telescopes to go back to their group and describe what they saw.
8. Groups should sketch the description in Box 1 on their data sheet.
9. Instruct groups to select another member to take the telescope and go to the back
of the room. (If a group has less than 5 members, ask the same telescope
students to return to the back of the room again.)
10. Repeat steps 6 - 8, except for step 7, ask the students with the telescope to
remove the blue cellophane at the end of their telescope.
11. After the students describe their observations with their groups, have groups
sketch the description in Box 2 on their groups data sheet.
12. Ask students what they think the blue covering represented. (Earths atmosphere)
Discuss how Earths atmosphere can distort images and color when trying to study
celestial objects.

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The Flyby

(Nasa picture of Mariner 2 which flew by Venus in 1962)

13. Instruct groups to face the back of the room again and to send another group
explorer to the back of the room. This time, have these students in the back of
the room form a single file line. Tell these group representatives that they will
actually get to walk past the object(s). Emphasize that they should look closely,
but continue walking. They cannot stop in front of the object(s)! Once they
understand, reveal the objects and allow the group representatives to walk by in
front of the objects and then go back to their seats. Remember to cover the
objects once the students have walked past in front of the objects.
14. Ask students what they demonstrated when walking past the object. (a flyby)
15. Have the groups flyby explorers describe what they observed while other group
members sketch the verbal description in Box 3 on their data sheet.
16. Inform students that they will send another group member to observe the objects.
If anyone in the group has anything specific they want their next explorer to look
for regarding the object(s), they should inform the group member at this time.
The Orbit
17. Instruct everyone to face the back of the room. Have the next group of explorers
form a circle around the object(s). Tell the explorers that they will walk in a circle,
keeping their hands to themselves, about 4 times around the objects. Reveal the
object(s) and instruct the students to begin walking around the object(s).
18. After about 4 times around, cover the objects and instruct the representatives to
return to their group and describe what they saw. Have students complete Box 4
on their data sheet.
19. Ask students what walking around the objects represented. (orbiting)
The Landing

(NASA picture of Sojourner, the rover which landed on Mars in 1997.)

20. Tell the groups that they will have one last opportunity for someone to view the
object(s). Once groups have selected their last person to view the object(s), allow
the group to give any final instructions to the member. (If someone from a group
has not made an observation yet, that person must make the last observation for
his/her group. Everyone in the group must contribute to the observations.)
21. Direct all of the last explorers to form a circle around the object(s) while everyone
else faces the back of the room. Allow these observers to touch and smell the
object(s), but they cannot pick up the object(s).

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22. Cover the object(s) and send the last explorers back to their groups to describe
their observations and complete Box 5 on their data sheet.
23. Ask students what being allowed to touch the objects represented. (landing)
24. Conduct a class discussion about what team members asked their exploration
representatives to look for during observations. (e.g. Did anyone ask a member to
look for a particular color, texture, or feature related to the object?)
25. Allow each group to share their Box 5 drawing prior to revealing the object(s).
26. Reveal the object(s) and discuss why the groups did or did not come close in their
drawings or overall description of the object(s).
27. Ask students to try to identify any specific features on the strange, new planet(s).
Ask students to explain why they think this may or may not be a safe place to visit
or colonize. Are there any indications that a human could benefit from any aspect
of the planet(s)? If further space missions to the planet(s) were possible, what
would be the purpose of those missions?
Summarization:
Ask students why we might prefer to have a progression of observation methods rather than
choosing to land first. Confirm correct responses and/or lead students to consider some of
the following factors: money, technology, weather, terrain, and/or other dangerous situations.
Ask students what the group members remaining at their desks during the flybys, orbits, etc.,
may simulate. (a mission control center) Ask students if questions played an important role in
the groups collection of data. Explain that questions are important in determining the course
of action in missions. Effective communication is vital to creating an accurate picture or an
accurate assessment of a situation. Information from different sources can be gathered and
evaluated at a central location. Teamwork and effective communication among scientists,
engineers, pilots, and others involved in the mission is crucial to the missions success.
Everyone brings something of value to the table, even if it is just the person who always asks
questions.
Character Connection: Relate the lesson to how we react to new people and new things in life.
It is important to explore new things in life, but we need to make sure that we determine
whether or not doing something new or hanging out with new people will be beneficial or
harmful. Learning as much as we can about something empowers us to make good choices in
life.

Assessment:
teacher observation
Space Exploration Observations data sheet
Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
Have students research space probes that have conducted planet flybys.
Have students create their own planet along with a description of its location,
topography, neighboring planets or moons, and any life forms.
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Box 1

Box 2

Box 3

Box 4

Box 5

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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


Whats Hidden Below?
Grade 6 Academic Lesson #6
Topics: remote sensing, imaging radar, topographic maps
(science, math)
Lesson Reference:
http://spaceplace.jpl.nasa.gov/en/kids/srtm_action1.shtml

Length of Lesson: 50 minutes


Objectives:
Students will gather information using measurement and observation.
Students will make predictions, collect data, analyze, and make a conclusion.
National Science Standards:
Content Standard A: Science as Inquiry
- Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
- Understanding about scientific inquiry
Content Standard B: Physical Science
- Properties of objects and materials
Unifying Concepts and Processes
- Evidence, models, and explanation
Background Information:
We can use technology called imaging radar to help create a picture of the terrain on Earth
or any other planet (such as Mars). Imaging radar instruments are either flown over the
surface of the planet in an airplane or launched into orbit around the planet. Imaging radar
works by bouncing a radar signal off the ground, then measuring the strength of the signal
that comes back and how long it takes.
Materials:
- box (such as a Styrofoam carryout box) that includes a top
- an object, such as a small teddy bear or other simple-shaped object (or incorporate
geometry by securing a distinct 3-D geometric figure inside the box)
- sharp, straight stick, such as a wooden skewer or knitting needles (Safety: Be sure
to instruct students on safe use of the skewer and perhaps attach an eraser or
piece of clay to the end of the sharp skewer). If you add an end that will not stick
into the paper on the top of the box, you may have to pre-cut holes in the box for
use in surveying the object.
- markers
- ruler
- grid paper (a copy for covering the object and a Grid Data Sheet are included)
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NOTE: Secure an easily identifiable object inside a box. If using a light-colored


Styrofoam carryout box, line the bottom of the inside of the box with black paper (or use
black spray paint to make the inside surface dark). Consider using a dark-colored object
to make it harder for peepers to see it. Place a lid on the box. Tape a piece of graph
paper on top of the lid (copy provided). If using a box that makes it difficult to insert the
skewer, poke holes through the dots on the grid paper covering the object prior to
conducting this lesson. To correctly place measurements on the skewer, place the skewer
vertically into the box. Make a mark on the skewer indicating the top of the box. Make a
ring around this mark in a color of your choice. The measurement of the top colored ring
will be 0 to indicate surface level. Now, move down the skewer stick about 1 cm and draw
another colored ring. This ring represents 1 cm. Move down 1 more cm and draw another
colored ring. This ring represents 2 cm above surface level. Continue this method. It is
wise to put your object into the box, insert the skewer vertically at the highest point of
your object in order to determine the lowest colored ring needed on your skewer. This
lowest colored ring indicates the highest point of the object in the box. (You may wish to
omit the measurements and simply allow students to make different bands of colors on the
skewer.)
You can either conduct a whole class activity using the one hidden object in the box, or you
can prepare enough hidden object boxes for students to work on in small groups.
Lesson Presentation:
1. Show students a box that you have prepared that has a hidden object inside it.
Ask students how they might be able to determine what is in the box without
pressing or shaking the box and without looking inside. Listen to student ideas.
2. Tell students that they will conduct a remote sensing activity to simulate a process
called radar imaging in order to help determine what is in the box. Explain remote
sensing and radar imaging.
Think about the words remote sensing. Remote refers to something located at a
distance, far away or hidden away. Sensing may cause us to think of our five senses.
When we use any of our five senses, it provides us with information. So, remote sensing
actually means gathering information about something from a distance, without having
any physical contact with the object we want to study. Airplanes and satellites can
conduct remote sensing. One way to obtain information about something without
actually coming in contact with it is by using radar. Imaging radar instruments are
either flown over the surface of the planet in an airplane or launched into orbit around
the planet. Imaging radar works by bouncing a radar signal off the ground and then
measuring the strength of the signal that returns and how long it takes to return.

3. Tell the students that their hand will be the aircraft or satellite. The
skewer with bands of color will be the radar signal sent to the ground.
Explain that students will do the following to obtain information about
the hidden object: 1) Push the skewer through the single A-1 box on
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the grid paper covering the box. 2) See what color on the stick is closest to the
opening of the hole. 3) Use that color to color the A-1 coordinate on the Grid
Data Sheet. Explain that the colors represent the height above sea level, or in
this case, height above the surface of the box. (With real radar imaging, the time
it takes for the signal to return and the strength with which it returns determines
the elevation of the point the signal hit.) Tell students that they will continue this
process until each box on the loose leaf grid paper data sheet is colored. Ask
students how this process will help reveal the object below the cover. (It will
reveal the outline as well as any varying heights of the object in the box.)
If conducting this as a whole class activity, distribute a Grid Data Sheet to each
student. Continue to call volunteers to the front of the room one at a time to send
a signal down to the object below. Have the volunteers call out the coordinate (e.g.
A-2, D-5) and the first visible color on the bottom of the skewer. Have the class
color in the appropriate coordinate box (e.g. A-2, D-5) on their grid sheet.
If conducting this activity in small groups, distribute a box with a hidden object
and a skewer to each group. If skewers are not prepared ahead of time with
measurement colors, show students how to make them. Distribute a Grid Data
Sheet to each student and allow them to work together in their group to reveal
their hidden object.
4. Once the class or small groups have completed the radar imaging simulation, ask
them to analyze the data sheet(s). Does the image give them a better idea of what
the hidden object is? Even if the students cannot tell exactly what
the object is, how does a colored picture such as the one they have
created help them? (If they know the heights that each color
represents, they can imagine how the object might look in three
dimensions.) Ask students if they know what they have created on
their Grid Data Sheet.
Tell them they have created a
topographical map, usually called a topo map. Ask students if they
know what a topo map is? Confirm that a topo map shows the
elevations in an area.
Summarization:
Ask students to share something they learned today. Confirm that students can define
remote sensing and radar imaging.
Character Connection: Remind students that as they go through life, they need to use all
their senses to determine if something is good or bad, right or wrong, or useful or not
useful. The more we learn, know, and understand about things, the better decision makers
we become. Knowledge is power!

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Assessment:
teacher observation
completed Grid Data Sheet
Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
Allow students to find a mystery object and mark their own wooden skewers to
present the activity to another group of students or their family at home.

Have students build a robot arm by going to www.tryengineering.org. The lesson


focus is to develop a robot arm using common materials. Students will explore
design, construction, teamwork, and materials selection and use. This particular
lesson can be found at http://www.tryengineering.org/lesson_detail.php?lesson=5.

Another activity called What shape is it? can be found at


http://www.quarked.org/parents/lesson7.html . This activity helps students
determine the shape of an unseen object by bouncing a ball off the object.

A classroom activity from NASA called Making and Using an ISS End Effector
can be used to learn more about end effectors for the robotic arms of the Space
Shuttle and the International Space Station. The lesson is part of the Educational
Brief
entitled
Humans
and
Robots
and
can
be
found
at
http://virtualastronaut.tietronix.com/teacherportal/pdfs/Humans.and.Robots.pdf .
In this activity, students can design and construct a grapple fixture that will enable
the end effector to pick up an object.

Associated Websites:
http://psa.arc.nasa.gov/ - Robotics: Personal Satellite Assistant (PSA) interactive look at
forces and motion as applied to PSAs.
http://wingsovermars.arc.nasa.gov/ - Introductory video is a good background on what we
have done to find out about Mars. Interactive simulation is a more involved look at the
Mars airplane.

Canada Arm on International Space Station

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Simulated end effector from


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68

Tape this grid sheet on top of the lid that is covering the hidden object. (Cut off the excess paper
not covering the lid.) The dots on each grid square are provided as an indicator of where to insert
the skewer.

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

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Grid Data Sheet


The colors on the skewer indicate height above surface level. When the skewer is held vertically (up and down) the top
colored ring will have a measurement of 0 indicating no height above the surface. Rings closer to the bottom will have the
highest measurements, indicating greater distances from the surface of the box to the top of the object. Holding the skewer
vertically, record measurements for the colors listed below. Remember, the color at the top of the skewer will be 0.
Measure from this color down to obtain correct measurements for the colors below the top colored-ring. Color each grid
coordinate below according to the first visible color shown on the skewer after inserting it into the box at a particular
coordinate.
Blue= ____ cm

Red= _____ cm

Green=_____ cm Black=_____ cm Yellow=_____cm Brown=_____cm Orange= _____ cm


Purple= ____ cm

Pink= _____cm

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


Payload Packaging Challenge
Grade 6 Academic Lesson #7
Topics: scientific method, motion, force, design, safety, technology, economics
(science, math)
Length of Lesson: 60 minutes
Objectives:
Students will define payload.
Students will design a cost-effective package to safely deliver payload.
Students will use critical thinking and problem solving skills.
Students will use teamwork skills.
National Science Standards:
Content Standard A: Science as Inquiry
Content Standard B: Physical Science
- Properties and changes of properties in matter
- Motion and forces
- Transfer of energy
Content Standard C: Earth and Space Science
- Earth in the solar system
Content Standard D: Science and Technology
- Abilities of technological design
Content Standard G: History and Nature of Science
- Science as a human endeavor
- History of science
Background Information: (from http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/fact_sheets/mars03rovers.pdf)
Mars came closer to Earth in August 2003 than it had in thousands of years. NASA decided in the
summer of 2000 to take advantage of this favorable planetary geometry to send two rovers to
Mars: Spirit and Opportunity.
Both rovers were launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on central Floridas Space Coast.
Spirit ascended in daylight on June 10, 2003. Opportunity followed with a nighttime launch on July
7. Each rover made the trip tightly tucked inside its folded-up lander, which was encased in a
protective aeroshell and attached to a disc-shaped cruise stage about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) in
diameter. The cruise stage was jettisoned about 15 minutes before the spacecraft reached the top
of Mars atmosphere.
With the heat-shield portion of the aeroshell pointed forward, the spacecraft slammed into the
atmosphere at about 5.4 kilometers per second (12,000 miles per hour). Atmospheric friction in the
next four minutes cut that speed by 90 percent, then a parachute fastened to the backshell portion
of the aeroshell opened about two minutes before landing. About 20 seconds later, the spacecraft
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jettisoned the heat shield. In the final eight seconds before impact, gas generators inflated the
landers airbags, retro rockets on the backshell fired to halt descent speed, and transverse rockets
fired (on Spirits lander) to reduce horizontal speed. The bridle was cut to release the lander from
the backshell and parachute. Then the airbag-encased lander dropped in free fall.
Spirit landed on Jan. 4, Universal Time (at 8:35 p.m. Jan. 3, Pacific Standard Time). It bounced
about 8.4 meters (27.6 feet) high. After 27 more bounces and then rolling, it came to a stop about
250 to 300 meters (270 to 330 yards) from its first impact. Spirit had journeyed 487 million
kilometers (303 million miles).
Opportunity landed on Jan. 25, Universal Time (at 9:05 p.m. Jan. 24, Pacific Standard Time). It
traveled about 200 meters (220 yards) while bouncing 26 times and rolling after the impact. It
came to rest inside a small crater. One scientist called the landing an interplanetary hole in one.
Opportunity had flown 456 million kilometers (283 million miles) from Earth and landed only about
25 kilometers (16 miles) from the center of the target area.
The design for the two rovers began with some basics from Sojourner, the rover on NASAs 1997
Mars Pathfinder mission. Some of the carried-over design elements are six wheels and a rockerbogie suspension for driving over rough terrain, a shell of airbags for cushioning the landing, solar
panels and rechargeable batteries for power, and radioisotope heater units for protecting batteries
through extremely cold martian nights. However, at 174 kilograms (384 pounds), each Mars
Exploration Rover is more than 17 times as heavy as Sojourner. They are also more than twice as
long (at 1.6 meters or 5.2 feet) and tall (1.5 meters or 4.9 feet). Pathfinders lander, not the
Sojourner rover, housed that missions main communications, camera and computer functions. The
Mars Exploration Rovers carry equipment for those functions onboard. Their landers enfolded them
in flight and performed crucial roles on arrival, but after Spirit and Opportunity rolled off their
unfolded landers onto Martian soil, the landers jobs were finished.

Materials:
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Materials:
- Payload Packaging Challenge sheet -one per group (one copy included with this
lesson)
- materials price list one per group (one copy included with this lesson)
- computer with Internet access, external speakers, and a projector (optional)
- materials as listed on the Materials Price List (See the Materials Price List at
the end of this lesson. These materials can be modified as needed. Learn more in
the Note that follows.)
NOTE:
The goal of this lesson is for students to design and build an object capable of being released
several feet above the ground and delivering an egg safely to the ground. Students can use any
materials the teacher has available!!! Here are some helpful ideas. Cut pieces of poster board
into smaller pieces. For nylon hose, consider the approximately inexpensive off-brand of knee
highs at discount stores. Consider asking a fast food restaurant to donate hamburger
containers. Adjust the materials price list page to reflect the materials and prices that you
deem appropriate for your class.
Prior to conducting this lesson, determine the location from which your students will drop their
payload packages. Consider the following: the top of a multi-leveled stairwell (inside or out),
open window of a high level room, the press box or top bleacher at the school football or
baseball field, or consider asking the fire department or the utility company to bring a bucket
truck!

Lesson Presentation:
1. Write the term payload on the board. Ask students what this term means.
Confirm that in aerospace, payload refers to valuable cargo (or luggage) that is
carried by a plane or rocket. If a rocket is delivering a satellite into space, the
satellite is the rockets payload, for example.
2. Tell students that rockets have carried rovers as payload to Mars. The U.S. has
sent rovers such as Sojourner (that landed in 1997) and Spirit and Opportunity
(that landed in 2004) to Mars. Explain that these rovers had to be delivered to
Mars safely.
3. (optional but strongly suggested) To visually explain how the Mars rovers get to
Mars and land, show the Rover Mission to Mars Animation updated video found at
the following link: http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/video/animation.html.
4. Tell students that they are going to design a payload package, or lander, capable of
delivering a rover, represented by an egg, safely to Mars, represented by the
floor/ground. They will be dropping their payload from a higher altitude.
(Hopefully, a location is available that will allow students to drop the package from
a height of two or three stories.) Explain that this is a competition. The winner of
the competition will be the group that designs the cheapest package/lander that
delivers the rover (egg) safely to Mars (the floor/ground).
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5. Allow students to get into small groups of 2 or 3, or divide students into


predetermined groups.
6. Distribute one Payload Packaging Challenge sheet and a materials list to each
group. Explain that questions asked once students begin will cost them money, so it
is important to listen carefully! Tell students that not only are they responsible
for creating a safe delivery package, they are responsible for designing a costeffective package. Show students the materials that are available and go over the
price for each. Explain that when students determine they are ready to purchase
an item, they are to write the item on the Payload Packaging Challenge sheet, and
ONE person from the group will bring the sheet to the teacher for the teacher to
initial and observe the student getting the item(s) purchased. They do NOT have
to list all the items at once. They can list and obtain items during the building
process. Distribute an egg in a small, plastic self-sealed bag to each group. Tell
students that there is no cost for these items (egg and bag) as another company
developed and paid for this rover. Your task is to land it safely on Mars. Ask
students if they have any questions before you start charging for questions, which
would be considered a consultant fee.
7. Set a reasonable time limit for students to build their payload package/lander and
allow students to begin.
8. Once time is up, collect each groups Payload Packaging Challenge sheet and go to
the drop location. Allow each group to announce the cost of their payload
package/lander and drop their payload package. (Allow groups to do this one at a
time.)
9. Have each group open their package/lander.
10. Determine the winner by learning who built the cheapest package/lander that
delivered the payload to the floor/ground without damage.
11. If time permits, return to the classroom and list the cost of each groups lander
and display the results of each groups payload. Discuss the results.
Summarization:
Discuss why utilizing non-manned space exploration vehicles is important. (safety due to
unknown factors; longevity of the mission; weight in terms of additional items that humans
would have to take such as food, clothing, restroom; size of spacecraft as a smaller craft
can be built since it does not have to accommodate the size of a human; economics;
machines do not have to return to Earth)
Character Connection: Remind students that engineers who design spacecrafts have a tough
job. Not only must they consider safety, but they also must consider cost. They must work
carefully with science and math concepts in order to design safe, cost-effective products.
How cool would it be to see a spacecraft, satellite, rover, or an astronaut go to another planet
and know that you helped make that possible! Remind students that it takes many people to
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create aviation and space exploration successes. It took thousands of people working together
to get the first men to the moon in 1969. All jobs are important, and when everyone works
hard and well together, great things happen. Encourage students to always try their best and
work well with others as those are two big ingredients to personal and professional success.

Assessment:
teacher observation
payload package/lander created by each group
Payload Packing Challenge data sheet for each group
result of payload drop (Did the egg break, or did it remain intact?)
Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
On the back of the Payload Packaging Challenge sheet, have groups write a
paragraph to describe their lander and their landers performance. Have groups
write a paragraph describing any changes they would make on a future lander.
Allow students to make changes to their initial designs and try the challenge again.
Have students use the scientific method (question, research if applicable,
hypothesis, experiment, analysis, and conclusion) to write an explanation of todays
experiment. In their conclusion, have them write what they would change or do
differently next time.
Offer a similar payload packaging challenge to students using the following:
- Have students (in groups of 2-3 members) make an equilateral
triangle on cardstock paper with sides measuring 8 long.
- Have them cut out the triangle and fold each corner toward
the center in order to create a tetrahedron.
- Using a hole-punch, punch a hole in the top of each of the 3
tips of the tetrahedron.
- Provide students with string, an egg, a small plastic self-sealing bag, 3
balloons, and 3 cotton balls. Additionally, provide them with material to
construct a parachute gift-wrap tissue paper or grocery store plastic bags
work well.
- Tell students their design challenge is to create a spacecraft capable of
delivering the egg to the ground from a specified height using the materials
provided to them.
Associated Websites:
Learn more about the rovers of Mars at the following websites:
- http://marsprogram.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/
- http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/fact_sheets/mars03rovers.pdf
- http://marsprogram.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/past/pathfinder.html
Read a cool article about the first Mars rover, Sojourner, at
http://www.amnh.org/rose/mars/mi3.html
Find other great Mars activities, including an Egg Drop Landing at
http://marsed.asu.edu/pages/pdfs/MSIP-MarsActivities.pdf.
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List students in your group. _____________________________________________


Write the name of your company. _________________________________________
List each item you purchase to build your payload package and the cost of each item. You
can purchase as few or as many items as you want unless your teacher gives you different
instructions. Remember, the cheapest package that safely delivers the rover (egg) wins!

ITEM

COST

Teachers Initials

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
If you have more items to purchase, list them on the back of this page.
What is the final TOTAL cost of your payload package? ___________________
After the competition, write the results of your teams design on the back of this paper. Explain why
you think your design worked the way it did, and explain what your team would change if you were to
do this activity again.

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MATERIALS PRICE LIST


Item
Consultant Questions

Price
$ 10,000

Cardboard/Styrofoam container

250,000

Cardboard (per sheet)

100,000

Poster board (per sheet)

70,000

Construction/Color Paper -1 sheet

25,000

Plastic Bag

40,000

Nylon hose

20,000

Balloon

15,000

Handful of Packing Peanuts

25,000

Bubble Wrap

25,000

Duct Tape 12 inches

60,000

Masking Tape 12 inches

50,000

Use of hot glue per 5 minutes

40,000

Glue (regular)

35,000

Markers

20,000

Newspaper

20,000

String - 60 cm

20,000

* Sorry, NO refunds or exchanges!

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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


Super Stars
Grade 6 Academic Lesson #8
Topic: life cycle of stars (science)
Lesson Reference: Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum
http://www.adlerplanetarium.org/pub/MWGuide.pdf
Length of Lesson: 30 - 60 minutes
Objectives:
Students will realize the relationship between the mass of stars and the stars life
expectancy.
Students will identify colors of the coolest and hottest stars.
Students will visually demonstrate the life cycle of stars.
National Science Standards:
Content Standard A: Science as Inquiry
Content Standard B: Physical Science
- Properties and changes of properties in matter
Background Information:
A K-W-L chart is a chart with 3 columns. The heading of the first column is K, which stands for
know. The W should be the heading for the middle column, and this stands for want to know.
The heading of the last column is L, which stands for learned. At the beginning of the lesson,
students state what they know about a topic and what they hope to learn about a topic. At the end
of the lesson, students identify things they learned.
Stars are primarily made up of hydrogen and helium. Stars produce energy through nuclear fusion.
According to the website http://space.about.com, at the high core temperatures of a star, atoms
move so fast that they sometimes stick to other atoms when they collide with them, forming more
massive atoms and releasing a great amount of energy. This process is known as nuclear fusion.
It is common to see temperatures of stars recorded in a unit of measurement called Kelvin, such as
10,000 k. Kelvin (to put it simply) is another unit of measurement, just like Celsius and Fahrenheit.
When comparing Kelvin and Fahrenheit in terms of star temperatures, a measurement in Kelvin
converts to a larger number in Fahrenheit (when looking at high star temperatures). Kelvin units of
measurement are based upon absolute zero, the point at which atoms in everything, not just water,
stop moving or freeze. Kelvin is also used to measure the temperature of different colors of light.

The information below is from http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/star_worldbook.html.


A star is a huge, shining ball in space that produces a tremendous amount of light and other forms of energy. The sun
is a star, and it supplies Earth with light and heat energy. The stars look like twinkling points of light -- except for the
sun. The sun looks like a ball because it is much closer to Earth than any other star.
The sun and most other stars are made of gas and a hot, gaslike substance known as plasma. But some stars, called
white dwarfs and neutron stars, consist of tightly packed atoms or subatomic particles. These stars are therefore
much more dense than anything on Earth.
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Stars come in many sizes. The sun's radius (distance from its center to its surface) is about 432,000 miles (695,500
kilometers). But astronomers classify the sun as a dwarf because other kinds of stars are much bigger. Some of the
stars known as supergiants have a radius about 1,000 times that of the sun. The smallest stars are the neutron stars,
some of which have a radius of only about 6 miles (10 kilometers).
Stars are grouped in huge structures called galaxies. Telescopes have revealed galaxies throughout the universe at
distances of 12 billion to 16 billion light-years. The sun is in a galaxy called the Milky Way that contains more than
100 billion stars. There are more than 100 billion galaxies in the universe, and the average number of stars per
galaxy may be 100 billion. Thus, more than 10 billion trillion stars may exist. But if you look at the night sky far from
city lights, you can see only about 3,000 of them without using binoculars or a telescope.
A star has five main characteristics: (1) brightness, which astronomers describe in terms of magnitude or luminosity;
(2) color; (3) surface temperature; (4) size; and (5) mass (amount of matter). These characteristics are related to one
another in a complex way. Color depends on surface temperature, and brightness depends on surface temperature
and size. Mass affects the rate at which a star of a given size produces energy and so affects surface temperature.
To make these relationships easier to understand, astronomers developed a graph called the Hertzsprung-Russell
(H-R) diagram. This graph helps astronomers understand and describe the life cycles of stars. The HertzsprungRussell diagram displays the main characteristics of stars. The diagram is named for astronomers Ejnar Hertzsprung
of Denmark and Henry Norris Russell of the United States. Working independently of each other, the two scientists
developed the diagram around 1910.
Astronomers express the mass of a star in terms of the solar mass, the mass of the sun. For example, they give the
mass of Alpha Centauri A as 1.08 solar masses; that of Rigel, as 3.50 solar masses. The mass of the sun is 2 1030
kilograms, which would be written out as 2 followed by 30 zeros.
Stars that have similar masses may not be similar in size -- that is, they may have different densities. Density is the
amount of mass per unit of volume. For instance, the average density of the sun is 88 pounds per cubic foot (1,400
kilograms per cubic meter), about 140 percent that of water. Sirius B has almost exactly the same mass as the sun,
but it is 90,000 times as dense. As a result, its radius is only about 1/50 of a solar radius.
Any star -- whatever its mass -- that gets all its energy from hydrogen fusion in its core is said to be "on the main
sequence" or "a main-sequence star." The amount of time a star spends there depends on its mass. The greater a
star's mass, the more rapidly the hydrogen in its core is used up, and therefore the shorter is its stay on the main
sequence. An intermediate-mass star remains on the main sequence for billions of years.
When all the hydrogen in the core of an intermediate-mass star has fused into helium, the star changes rapidly.
Because the core no longer produces fusion energy, gravity immediately crushes matter down upon it. The resulting
compression quickly heats the core and the region around it. The temperature becomes so high that hydrogen fusion
begins in a thin shell surrounding the core. This fusion produces even more energy than had been produced by
hydrogen fusion in the core. The extra energy pushes against the star's outer layers, and so the star expands
enormously. As the star expands, its outer layers become cooler, so the star becomes redder. And because the
star's surface area expands greatly, the star also becomes brighter. The star is now a red giant.
After a planetary nebula fades from view, the remaining core is known as a white dwarf star. This kind of star consists
mostly of carbon and oxygen. Its initial temperature is about 100,000 K. Because a white dwarf star has no fuel
remaining for fusion, it becomes cooler and cooler. Over billions of years, it cools more and more slowly. Eventually, it
becomes a black dwarf -- an object too faint to detect. A black dwarf represents the end of the life cycle of an
intermediate-mass star.
High-mass stars, those with more than 8 solar masses, form quickly and have short lives. A high-mass star forms
from a protostar in about 10,000 to 100,000 years. High-mass stars on the main sequence are hot and blue. They
are 1,000 to 1 million times as luminous as the sun, and their radii are about 10 times the solar radius. High-mass
stars are much less common than intermediate- and low-mass stars. Because they are so bright, however, high-mass
stars are visible from great distances, and so many are known.
After a Type II supernova blast occurs, the stellar core remains behind. If the core has less than about 3 solar
masses, it becomes a neutron star. This object consists almost entirely of neutrons. It packs at least 1.4 solar masses
into a sphere with a radius of about 6 to 10 miles (10 to 15 kilometers). Neutron stars have initial temperatures of 10
million K, but they are so small that their visible light is difficult to detect. However, astronomers have detected pulses
of radio energy from neutron stars, sometimes at a rate of almost 1,000 pulses per second. A neutron star actually
emits two continuous beams of radio energy. The beams flow away from the star in opposite directions. As the star
rotates, the beams sweep around in space like searchlight beams. If one of the beams periodically sweeps over
Earth, a radio telescope can detect it as a series of pulses. The telescope detects one pulse for each revolution of the
star. A star that is detected in this way is known as a pulsar.
If the stellar core remaining after the supernova explosion has about 3 or more solar masses, no known force can
support it against its own gravitation. The core collapses to form a black hole, a region of space whose gravitational
force is so strong that nothing can escape from it. A black hole is invisible because it traps even light. All its matter is
located at a single point in its center.
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Low-mass stars, ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 solar mass, have surface temperatures less than about 4,000 K. Their
luminosities are less than 2 percent of the solar luminosity. Low-mass stars use hydrogen fuel so slowly that they
may shine as main-sequence stars for 100 billion to 1 trillion years. This life span is longer than the present age of the
universe, believed to be 10 billion to 20 billion years. Therefore, no low-mass star has ever died. Nevertheless,
astronomers have determined that low-mass stars will never fuse anything but hydrogen. Thus, as these stars die,
they will not pass through a red-giant phase. Instead, they will merely cool to become white dwarfs, then black
dwarfs.

Materials:
- for a class of 30: 12 red balloons, 12 yellow balloons, 4 white balloons, 2 blue
balloons (1 balloon for each student in a class of 30) If you do not have 30
students, use the following percentages for the class:
40% red, 40% yellow, 15% white, and 5% blue
- wooden beads, marbles, round pebbles, or very small wadded pieces of paper
- scissors or pin (to pop balloons)
- red, yellow, and black markers for each student
- Life Cycle of Stars Information Chart (included near the end of this lesson)
- Colors & Lives of Stars student copies (one copy included near the end of this lesson)
- dry erase board, chalkboard, or chart paper with appropriate marker
NOTE:
This lesson can be done by providing every student a balloon, as indicated in the materials
list, OR it can be completed using four student volunteers at the front of the room. (One
student will hold a red balloon, one will hold a yellow balloon, one student will hold a white
balloon, and one student will hold a blue balloon.) If only using 4 volunteers, you will only
need one set of red, yellow, and black markers.
Prior to beginning the lesson, place one wooden bead, marble, or small wadded piece
of paper, inside each balloon.
Lesson Presentation:
1. Create a K-W-L chart on the board or on chart paper.
(See background
information if you need information on what a K-W-L chart is.) Ask students what
they know about stars and record their answers under the K column. Ask
students what they would like to learn about stars and record their answers under
the W column. To help students identify what they know and what they would like
to learn, consider asking some of the following questions:
o Are all stars the same?
o Do we know how stars form or what makes them shine?
o How long do stars live?
o Do stars live or last forever?
o Are stars close to each other?
o How do black holes form?
o Will the sun turn into a black hole?
2. Tell students that they will learn about the characteristics and lives of stars in this
lesson.

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3. Distribute a Colors and Lives of Stars sheet to each student. While distributing
the sheets, ask students to define what a star is. State that because stars are so
massive, they have a gravitational pull.
4. Inform students that a star is a ball-shaped gaseous celestial (of or relating to the
skies or heavens) body of great mass that shines by its own light. Have them
complete the definition on their worksheet.
5. Ask for 4 students to volunteer to stand in front of the class, each with a
different colored balloon. (If you are providing a balloon to each student,
distribute the balloons and markers at this time.)
6. Explain that the main difference between stars is mass. (Mass is the amount of
material that makes up an object.) Astronomers express the mass of a star in
terms of solar mass. This measurement compares a stars mass to that of the suns.
Tell the students that the sun has a solar mass of 1. So, an 8 solar mass star (for
example) is 8 times more massive than the sun.
7. Guide students in the completion of #2 on their Colors & Lives of Stars page.
Students should number the colors of stars in order from least massive to most
massive, with 1 being least and 4 indicating most massive.
(Answers: 1=red, 2=yellow, 3=white, 4=blue)
8. Tell students that as they do the balloon activity in class, they will hear answers to
the questions on their paper. For example, they know now the answers to the next
question. Tell students to follow along carefully in class in order to complete the
remaining questions during the lesson.
9. Ask students which balloons they think are the coolest and hottest stars. Tell
students that red stars are the coolest and blue stars are the hottest. Tell
students to number the temperature of the stars in order from hottest to coolest
on question number 5 by writing a 1 beside red, a 2 beside yellow, a 3 beside white,
and a 4 beside blue. Ask students what color our sun is. (yellow) Tell students
that the sun is the closest star to us. It is about 93 million miles away from Earth.
State that they now know that the sun is only warmer than red stars. Tell students
that red stars have a temperature of up to about 6,300 degrees Fahrenheit. The
hottest blue stars range in temperature from about 50,000 degrees Fahrenheit to
90,000 degrees Fahrenheit.
10. Ask students which color star they think will live the longest and why.
11. Guide students through the series of steps written on the Life Cycle of Stars
Information Chart. As you call out each new age, write it on the board, and then
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tell students what to do for the new age of their star (balloon). Also, periodically
ask students for their predictions of what they think will happen next. For each
age, tell students what to do for their star (colored-balloon). Remind them to
answer questions on their note-taking sheet as you all proceed.
12. Some helpful vocabulary to include during the continuation of the lesson:
(definitions/explanations from NASA)
-

supernova: The death explosion of a massive star, resulting in a sharp increase in


brightness followed by a gradual fading. At peak light output, supernova explosions
can outshine a galaxy. The outer layers of the exploding star are blasted out in a
radioactive cloud. This expanding cloud, visible long after the initial explosion fades
from view, forms a supernova remnant.

neutron star: (the imploded core of a massive star produced by a supernova


explosion) A neutron star is about 20 km in diameter and has the mass of about 1.4
times that of our Sun. This means that a neutron star is so dense that on Earth, one
teaspoonful would weigh a billion tons! Because of its small size and high density, a
neutron star possesses a surface gravitational field about 2 x 1011 times that of
Earth. Neutron stars can also have magnetic fields a million times stronger than the
strongest magnetic fields produced on Earth. Neutron stars are one of the
possible ends for a star. They result from massive stars which have mass greater
than 4 to 8 times that of our Sun. After these stars have finished burning their
nuclear fuel, they undergo a supernova explosion. This explosion blows off the outer
layers of a star into a beautiful supernova remnant. The central region of the star
collapses under gravity. It collapses so much that protons and electrons combine to
form neutrons. Hence the name "neutron star". Neutron stars can be observed as
pulsars.

pulsars: Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that have jets of particles moving almost
at the speed of light streaming out above their magnetic poles. These jets produce
very powerful beams of light. Like a ship in the ocean that sees only regular flashes
of light, we see pulsars "turn on and off" as the beam sweeps over the Earth.
Neutron stars for which we see such pulses are called "pulsars", or sometimes "spinpowered pulsars," indicating that the source of energy is the rotation of the
neutron star.

black hole: If the collapsed stellar core is larger than three solar masses, it
collapses completely to form a black hole: an infinitely dense object whose gravity is
so strong that nothing can escape its immediate proximity, not even light.

nebula - a cloud of dust particles and gases in space

planetary nebula: Planetary nebulae are ball-like clouds of dust and gases that
surround certain stars. They form when a star begins to collapse and throw off the
outer layers of its atmosphere. When viewed through a small telescope, this type of
nebula appears to have a flat, rounded surface like that of a planet.

white dwarf: For average stars like the Sun, the process of ejecting its outer
layers continues until the stellar core is exposed. This dead, but still ferociously hot

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stellar cinder is called a white dwarf. White dwarfs are roughly the size of our
Earth despite containing the mass of a star.
-

black dwarf: A black dwarf is a white dwarf that has cooled down enough that it no
longer emits light. It takes tens to hundreds of billions of years for a white dwarf
to cool down entirely, and the universe hasn't been around that long. Therefore
there are no black dwarfs yet, but there will be in the future.

13. After all stars have met their fate, review the life cycle of the stars. Emphasize
which star died first and last. Ask students what they notice about the mass of
the star in relation to how long the star lived. Discuss the fate of the yellow stars
like our sun. Note that they live quite a long time and dont become either black
holes or neutron stars. Review the formation of black holes. Ask students if the
majority of stars become black holes. (no) Black holes are the rarest stars in our
group.
Summarization:
To summarize todays lesson, finish the K-W-L chart by asking students what they learned
from this activity. List student responses on the chart under the L.
Character Connection: Tell students that just as there are similarities and differences in
stars, there are similarities and differences in people. Just as stars add beauty to our
galaxy, people have the opportunity to add beauty to our world. Encourage students to
find the strengths in people and be part of making the world a better place. Encourage
students to be super stars that shine in the world around them.
Assessment:
teacher observation
student answers to class discussion questions
Colors and Lives of Stars worksheet
Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
Have students make and learn to use a star chart. The materials are available at
http://www.lhs.berkeley.edu/StarClock/skywheel.html.

Complete a star classification activity. Materials are available at

http://www.middleschoolscience.com/starclassification.pdf.

For a worksheet on star types (M-O) go to

http://www.middleschoolscience.com/starcolorhw.pdf.

For a star sequencing lesson , go to

http://btc.montana.edu/ceres/malcolm/cd/html/stars1.html#activity1

Find several activities at

http://scifiles.larc.nasa.gov/docs/guides/guide2d_03.pdf
http://www.middleschoolscience.com/earth.htm.
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Find several star activities including practice with the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram at

http://www.starrynight.com/education/pdf/LessonPlang2HighSchool.pdf and
http://teacherlink.ed.usu.edu/tlnasa/units/AstroVentureAstronomy/AV_Astronomy_In
tro.pdf (go to Lesson 9: Planetary Temperature as a System).

Associated Websites:
Great site to learn how stars form and descriptions of stars:
http://nasascience.nasa.gov/astrophysics/how-do-stars-form-and-evolve

Questions and answers about stars:


http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/stars.html

Learn about Kelvin and temperature:


http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/bec/temperature.html
http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/temperature_scales.htm

Learn more about stars:


http://science.howstuffworks.com/star.htm
http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/rel_stars.html
http://www.pbs.org/seeinginthedark/astronomy-topics/lives-of-stars.html

Learn about different types of stars (white dwarf, neutron, etc.) at


http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/horoscopes/adefinitions.htm.

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COLORS & LIVES OF STARS

NAME ________________________

1. Star: a ball-shaped ___________ celestial body of great _______ that shines by its
______ light.
2. Number the following colors of stars in order from least massive to most massive, with
1 being the least massive and 4 being most massive.
____ red

_____ yellow

______ white

3. Which color star has the least mass? _________

_____ blue
the most mass? __________

4. Number the star colors in order from coolest to hottest with 1 being coolest and 4
being hottest.
____ red

_____ yellow

______ white

5. Which color star is the coolest? _________

_____ blue

the hottest? __________

6. Which color star grows the fastest? ___________


7. The blue balloon popping represents what? _________________________
8. When a yellow star is around 500 million years old, what starts forming around it?
_________
9. Our sun is what color star? _________
10. As a white star grows larger, what happens to its temperature and color?
_________________________________________________________________
11. What color star MAY become a black hole? _____________
12. At 1 billion years old, a white star may quickly explode resulting in a ___________
star, a very dense core of a massive star produced by a supernova explosion.
13. At around 8 billion years old, a yellow star becomes a ________________, and its
temperature _______________ .
14. At around 10 billion years old, a yellow star ____________ , and the outer portion of
it dissolves. The supergiant becomes a __________ _________ .
15. At around 200 billion years old, the red star ___________ .
becomes a _______ ________ .

The remaining core

16. At around 200 billion years old, the white dwarf that resulted from the yellow star
turns _______________ to show that it has ____________ ______.
17. Describe stars that live the longest. ____________________________________
18. Describe stars that have the shortest life. _______________________________
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COLORS & LIVES OF STARS ANSWER KEY


1. Star a ball-shaped gaseous celestial body of great mass that shines by its own light.
2. Number the following colors of stars in order from least massive to most massive, with
1 being the least massive and 4 being most massive.
__1_ red

__2__ yellow

___3__ white

3. Which color star has the least mass? _red__

__4__ blue

the most mass? __blue___

4. Number the star colors in order from coolest to hottest with 1 being coolest and 4
being hottest.
__1_ red

__2__ yellow

___3___ white

5. Which color star is the coolest? __red__

__4__ blue

the hottest? ___blue____

6. What kind of star grows the fastest? ___blue/hottest____


7. The blue balloon popping represents what? ___supernova___
8. When a yellow star is around 500 million years old, what starts forming around it?
__planets___
9. Our sun is what color star? _yellow__
10. As a white star grows larger, what happens to its temperature and color? It cools,
turning yellow and red.
11. What color star MAY become a black hole? __blue___
12. At 1 billion years old, a white star may quickly explode resulting in a _neutron_ star. (A
neutron star is a very dense core of a massive star produced by a supernova explosion.)
13. At around 8 billion years old, a yellow star becomes a _supergiant_, and its
temperature _cools_ .
14. At around 10 billion years old, a yellow star _grows_ , and the outer portion of it
dissolves. The supergiant becomes a _white_ _dwarf_ .
15. At around 200 billion years old, the red star _shrinks/dies_ . The remaining core
becomes a _white_ _dwarf_ .
16. At around 200 billion years old, the white dwarf that resulted from the yellow star
turns _black_ to show that it has _burned_ _out_.
17. Describe the stars that live the longest. _stars that remain cool over their
lifetime/least massive stars
18. Stars that have the shortest life. stars with high temperatures/massive stars
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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


Milky Way Fraction Hunt
Grade 6 Academic Lesson #9
Topic: galaxy, fractions (science, math)
Lesson Reference: NASA Explores
Length of Lesson: 30-50 minutes
Objectives:
Students will divide words into fractional parts.
Students will use ordinal numbers such as, first, second, etc., to decode a message.
Students will define galaxy.
National Standards:
Math
Number and Operations
Problem Solving
Science
Content Standard D: Earth and Space Science
Background Information: (from NASA Explores)
The night sky is full of objects that can be seen with the naked eye. The newest of these is of
course the International Space Station (ISS). Many objects have been talked about for
thousands of years. The Moon, planets, and the nearest stars all have their places in various
cultures, which observed and came up with explanations for their places in the sky. The Milky
Way galaxy, of which our solar system is part, looked to the ancient Greeks as a milky smudge
on the backdrop of the night sky. We now know that the Milky Way is actually made up of stars
that are too numerous to count. Their combined glow, along with the fact of their great
distance from Earth, makes them appear as that smudge. The students should easily be able to
see the Milky Way, especially on a dark night with no Moon.
Materials: dry erase board or chalkboard and marker or chalk
Milky Way Fraction Hunt student copies
- 2 Milky Way candy bars (for winners)
- miniature Milky Way candy bars (for class)
NOTE: Consider creating a transparency with the sample word fraction problems in step 5, or
consider having the problems already written on the board prior to starting the lesson.
The Where is the Milky Way? worksheet is an easier, short version of the Milky Way
Fraction Hunt worksheet. You may choose to use the easier version if time is an issue or if
you have students who need a simplified version of the assignment.

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Lesson Presentation:
1. Make sure the two Milky Way candy bars are already under the globe.
2. Ask students if they know in which galaxy we live. (Milky Way)
3. Ask students if they can define galaxy. Explain the following: A galaxy is one
very large group of gas, dust, and millions or billions of stars found in the universe.
The universe is made up of all the galaxies. The Milky Way is only one of hundreds
of galaxies in our universe. The Milky Way Galaxy contains our solar system as well
as other planets and stars like our sun.
4. Tell students that they will use the term Milky Way to get some practice with
fractions.
5. Go over the following examples as needed with the class. Be sure to visually show
how the letters of the words are arranged into fractional parts. For example, in
demonstrating the second 1/4 of the word planning, divide the letters into
fourths: pl/an/ni/ng. The second 1/4 of planning, is an. Point out that the
denominator indicates the number of parts into which the whole is divided.
a. Write the first 4/5 of Milky on the board. Ask students what word this
makes when using the first 4/5 of Milky. (milk)
b. Write the fourth 1/5 of Milky + the last 2/3 of Way on the board? Ask
students what name this makes. (Kay)
c. Write the third 1/5 of Milky + the last 2/3 of Way on the board. Ask
students what word this makes. (lay)
d. Write the first 2/5 of Milky + the fourth 1/5 of Milky + the second 1/3 of
way on the board. Ask students what name this makes. (Mika)
e. For more practice, try the following on the board:
-

first quarter of homework + the second 1/3 of tapped = hope

first half of tree + last half of play = tray

first 1/2 of greedy + second 1/3 of plenty = green

the second 1/4 of clapping + the first half of please = apple

6. Tell students that they will now put their decoding skills and fraction skills to work
to decode a secret message. (Allow students to work individually or with a partner.)
7. Distribute a copy of the worksheet to each student (or pair of students).
8. Tell them to do their best to decode the secret message. When they are finished,
they should refer to the message to figure out what to do next.
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9. After the first student (or pair of students) decodes the message and finds the
two hidden candy bars under the globe, instruct them to work quietly on their own
secret message using fractional parts of words while the rest of the class tries to
figure out the hidden message. As other students learn the correct message,
reward them with a miniature Milky Way candy bar.
10. Have the first student (or pair of students) who deciphered the message read the
message to the class.
Message Answers:
Milky Way Fraction Hunt For the first one to finish this, there waits a prize if
you use your head. The Milky Way is directly beneath the South Pole. Quietly, go
look.
Where is the Milky Way? The Milky Way is directly below the Earth. Go look.
Summarization:
Ask students why they did or did not like the activity. Ask students to define galaxy.
State that learning math skills is important. Knowing how to do math correctly can result
in some sweet rewards. Tell the students that this was just a fun activity to get them
thinking (and practicing with fractions). The Milky Way is visible as the numerous stars
blend together to make a milky white path through the night sky. Encourage students to
look for the Milky Way galaxy in which we live on a very dark night in a place where there
are no street lights. It really is a beautiful sight!
Character Connection: Remind students that each part that makes up a whole is important.
For example, each one of them is an important part of the class. They each have special
gifts, talents, and abilities, and their talents and skills will continue to mature. Eventually,
they should become productive, contributing members of a company /organization. They
will play an important role in the operation of the company/organization. Encourage them
to use their strengths now to help others in the class. Encourage them to learn and grow
so they can continue helping and contributing to others throughout their adult lives.
Assessment:
teacher observation
Milky Way Fraction Hunt math sheet
Additional activity idea to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
Have students create their own messages using fractional parts of words. Allow
students to exchange messages and try to decode them.

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Where is the Milky Way?


Names ________________________________________________
Directions: Use the clues to form new words. Follow the directions to get your prize!

1. The first 1/2 of this + the last 1/4 of case: __________________________


2. The first 1/2 of Milton + the last 2/5 of dinky: _______________________
3. The last 1/3 of saw + the second 1/4 of crayfish: _____________________
4. The second 1/3 of crisis: ________________________________________
5. The first 3/5 of dirty + the last 3/7 of perfect + the first 2/5 of Lynda:
___________________________________________________________
6. The first 3/4 of belt + the last 2/3 of cow: __________________________
7. The first 3/5 of there: ________________________________________
8. The last 3/4 of dear + the last 2/5 of birth: _________________________
9. The first 1/3 of get + the second 1/4 of Cody: _______________________
10. The first 1/2 of loop + the second 1/3 of cookie: ______________________
In the space below, write the words above in the order in which they appear
in order to read the hidden message.

Source: NASA Explores

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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


Let Your Good Character Take FLIGHT
Grade 6 Character Lesson #1
Topics: character, definitions, space programs (language arts, science, social studies)
Lesson Reference: NASA Space Missions http://www.nasa.gov/missions/index.html
Length of Lesson: 45 minutes
Objectives:
Students will gain a thorough understanding of the following character traits:
fairness, loyalty, initiative, generosity, honesty, and tolerance.
Students will learn about the early U.S. manned space programs.
Students will create an acrostic poem using words describing positive character
traits to the title of the space program of their choice.
National Standards:
Character Education Partnership (CEP)
Principle 1: Promotes core ethical values as the basis of good character.
Principle 2: Defines character comprehensively to include thinking, feeling, and behavior.
Principle 3: Uses a comprehensive, intentional, proactive, and effective approach to
character development.
Principal 7: Strives to foster students self motivation.
English
Standard 4: Communication Skills
Standard 5: Communication Strategies
Standard 12: Applying Language Skills

Science
Content Standard A: Science as Inquiry
Content Standard D: Earth and Space
Science

Background Information:
There is a need for accepting responsibility for a persons life and making choices that
are not just ones for immediate short-term comfort. You need to make an investment, and
the investment is in health and education. These words were said by Buzz Aldrin, an
Apollo 11 astronaut. To become anything one wishes in life, whether an astronaut, a
teacher, a doctor, or a police officer, a person must be self-motivated, dedicated, and able
to make choices that demonstrate good character. Character encompasses many traits,
most of which intertwine and complement each other. For students to fully understand
what it means to be a person of good character, they must first gain an understanding of
core character traits and be able to relate and apply them to other principles in their
lives.

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Materials:
- paper
- colored pencils
- thesauruses (printed or have access to an online thesaurus such as Miriam Websters
online dictionary/thesaurus- http://merrium-webster.com/)
- copies of Early U.S. Manned Space Programs
- copies of blank space program acrostic poems for students to fill in with synonyms of
positive character traits
- copies of each character trait (1 copy for each group)
Lesson Presentation:
1. Begin the lesson by asking the students if they know the names of any previous
space programs or missions into space. Allow several responses. Tell the students
that there are a few space programs and missions that will be discussed today.
2. Distribute copies of U.S. Early Manned Space Programs. Allow students to read
and discuss the space programs. Prompt students to examine the outcome of the
manned space programs.
3. Ask students to think about the character traits of astronauts. Do they have to be
diligent, dependable, and responsible? Do they have courage and patriotism, and
demonstrate cooperation as they embark on a mission?
4. On the board, set up the acrostic poem FLIGHT as follows:
F
L
I
G
H
T
Explain that when you are a pilot or astronaut, the journey begins with flight or lift
off. Then, list the character traits for todays lesson on the acrostic.
Fairness
Loyalty
Initiative
Generosity
Honesty
Tolerance
5. Put students in 6 small groups. Give each group one of the character traits and ask
them to come up with a friendly, workable definition for that character trait. Also
have them to use the character trait in a sentence that demonstrates its meaning.

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6. Have groups share their ideas of what each word means and share the sentences
that they developed. As each group shares, explain that these words help define
character in an individual.
7. Explain to students that they will be creating an acrostic poem today either using
the name of one of the space programs discussed earlier or using their own name.
The acrostic will be created using words that describe positive character traits.
8. Distribute the acrostic template to the students to create their own acrostic for
any of the three early space program names or a blank acrostic for their own name.
They should use synonyms for each of the character traits listed in FLIGHT, above.
Students may work in groups or individually.
9. Remind students they may use a thesaurus (printed or online) if they would like.
10. When students have completed their acrostic, ask for volunteers to share.
11. Display all acrostics outside the classroom under the heading, Mr./Mrs.
__________________s students are taking flight with good character!
Summarization:
By gaining an in-depth and thorough understanding of components that make a person someone
of good character, students become more aware of their actions and usually make a much more
concerted effort to live a life of moral prowess. An ancient Chinese proverb says, Reputation
is what man thinks of us. Character is what God and angels know of us. Remind students that
just like each space program includes many missions in order to accomplish the space programs
goals, we as individuals experience many life missions that will further define, shape, and
reveal our character.
Assessment:
Teacher will review the completed acrostic poems to check for synonyms of original
character traits.
Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
Have the students create the name for a future space mission and develop an
acrostic using good character traits.
Share Apollo Program spinoffs at http://www.sti.nasa.gov/tto/pdf/Apollo_Flyer.pdf
with students. These are things that resulted from the Apollo Program that help
mankind. Discuss things humans can do to benefit others without leaving the
ground!
Have students write a story using each of the character traits in the acronym
FLIGHT about a person in their life whom they believe lives a life of good
character.

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F
L
I
G
H
T

airness
oyalty
nitiative
enerosity
onesty
olerance

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Early U.S. Manned Space Programs


Project Mercury was Americas
first U.S. manned space program.
It was during this program that
NASA
launched
the
first
American astronauts into space.
The program was named Mercury
after a Roman god who was very
fast.

Words to Know:
Suborbital: not orbiting
Capsule: A space vehicle usually
with a flattened cone shape that
carries explorers to space and back
to Earth
Rendezvous: to come close to
Dock: to make a connection
EVA: stands for extra vehicular
activity, or in other words, a
spacewalk wherein the astronaut
exits the spacecraft

There were a total of six human spaceflight missions during Project


Mercury. The first two manned Mercury flights of Alan Shepard and
Lunar module: the manned
Gus Grissom were suborbital, meaning they did not orbit the Earth.
spacecraft that actually landed on
The flights lasted about 15 minutes each. The third astronaut to fly
the moon
in Project Mercury was John Glenn. In 1962, he became the first
American to orbit Earth completing three successful orbits.
The following four Mercury
missions were orbital flights, and the last Mercury flight was made in 1963 by Gordon Cooper
who orbited Earth 22 times.
Why just six manned Mercury missions when seven astronauts were selected? Deke Slayton,
one of the original Mercury astronauts, was removed from flight status due to a heart
condition. He became the Director of Flight Crew Operations in 1963 and was responsible for
the operation of the astronaut office along with many other duties. In 1972, Slayton was
returned to full flight status, and he eventually flew in space in 1975 on an Apollo-Soyuz
mission wherein an American spacecraft docked with a Russian spacecraft resulting in the first
ever meeting of American astronauts and Russian cosmonauts in space.
NASA learned a lot from Project Mercury. The agency learned how to operate a spacecraft,
put astronauts in orbit around Earth, and how people could live and work in space. These
lessons were very important, and NASA used them in later space programs.
After Mercury came the second U.S. manned space program: Gemini. Gemini is named for the
constellation Gemini which has twin stars named Castor and Pollux. The Gemini capsule would
seat two astronauts compared to the capsule in the Mercury program that would only allow one
astronaut at a time to be launched into space. Gemini launched pairs of astronauts into space
from March 1965 November 1966.
The goals of the Gemini program were to perfect EVAs, test and perfect rendezvous and
docking procedures, and have a manned spaceflight last approximately two weeks. These were
important goals as rendezvous and docking spacecraft would have to be performed in order to
have manned missions to the moon. Additionally, considering it takes about 3 days to get to
the moon and about 3 days to get back, NASA wanted to make sure humans could withstand
the effects of space for about two weeks. Understanding the effects of extended spaceflight
missions on humans prove astronauts could to travel to the moon, spend time on the moon, and
return home safely without harmful effects to the body. It was safer to test these Gemini
goals close to Earth as opposed to testing these procedures 240,000 miles away at the moon.
After 10 manned missions in the Gemini Program, NASA had accomplished its goals
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successfully and was ready to press on to manned missions to the moon in the Apollo Program.
On May 25, 1961, President John F. Kennedy announced the goal of
sending astronauts to the moon before the end of the decade. Coming
just three weeks after Mercury astronaut Alan Shepard became the
first American in space, Kennedy's bold challenge set the nation on a
journey unlike any before in human history. Kennedys goal of sending
astronauts to the moon before the end of the decade would become a
reality during Americas third U.S. manned space program: Apollo.
Eight years of hard work by thousands of Americans came to fruition
on July 20, 1969, when Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong stepped
out of the lunar module and took "one small step" in the Sea of
Picture Source: NASA
The massive Saturn V
lifts off July 16, 1969
powering Apollo 11 into
orbit.

Tranquility, calling it "a giant leap for mankind."

Innovation and even improvisation were necessary along the way. The
program drew inspiration from Apollo 1 astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed
White and Roger Chaffee, who lost their lives in a fire during a launch pad test in 1967. If the
fire had happened in space, scientists and engineers could probably have only speculated about
what happened. Because the tragedy occurred while on Earth, scientists and engineers were
able to study the capsule and make improvements.
In December 1968, rather than letting lunar module delays slow the program, NASA changed
plans to keep the momentum going. Apollo 8 would go all the way to the moon and orbit without
a lunar module; it was the first manned flight of the massive Saturn V rocket. Apollo missions
7 and 9 tested spacecraft in Earth orbit; Apollo 10 orbited the moon as the dress rehearsal
for the first landing. An oxygen tank explosion forced Apollo 13 to scrub its landing, but the
"can-do" problem solving of the crew and mission control turned the mission into a "successful
failure." Six of the missions -- Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17 -- went on to land on the moon,
studying soil mechanics, meteoroids, seismic, heat flow, lunar ranging, magnetic fields and solar
wind.
Astronauts carried out extensive remote-sensing surveys from lunar orbit that in themselves
would have been major scientific accomplishments. The landings permitted the sampling of
rocks and soils far beyond that possible with unpiloted sample return missions; these samples
are still being productively analyzed using techniques developed in the decades since the
samples were collected. The six Apollo lunar landings, which resulted in a total of 12 American
astronauts exploring the surface of the Moon, were extraordinarily productive.

Credits:
Pictures from NASA
Sources of verbatim information written in the article:
Mercury:
http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/5-8/features/what-was-project-mercury-58.html
Apollo:
http://er.jsc.nasa.gov/SEH/apollo_program.pdf
http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/index.html

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Fairness

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Loyalty

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Initiative

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Generosity

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Honesty

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Tolerance

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Picture Source: NASA at


http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/gemini_4_eva.html
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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


Should You Judge a Book By Its Cover?
Grade 6 Character Lesson #2
Topics: stereotypes, women astronauts, Tuskegee airmen
(language arts, social studies)
Length of Lesson: 45-60 minutes
Objectives:
Students will explore the struggles of early black men in aviation and of women in
the space program via the Tuskegee Airmen and the Mercury 13, respectively.
Students will discuss the term stereotype.
Students will discuss how stereotypical attitudes are unfair and can be harmful.
Students will create a Bursting Stereotypes poster for the classroom.
National Standards:
Character Education Partnership (CEP)
Principle 1: Promotes core ethical values as the basis of good character.
Principle 2: Defines character comprehensively to include thinking, feeling, and behavior.
Principle 3: Uses a comprehensive, intentional, proactive, and effective approach to
character development.
Principal 7: Strives to foster students self motivation.
English
Standard 4: Communication Skills
Standard 5: Communication Strategies
Standard 12: Applying Language Skills
Background Information:
A stereotype is a general idea about a person, a group of people, or a thing that may be partly
true or completely false. Stereotypes are ideas that do not consider the big picture and only
use one or two pieces of information when judgments or opinions are formed. Often,
stereotypes are shared by many people and can be unfair and hurtful. The old adage, You
cant judge a book by its cover is especially true when it comes to stereotyping people.
Outside appearances can sometimes be deceiving.
Prior to 1941, black men were not allowed to become military aviators as they were perceived
as not being able to do the job with enough skill, courage or patriotism. Then, beginning in 1941,
a group of black young men, the Tuskegee Airmen, were trained at Tuskegee Army Air Field,
in Tuskegee, Alabama. These black military pilots performed in an exemplary manner during
World War II. Even though they performed superbly, they were not afforded the same air
base privileges or promotions as the white pilots. It was not until 1948 that President Harry
Truman enacted Executive Order Number 9981 which directed equality of treatment and
opportunity in all persons of the United States Armed Forces.
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In 1960, a team of courageous women, called the Mercury 13, shared the dream of becoming
Americas first women pioneers in space. These women underwent tremendous physical and
psychological testing and training, just as their male counterparts, however, were never allowed
to become astronauts. A lack of understanding that women could endure as much as men and
could benefit as pilots in space hindered the first American woman astronaut being selected to
go into space until 18 years after the first man went into space. The first American man, Alan
Shepard, went into space in 1961. It was not until 1983, however, that the first American
woman, Sally Ride, was granted that same opportunity.

Materials:
- dry erase board/chalkboard/chart paper and appropriate marking instrument
- copies of Women Who Reach for the Stars and African American Men Who
Dared to Soar articles
- poster board
- balloons
- tape
- two books of interest; one with an appealing cover and another with a blank cover
Lesson Presentation:
1. Show the students two books: one with an interesting and appealing cover page and
another with no pictorial cover page or a covered cover page. Ask them which book
they would be more interested in reading. Then, open the blank-covered book and
read aloud some interesting facts or humorous story or poetry from the book that
the students would really like. Explain to them that although a colorful and
interesting cover is quite appealing, it does not adequately indicate what is to be
found inside. Tell them that if they avoid unattractive or unfamiliar things in life,
they are limiting themselves on experiences that may be of great benefit and
enjoyment in life.
2. Ask the students if they know what the word stereotype means. Explain the
definition, using the first sentence in the background information section, if
students cannot define the word (or have them look it up in the dictionary). Then,
ask for examples. If the students are stuck on examples of stereotypes, share a
few with them to get them started: the student who doesnt take any books home
must not be doing his/her homework; girls play with dolls; boys dont cry; rich
people are snobs; ladies with blonde hair are not smart; boys are better at sports
than girls; handicapped people cannot do things.
3. Discuss whether the examples are true or not true. Discuss how each of these
ideas might have gotten started.
4. Tell the students that the most common stereotypes appear as we look at people.
We get ideas about people by the way they look: whether they are girls or boys, of
another race or color; if they are handicapped in any way; etc.
5. Discuss what happens when people believe stereotypical rumors about others that
are not true. What harm can it cause? Does any good come from stereotyping
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people? What are alternatives to stereotyping people? (Accepting peoples


differences as gifts they give to the world; using peoples differences to make a
good team- using the gifts of some people in some areas and the gifts of others in
other areas; etc.)
6. Divide students into groups of 6 students per group. Have three students in the
group read Women Who Reached for the Stars, while the other three read
African American Men Who Dared to Soar. Tell students that after everyone
within the group has finished reading, they are to ask each other the following
questions: (Write the questions on the board.)
o

Who was being stereotyped in your article?

What did the individuals in your article wish to do?

Why do you think they encountered difficulties following their dreams?

What ultimately happened to the individuals in your article?

Name something that you thought was very interesting about the article.

How would you have handled the situation if you had been in the same
situation as those who were discussed in the article?

7. After the small groups have had a chance to read and discuss the articles, continue
with a class discussion. Ask the students for reasons that women might not have
been allowed the same treatment as men when it came to traveling to space or
African American men might not have been allowed the same treatment as white
American men when it came to becoming military pilots. Could stereotypical gender
or race-biased thinking have played a role? Ask whether or not there was any basis
to this determination then? How about now? Was it fair then? Is it fair now?
Allow the students to discuss their thoughts.
8. Discuss how allowing ourselves to believe stereotypical descriptions is senseless and
limits our potential and the potential of those around us. It is important for
students to realize that they themselves determine what their interests and goals
should be based on what they want to do, not based on their cover.
9. If time allows, have students return to their small group of 6. Give each group 3
balloons and 3 strips of paper. Have students write one stereotype example on
each strip of paper. Then, they should put each strip in a balloon. Have students
within the group blow up and tie off the balloons. Then, let the groups exchange
balloons, pop the balloons by sitting on them, and read the stereotype examples on
the strips. Tape the burst balloons and stereotype examples on a piece of poster
board labeled, Bursting Stereotypes. Display the poster in the room.
Summarization:
The old saying is true; you cannot judge a book by its cover. Once students realize how easy it
is to stereotype others, they begin to see the problem with stereotypes and labeling others.
Stereotypes limit acceptance of others. They keep us from seeing the true picture of things
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and can keep us from making friends with someone we might really like, if we get to know them.
Stereotypes also limit our potential and the potential of those around us. Only we can decide
what we want out of life, and those hopes and dreams should have nothing to do with what
gender we are, how big or small we are, the color of our skin, or the amount of money we have.
Our futures have everything to do with what is on the inside and what we want out of life.
Thus, we should not judge others by their cover nor should we allow them to judge us by our
cover---we should always do our best to become the best we can be, allowing no one to hold us
back from pursuing our goals and dreams.
As one of the most beloved women in our country, Oprah Winfrey has said quite powerful
words on many occasions, but, today, her message is quite clear: It doesnt matter who you
are; where you come from. The ability to triumph begins with you. Always.

Assessment:
Students can be assessed on participation/attentiveness during discussions.
Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
As the biggest example of stereotypes, put the two gender categories on the chalk
board: BOYS and GIRLS
Ask the students to help you list things they think that boys do better than girls,
and that girls do better than boys. Have them list things that they think only boys
should do or that only girls should do. Have them explain the reasons they think
each of these thoughts and if they are really true.

Have students discuss other stereotypical situations in which people are judged by
their cover. List these on the board and discuss where the stereotypical
characteristics may have come from and what implications these stereotypes have
had on these groups of people. (Examples: physically handicapped; people of other
races or cultures; large or small people; loud or quiet people; athletic or nonathletic people; fast readers and slow readers; artistic and non-artistic people;
people who have more or less money than others etc.)

Have students explore and report on the remarkable achievements of people in


history who have had to overcome stereotypical judgments: physically handicapped
people, African Americans, women, etc.

Have students to respond to the following journal prompts to extend their


understanding of the importance of not using stereotypes:
-Have you ever been hurt by a stereotype? Write about this experience.
-Have you ever accidentally thought or made a stereotypical statement about
someone? Write about this experience.

Write a short story about stereotyping in which the main characters are animals.
Illustrate the story and share it with the kindergarten students at your school to
remind them how hurtful stereotyping can be.

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Women Who Reached for the Stars


The nation celebrates the contributions of women in history during National Women's
History Month in March. NASA recognizes a number of females who made historic strides
into the unknown. Among these heroes is a group, often called the "Mercury 13," a team of
13 women who shared a dream - to be America's first women pioneers in space.
Dr. William Randolph Lovelace helped develop NASA's male astronaut tests to determine
how an astronauts body would react in space. He soon became curious to know how women
would do taking the same tests. In 1960, Dr. Lovelace invited Geraldyn "Jerrie" Cobb to
undergo the same rigorous challenges as the men.
Cobb, already an accomplished pilot and on her way to being one of the world's best pilots,
became the first American woman to pass all three phases of astronaut testing. The
results were announced at a conference in Stockholm, Sweden. Thus, Dr. Lovelace and Ms.
Cobb decided to recruit more women to take the tests, financed by the world-renowned
aviatrix (or female pilot), Jacqueline Cochran.

Image left: Jerrie Cobb, testing the Gimbal Rig in the


Altitude Wind Tunnel in April 1960. The Gimbal Rig,
formally called MASTIF, or Multiple Axis Space Test
Inertia Facility, was used to train astronauts to control
the spin of a tumbling spacecraft.
Image credit: NASA

Women throughout the country responded to the call for others to train for the astronaut
program after hearing about the opportunity through newspaper articles and friends. Most
of the candidates were already accomplished pilots and recruited through the NinetyNines, a women pilot's organization.
Thirteen courageous women were chosen for future training and accepted the challenge to
be tested for a position as part of the U.S. space team that became known as the First
Lady Astronaut Trainees (FLAT). The FLAT finalists were Jerrie Cobb, Wally Funk, Irene
Leverton, Myrtle "K" Cagle, Janey Hart, Gene Nora Stumbough (Jessen), Jerri Sloan
(Truhill), Rhea Hurrle (Woltman), Sarah Gorelick (Ratley), Bernice "B" Trimble Steadman,
Jan Dietrich, Marion Dietrich and Jean Hixson.

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Since doctors didn't know what stresses astronauts would experience in space, tests
ranged from the typical X-ray and general body physicals to the atypical, tests in which
the women had to swallow a rubber tube so their stomach acids could be tested.
Doctors tested the womens reflexes in the ulnar nerve of the forearm using electric
shock. To induce vertigo, ice water was shot into their ears, freezing the inner ear so
doctors could time how quickly they recovered.
The women were pushed to exhaustion using specially-weighted stationary bicycles to test
their respiration. The women were subjected to many more invasive and uncomfortable
tests to gain the opportunity to be part of America's space team.
Unfortunately, the women never got the opportunity to become an astronaut. Although
the FLAT project was discontinued, many of the women went on to extraordinary
achievements in other endeavors.
Women like these serve as role models to empower and encourage females of all ages to go
above and beyond their present circumstances. They paved the way for female astronauts
like Sally Ride, Eileen Collins and many others that now support the U.S. Space Program.
The personal sacrifices and dedication of the "Mercury 13" continue to inspire women to
reach for the stars, the Moon, Mars and beyond.

Image right: Visiting Kennedy Space Center in 1995


as invited guests of STS-63 Pilot Eileen Collins are
(from left): Gene Nora Jessen, Wally Funk, Jerrie
Cobb, Jerri Truhill, Sarah Ratley, Myrtle Cagle and
Bernice Steadman members of the First Lady
Astronaut Trainees.
Image credit: NASA

Article Source: NASA at http://www.nasa.gov/missions/highlights/f_mercury13.html

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African American Men Who Dared to Soar


Prior to 1941 black men were not allowed to become military airmen as many people thought
they lacked the skill, courage and patriotism to be pilots in the military. Then, in 1941, the
first black aviation class was formed at Tuskegee Army Air Field (TAAF) in Tuskegee,
Alabama. The first aviation cadet class began in July 1941 and completed training nine
months later in March 1942. Thirteen young men started in the first class. Only five
successfully completed the training, one of them being Captain Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., a
West Point Academy graduate. The other four were commissioned second lieutenants, and
all five received Army Air Corps silver pilot wings.
From 1941 through 1946, nine hundred and ninety-four black pilots graduated at TAAF,
receiving commissions and pilot wings. Black navigators, bombardiers and gunnery crews
were trained at selected military bases elsewhere in the United States. Mechanics were
trained at Chanute Air Base in Rantoul, Illinois, until facilities were in place in 1942 at
TAAF.
The Tuskegee Airmen were dedicated, determined young black men who enlisted to
become America's first black military airmen. They came from every section of the
country, and overcame great stereotypical prejudices to fulfill their dream of becoming an
aviator. Each one of the young men possessed a strong personal desire to serve the
United States of America to the best of his ability.
Those who possessed the physical and mental qualifications were accepted as aviation
cadets to be trained initially as single-engine pilots and later to be either twin-engine
pilots, navigators or bombardiers. Most were college graduates or undergraduates. Others
demonstrated their academic qualifications through comprehensive entrance examinations.
These young men were trained in operations, meteorology, intelligence, engineering,
medicine or any of the other officer fields.
Enlisted members, those without college educations were trained to be aircraft and engine
mechanics, armament specialists, radio repairmen, parachute riggers, control tower
operators, policemen, administrative clerks and all of the other skills necessary to fully
function as an Army Air Corps flying squadron or ground support unit.
Four hundred and fifty of the pilots who were trained at TAAF served overseas during
World War II. These airmen, as well as those who did not go overseas and trained in the
United States experienced a great deal of racism. These highly trained military officers
were treated as "trainees" and denied access to the base officers' club, an act
contradictory to Army regulations.

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Each one accepted the challenge and proudly displayed his skill and determination while
suppressing internal rage from humiliation and indignation caused by frequent experiences
of racism and bigotry, both at home and overseas. These airmen fought two wars - one
against a military force overseas and the other against racism at home and abroad.
The outstanding record of black airmen in World War II was accomplished by men whose
names will forever live in hallowed memory. After the war in Europe ended in 1945, black
airmen returned to the United States and faced continued racism and bigotry despite
their outstanding war record.
Large numbers of black airmen elected to remain in the service but because of segregation
their assignments were limited to several small units in America. Opportunities for
advancement and promotion were very limited and this affected morale. Nevertheless,
black airmen continued to perform superbly.
During this period, many white aviation units were undermanned and needed qualified
people but were unable to get the experienced black personnel because of the segregation
policy. The newly-formed U.S. Air Force initiated plans to integrate its units as early as
1947. In 1948, President Harry Truman enacted Executive Order Number 9981 which
directed equality of treatment and opportunity in all of the United States Armed Forces.
This order, in time, led to the end of racial segregation in the military forces. This was
also the first step toward racial integration in the United States of America. The positive
experience, the outstanding record of accomplishment and the superb behavior of black
airmen during World War II, and after, were important factors in the initiation of the
historic social change to achieve racial equality in America.

Image to right: Tuskeegee Airman


Howard Baugh, Lt. Col., USAF, Ret.,
(left) and Col. Michael Hoyes talk about
the differences in fighter technology.
A P-51 Mustang aircraft is pictured
behind them.
Image Credit: NASA/Bill Uher

Article Source: Tuskegee Airmen, Inc at http://www.tuskegeeairmen.org/Tuskegee_Airmen_History.html

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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


Attitude Determines Your Altitude
Grade 6 Character Lesson #3
Topic: character (language arts, social studies)
Length of Lesson: 45-60 minutes
Objectives:
Students will explore the thought processes and motivations that lead to selfdefeating and self-fulfilling behaviors.
Students will understand the connection between thoughts, feelings, choices, and
actions.
Students will recognize the importance of character traits that lead to having a
positive attitude.
Students will understand the influences that lead people to make poor choices and
harm themselves and others and to make good choices and build themselves up.
National Standards:
Character Education Partnership (CEP)
Principle 1: Promotes core ethical values as the basis of good character.
Principle 2: Defines character comprehensively to include thinking, feeling, and behavior.
Principle 3: Uses a comprehensive, intentional, proactive, and effective approach to
character development.
Principal 7: Strives to foster students self motivation.
English
Standard 4: Communication Skills
Standard 5: Communication Strategies
Standard 12: Applying Language Skills
Background Information:
Alfred A. Montapert once said, We cannot choose the things that will happen to us. But we
can choose the attitude we will take toward anything that happens. Success or failure depends
on our attitude. Often, we feel defeated before we even begin a task. In our minds, we have
already failed.
As adults, it is our job is to launch children into a life where they can carry out important work
in the world with a self-fulfilling prophecy of I can instead of I cant.
We can and should teach children about having a positive attitude. We need to teach it
consciously and deliberately. We have to make sure they develop the right stuff to do the
job. Use the sheet, The Power of a Positive Attitude to guide your discussions with the
students.
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The three group aerospace activities are very simple activities, and are not intended to teach
detailed scientific principles, but are used as analogies to demonstrate the concept of control,
guidance, and a good attitude in life.

Materials:
- dictionary
- cut out strips from the sheet The Right Stuff (included)
- paper to fold paper airplanes
- latex balloons
- tape
- 6 foot length of string or fishing line
- small paper bags
- 2 hair dryers with temperature control settings
- Group Activity Sheets: Airplane Launch Rocket Launch and Hot Air Balloon
Launch (included)
- The Power of a Positive Attitude sheet for group activity, along with How to
Build and Maintain the Right Stuff form (included)
Lesson Presentation:
1. Write the following quotes on the board prior to the lesson:
What lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies
within us. Ralph Waldo Emerson
We can do anything we want if we stick to it long enough. Helen Keller
2. Have students discuss with you the meaning of each quote. They should be familiar
with Helen Keller, so the meaning should be quite clear to them. Explain to them
that in order to do the daily tasks before us or the great things in life we dream of
doing, it is important that we have the belief inside us that WE CAN do it, no
matter the obstacles. We have to have the determination inside us that WE CAN
get it done, no matter how long it takes.
3.

Have the students help give examples of people who had to overcome great odds or
great tragedies in life to come to a good place in their lives. Start them off with
such examples as: persons after a disaster wherein they lost everything they own,
such as with a war, tornado, hurricane or fire; persons who were born with physical
limitations or have been in a terrible accident and were severely physically
debilitated; persons who have had cancer or other bad illness, etc. The students
will probably give many, many examples of people who have OVERCOME bad things
in life of whom they are aware.

4. After this discussion, list on the board two categories of end results to such
tragedies in life:
Overcoming
Succumbing
Have students explore the
definitions of each via discussion or reading from the dictionary. Then, have the
students share reasons for each end result for people. (Having a positive, can do
attitude, never giving up, making good choices, etc. should follow for overcoming
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tragedy. Having a negative, I cant do it attitude, giving up easily, making poor


choices, etc. should follow for succumbing to tragedy.)
5. Next, cut (prior to class) the strips of paper on the The Right Stuff pages that
are included. Fold each strip in half and have each student draw a slip of paper
from a container. Have the students read their slip of paper and begin saying the
word aloud as they begin moving around in the classroom. They should try to find
other students with words that mean much the same as their word and then begin
to group themselves together in the classroom.
6. After the students have grouped themselves have them discuss why their words
mean much the same in their groups and decide if anyone needs to change groups.
Explain that these words are ALL connected in some way, as they are all character
traits that people need to show they have The Right Stuff to overcome any
obstacle in life and to be a successful and happy citizen.
7. Next, each group should read The Power of a Positive Attitude and then complete
the follow-on form, How to Build and Maintain the Right Stuff (if time permits).
8. Next, have the students divide into three groups to do three different activities to
launch some type of air or space vehicle. (The three activities are included for
airplane, rocket, and hot air balloon launches.) Have each group fold their activity
sheet on the dotted line so they can read and do the activity and have their
preliminary discussion using the activity side of the sheet before they finalize their
team activity by using the discussion side of the sheet, which has guided
information about the activity and discussion.
9.

After each group has completed their activity and shared their results with the
rest of the class, explain that they have just demonstrated how the right
attitude determines the altitude, or how high something or someone soars.
Finalize the lesson with the summarization below.

Summarization:
A positive attitude helps you to cope more easily with the daily affairs of life. It brings
optimism into your life, and makes it easier to avoid worry and negative thinking. If you
adopt it as a way of life, it will bring constructive changes into your life, and will make your
days happier, brighter and more successful. With a positive attitude you see the bright
side of life, become optimistic and expect the best to happen. It is certainly a state of
mind that is well worth developing and strengthening.
Your attitude, as you deal with each day and each event that happens, will certainly
determine your altitude in life. Your need to soar in life is just the same as with a
launch of any air or space vehicle, the attitude will certainly affect the altitude. If an
airplanes ailerons or elevators are not in the correct attitude, the airplane will not lift
properly into the air. If a rockets fuel mixture or guidance system is not in the correct
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attitude, the rocket will not launch into the air correctly. If a hot air balloons air
temperature is not in the correct attitude, the hot air balloon will not soar.
So, make a conscious effort to start each day with a good thought, such as Make it a
great day or not; the choice is mine! Tackle each problem as if it were the greatest
opportunity. Look for positive people and activities that will allow you to do nothing but
soar in life!
Assessment:
student participation and discussion in activities
Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
Allow all students to participate in all three launch activities.

Have the students read the attached sheet, The Power of a Positive Attitude, and
make positive attitude posters to keep in the classroom, in the halls of the school,
or in their rooms at home using the information found on that sheet.

Have the students research different people who have overcome great obstacles in
life to become a success in life. Examples are:
-

Helen Keller (June 27, 1880 June 1, 1968) Helen Keller was an American
author, activist and lecturer. She was the first deafblind person to graduate
from college. The story of how Keller's teacher, Annie Sullivan, broke through
the isolation imposed by a near complete lack of language, allowing the girl to
blossom as she learned to communicate, has become known worldwide through
the dramatic depictions of the play The Miracle Worker. Helen Keller has many,
many motivational quotes to inspire us all:
http://www.quotationspage.com/quotes/Helen_Keller/
- David Constantine
David Constantine co-founded a charitable organization, called Motivation, to
empower people with disabilities in countries where disabled people are hugely
marginalized by their societies. David is a wheelchair user himself and his story
illustrates how someone with a physical limitation can overcome obstacles that
bring most able bodied people to a halt.
http://www.myhero.com/myhero/hero.asp?hero=D_Constantine_TES_es_06_ul
- Stephen Hopson
Stephen Hopson is a motivational speaker and author, amongst other things, and
started life with the disadvantage of being born totally deaf. He has become a
top Wall Street Stockbroker and has a pilots license. His goal is to help
transform the way people perceive life and how they can overcome obstacles,
using my own experiences. Stephen tells how his life was transformed by a
teacher whose three words Thats Right Stephen! propelled him forward.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AuqlVivegXg
http://www.sjhopson.com/bio-flying.htm

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THE RIGHT STUFF

Belief

Hope

Faith

Inspiration

Expectation

Appreciation

Gratitude

Thankfulness

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Determination

Perseverance

Hard Worker

Motivated

Honor

Honesty

Respectful

Integrity

Optimistic
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Responsible
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Bright

Upbeat

Happy

Dependable

Cheerful

Team Player

Positive
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Solution Finder

Compassionate
133

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Airplane Launch Activity:


Materials:
Paper to fold paper airplanes
Directions:
Divide the group into two teams.
Each team should fold a paper airplane.
Each team should fly the airplanes at the same time:
Team 1- Throw the airplane very hard.
Team 2- Throw the airplane using a smooth and even motion.
Discussion:
Which action caused the airplane to fly the best? Why?
Make a comparison:
How does the attitude one uses to fly a paper airplane compare to the attitude
one uses to solve an every day problem?

--------------------------------------------------

Possible Airplane Launch Discussions:


Discussion:
When one tries to fly an airplane using a hard motion, the plane does not have the
control needed to fly smoothly. It usually crashes. This is much like life, when one
uses harsh and hard words and actions, interactions with people usually crash.
When one tries to fly an airplane using a smooth and precise arm motion, the plane
glides pretty well. This is much like life: when we use self-control and prepare to
do things right, with a calm and positive attitude, life usually flies by pretty
smoothly.
When an everyday problem arises, if we have built an internal messenger that
reminds us to think calmly before reacting, usually a solution can be found, anger
can be controlled, and things seem to work out.

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Rocket Launch Activity:


Materials:
Latex balloons

Straw

Tape

Fishing line or string about 6 ft long

Directions:
Divide the group into two teams.
Each team should have a balloon to be used as a rocket.
Team 1- Blow the balloon up with lots of air and hold the opening with fingers.
Team 2- Tape one end of string or fishing line to the back of a chair. Hold the
other end horizontally from the chair, pulling the string or line tight, without
pulling it off the chair. Thread the end of the string or line through a straw. Blow
the balloon up with a little bit of air and hold the opening with fingers. Gently tape
the balloon side to the straw.
Each team should release the balloon rocket at the same time.
Discussion:
Which rocket flew the best? Why?
Make a comparison:
How does the attitude one uses to fly a rocket compare to the attitude one
uses to solve an every day problem?
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Possible Rocket Launch Discussion:

Discussion:
When one tries to fly a rocket without any guide, such as without fins or a track
for guidance, the rocket just goes wildly about with no direction. This is much like
life: when we go about doing daily routines or interfacing with problems without an
inner guide that helps us stay on track, there is no control and there a wild
confusion in actions, which lead to troubles in life.
When one tries to fly a rocket using fins or some sort of guide, the rocket goes in
the right direction. This is much like life: when we follow a path of a good
attitude, a prepared day, and a controlled action, things go in the direction we want
them to go. We can usually reach our goals with less problems and confusion. We
can react to daily problems with a plan. We tend to be more successful in life.

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Hot Air Balloon Launch Activity:


Materials:
Small paper bags

2 hair dryers

Directions:
Divide the group into two teams.
Each team should have a paper bag to use as a hot air balloon.
Each team should fill the bags with air and release at the same time. Two students
will hold each bag and 1 student will fill with air as a total team leader says, Fill!
and in about 5 seconds, says Release!
Team 1- Fill the bag with cool air with the dryer on the cool setting.
Team 2- Fill the bag with hot air with the dryer on the hot setting.
Discussion:
Which temperature caused the hot air balloon to fly best? Why?
Make a comparison:
How does the attitude one uses to fly a hot air balloon compare to the attitude
one uses to solve an every day problem?
------------------------------------------------------

Possible Hot Air Balloon Launch Discussion:

Discussion:
When one tries to fly a hot air balloon with cool air, the air molecules inside the
bag balloon are still as dense or heavy as the air molecules outside the bag
balloon. The air molecules have to be heated inside the bag to make the air
molecules move quickly and spread apart thus making the air less dense or lighter
than the air outside the balloon.
This lighter than regular air enables the hot
air balloon to rise. Without the less dense hot air, the balloon will not rise. This is
much like life, if we do not have the right temperature in our actions, we will not
rise in life. If we keep a heated attitude and are angry and uncooperative with
others, or we react without a thought or a good plan, we will not be able to be
successful in life.
When one tries to fly a hot air balloon with heated air, the balloon can lift, as
noted above. This is much like life, when we use the proper temperature in our
actions, when we act without anger or hostility and with a good thought or plan, we
will be able to rise above most problems and be successful in life.
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The Power of a Positive Attitude


A positive attitude leads to happiness and success and can change
your whole life. If you look at the bright side of life, your whole life becomes filled with
light. This light affects not only you and the way you look at the world, but also your whole
environment and the people around you. If it is strong enough, it becomes contagious.
Positive attitude manifests in the following ways:
Positive thinking
Constructive thinking
Creative thinking
Feelings of gratitude
Optimism
Expectation of success
Faster and more easily achieved success
Fewer difficulties encountered Motivation to accomplish your goals
Ability to look for solutions instead of excuses Ability to surmount any difficulty
Seeing opportunities
Perseverance Belief in yourself and in your abilities
Choosing happiness Inspiration Looking at failure and problems as blessings in disguise
Displaying self-esteem and confidence
More energy
More happiness
Respect from others
Life smiles at you More friends
Less problems
Ability to inspire and motivate yourself and others
Greater inner power and strength
Positive attitude says: You can achieve success.
Negative attitude says: You cannot achieve success.
If you have been exhibiting a negative attitude and expecting failure and difficulties, it is
now the time to change the way you think. It is time to get rid of negative thoughts and
behavior and lead a happy and successful life. Why not start today? If you have tried
and failed, it only means that you have not tried enough.
Develop a positive attitude that will lead you to happiness and success:
- Choose to be happy. -Look at the bright side of life. Exercise regularly.
- Choose to be and stay optimistic.
-Visualize only what you want to happen.
Participate in school or community organizations that do good work.
Participate in team sports wherein there is a positive team spirit.
Volunteer to do good for others. - Have faith in yourself.
If you have to get a job, work in a location that builds your positive spirit.
- Find reasons to smile more often. Do things to help around your home.
Spend time with younger children and help conduct activities or programs with them.
Spend time with your grandparents or other older adults to learn about their lives or
assist them in some way.
- Repeat affirmations that inspire and motivate you.
- Contemplate upon the futility of negative thinking and worries.
- Associate yourself with happy people.
- Read inspiring quotes and stories.
- Learn to master your thoughts into good thoughts.
Following even only one of the above suggestions, will bring more light into your life!

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How to Build and Maintain The Right Stuff


After reading The Power of a Positive Attitude, your group should make an action plan
on what to do to ensure that you build a positive attitude about life and how to handle the
curves throw at you at some times in life. Some examples are to exercise regularly, read
and watch positive books and movies, and become involved in good groups of like-minded,
positive action-oriented people, such as your church, community organizations, sports
teams, etc. This plan should bring much light into your lives each day!

The Right Stuff Team Members Names:

The Right Stuff Teams Action Plan:

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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


There is No I in Team
Grade 6 Character Lesson #4
Topics: cooperation, ISS (language arts, science, social studies)
Length of Lesson: 45-60 minutes
Objectives:
Students will explore NASA article about the International Space Station and
discuss how the astronauts must work together and cooperate for a common goal.
Students will discuss and share thoughts about how to stick together as a team.
Students will create a classroom definition of cooperation.
Students will participate in a group activity to demonstrate the cooperative spirit.
Students will learn about neutral buoyancy as it pertains to the space program.
National Standards:
Character Education Partnership (CEP)
Principle 1: Promotes core ethical values as the basis of good character.
Principle 2: Defines character comprehensively to include thinking, feeling, and behavior.
Principle 3: Uses a comprehensive, intentional, proactive, and effective approach to
character development.
Principal 7: Strives to foster students self motivation.
English
Standard 4: Communication Skills
Standard 5: Communication Strategies
Standard 12: Applying Language Skills
Background Information:
In our society today, it seems that everyone is out for themselves. Often, our students
witness false statements made by politicians in an attempt to get ahead of their opponents or
see firsthand how others put people down in an attempt to raise themselves higher. It is
important that students know that a key element in landing and maintaining employment in
todays global market is the ability to work well with others. When you work well with others,
you cooperate, and everyone wins. In the words of H. E. Luccock, No one can whistle a
symphony. It takes a whole orchestra to play it! No where is that statement better
illustrated than in the International Space Station, where astronauts from different countries
must work together in cylindrical modules which serve as an observatory, laboratory, and
workshop. Talk about teamwork!
One of the activities in this lesson involves neutral buoyancy wherein an object neither floats
nor sinks; it appears to be weightless. When an astronaut works in space, he/she is working
in a microgravity environment that is unlike the gravity-filled environment of Earth. Thus, the
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astronaut has to train to work in such an environment in space. The activity can be related to
the space programs Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL).

Background information on NBL: (from NASA at http://dx12.jsc.nasa.gov/site/index.shtml)


Since the mid-1960s, neutral buoyancy has been an invaluable tool for testing procedures,
developing hardware, and training astronauts. This neutrally buoyant condition simulates reduced
gravity sufficiently for the astronaut to practice future on-orbit procedures, such as
extravehicular activities (EVA) and to work through simulation exercises to solve problems
encountered on-orbit. Some of these exercises are carried out on a real-time basis.
In 1995, Johnson Space Center (JSC) named the NBL training facility, near Ellington Field, in honor
of the late astronaut M. L. "Sonny" Carter, who was instrumental in developing many of the current
space-walking techniques used by the astronauts. Opened in 1997, the Sonny Carter Training
Facility (SCTF) provides controlled neutral buoyancy operations to simulate the zero-g or
weightless condition that is experienced by spacecraft and crew during space flight. It is an
essential tool for the design, testing and development of the International Space Station and
future NASA programs. For the astronaut, the facility provides important pre-flight training for
extravehicular activities (EVA) and with the dynamics of body motion under weightless conditions.
Also, be sure to read the rationale behind building the NBL -- a "better, faster, cheaper" solution
for providing quality EVA preparations.
The NBL was sized to perform two activities simultaneously; each uses mockups sufficiently large
to produce meaningful training content and duration. It is 202 ft in length, 102 ft in width, and 40
ft in depth (20 ft above ground level and 20 ft below) and holds 6.2 million gallons of water. Even at
this size, the International Space Station, at 350 ft x 240 ft when complete, will not fit inside the
NBL.
Note: The first underwater training facility for astronauts was the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator
located on the Redstone Arsenal at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama.
Until an additional facility was constructed at the Johnson Space Flight Center to support the
Space Shuttle Program, the facility at MSFC, was the only test facility that allowed astronauts to
train underwater for EVAs. The Neutral Buoyancy Simulator at MSFC was officially closed for
NASA's use on July 1, 1997, because NASA's requirements could be accommodated at the new,
larger tank at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston.

Materials:
- copies of International Space Station
- gem clips (paperclips)
- small pieces of paper
- helium latex balloons with long ribbons or strings attached one for each group of
3-4 students (If you bring your own latex balloons to a store, the business may fill
them with helium for you at no cost. Small balloon helium tanks are available at
some popular discount stores for about $25.) You will need a few more balloons
than you plan to use just in case you have balloons that pop before or during the
activity)
- copies of Cooperation Means (optional)

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Lesson Presentation:
1. Ask one good-natured student in your classroom to get some desk cleaner and begin
to clean all of the desk seats. (You might want to cue him or her in beforehand
that you are not really expecting them to clean all of the desk seats, but to play
along as an opening activity.) Have the student go ahead and begin by cleaning a
side desk chair or a chair at a table where no one is seated.
2. While the selected student is beginning the cleaning assignment that you have
given, ask all of the students to stand where they are. Explain that you have a very
important job for them today before class begins. Emphasize that they must follow
instructions exactly for the job to be done correctly. Ask all of the students to sit
down on the count of three. Then, count, 1, 2, 3 and make sure that all students
are seated. Then ask them to slide from side to side in their desks for 30 seconds
or so. As the students begin to giggle and stare around the room, make the point
that it took approximately 40 seconds for all of the students in the classroom to do
what it would have taken perhaps 40 minutes for the single student that you
selected at the beginning of the class to do. Explain that by cooperating, the task
at hand was much easier, took less time, and everyone participated. Be sure to
thank the student who assisted for being a good sport.
3. Write the word TEAM on the board. Talk about what TEAM stands for: Together
Everyone Achieves More! Remind the students that there is no I in TEAM the
key word is together, which includes more than just ones self.
4. Discuss different kinds of teams with which the students come in contact and how
those teams make a difference in their homes, their school, and their community.
Discuss how if everyone in the world would cooperate, we could have world peace
and could achieve much more than trying to be in competition with other countries.
5. Explain how the International Space Station is one good example. Distribute a copy
of the International Space Station article to groups of 2-3 students. Have the
groups follow the directions to locate acts of cooperation in the article. Then,
discuss the correct responses and why each is an act of cooperation. (Use Teacher
Answer Sheet) Emphasize how cooperation is key among the American astronauts
and Russian cosmonauts living and working on the International Space Station.
6. Divide the class into groups of 3-4 students and have the groups complete the
Neutral Buoyancy activity, as described below:
a. The teacher should explain the information about neutral buoyancy and the
space training program, as described in the Background Information.
b. Each group of students should be given one latex balloon with long ribbon or
string attached, a zip-lock baggie of gem clips, and 1-2 sheets of paper.
c. Each group should be given the directions that when the teacher says to
start, the groups should work together to make the helium-filled balloon gain
a state of neutral buoyancy (wherein the balloon floats at a steady
altitude; it neither rises nor falls) for at least 10 seconds. To do this, they
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should add and take away both gem clips and small pieces of torn paper from
the ribbon or string attached to the balloon until neutral buoyancy is
achieved. (It is best to do this inside the classroom where wind will not blow
the balloon and impact the desired results.)
d. The first group to achieve this state is the winner. But, having all groups
work together in a cooperative team makes each group winners! Thus, small
treats or a class reward would be appropriate.
Summarization:
Students should be reminded that it is extremely important not only to do their very best for
themselves, but to also do their best to cooperate with others for the greater good of
everyone involved. Explain that with every act of cooperation, we are making others lives
better. With every act of an uncooperative spirit, we can make the lives of others, and
ourselves, more difficult.
Although the word I is not found in the word TEAM, it is of vital importance that each
person works hard to be the best he/she can be so that his/her contributions to a team effort
are excellent. Another adage comes forth as the closing part of the lesson on cooperation:
each chain is only as strong as its weakest link. Every person needs to work hard, be good and
right, and be prepared to be the best cooperative team member as is possible.

Assessment:
- student participation/attentiveness during discussion, activities, and activity pages
Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
Distribute a Cooperation Definition page to each Neutral Buoyancy activity group
and have each group develop a good definition for cooperation; or have the class as a
whole develop the definition. A good example might be Cooperation means everyone
working together so everyone wins. Post the definitions in the classroom to remind
students that when one person wins, everyone wins!

Share the sentiment expressed by Jackie Robinson (early African American baseball
player): A life isnt significant except for its impact on other lives. Have the students
research people who have made a significant impact on others by working with others to
do something significant. Make a class book: Cooperative Spirit: the American Way.
Examples of people to research and report on are: Thomas Edison, Martin Luther King,
John Glenn, Wilbur and Orville Wright, Mae Jemison, A. Scott Crossfield

Have students make a class cooperation chain. Each student should be given the same
size strip of colored construction paper ( 2 X 6). On it, the students should each
write his/her name and a word that describes a trait team members should possess to
be a successful team: integrity, dependable, responsible, knowledgeable; honest; etc.
Then, all students should tape their strip into a link that should be intertwined with
the rest of the class chain. The chain can be displayed in the classroom or in the hall of
the school.

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International Space Station


Read each paragraph. Put a star beside each paragraph that illustrates acts of
cooperation. Then, underline each sentence that illustrates acts of cooperation.
The International Space Station is a large, inhabited Earth
satellite that more than 15 nations are building in space. The
first part of the station was launched in 1998, and the first
full-time crew, one American astronaut and two Russian
cosmonauts, occupied the station in 2000.
The International Space Station orbits Earth at an altitude
of about 250 miles. The orbit extends from 52 degrees

Two modules of the International


Space Station were launched and
assembled in 1998 by the United
States and Russia.
Image credit: NASA

north latitude to 52 degrees south latitude.


The station will include about eight large cylindrical sections called modules. Each module
is being launched from Earth separately, and astronauts and cosmonauts are connecting
the sections in space. Eight solar panels will supply more than 100 kilowatts of electric
power to the station. The panels are being mounted on a metal framework 360 feet (109
meters) long.
The United States and Russia are providing most of the modules and other equipment.
Canada built a mobile robot arm, which was installed in 2001. Other participants include
Japan and the member nations of the European Space Agency (ESA). Brazil signed a
separate agreement with the United States to provide equipment. In exchange, Brazil will
have access to U.S. equipment and permission to send a Brazilian astronaut to the station.
More than 80 flights of U.S. space shuttles and Russian rockets will be necessary to
complete the International Space Station. The ESA and Japan plan to develop supply
vehicles to be launched on the ESA's Ariane 5 and Japan's H-2A booster rockets. The
space station was originally scheduled for completion in 2006, but unpredicted expenses
have created major delays.

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Missions
The crew and scientists on Earth -- using radio signals -- operate laboratory equipment on
the station. Some of the equipment measures the effects of space conditions, such as
apparent weightlessness, on biological specimens -- including the crew. Other equipment
produces various materials, including protein crystals for medical research. Crystals grown
in space have fewer imperfections than those grown on Earth and are therefore easier to
analyze. Medical researchers will use results of protein analyses to determine which
crystals to mass-produce on Earth.
The major value of having a space station is that all the equipment needs to be carried into
space only once. Also, the station can be used again and again by visiting astronauts and
cosmonauts. Scientists on Earth can analyze experimental results and modify follow-up
investigations much more quickly than before. The station has been designed to operate
for at least 15 years. But it could last for decades if parts are repaired and replaced as
they wear out or are damaged.
The first two modules of the International
Space Station were assembled in
December 1998. In the foreground is the
Unity module, which was built by the
United States. Behind Unity, with solar
panels attached to it, is a Russian-built
module named Zarya -- the Russian
word for sunrise.
Image credit: NASA

The International Space Station will


function as an observatory, laboratory,
and
workshop.
Astronauts
and
cosmonauts will live and work in
cylindrical modules, and solar panels
will furnish electric power. Fifteen
countries are building the station,
shown here as it will look when
finished.
Image credit: NASA

http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/intspacestation_worldbook.html

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International Space Station Answer Key


Teacher Answer Sheet: A star is beside each paragraph that illustrates acts of
cooperation. Each sentence that illustrates acts of cooperation is underlined.
*The International Space Station is a large, inhabited Earth satellite that more than 15
nations are building in space. The first part of the station was launched in 1998, and the
first full-time crew, one American astronaut and two Russian cosmonauts, occupied the
station in 2000.

The International Space Station orbits Earth at an altitude of about 250 miles. The orbit
extends from 52 degrees north latitude to 52 degrees south latitude.

*The station will include about eight large cylindrical sections called modules. Each module
is being launched from Earth separately, and astronauts and cosmonauts are connecting
the sections in space. Eight solar panels will supply more than 100 kilowatts of electric
power to the station. The panels are being mounted on a metal framework 360 feet (109
meters) long.

*The United States and Russia are providing most of the modules and other equipment.
Canada built a mobile robot arm, which was installed in 2001. Other participants include
Japan and the member nations of the European Space Agency (ESA). Brazil signed a
separate agreement with the United States to provide equipment. In exchange, Brazil will
have access to U.S. equipment and permission to send a Brazilian astronaut to the station.

* More than 80 flights of U.S. space shuttles and Russian rockets will be necessary to
complete the International Space Station. The ESA and Japan plan to develop supply
vehicles to be launched on the ESA's Ariane 5 and Japan's H-2A booster rockets. The
space station was originally scheduled for completion in 2006, but unpredicted expenses
have created major delays.

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Missions
* The crew and scientists on Earth -- using radio signals -- operate laboratory equipment
on the station. Some of the equipment measures the effects of space conditions, such as
apparent weightlessness, on biological specimens -- including the crew. Other equipment
produces various materials, including protein crystals for medical research. Crystals grown
in space have fewer imperfections than those grown on Earth and are therefore easier to
analyze. Medical researchers will use results of protein analyses to determine which
crystals to mass-produce on Earth.

* The major value of having a space station is that all the equipment needs to be carried
into space only once. Also, the station can be used again and again by visiting astronauts
and cosmonauts. Scientists on Earth can analyze experimental results and modify follow-up
investigations much more quickly than before. The station has been designed to operate
for at least 15 years. But it could last for decades if parts are repaired and replaced as
they wear out or are damaged.

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Cooperation Means
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________
____________________

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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


Rocket to Success
Grade 6 Character Lesson #5
Topic: rocket history, ridicule, perseverance
(social studies, language arts)
Length of Lesson: 30-45 minutes

picture source: NASA


Robert H. Goddard beside1926 liquid- fueled rocket.
The rocket is on top, receiving its fuel by two lines
from the tank at the bottom.

Objectives:
Students will utilize reading, comprehension, and critical thinking skills.
Students will identify problems associated with mocking others.
Students will identify methods of handling mocking.
Students will identify lessons, such as perseverance, that they can learn from Dr.
Robert Goddard, the early 1900s rocket scientist known as the Father of Modern
Rocketry.
Students will construct a straw rocket.
National Character Education Partnership (CEP) Standards:
Principle 1: Promotes core ethical values as the basis of good character.
Principle 2: Defines character comprehensively.
Principle 3: Uses a comprehensive, intentional, proactive, and effective approach to
character development.
Principal 7: Strives to foster students self motivation.
Background Information:
Rockets have been known to exist for centuries, but all of the thrust devices employed in
these primitive fire arrows, as the Chinese called them, were made of solid materials and
once ignited, were uncontrollable. Robert Hutchings Goddard, who is considered to be the
Father of Modern Rocketry, was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, and as a boy developed
an interest in space travel. Later, as a scientist, he pioneered the technology of using liquids
for thrust power instead of the uncontrollable solid fuels.
In 1926, near Auburn,
Massachusetts, Dr. Goddard successfully launched the worlds first liquid-fueled rocket. By
using a combination of liquids, rather than solids, Goddard was able to vary the volume of fuel
flow to the rocket engine and thus, get control of the amount of thrust produced. Goddards
research opened the door to space flight. During his lifetime (October 5, 1882 August 10,
1945), Robert Goddards work received little attention from his country and from his fellow
scientists; however, after his death, the government recognized his great contributions and
awarded his family the Congressional Gold Medal. A major space science laboratory, NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, was established on May 1, 1959.
(NOTE: To be able to go into space, man had to first break the sound barrier. On October 14, 1947, Charles E.
Chuck Yeager accomplished this feat when his rocket-powered Bell XS-1 exceeded the speed of sound.)

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Materials:
an overhead projection of or student copies of Robert Goddard: A Man and His
Rocket (copy included)
straws
paper
scissors
tape
How to Build a Paper Work (copy included)
NOTE: To save time, consider having strips of 4cm by 28cm strips of paper already cut
out and ready to distribute.
Consider conducting ACE academic lesson #4, Junk Rocket, before or after this lesson.
Lesson Presentation:
1. Ask a student to define the synonyms mock and ridicule, which mean to make
fun of. Ask students if they have ever shared an idea with someone only to have
the person mock their idea. Ask if any volunteers would like to share their
experience. Ask students how they did or would handle someone making fun of
their idea(s).
2. State that a famous rocket scientist, Dr. Robert Goddard, experienced much public
criticism and ridicule due to some of his literally far out ideas. Unfortunately, he
was no longer living when people realized that his ideas were correct! Distribute
Robert Goddard: A Man and His Rocket to students to read.
3. Ask the following discussion questions:
a. When did Dr. Goddard become inspired to pursue the idea of rocketry
and spaceflight? (when he was a young boy)
b. In his autobiography, Goddard wrote, I was a different boy when I
descended the tree from when I ascended, for existence at last seemed
very purposive. What do you think he meant by that? (He had an
inspirational moment while up in the tree, thinking of some device that could
go to Mars. By the time he came down from the tree, he had realized what
he wanted to do in his life pursue development of a device which could
escape earths gravity and go to a different place such as Mars!)
c. Although employed by a university that was interested in his work, why
did many people make fun of Goddards belief that rockets were capable
of traveling into space and landing payload, such as science equipment or
even humans, on the moon? (In the early 1900s space travel was
unthinkable as a real possibility. Keep in mind, the U.S. car manufacturer
Ford Motor company didnt get its start until 1903, and it wasnt until about
1913 that Henry Ford had developed an assembly line for the automobile
industry. Remember that the Wright brothers flew the first plane in 1903,
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and their first flight lasted just 12 seconds. The country just wasnt
thinking space travel. Technology, not to mention popular thought, was no
where near ready to make space travel even a possibility. What could be
considered as the grandfather of most of todays modern rockets didnt
come into existence until the early 1940s during WWII when Germany
began launching the V-2 rocket, and that particular rocket was used as a
military weapon. Additionally, educated people believed that for a rocket to
work, the exhaust had to push against air, and there is no air in space.)
d. In 1920, when The New York Times published a critically harsh editorial
regarding Goddards work and ideas, and expressed strong disapproval of
his theories, Goddard responded by saying, Every vision is a joke until
the first man accomplishes it; once realized, it becomes commonplace."
What do you think Goddard meant by this? (example answer: People may
consider new ideas ridiculous, but at some point, when those ideas become
reality, over time, people get used to it, and no one things a thing about it.)
e. How did Dr. Goddard deal with being ridiculed and criticized? (He did
not give up! He did not fight back. He did decide to work more in secrecy,
though. He believed in himself and his work, as is evidenced by his
continuation of his work and the over 200 patents he received in his
lifetime.)
f. What may have happened had he been encouraged rather than ridiculed?
What may have happened had he been willing to share his work publicly
with others?
g. Do you think The New York Times was correct to issue a public apology
to Dr. Goddard in their newspaper in 1969 when the U.S. landed men on
the moon for the first time, even though Dr. Goddard had died in 1945?
Why or why not?
h. How would you feel if you were a surviving member of Dr.
Goddards family?
i. What can we all learn from Dr. Goddards experience?
4. Tell students that in honor of Dr. Goddard, they will build a paper
rocket to serve as a reminder to always aim high and shoot for the
stars. Demonstrate to the students how to make a paper rocket.
(See the instructions on the straw rocket instruction sheet.)
5. Distribute straws, copy paper, and tape to students in order for
them to construct their straws.
6. Set up a target (or several targets) in the room and allow students
the opportunity to get their straw rocket to hit or pass through the target as
a symbol of perseverance and accomplishing a goal.
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Summarization:
Ask students what they learned today, such as any definitions, any historical information,
or any new personal goals. Robert Goddards story reminds us that we must persevere and
do what we know is right, despite what others may think or say to us. The articles from
The New York Times about Dr. Goddard remind us that we should not make fun of things
we cant comprehend or dont understand; moreover, if we do make the mistake of mocking
someone, we need to do the responsible thing and apologize. Remember the old saying, If
you cant say something nice, dont say anything at all. Remind students that we all face
challenges in life. Not everyone in life will like us, nor we will like everyone we meet, but
we can all show kindness and respect to everyone! Let the paper rocket that was made
today be a reminder to rocket away any slanderous or hurtful words and to aim high and
shoot for the stars in order to rocket to success!
Assessment:
student answers to class discussion questions
teacher observation
additional ideas listed in enrichment/extension ideas below
Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
Have students identify at least 5 vocabulary words in the Robert Goddard: A Man
and His Rocket article.
Have students write a 5 paragraph essay explaining three careers they may wish to
pursue in the future.
Follow the Rocket to Success Lesson with the ACE Academic Lesson #4 for sixth
grade.
Associated Websites:
http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/about/dr_goddard.html
http://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/stargaze/Sgoddard.htm
http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/gsfc/service/gallery/fact_sheets/general/goddard/godd
ard.htm
This site provides very good insight into Dr. Goddard and the infamous New York
Times article http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/goddard.html.

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Robert Goddard: A Man and His Rocket


Source: NASA at http://www.nasa.gov/missions/research/f_goddard.html 03.09.04

On March 16, 1926, Robert Goddard successfully launched the first liquid-fueled rocket in Auburn, Mass.
The first-of-its-kind rocket reached an altitude of 41 feet, lasted 2 seconds and averaged about 60 miles
per hour.
Goddard wrote in his autobiography about an inspiration that came to him as a
boy while up in a cherry tree pruning branches: "I imagined how wonderful it
would be to make some device which had even the possibility of ascending to
Mars. I was a different boy when I descended the tree from when I ascended,
for existence at last seemed very purposive."
Image to right shows Dr. Robert H. Goddard (1882-1945) and his earlier rockets. He was
the first scientist to realize the potential of missiles and space flight and contributed in
bringing them to realization. Credit: NASA

In 1907, while a student at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in Massachusetts,


Goddard experimented on a rocket powered by gunpowder in the basement of
the physics building. Clouds of smoke caused a lot of commotion and the
faculty, rather than expel him, took an interest in his work.
By 1914, Goddard already had received two U.S. patents: one for a rocket using liquid fuel and the other
for a two- or three-stage rocket using solid fuel. Until that time, propulsion was provided by various types
of gunpowder.
Goddard began teaching physics in 1914 at Clark University in Worcester and was named director of the
Physical Laboratory in 1923. His thoughts on space flight started to emerge in 1915, when he theorized
that a rocket would work in a vacuum, and didn't need to push against air in order to fly. This meant that
in the vacuum of space, rocket engines would be able to produce thrust.
Goddard's discoveries were given little attention by the U.S. government. A modest man, Goddard paid
for the rocket experiments from his own paycheck. Funding from the Smithsonian Institution allowed
Goddard to continue his rocket research and develop the mathematical theories of rocket propulsion. In
1920, the Smithsonian published his original paper, "A Method for Reaching Extreme Altitudes," in which
he included a small section stressing that rockets could be used to send payloads to the Moon.
Unfortunately, the press got wind of this and the next day, the New York Times wrote a scathing editorial
denouncing his theories as folly. Goddard was ridiculed and made to look like a fool. He responded to a
reporter's question by stating, "Every vision is a joke until the first man accomplishes it; once realized, it
becomes commonplace."
In 1930, Goddard and a small crew of workers moved to New Mexico to continue
his research in seclusion. Goddard died on Aug. 10, 1945, holding 214 patents in
rocketry but having received little attention for his propulsion research.
Image to left shows a launch in New Mexico. By the mid 1930s, Goddard's rockets had broken the
sound barrier at 741 mph and flown to heights of up to 1.7 miles. Credit: NASA

When American rocket scientists began to earnestly prepare for space exploration,
they discovered it was almost impossible to build a rocket or launch a satellite
without acknowledging the work of Goddard.
Now known as the father of modern rocketry, Goddard's significant achievements
in rocket propulsion have contributed immensely to the scientific exploration of
space. Goddard didn't live to see the age of space flight, but his foundation of
rocket research became the fundamental principles of rocket propulsion.
A day after Apollo 11 set off for the Moon, in July of 1969, the New York Times printed a correction to its
1920 editorial section, stating that "it is now definitely established that a rocket can function in a vacuum
as well as in an atmosphere. The Times regrets the error."
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., a major space science laboratory, was named in his
honor.
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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


This, again?
Grade 6 Character Lesson #6
Topic: good habits (language arts)
Length of Lesson: 45-60 minutes
Objectives:
Students will discuss and share thoughts about what habits are.
Students will discuss differences between good and bad habits.
Students will recognize some of their own habits and decide if these habits are
helping or harming them.
Students will develop positive habits that will assist them in achieving their goals.
National Standards:
Character Education Partnership (CEP)
Principle 1: Promotes core ethical values as the basis of good character.
Principle 2: Defines character comprehensively to include thinking, feeling, and behavior.
Principle 3: Uses a comprehensive, intentional, proactive, and effective approach to
character development.
Principal 7: Strives to foster students self motivation.
English
Standard 4: Communication Skills
Standard 5: Communication Strategies
Standard 12: Applying Language Skills
Background Information:
A habit is, very simply put, something that we repeatedly do. Most of our habits come so
naturally to us that we are not even aware of them. Some habits are good, like respecting
others, using good manners, eating healthy foods, staying on a schedule, and getting plenty
of exercise. Other habits are neutral or arbitrary; they are neither good nor bad- we just
do them. Such habits are: reading a magazine starting from the back instead of the front,
eating cereal with a fork instead of a spoon, or taking a shower in the evening instead of in
the morning. Some habits, unfortunately, are very bad and need to be addressed and
changed, like being disrespectful, procrastinating, blaming others, and being dishonest.
Bad habits are like nice, comfy bedseasy to get into, but hard to get out of. Luckily,
however, we can overcome our bad habits and transform them into healthy, positive ones
that will help promote positive changes in our lives.

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Materials:
Who Am I? copy
A Day in My Life copies
Habits that WEIGH Me DOWN or LIFT Me UP copies
Lesson Presentation:
1. Begin the lesson by reading aloud Who Am I? to the students. Ask the students
to guess the answer to the riddle as you pause for each paragraph. Entertain all
reasonable answers and list them on the chalkboard. If someone guesses habit as
the answer, just list it on the board with all other answers and move on. At the end
of the riddle, give the students the answer, if they have not guessed it by then.
Discuss habits with the class, as noted in the background information.
2. Now, ask the students to give examples of good, bad, and neutral (or arbitrary)
habits. Make three columns on the chalkboard and record student responses in the
correct column.
3. Ask the students how habits get started and why they are continued. Allow time
for discussion.
4. Distribute A Day in My Life handout. Give students time to complete the
handout. Then, have the students put a star beside good habits that they see
occurring throughout their day. Have them put a minus sign beside the habits that
are, or could be, bad habits.
5. Have students complete the questions to accompany A Day in My Life sheet and
discuss.
6. Have students choose a few of the habits with the minus sign and discuss ways to
change these habits into good ones.
7. Discuss situations or jobs that need to have persons who have only good habits and
why.
8. Ask students how the terms weight and lift apply to flight. (Weight is a force
that seeks to pull an object down. Lift is the force helps keep an airplane in flight
due to air moving over the wings.) Have students relate their habits to ones that
weigh them down like gravity pulling down on a plane and ones that lift them up like
air flowing over the wings of a plane. Have the students complete the Habits that
WEIGH Me DOWN or LIFT ME UP sheet to list things they may do in their lives
that they may or may not have listed on the A Day in My Life sheet. Remind
students that the bad habits are the ones that keep us trapped into doing things
that are nonproductive and are counterproductive in achieving our goals. Help the
students make a pledge to try to continue habits that lift them up by signing and
dating the sheet and keeping it taped up in their bedrooms at home to remind them
of this pledge.

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Summarization:
Habits, although not always good, are a useful part of our lives. Without habits, we would
have to completely think through every single decision or choice for every minute or every
day. We depend on our habits to make life easier, but sometimes, habits can get us into a
rut because we continue to do certain things just because that is the way we have always
done them. An English poet once said, We first make our habits, then our habits make
us. It is important that we are aware of our habits, good and bad, so that we can
reinforce the good ones and make an effort to change the bad ones.
Habits can be as simple as brushing our teeth each morning and evening or as complicated
as trying to change the habit of hanging out with people that are not doing the right things
in life. It is important that we each make good choices to stay with good and healthy
habits; and stay away from negative or unhealthy habits, such as drugs or alcohol. Our
lives truly depend on it! Our long, healthy lives depend on healthy habits every day. Our
long productive lives depend on responsible habits every day. Our success in life depends
on cultivating good habits from an early age and continuing this into adulthood.
Assessment:
Students can be assessed on participation/attentiveness during discussion, activities, and
completion of activity pages.
Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
Have students keep a journal for a week to determine good and bad habits. They
can then begin to work to make changes to the bad habits or the ones that are not
a productive as they should be.

Have students respond in writing to the following writing prompts to extend their
understanding of the importance in reinforcing good habits and changing bad
habits:
-Three habits that have made my life easier are
-Three habits I would like to start in my life that will make me more efficient
and successful.

Ask students to make up a catchy rhyme/song about habits and present to the
class. They make work individually or in small groups.

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Who Am I?
I am your constant companion.
I am your greatest helper or your heaviest burden.
I will push you onward or drag you down to failure.
I am completely at your command.
Half of the things you do you might just as well turn
over to me and I will be able to do them quickly and
correctly.
I am easily managed; however, you must be firm with
me.
Show me exactly how you want something done and
after a few lessons I will do it automatically.
I am the servant of all great individuals and, alas, of all
failures as well.
Those who are great, I have made great.
Those who are failures, I have made failures.
I am not a machine, though I work with all of the
precision of a machine- plus the intelligence of a
human.
You may run me for a profit or run me for ruin, it
makes no difference to me.
Take me, train me, be firm with me, and I will place the
world at your feet.
Be easy with me and I will destroy you.
Who am I?
From The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens, Covey, 1998

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A Day in My Life
Name ____________________________________________
Write a detailed description of an average day for you, beginning at the first moment you awaken and
ending with the last moment before you fall asleep. Put a star beside good habits and a minus sign beside
bad habits. (Note a bad habit is certainly staying up too late!)
5:00 a.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

6:00 a.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

7:00 a.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

8:00 a.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

9:00 a.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

10:00 a.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

11:00 a.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

12:00 noon

________________________________________________________________________________________

1:00 p.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

2:00 p.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

3:00 p.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

4:00 p.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

5:00 p.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

6:00 p.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

7:00 p.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

8:00 p.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

9:00 p.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

10:00 p.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

11:00 p.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

12:00 a.m.

________________________________________________________________________________________

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Questions to accompany A Day in My Life


What activity did you notice doing more of than you thought?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
What activity did you notice doing less of than you thought?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Were there any habits of which you were totally unaware?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Were there any habits that if you did NOT have would cause
problems in your daily life?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
What habit or activity is not included in your daily schedule that
should be included for you to be more productive and successful?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

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HABITS
LIFT
Habits that lift me up!

Things that weigh me down!


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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


Sportsmanship Its the Ultimate
Grade 6 Physical Fitness Lesson #1

Topic: sportsmanship, ultimate Frisbee


Length of Lesson: 45-60 minutes
Objectives:
Students will research an ultimate act of sportsmanship from collegiate girls
softball.
Students will identify characteristics of being good sports.
Students will participate in the game of Ultimate Frisbee.
Students will be involved in honest sportsmanship and fair play.
National Standards:
Physical Education
Standard 1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to
perform a variety of physical activities.
Standard 2: Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies,
and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.
Standard 3: Participates regularly in physical activity.
Standard 4: Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical fitness.
Standard 5: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and
others in physical activity settings.
Standard 6: Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression,
and/or social interaction.
Health Education
Standard 1: Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease
prevention to enhance health.
Standard 5: Students will demonstrate the ability to use decision-making skills to enhance
health.
Standard 7: Students will demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors
and avoid or reduce health risks.
Standard 8: Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and
community health.

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Background Information:
We have all heard at some point in our lives the old adage, It is not whether you win or
lose, but how you play the game. Sportsmanship should be a key component in any type of
sporting event, whether on the softball field in the Great Northwest Atlantic Conference
or on the practice field used for physical education in our schools.
In sports, just like in all areas of life, it is important that we simply do the right thing. As
the students learn about Mallory Holtmans ultimate act of sportsmanship through her
selfless deed to help opposing team member Sara Tucholsky, we should also remember how
decorated astronaut Tom D. Jones, who has logged over 52 days in space and taken space
walks totaling over 19 hours, displayed an ultimate act of sportsmanship when he decided
to step aside and allow aspiring astronauts a chance to go where few men have gone
before. His gracious decision allowed others the opportunity to soar, just as other acts of
good sportsmanship lend themselves to giving others their time to shine.
It just seems logical that Ultimate Frisbee, a fun game played with a backhand throw
resulting in a natural spin to the disc, which stabilizes it in free flight, would go hand-inhand with the ultimate act of sportsmanship.
Todays lesson about sportsmanship and ultimate Frisbee is sure to be an exciting
opportunity for students. To find out more about the Ultimate Frisbee game, go to:
http://www.whatisultimate.com/
Materials:
- several Frisbees
- 8-10 small cones or objects to mark end zones and boundaries for the game
- rectangular field
- Central Washington Offers the Ultimate Act of Sportsmanship article (optional)
Lesson Presentation:
1. Ask students what a good definition of sportsmanship might be. Allow for several
responses.
Explain that sportsmanship is practiced not only on the sports field, but also in
everyday life. Dr. Tom D. Jones, a highly-decorated astronaut, wrote the book,
Sky Walking. Mr. Jones was turned down by NASA two times before he was
accepted as an astronaut. Then, after he finally became an astronaut, he displayed
the ultimate act of sportsmanship by stepping down from a job that he loved so
that others following him might have the opportunity to experience journeys into
space.
(Learn more about Dr. Jones at http://mmp.planetary.org/astro/jonet/jonet70.htm.)
2. Ask students if they can think of people who have been really good sports in life
and ask them to explain.

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3. Tell the students that being a good sport is not always about whether one wins or
loses with a good attitude; it is also about how one plays the game of sports or of
life. It is about following the rules without arguing- whether there is a referee
watching and making calls or not. It is about being honest and trustworthy. It is
about doing what is right, no matter the outcome for ones self or ones team of
people with whom they are working or playing.
4. Tell students that when they cooperate in the classroom and do what is right,
whether the teacher is watching or not, they are showing good sportsmanship; they
are being a responsible member of a team.
5. Explain that the class is going to play a game outdoors that involves making ones
own calls for out of bounds or fouls. There will be no referee to determine this
for them. The game is called Ultimate Frisbee.
6. Tell the students that they are going to learn how to play a game similar to football
except they will use a Frisbee instead of a football. Explain that the field has an
end zone on each side similar to that of a football field.
7. Explain that the game is played between two teams of seven players on a large,
rectangular field, but they will simply play the game with two even teams for a
modified version.
8. The object of the game is to move the Frisbee down the field to a teammate in the
teams end zone to score a point.
9. Students are to set up their own field using the cones for boundaries.
10. When a player catches the Frisbee thrown by one of their teammates, they must
stop and throw the Frisbee to another player within ten seconds. If the Frisbee
hits the ground or is intercepted by the other team, there is a turnover and the
other team takes possession of the Frisbee. A turnover also takes place if a player
catches the Frisbee out of bounds.
11. Any contact between players can be declared a foul. This game stresses fair play
and sportsmanship, so players are to be responsible for their own fouls and out-ofbound calls. Players must resolve their own conflicts.
12. Answer any questions students may have, and then take the class outside to begin
the game.

Summarization:
Encourage students to do what is right, no matter the personal cost to themselves or their
team with whom they are working or playing.

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The Ultimate Frisbee game is a great connection to the ultimate act of sportsmanship and is a
great game to teach responsibility and fair play. It should be explained to students that
through this game, they demonstrated how to work together, how to determine their own
boundaries, and how to solve any disputes that may have arise during the game. Because the
students had to set up their own game boundaries and determine their own rule enforcement,
they became more responsible team mates and players of the game. Explain that these skills
will work well in the game of lifebeing fair, honest, responsible, and, of course, healthy.

Assessment:
Teacher will observe students working together as a team, putting forth effort to play the
game according to the directions, and demonstrating good sportsmanship.
Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
Read the article, Central Washington Offers the Ultimate Act of Sportsmanship
to students as a class. (It is a bit lengthy, but is very good.)

Allow students to come up with a new game using the Frisbee. Have each student
present their idea to the class and allow the students to vote. Let the winning
students game be played at the next available time outside.

Allow students to research other acts of sportsmanship in the news or in books or


on the internet and write about them. Students may present their reports to the
class.

Read the What is Good Sportsmanship? article and discover what Cal Ripken, Jr.
has to say about sportsmanship to share with the students at the website below:
http://kidshealth.org/parent/emotions/behavior/sportsmanship.html

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Central Washington Offers the Ultimate Act of Sportsmanship


By Graham Hays

ESPN.com

Western Oregon senior Sara Tucholsky had never hit a home run in
her career. Central Washington senior Mallory Holtman was already
her school's career leader in them. But when a twist of fate and a torn
knee ligament brought them face to face with each other and face to
face with the end of their playing days, they combined on a home run
trot that celebrated the collective human spirit far more than individual
athletic achievement.
Sara Tucholsky got a lift from the opposition in scoring her first
homer.
Both schools compete as Division II softball programs in the Great Northwest Athletic
Conference. Neither has ever reached the NCAA tournament at the Division II level. But when
they arrived for a conference doubleheader at Central Washington's 300-seat stadium in
Ellensburg, a small town 100 miles and a mountain range removed from Seattle, the hosts
resided one game behind the visitors at the top of the conference standings. As was the case at
dozens of other diamonds across the map, two largely anonymous groups prepared to play the
most meaningful games of their seasons.
It was a typical Saturday of softball in April, right down to a few overzealous fans heckling an
easy target, the diminutive Tucholsky, when she came to the plate in the top of the second
inning of the second game with two runners on base and the game still scoreless after Western
Oregon's 8-1 win in the first game of the afternoon.
"I just remember trying to block them out," Tucholsky said of the hecklers. "The first pitch I took,
it was a strike. And then I really don't remember where the home run pitch was at all; [I] just
remember hitting it, and I knew it was out."
A part-time starter in the outfield throughout her four years, Tucholsky had been caught in a
numbers game this season on a deep roster that entered the weekend hitting better than .280
and having won nine games in a row. Prior to the pitch she sent over the center-field fence, she
had just three hits in 34 at-bats this season. And in that respect, her hitting heroics would have
made for a pleasing, if familiar, story line on their own: an unsung player steps up in one of her
final games and lifts her team's postseason chances.
But it was what happened after an overly-excited Tucholsky missed first base on her home run
trot and reversed direction to tag the bag that proved unforgettable.
"Sara is small -- she's like 5-2, really tiny," Western Oregon coach Pam Knox said. "So you
would never think that she would hit a home run. The score was 0-0, and Sara hit a shot over
center field. And I'm coaching third and I'm high-fiving the other two runners that are coming by
then, all of a sudden, I look up, and I'm like, 'Where's Sara?' And I look over, and she's in a
heap beyond first base."
While she was doubling back to tag first base, Tucholsky's right knee gave out. The two runners
who had been on base had already crossed home plate, leaving her the only offensive player on
the field of play, even as she lay crumpled in the dirt a few feet from first base and a long way
from home plate. First-base coach Shannon Prochaska -- Tucholsky's teammate for three
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seasons and the only voice she later remembered hearing in the ensuing conversation -checked to see whether she could crawl back to the base under her own power.
As Knox explained, "It went through my mind, I thought, 'If I touch her, she's going to kill me.' It's
her only home run in four years. I didn't want to take that from her, but at the same time, I was
worried about her."
Umpires confirmed that the only option available under the rules was to replace Tucholsky at
first base with a pinch runner and have the hit recorded as a two-run single instead of a threerun home run. Any assistance from coaches or trainers while she was an active runner would
result in an out. So without any choice, Knox prepared to make the substitution, taking both the
run and the memory from Tucholsky.
"And right then," Knox said, "I heard, 'Excuse me, would it be OK if we carried her around and
she touched each bag?'"
The voice belonged to Holtman, a four-year starter who owns just about every major offensive
record there is to claim in Central Washington's record book. She also is staring down a pair of
knee surgeries as soon as the season ends. Her knees ache after every game, but having
already used a redshirt season earlier in her career, and ready to move on to graduate school
and coaching at Central, she put the operations on hold so as to avoid missing any of her final
season. Now, with her own opportunity for a first postseason appearance very much hinging on
the outcome of the game -- her final game at home -- she stepped up to help a player she knew
only as an opponent for four years.
"Honestly, it's one of those things that I hope anyone would do it for me," Holtman said. "She hit
the ball over her fence. She's a senior; it's her last year. I don't know, it's just one of those
things I guess that maybe because compared to everyone on the field at the time, I had been
playing longer and knew we could touch her, it was my idea first. But I think anyone who knew
that we could touch her would have offered to do it, just because it's the right thing to do. She
was obviously in agony."
Holtman and shortstop Liz Wallace lifted Tucholsky off the ground and supported her weight
between them as they began a slow trip around the bases, stopping at each one so Tucholsky's
left foot could secure her passage onward. Even with Tucholsky feeling the pain of what trainers
subsequently came to believe was a torn ACL (she was scheduled for tests to confirm the injury
on Monday), the surreal quality of perhaps the longest and most crowded home run trot in the
game's history hit all three players.
"We all started to laugh at one point, I think when we touched the first base," Holtman said. "I
don't know what it looked like to observers, but it was kind of funny
because Liz and I were carrying her on both sides and we'd get to
a base and gently, barely tap her left foot, and we'd all of a sudden
start to get the giggles a little bit."
Accompanied by a standing ovation from the fans, they finally
reached home plate and passed the home run hitter into the arms
of her own teammates.
Then Holtman and Wallace returned to their positions and tried to
win the game.
Sara Tucholsky got a lift from Central Washington's Liz
Wallace, left, and Mallory Holtman.
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Hollywood would have a difficult time deciding how such a script should end, whether to leave
Tucholsky's home run as the decisive blow or reward the selfless actions of her opponents.
Reality has less room for such philosophical quandaries. Central Washington did rally for two
runs in the bottom of the second -- runs that might have tied the game had Knox been forced to
replace Tucholsky -- but Western Oregon held on for a 4-2 win.
But unlike a movie, the credits didn't roll after the final out, and the story that continues has little
to do with those final scores.
"It kept everything in perspective and the fact that we're never bigger than the game," Knox said
of the experience. "It was such a lesson that we learned -- that it's not all about winning. And we
forget that, because as coaches, we're always trying to get to the top. We forget that. But I will
never, ever forget this moment. It's changed me, and I'm sure it's changed my players."
For her part, Holtman seems not altogether sure what all the fuss is about. She seems to
genuinely believe that any player in her position on any field on any day would have done the
same thing. Which helps explain why it did happen on that day and on that field.
And she appreciates the knowledge that while the results of Saturday's game and her senior
season soon will fade into the dust and depth of old media guides and Internet archives, the
story of what happened in her final game at home will live on far longer.
"I think that happening on Senior Day, it showed the character of our team," Holtman said.
"Because granted I thought of it, but everyone else would have done it. It's something people
will talk about for Senior Day. They won't talk about who got hits and what happened and who
won; they'll talk about that. And it's kind of a nice way to go out, because it shows what our
program is about and the kind of people we have here."

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What Is Good Sportsmanship?

Good sportsmanship occurs when teammates, opponents, coaches, and officials treat
each other with respect. Kids learn the basics of sportsmanship from the adults in their
lives, especially their parents and their coaches. Kids who see adults behaving in a
sportsmanlike way gradually come to understand that the real winners
in sports are those who know how to persevere and to behave with
dignity whether they win or lose a game.
Parents and teachers can help their kids understand that good
sportsmanship includes both small gestures and heroic efforts. It starts
with something as simple as shaking hands with opponents before a
game and includes acknowledging good plays made by others and
accepting bad calls gracefully. Displaying good sportsmanship isn't
always easy: It can be tough to congratulate the opposing team after
losing a close or important game. But the kids who learn how to do it
will benefit in many ways.
Kids who bully or taunt others on the playing field aren't likely to
change their behavior when in the classroom or in social situations. In
the same way, a child who practices good sportsmanship is likely to
carry the respect and appreciation of other people into every other
aspect of life.
Good Sports Are Winners
Ask first or second graders who won a game, and they may answer, "I
think it was a tie." It's likely the question isn't of any real interest at
that age. Kids may be more eager to talk about the hits they got or the
catches they almost made. But as they move into older and more
competitive leagues, kids become more focused on winning. They often
forget to have fun. Without constant reminders and good examples,
they may also forget what behavior is appropriate before, during, and
after a sporting event.
Kids who have coaches who care only about being in first place and say that anything
goes as long as they win, pick up the message that it's OK to be ruthless on the field. If
parents or teachers constantly pressure them to play better or second-guess their every
move, kids get the message that they're only as good as their last good play and
they'll try anything to make one.
Adults who emphasize good sportsmanship, however, see winning as just one of several
goals they'd like their kids to achieve. They help young athletes take pride in their
accomplishments and in their improving skills, so that the kids see themselves as
winners, even if the scoreboard doesn't show the numbers going in their favor.
The best coaches and parents encourage their kids to play fair, to have fun, and to
concentrate on helping the team while polishing their own skills.
Remember the saying "Actions speak louder than words"? That's especially true when it
comes to the basics of good sportsmanship.
http://kidshealth.org/parent/emotions/behavior/sportsmanship.html
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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


Im so Dizzy, My Head is Spinning
Grade 6 Physical Fitness Lesson #2
Topics: dizziness, disorientation (PE, science)
Length of Lesson: 30-45 minutes
Objectives:
Students will practice teamwork and coordination skills.
Students will simulate astronaut/pilot disorientation due to blood pressure issues.
Students will discuss alternatives to taking mind-altering drugs or chemicals in life.
Students will perform physical activities for good health.
National Standards:
Physcial Education
Standard 1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to
perform a variety of physical activities.
Standard 2: Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies,
and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.
Standard 5: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and
others in physical activity settings.
Standard 6: Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression,
and/or social interaction.
Science
Standard A:
Standard B:
Standard C:
Standard F:

Science as Inquiry
Physical Science
Life Science
Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

Background Information:
(from http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002/25mar_dizzy.htm, March 25, 2002)
Landing a spaceship is a terrible time to feel dizzy, yet that is what happens to some
astronauts. Their legs become heavy and their heads become light even as the planet
below expands to fill the windshield. It is an unwelcome side-effect of returning home.
Researchers have learned that the dizzy sensation is caused, in part, by orthostatic
hypotensionin other words, a temporary drop in blood pressure, explains NASA chief
Medical Officer, Rich Williams. On Earth you feel it by standing or sitting up too fast.
Gravity has much the same effect on astronauts returning from a long spell in space:
Blood rushes down away from the head and the space travelers become, literally,
lightheaded.
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Susceptibility is highly individual. Some astronauts are hardly affected while others feel
very dizzy: About 20% of short-duration and 83% of long-duration space travelers
experience the symptoms during re-entry or after they land.
Astronauts do not feel orthostatic hypotension while they are traveling through space, but
they do begin to feel it during re-entry (when g-forces mimic gravity) and after landing.
After being in a micro-gravity environment, blood flows back down to the lower body and,
thus, blood pressure to the head is suddenly reduced, hence the dizziness. (The sensation
can continue for a while after landing, too.)
For many years, astronauts have tried to counteract orthostatic hypotension by drinking
lots of salt water, which increases the volume of body fluids. (There is a general loss of
body fluids during space missions.) Astronauts also wear G-suitsrubberized full body
suits that can be inflated with air to keep the blood where it needs to be. This action
squeezes the extremities of the body and raises blood pressure.
An anti-dizzy pill would be helpful, but until recently, there was no such thing. Enter
*Midodrine: Midodrine is the first drug approved by the United States Food and Drug
Administration to treat orthostatic hypotension. It constricts blood vessels and so
increases blood pressure. By increasing blood pressure when patients need it, Mididrine
can help people lead a more normal life, writes Low.
An important advantage to Midodrine, says, Cohen, is that it can be administered just
before re-entry or even after landing. The benefits are immediate. Astronauts would not
have to take it throughout their mission when it might interfere with their bodys own (and
welcome) adaptations to micro-gravity.
*Midodrine has been shown to successfully reduce orthostatic hypotension in patients on
Earth, as orthostatic hypotension affects people other than astronauts. To date, this
investigation has been performed on some space shuttle crew members and on an
Expedition 5 crew member. Further Expeditions will involve testing on more subjects
before conclusive results can be determined. But, this is an example of how the space
programs spin-offs have helped to improve the lives of the regular populace.
(http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/science/experiments/Midodrine.html)
Materials:
- 2 baseball bats (one bat per team)
- cones, lines, or other items to mark starting point and spinning point
- cones to set up obstacle course for return trip to starting point
- jump ropes (optional)
NOTE: The field should be prepared before class, if possible.

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Lesson Presentation:
1. Ask students how an astronaut who has been in space for six days or six months
may physically feel after returning home to Earth. If no one says dizzy, tell
students that many astronauts have said that they experienced dizziness after
returning to Earth. They may feel this way because after being in a micro-gravity
environment, the blood in their body flowed freely through their body, thus
distributing the blood evenly throughout the body, to include their head. When the
astronauts enter the earths gravitational atmosphere, the blood rushes from their
head to flow into the lower extremities of their body, and this sometimes makes
them dizzy. Some shuttle astronauts reported that the dizziness lasted for just a
few minutes, while other astronauts reported that the feeling of dizziness lasted
several days.
2. Tell students that they will play a game called Dizzy Izzy to simulate the dizzy
feeling an astronaut might feel upon returning to Earth from space.
3. Before beginning the physical activity, have the students participate in warm-up
exercises, such as neck rolls, lunges, and jogging in place.
4. Divide students into two teams. Set up two courses- one for each team. Each
course should include a path for students to run from the starting line of students
to the end line where the students will spin on a baseball bat. At the end point, a
student will sit or stand to count rotations on the bat.
The other part of each
course should be some cones or other marking items set up for students to run
through on their way back to the starting point. (Thus, each team will have a
forward path to get to the bat spinning area and a return path with obstacles to go
through to get back to the starting point.)
5. Give the students the directions for the game of Dizzy Izzy:
a. Students will divide into pairs. One student will be the guide and counter
while the other person spins and tries to get back to the starting line
through the obstacle course. This student will count the number of
complete rotations on the bat for their partner and tell them when they can
drop the bat and run back to their team through the obstacle course.
Explain that a complete spin means the person has gone all the way around
one time. Tell the teams that the individual who is counting the number of
spins must count aloud. After the last spin is completed, the counter will
say, go, to indicate that the spinner can go back to their team.
b. The counter will run beside his/her partner to ensure the partner does not
fall after becoming a bit dizzy.
c. Each member of the team will take a turn to run from the starting line to
the other side of the course wherein they will spin around a bat before
running back to the starting point by way of an obstacle course.
d. When students get to the bat, they are to pick up the bat, bend over, place
their forehead on the end of the bat, and start spinning around.
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e. An appropriate number of times for all of the students to spin around the
bat should be determined, such as 10. Adjust, if necessary.
f. After spinning the appropriate number of times on the bat, the team
member will be told by the counter to drop the back and run back to his or
her team while weaving in and out of cones that have been set up as
obstacles. The counter will assist the spinner through the obstacle
course and back to the starting point.
g. When the pair returns to the team line, they will tag the hands of the next
pair of students to begin the same course.
h. The first pair will go to the back of the teams line to await their turn to
switch places wherein the counter becomes the spinner and the spinner
becomes the counter and guide.
i.

The first team finished with all students wins the game.

6. The adult should be very alert during the game to assist any student who may be
too dizzy to continue. The game is fast-paced and fun, but students need to work
together so no one falls after spinning.
Summarization:
After completing the activity, ask students what problems they encountered while running
back to their team weaving through the cones after spinning around the bat. Ask what
other problems they might experience during the day if they remained dizzy.
Have the students discuss how important it was to have a partner to assist them through
the process. Have them also discuss the need to have good coordination in order to
complete the course more easily. Lastly, have them discuss how their reaction time was
impeded after being so dizzy; how they reacted more slowly to the need to adjust their
path of movement.
Ask students to explain why dizziness for astronauts returning to Earth could be a
problem. Besides making them feel sick, it could pose a problem while trying to land the
orbiter. A dizzy astronaut might accidently hit the wrong switch or button. His or her
reaction time might be slower, which could also pose a problem.
Ask the students why persons on earth may become dizzy or disoriented. Explain to the
students that feeling dizzy and sick can occur for a number of reasons, but one reason it
could occur is because of taking inappropriate drugs or drinking alcohol. Remind the
students that drugs and alcohol are bad and can do even more damage than just making a
person dizzy or slowing their reaction time.
Tell the students that the adults who care for them do not want them to spin out of
control in life, much like in the game of Dizzy Izzy. Thus, adults in their lives are working
diligently to arm the students with alternatives to mind-altering chemicals. They are
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trying to teach them to exercise regularly, to join sports teams and community
organizations and to surround themselves with positive peers and friends with whom they
choose to spend their free time. Encourage the students to keep their paths straight in
life by saying no to drugs and alcohol and yes to positive actions, helping others, working
hard and being around positive people.
Assessment:
teacher observation
student responses to summary discussion questions
Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
Place another task for students to complete in the spin area. For example, have
students complete 5 successful jumps using jump ropes.

Have the students research the gravitational pull of all the planets and determine
which planets you would be most dizzy on after landing from an outer space trip.
(Hint: the more gravitational pull, the more dizziness one would feel.)
Provide a writing experience for students by giving them the following scenario:

After a seven day space trip, you land gently on another planet, which has gravity, just like
Earth. When you leave the space ship, you are taken hostage by aliens. The aliens motion
for you to follow them. You, however, are very dizzy after entering the gravitational pull
of the planet and are having difficulty following them. The aliens notice you do not seem
well, and when you try to explain that you are dizzy, they do not understand you. Help
the aliens understand by writing a descriptive paragraph that describes being dizzy. Draw
a picture to illustrate.

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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


Rocket Golf
Grade 6 Physical Fitness Lesson #3
HOLE 3

Topics: golf, solar system (PE, science)

Mars

Lesson Reference: CAPs AEX II


Length of Lesson: 30 minutes
Foam Rocket Picture from NASA

Objectives:
Students will engage in physical activity, practice aiming, and keeping score.
Students will understand the game of golf and identify objects in our solar system.
National Standards:
Physical Education

Standard 1: competency in motor skills and


movement patterns
Standard 2: understanding of movement
concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as
they apply to the learning and performance of
physical activities.
Standard 5: responsible personal and social
behavior that respects self and others

Standard 6: values physical activity for


health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression,
and/or social interaction
Science
Standard B: Physical Science
Motion and forces
Standard E: Science and Technology
- Abilities of technological design

Background Information:
The game of golf is normally played by hitting a golf ball with a club. The objective is to get
the golf ball into a particular hole. Each hole is numbered. Also, each hole provides a par
number (rating). A holes par number shows the maximum amount of strokes (golf swings) that
it should take to get the ball from the tee box (start) into the particular hole. For example, a
par 5 means the golfer should be able to get the golf ball into the hole in 5 strokes. If the
golfer gets the ball into the hole using one less stroke than the par number, it is called a
birdie. Two strokes under par is an eagle. If the golfer goes over the par number, it is called
a bogie. For example, one over par is a bogie, two over par is a double bogie, and three over par
is a triple bogie. The golfer with the lowest score after having played every hole is the winner.
Materials:
- student rockets from junk rocket academic lesson or Goddard character lesson
- approximately 9 solar system pictures of planets, moons, etc. (9 pictures included)
- material to hold pictures in place (consider taping pictures on hula hoops, pieces of
poster board, or on cardboard boxes)
- large playing area such as a gym, football field, or playground area
-

consider making par signs for each hole or writing the par #s on the score card (optional)

consider providing score cards for students, which would require pencils
(example score card provided)

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NOTE: Borrow one of the student-made rockets in order to determine how far, on average,
the rocket flies. Set up the solar system golf holes accordingly prior to beginning play.
Depending on the average range of the student-made rockets, you may wish to place the solar
system pictures closer or farther away from one another in a large open area, such as a gym,
football field, or playground area. Determine par ratings for each hole. (optional)
Inform students prior to this activity that they will need to bring their student-made
rocket with them! Make sure their names on their rockets! They need to be identifiable!

Lesson Presentation:
1. Ask students if they have ever thought about what it might be like to play golf in
another place in our solar system. Tell students that Apollo astronaut Alan
Shepard tested golfing on the moon when he went to the moon in 1971. It was
really an experiment to show how the moons gravitational pull, which is 1/6 that of
Earths, and lack of atmosphere would affect an Earth game, like golf, which he
loved to play. While on the moon, he assembled his golf club by attaching a club
head to the handle of his lunar collecting device and hit a golf ball. He shanked,
which in golf means he did not make good contact with the ball. Shepards ball
rolled off into a crater. He took out a second ball and tried again. Success! He
said, There it goes for miles, and miles. In a 1991 interview, he reported that the
ball went about 180 meters. Shepards two golf balls are still on the moon today!
2.

Ask students what they know about golf. Confirm that students understand the
game of golf by going over the background information with them.

3.

Tell students that they will play a game similar to golf today called rocket golf.
Today, their hands and arms will represent the club and their rocket will
represent the ball. Their goal is to get the rocket to each hole area with as few
launches as possible.

4.

Go over rules and the solar system golf course that you have set up. Go over rules
of play as appropriate for your class size and location. Such rules may include
wearing safety goggles, not launching rockets at people, not wandering outside the
play area, etc. Additionally, you may consider giving a signal such as four, before
players launch their rockets each time. (Once they have completed a hole, the
students start directly in front of the hole they just completed in order to start
the next hole. The longest launch will be from hole 9, Pluto, to hole 1, Earth.)
Explain what constitutes getting the rocket in the hole. For example, if using hulahoops or cardboard boxes, the rocket must go inside its perimeter. If pictures are
hanging on playground equipment or on a wall, students must hit the target. Go
over the score card directions (optional score card included in this lesson). Tell
students how and where you wish them to start. For example, if you have a large
class, you may wish to place groups of students directly in front of each hole to
start and have them rotate through each hole, rather than everyone lining up in
front of Earth and launching toward the moon. Arrange students and begin play!

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Summarization:
Ask students if they can name eight solar system objects in order from the Earth. (moon,
Mars, asteroid belt, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto) Ask students to describe
their golfing experience today. Determine the winner.
Discuss the groups sportsmanship on the course. Were the students patient with one
another? Were students honest in keeping their score? Did students deal correctly with
any frustrations? Remind students that a persons character can be tested on the field.
Sometimes, people get so caught up in a game, either as a player or a spectator, that they
make bad decisions about their response to the game. Encourage students to always be
aware that their character is on display, and that maintaining good character is more
important than winning or losing a game. Compliment students on specific examples of good
sportsmanship and good character that was observed during the game.
Assessment:
teacher observation
score cards (optional)
Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
Allow students to try the game with different student-made rockets. Just like
manufacturers of golf balls and golf clubs test different products for superior
performance, students can test their rockets to determine which one performance
best on the solar system golf course.
Associated Websites:
Read A Better Game of Golf NASA Style available at

http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/5-8/features/F_Better_Game_of_Golf.html.

Read an interesting article about Alan Shepards golfing experience on the moon at
http://www.thetimes.co.za/Careers/Article.aspx?id=865117.
Solar system lithograph pictures available at
http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/topnav/materials/listbytype/Our_Solar_System_Lithograph_Set.html

Saturn

Jupiter

Mars

Asteroid Belt

Sample Rocket Golf Course Design (not reflective of scaled distance)

Neptune
Uranus

Moon

Earth
Pluto

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Rocket Golf Score Card

1: Earth

2: Moon

3: Mars

4: Asteroid Belt

5: Jupiter

6: Saturn

7: Uranus

8: Neptune

9: Pluto

1: Earth

2: Moon

3: Mars

4: Asteroid Belt

5: Jupiter

6: Saturn

7: Uranus

8: Neptune

9: Pluto

HOLE

Students may play in teams of four. Students may all launch their rockets at the same
time (upon the teachers signal of four if so desired). After rockets have landed,
students, go to the point where their rocket landed and launch again. Once the entire
team has completed the hole, students record their score on the score sheet. Teachers,
make as many copies of the score cards as needed.

Par (optional)
Student name:

Student name:

Student name:

Student name:

HOLE

Student name:

Par (optional)
Student name:

Student name:

Student name:

Student name:

Student name:

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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


Moon & Mars Message Relay
Grade 6 Physical Fitness Lesson #4
Topic: communication (PE, language arts, science)
Length of Lesson: 30 minutes
Objective:
Students will learn how communication is used to accomplish a goal and the reason
commands from Earth take so long to get accomplished by rovers on the Moon and
Mars.
National Standards:
Physical Education
Standard 1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns.
Standard 2: Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles,
strategies, and tactics as they apply to physical activities.
Standard 5: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self
and others in physical activity settings.
Science
Content Standard E: Science and Technology
- Abilities of technological design
Content Standard G: History and Nature of Science
- Science as a human endeavor
Unifying Concepts and Processes
- Evidence, models, and explanation
Background Information:
Scientists (and the public) would like to explore Mars in detail. We want to search for signs of
water and the possibilities of life. We also want to know more about our Moon. In order to learn
more about the Moon and Mars, we send rovers to search for answers.
The rover Sojourner (sent to Mars in 1997), had to receive commands from Earth, wait for the
rover to perform the commands, and then receive confirmation. All this relay time, and the fact
that the messages must be understood, can slow down the accessing of information.
Today, we are gathering information about Mars from the Rovers Spirit and Opportunity as well as
the latest Rover, Phoenix. One-way radio transit time from Mars to Earth during the Phoenix
mission is around 15 minutes. The distance that the information has to travel is a factor in how long
it takes for the communication to arrive at its destination.
The distance a message must travel to get from the Earth to the Moon is about 238,000 miles and
the distance a message must travel to get from the Earth to Mars is 35,000,000 miles! That
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difference makes for longer time lapses on Mars reception than Moon reception. The delay of a
one-way radio signal from the Earth to the moon is about 1-2 seconds.
This activity should simulate the process of communicating information over a distance and
accurately receiving and transmitting in a certain amount of time.
For information on the phases of the moon, go to http://lunar.arc.nasa.gov/science/phases.htm.

Relevance of relay game words to the Moon:


Lunar word that means of or relating to the moon
Waxing moon is visibly getting larger
Quarter moon half of the moon is visible
Crescent moon a small portion (or crescent shape) of the moon is visible
Waning moon is visibly getting smaller
Full moon one full circle of the moon is illuminated/visible
Craters holes/indentions on the moons surface caused by meteor or asteroid strikes
Lunar rover vehicle driven on the moon by astronauts during the Apollo 15, 16, and 17
missions (There are three lunar rovers still on the moon today!)
Basalt an igneous rock found on much of the moons surface
Month the approximate amount of time it takes for the moon to complete an orbit
around Earth (about 28 days)
Constellation Program NASA manned space program with an objective of returning to
American astronauts to the moon (and going to Mars!).
1969 the year Americans first landed on the moon
Relevance of relay game words to Mars:
4th planet Mars is the fourth planet from the sun.
Red Planet planet nickname due to the iron oxide (rust) on its surface
Spirit rover that launched from Earth in the summer of 2003 and landed on Mars in
January 2004
Opportunity rover that launched from Earth in the summer of 2003 and landed on
Mars in January 2004
Phoenix Launched in 2007, the Phoenix lander landed in 2008. Its mission is to study
the history of water and habitability potential of Mars.
Sojourner launched Dec. 1996, this was the first successful rover to land and operate
on Mars in 1997
Martian something from Mars
Seasons The planet has 4 seasons.
Polar Ice Caps a surface feature of Mars has a north and south pole.
Olympus Mons largest volcano in our solar system located on Mars
Canyons surface feature on Mars; Valles Marineris is largest canyon in solar system
Roman Mars is named for the Roman god of war.

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Materials:
- open playing area
- containers that can hold objects or slips of paper with Moon and Mars words on
them (one container for each team)
- objects or slips of paper with the Moon and Mars words on them (2 sets of each:
for the controllers and for the containers The Moon words go in to one
controller and in container, and the Mars words go to one controller and in the
other container.)
NOTE: Prior to teaching this lesson, the instructor should prepare the words related to
objects on the Moon and objects on Mars to put in the containers that each group will have
to gather as they do this relay. Also, the class needs to be divided into two teams one
for the Moon and one for Mars.
Lesson Presentation:
1. Explain to the students that they will be working in teams to collect items related
to the Moon and Mars in a relay race. Thus, they should pay attention to the
information about them both so they will recognize the words in the relay race
pertaining to them.
2. Share information about the Moon and Mars (found in the background information)
with the students.
3. Designate a starting line for each team and one honest, responsible person to be
the controller for the team (If two PE teachers available, the PE teachers may
wish to be the controllers. The controller is responsible for getting the list of
items from the teacher and passing the information for each item to the team
(when it is time). This person should also check to be sure the correct item has
been brought back from the container for the Moon or Mars (depending on which
team the controller is a member).
4. Put the container with the slips of paper (Moon and Mars objects) at the
designated destination line (whether it is the Moon or Mars).
5. When the teacher says transmit, the controller of each team reads the first
word on the list to himself/herself. The controller then whispers the word to the
person at the end of the line for that team.
6. That person whispers the word to the person in front of him/her, and the word
passes up the line by one person whispering it to the person in front of him/her
until it reaches the person at the front of the line. (like the game telephone)
7. The person at the front of the line runs to the container and chooses the slip of
paper with that word on it that was whispered to him/her and returns it to the
controller at the end of the line. The controller checks to be sure it is the
correct object. If it is not, the word has to be returned to the container and the
process repeated.
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8. After all objects (words on slips of paper) have been collected in the correct order,
the team is finished. The first group to collect the objects (words on slips of
paper) in the correct order wins.
Summarization:
When the game is over, return to the classroom and discuss what happened. How could
your team improve its communication and cut down on the relay time? How does this
compare with the scientists who have to receive data from the rovers? What are the
similarities and differences of your relay with the rover communication?
Discuss how this lesson compares to how we communicate in our lives. Do we speak clearly
and confidently? Do we share true information? If we share information about another
person that is misunderstood or incorrect, could it cause false information about the
person to be spread?
Express the need to ensure that we find out correct facts before we move to share
information. It is important, also, that we work to share needed information with our
teachers, parents, or peers about important issues in our lives. Good communication
reduces problems and increases the success of any project or effort in our lives.
Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
Discuss the relevance of each word to the moon or Mars.

Play the game using a variety of objects (such as a golf ball, tennis shoe, helmet,
etc.)

Play the game using student spelling words.

Have the students work in teams to research different missions planned for the
Moon and for Mars and report on them to the class.

The following idea may be used for rainy day relay:


Another relay with the same goal in mind is based on satellites sending and
receiving messages. Satellites transmit radio waves from a sender to a receiver and
because it takes time for the waves to travel, there is always some delay. In this
activity the message is carried only several feet. Actual satellites are useful
because they can relay information over several thousand miles. Delays occur
because it takes time for the radio signals to travel to their destination via
satellite. These actual signals are not visible to the human eye (unlike the signals
in the relay).
Materials:
- 20 paper cups, divided in half (one half for each team) and each half numbered 1-10
Procedure:
1. Before beginning the relay, choose two students to be ROBOTS and have them wait
outside your classroom while you explain the rules to the class.

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2. Show the remaining students how to build a pyramid with upside down paper cups: 4 for
the base; 3 for the second level; 2 for the third level; and 1 for the top. Tell them that
this is the space station each relay team needs to build. The restriction is that the
ASTRONAUT can send only one command per SIGNAL to his/her teams ROBOT. For
example, a command can be Pick up cup 1; as opposed to Pick up cup 1 and place it next
to cup 2. The ROBOT must do exactly what the SIGNAL says he or she cannot make a
move without an order (even if he/she figures out the task).
3. The ROBOTS return to class. Divide the students into 2 groups, each choosing an
ASTRONAUT & SATELLITE for each team. The remaining students are SIGNALS.
4. No one talks except the ASTRONAUTS, as they give a command to each SIGNAL.
SIGNALS may only talk during their turn to share a command with the ROBOT.
5. Put each teams set of numbered cups on desks or a table against the center back wall.
Have the ROBOTS stand side-by-side, facing their desks of materials (cups).
6. Put each teams SATELLITE at the front of the room and facing his/her teams ROBOT.
(The ROBOTS will have their backs to the SATELLITES.)
7. The ASTRONAUTS and line of SIGNALS will stand in the back corners, on their own
sides of the room.
8. The teacher says Go! to begin the relay. Each ASTRONAUT will give one command to
one SIGNAL, who in turn carries the command to the teams SATELLITE. The
SIGNAL will touch the SATELLITE, and then deliver the actual message to the ROBOT,
who will carry out the command. The SIGNAL returns to the end of his/her teams line.
9. The ASTRONAUT quickly sends another message via the next SIGNAL and continues
this process as quickly as each SIGNAL can move to and from the ASTRONAUT with
his/her command.
10. The ASTRONAUT may send the SIGNALS as quickly as she/he desires, as long as they
are sent one at a time. Problems may arise when contradictory commands are received
by the robot who, as a consequence, may not know what to do.
11. One cup has to be removed from each teams space station if anyone on the team talks
out of turn or gives more than one command at a time.
12. The team that completes building the space station first is the winner.

13. To summarize what they learned, have students discuss what the problems were and

how they solved them as a group. Also, have them compare and contrast what they did
with the actual sending and receiving of messages by satellites. Ask them how we use
satellites in our everyday lives.

1997 Sojourner

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Moon Words

Lunar

Waxing

Crescent Moon

Waning

Quarter Moon

Full Moon

Lunar Rover

Craters

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1969

Basalt

Constellation
Program

Month

Mars Words

Fourth Planet

Spirit

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Red Planet

Phoenix

203

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Opportunity

Polar Ice Caps

Martian

Seasons

Canyons

Olympus Mons

Roman

Sojourner

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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


From Football to Flight
Grade 6 Physical Fitness Lesson #5

Topics: agility, ability, decision-making


(PE, social studies)
Length of Lesson: 45-60 minutes
Objectives:
Students will learn about an NFL player turned astronaut, Leland Melvin.
Students will participate in a relay football game.
Students will demonstrate developmentally appropriate eye-hand coordination.
Students will demonstrate developmentally appropriate motor skills.
Students will be involved in honest sportsmanship and fair play.
National Physical Education Standards:
Standard 1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns.
Standard 2: Understands movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as
they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.
Standard 3: Participates regularly in physical activity.
Standard 4: Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical fitness.
Standard 5: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self
and others in physical activity settings.
Standard 6: Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, selfexpression, and/or social interaction.
Background Information:
In terms of statistics, the probability of having many professional athletes OR astronauts
in a classroom are slim. Leland Melvin, however, is a wonderful illustration of how hard
work, determination, and dedication shattered statistics as he became the only astronaut
that is also a former professional athlete.
Several factors, like Melvins love for chemistry at an early age, set things in motion for a
career in science and his ability to excel on the football field made him a natural at sports.
Leland Melvin is an example of how if we simply stretch ourselves, refuse to accept less
than our best, and set goals that require us to challenge ourselves, we can become anything
that we want to become. For Melvin, the sky was not even the limitit was beyond!
Life should not be looked at as a sprint, but as a marathon, or for our purposes, a relay.
Today, we will play a football relay in honor of Leland Melvin and his accomplishments.

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Materials:
- Leland Melvin: Astronaut by Chemistry courtesy of NASA (included)
- footballs (1 ball for every 10 students)
- cones (1 for every student)
- whistle (for teacher)
NOTE: If possible, have the field set up prior to activity. Also, the footballs provided by
CAP may be distributed for use during the lesson for play or after the lesson to help
students remember the story of Leland Melvin, as well as to experiment with the flight of
a football.
Lesson Presentation:
1. Ask students if they think it would be cool to become a professional football player.
Ask them to identify skills needed to become a successful professional football
player. One main word they should be guided toward is the word agility. Agility is
the ability to change the body's position, and requires a combination of balance,
coordination, speed, reflexes, and strength.
2. Ask the students if they think it would be cool to be an astronaut. Ask them to
identify skills needed to become an astronaut. One main word they should be
guided toward is the word ability. Ability is aptitude, intelligence, skill, and
expertise.
3. Chances are that most students will think that both professions are pretty amazing
jobs. Explain to them that they will be learning about a person who became both a
professional football player AND an astronaut. Most students will seem surprised
at such an accomplishment.
4. Read the story of Leland Melvin: Astronaut by Chemistry to students. Discuss
how Melvins agility helped him to excel physically and how his ability helped him to
achieve academically. Also, discuss how he paid attention to the things that
happened to him in life so that he did not miss an opportunity to seize the moment
and take advantage of the incidental things that came to him in life.
5. Ask the students what character traits Melvin possesses in order to accomplish
such extraordinary feats.
Determination, self-motivation, dedication,
responsibility, among others, should be discussed.
6. Now explain to students that in honor of Leland Melvin, they are going to play a
football relay game.
7. Using 2 teams of 10 students, line up students in a straight line. Each student
should stand at a cone. Cones should be placed 20 feet apart.
8. The person at the front of the line for each team will have the football. When the
teacher blows the whistle, the first student will throw the football to the next
person in line on their team. The receiving student does not have to catch the
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football, but does have to return to his or her cone after retrieving the football if
the ball was dropped. Then he/she will throw the football to the next team
member.
Football Relay Game Diagram
o=cones

x=students

*=football
*

When the teacher blows the whistle, the student at the front of the formation will
throw the football to the person standing at the next cone.
9. This process should continue until the football is thrown to the last member on the
team, who will then throw the football to the person who they received it from.
After the last team member has thrown the ball starting the process of going back
up the line, he/she should kneel or sit beside his/her cone. Each person up the line
should do the same until the football has made it back to the first person who
threw the ball.
10. The winning team of the relay is determined by which team moves the football down
the field and back up the field first. NOTE: Players do not kneel or sit as the
football makes its way down the field. They only kneel or sit beside their cone
following their second throw so that it is easier for the teacher to determine the
progress of the final plays of the game.
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Summarization:
Character Connection: People face obstacles and challenges every day in life and often,
how we respond to those challenges determines a lot about our character and ultimately,
our career. Leland Melvin is an inspiration to us all as he pursued two very ambitious
dreams and attained them both. Melvins accomplishments were not made overnight. They
took years and years of dedication and determination. As previously stated, life should
not be viewed as a sprint or a dash, but as a marathon or a relay, that through
perseverance and commitment, can be a victory.
Leland is giving back to the community as he works with children to inspire them to reach
for their goals and following their dreams. His is truly a man of agility and ability that we
can each try to emulate in our lives.
Drug Demand Reduction (DDR) Connection: See page 9.
Assessment:
Teacher will observe students working together as a team in the football relay, following
directions, and demonstrating good sportsmanship.
Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
Allow students to use the internet to research qualifications and criteria to become
both an astronaut and a professional athlete. Have them make a list for each and
categorize them as agility or ability.
Allow students to research a career that they are interested in. Have them to write a
job description on that career choice including the requirements necessary to make
that career dream become a reality.
Have students create a new class game using a football to demonstrate physical agility.
Have students play Agility Ability Stars. In this game, students will increase their
understanding of the skill-related fitness component of agility. They will participate in
quick changes of direction, keeping center of gravity low, and staying on the balls of
their feet as they are timed in the activity with a stopwatch or other time-keeping
device.
- Tape or chalk to mark four-foot stars on the floor or ground. (one star/2 students)
- Students will pair up with a partner. One partner will keep the time as the other
partner traces the points of the star with one of the following movements; shuffle
slide, sprint forward, jog backwards, or fast-pace walk. When students are tracing
the star with their foot pattern they need to make a sharp precise turn at each
point of the star.
- The students should alternate roles. Try the activity several times letting each
student have a turn at each of the foot patterns. They should try to improve on
completion time, while still tracing the star.
- Adding a musical component to the activity adds an extra bit of interest.
- Make the star shape larger for the students to trace and have them try different
loco-motor skills, such as skipping, jumping or hopping while tracing the star.
- Have the students record their time and try to improve on their time over a few
class periods.
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Leland Melvin: Astronaut by Chemistry


By Brandi Dean at Johnson Space Center, Houston (Feb. 2007)
Leland Melvin never meant to become an astronaut.
He remembers Neil Armstrong walking on the moon, but
he doesnt remember being especially impressed.
I think I was in my own little world of dirt club battles
and cowboys and Indians, he said. I vaguely remember
it, but it wasnt something like, Hey, I want to do that!
What

did

impress

him

was

chemistry.

My mom gave me a chemistry set when I was a kid, and


I made this little concoction and blew up something on
their rug, Melvin said. That was like, Wow. So I
became a chemistry major.
Landing a job at NASA didnt change his focus. And even
when a friend in the office told Melvin hed make a
great astronaut and gave him an application, he blew it
off.
I said, Yeah, right whatever, he recalled. I didnt fill it out.
But

then

that

friend

became

an

astronaut

and

awoke

Melvins

competitive

spirit.

The next year, I filled out the application, thinking, well, if he could get in, so could I.
It was the kind of serendipitous friendship that Melvin said he encountered at every fork in the
road that led him to being an astronaut, starting with his high school football coach.
Melvin went to the University of Richmond on a football scholarship that almost slipped through his
fingers literally. He was a wide receiver on a team that ran the ball a lot, so from a stats
standpoint, he didnt look so great. And when a scout came to see if there might be more to him
than what showed up on paper, Melvin almost blew it.
He saw me drop a touchdown pass in the end zone at our homecoming game. So hes walking out of
the stadium, and my coach, who believed in me, said, Hey, Leland catch the ball. I ran the same
play again, and this time I caught the ball. We won the game.
The scout heard the crowd screaming and turned around to see Melvin in the end zone.
He said, Wow he came back from such a horrific failure in front of all his friends, Melvin said.
He was able to overcome that.
The resulting scholarship led to a chemistry degree and a place on the Detroit Lions. And there he
might have stayed, if not for an injured hamstring and a chance meeting. But before the season
even got going, Melvin was out of commission.

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He was drafted by the Dallas Cowboys, but it would be a year until he was able to play for them. So
he took a courier job at his agents office to make some money in the meantime. One day, while
delivering a package, Melvin bumped into the husband of one of his old professors.
He said, Hey what are you doing? I said, Im waiting to play football. He said, Why dont you
talk to Glenn Stoner at the University of Virginia in the materials science department? And I said,
Why would I want to do that? And he said, Just go do it. And I listened.
Melvin went and talked with Stoner and ended up with a research job to keep him busy during the
off season. Originally his reasoning was that he would make more money doing research than he
would delivering packages but when the next semester started, Melvin decided to enroll in
graduate school, knowing that hed have to leave for Dallas before it was over.
When the training season began, Melvin was playing football by day and taking videotaped materials
science engineering graduate courses by night. It wasnt easy, but when he injured his hamstring
again before the season started, he was glad hed done it.
That was the end of my football career, he said.
But I just went right back to grad school that
fall and worked on my masters degree.
Image to left: Astronaut Leland Melvin talks to students in the
cafeteria at Gainesville Elementary School, a NASA Explorer
School in Gainesville, Ga.

Two years later he was hired by NASA Langley


Research Center, which put him in position to be
given the astronaut application. But again it took
the prompting of a benevolent acquaintance to
keep Melvin on track. A recruiter flagged him
over to a NASA booth at a job fair just as he was preparing to leave.
She said, Whats your name? I told her. She said, Ive been looking for you. Come to find out, she
was looking for me all day because the dean had said, Leland is a good guy you might want to look
at him. So the next week I had a job at NASA Langley.
Melvin said he would never have thought to apply to NASA on his own, just like he wouldnt have
thought to work as a research assistant in the off season.
All these little things, he said. If I hadnt bumped into the professor in the parking lot, its very
possible that I would have had a different path. If I hadnt been approached by this recruiter at
the end of this career fair who knows? But all these things lined up.
And hes glad he was paying attention when they did.
Lots of times we dont know what we want to do with our lives, he said, but other people have
more of a vision or maybe know things that we dont know. So always listen to others and dont
discard the information that you have. It could be your new plan.

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Leland Melvin's career has largely been defined by


his ability to use his hands: first to catch a football
and then hold onto it as he ran down the field.
Now, his professional success depends on his ability
to maneuver a joystick and other controls as he
wields a robotic arm on a spaceship.
"Flying in space it's one of the most amazing things
I can think of.

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Civil Air Patrols ACE Program


Crew Strength Training
Grade 6 Physical Fitness Lesson #6

http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/fitexplorer/fit/index.html

Topic: strength training


Length of Lesson: 30-50 minutes
The duration of the physical activity may vary, but will average 15 minutes
Objectives:
Students will perform body-weight squats and push-ups to develop upper and lower
body strength in muscles and bones.
Students will record observations about improvements in stationary and moving
jump training during this physical experience in the Mission Journal.
National Standards:
Physical Education
Standard 1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns
needed to perform a variety of physical activities.
Standard 2: Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles,
strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical
activities.
Standard 3: Participates regularly in physical activity.
Standard 4: Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical fitness.
Standard 5: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self
and others in physical activity settings.
Standard 6: Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, selfexpression, and/or social interaction.
Health Education
Standard 1: Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and
disease prevention to enhance health.
Standard 5: Students will demonstrate the ability to use decision-making skills to
enhance health.
Standard 6: Students will demonstrate the ability to use goal-setting skills to
enhance health.
Standard 7: Students will demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing
behaviors and avoid or reduce health risks.
Standard 8: Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family,
and community health.

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Background Information:
NASA researchers are working to lessen muscle atrophy and loss of bone density in
astronauts involved in prolonged space flights. Both of these physical changes can be
hazardous to astronauts on an extended exploration mission. Injured or weak crew
members may not be able to perform their assigned tasks, causing safety concerns for
themselves, as well as fellow astronauts. All crew members need to be in top physical
condition to ensure the completion of the mission.
Astronauts also need strong muscles and bones to perform tasks while exploring a lunar or
Martian surface. They must be able to lift, bend build, maneuver and even exercise during
a mission. Both the moon and Mars have enough gravitational force to require strong
muscles and bones to do these tasks. If a crew member happens to trip and fall, the
strength of their muscles and bones can mean the difference between getting up and
returning to work, or having to end the mission and return back to the Earth.
On Earth, the strength of muscles and bones is important to being physically fit and
healthy. Severe muscle atrophy or bone loss in space could mean a crew member might fail
to recover his or her pre-flight physical condition back on Earth. Therefore, astronauts
do regular exercise and strength training before, during, and after a mission to keep their
muscles and bones strong.
Performing multi-joint weight-bearing exercises, such as the push-up for upper body
strength and the squat for lower body strength, can help develop stronger muscles and
bones.
Materials:
- computer with Internet access and sound and projection system (optional)
- Mission Log copies
- Mission Handout copies
- pencil
- watch or stopwatch (optional)
- wall access (optional)
- metronome (optional)
NOTE: This activity should be conducted on a flat, dry surface. The use of a closedplaced metronome may assist small groups in keeping cadence in the repetitions. Students
should be at least one arms length apart from each other.
Lesson Presentation:
1. Ask students what a good definition of strength training might be. Entertain
several responses. You might want to discuss the Olympic athletes and how they,
too, must engage in regular exercises that not only help to increase endurance and
but also increase strength.

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2.

(optional)
Show
the
introduction
video
clip
for
this
lesson
at
http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/fitexplorer/train/N_CrewStrength_d
etail.html. Tell students that they will work on exercises that address this mission
question: How could you perform a physical activity that would strengthen your

muscles and bones in both your upper and lower body?

3.

Follow the outlined procedure in the Mission Assignment from the Fit Explorer
Mission Handout. Be sure to discuss the vocabulary listed on the second page of
the mission handout (strength training, crew, repetition, and resistance). The
duration of this physical activity can vary, but will average 15 minutes. In order for
students to perform at their maximum potential, positive reinforcement should be
used throughout the activity.

Safety:
Push-ups should be done with arms extended (but not locked), and level with chest.
If the student is unable to do a standard push-up, have him/her begin with bentknee push-ups (knees on the ground).
Always stress the proper technique while performing exercises.
Improper
technique can lead to injury.
Proper hydration is important before, during, and after any physical activity.
Be aware of the signs of overheating.
A warm-up/stretching and cool-down period is always recommended.

For information regarding warm-up/stretching and cool-down activities, reference the


Get Fit and Be Active Handbook (ages 6-17) form the Presidents Council on Physical
Fitness and Sports at http://www.presidentschallenge.org/pdf/getfit.pdf.

Assessment:
Ask the Mission Question before students begin the physical activity. Have students use
descriptors to verbally communicate their answers. Use the following open-ended
questions before, during, and after practicing the physical activity to help students make
observations about their own physical fitness level and their progress in this physical
activity:
How do you feel?
How many repetitions did you do?
How did your upper body/lower body feel during the repetitions?
What do your arms and legs feel like now compared to when we first tried this
physical activity together?
On the moon or Mars, do you think you would feel the same way?
Where is the energy you are using coming from?
What muscles do you feel you are working? (The most appropriate answers would be
body weight squat-lower back, buttocks, front/back of upper legs, lower legs; pushup-chest, shoulders, back of upper arms, and lower arms.)

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Some quantitative data for this physical activity may include:


Rate of perceived exertion (on a scale of 1-10)
How many correct repetitions were performed
Length of rest period
Respirations (breaths per minute)
Some qualitative data for this physical activity may include:
Technique performance
Identifying soreness in body parts
Identifying shakiness or muscle cramping
Summarization:
Strong bones and muscles are important to overall health. They are necessary so we can
perform chores and tasks at home, at school, or while playing. When we lift an object off
the floor, push ourselves out of bed, or bend to see under and object, we are using upper
and lower body strength. Physical activities such as these will help keep your muscles and
bones strong!
By doing exercises that use our own body weight, we can increase the strength of our
muscles and bones. Lack of physical activity can increase our chances of injury because
our muscles and bones may be weak. Even easy physical tasks might seem hard without
weight bearing exercises!
Additional activity ideas to enrich and extend the primary lesson (optional):
Students should make observations about their physical experience training for
stronger muscles and bones in their Mission Log before and after the physical activity.
They should also record their physical activity goals and enter qualitative data for
drawing conclusions.
- Graph the data collected in the Mission Log on the graph paper provided, letting
students interpret the data individually. Share graphs with the group.
Students should practice the Mission Handout physical activity several times before
progressing or trying the related Mission Explorations.
Students should be given the opportunity for progression in this program:
- In either physical activity, students may hold their position midway through the
repetition for a few seconds for an increase in intensity.
- More repetitions and sets can be added to the workout, and recorded in Mission
Journal to show an increase in strength.
- Rest time between sets can also be decreased, but not skipped completely.

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National Initiatives and Other Policies


Supports the Local Wellness Policy, Section 204 of the Child Nutrition and WIC
Reauthorization Act of 2004 and may be a valuable resource for your Student Health
Advisory Council in implementing nutrition education and physical activity.
Resources
For more information about space exploration, visit www.nasa.gov.
To learn about exercise used during past and future space flight missions, visit
http://hacd/jsc.nasa.gov/projects/ecp.cfm.
Access fitness-related information and resources at www.fitness.gov.
View programs on health and fitness:
Scifiles The Case of the Physical Fitness Challenge:
http://www.knowitall.org/nasa/scifiles/index.html
NASA Connect Good Stress: Building Better Bones and Muscles:
http://www.knowitall.org/nasa/connect/index.html
For guidelines for fluid replacement and exercise:
National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA)
Fluid Replacement for Athletes (Position Statement):
http://www.nata.org/statements/position/fluidreplacement.pdf
For information on warm-up and cool-down stretches, visit:
American Heart Association (AHA)
Warm-up and Cool-down Stretches:
http://americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=3039236
For information about rate of perceived exertion (RPE), visit:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Perceived Exertion:
http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/measuring/perceived_exertion.htm

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Civil Air Patrol

Aerospace Connections in
Education (ACE) Program

Website and
Literature Resources
Index
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225

Character education--team work---respect for self and others-----goal setting----etc.


Website Resources
Website

Brief Summary

http://www.urba
next.uiuc.edu/ce
/stratindex.html

The activities are divided into primary,


intermediate, and upper-grade levels, each
with appropriate developmental strategies.
The purpose of each activity is to address
the holistic approach to teaching. The
focus concentrates on blending the
affective, and cognitive domains in an
integrative and cohesive manner.
The study of heroes applies across the
curriculum in all grade levels. It can be an
integral part of character education, media
arts and computer literacy and a tool for
reading comprehension and the
development of writing skills. MY HERO
can be used to enrich
thematic studies in the arts and sciences.
The Academy of Achievement brings
students face-to-face with the
extraordinary leaders, thinkers and
pioneers who have shaped our world.

http://myhero.com

http://www.achi
evement.org/

Age
Group

SelfPaced

Student
knowledge
assessed?

k-12

no

yes

k-12

yes

no

4-12

no

no

http://www.acade
micentertainment.
com/

Academic Entertainment Inc, offers a wide


range of School Assembly Programs and
Educational performers nationwide. We
cater primarily to K-12 schools, but also
offer programs for colleges and higher
education institutions. We offer the
highest quality, most entertaining, and
above-all, educational programs for your
school assembly.

k-12

no

no

http://www.uen.
org/utahlink/tou
rs/tourFames.cgi
?tour_id=13289

This site discusses setting goals, planning,


taking notes, changing behavior and more.

k-12

yes

no

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

226

http://pbskids.o
rg/arthur/paren
tsteachers/activ
ities/diversity.ht
ml?cat=diversity

Here are some class activities from the


PBS Arthur: Teacher's Corner

k-12

yes

yes

http://www.proj
ectwisdom.com/

Project Wisdom is one of the oldest and


most respected character education
programs in the nation. Its collection of
daily words of wisdom is currently licensed
to over 14,000 schools nationwide. The
messages set a positive tone for the day
for everyone on campus. This program
imparts an understanding of core ethical
values and fosters caring behavior.

k-12

yes

yes

http://www.ethi
csusa.com/kids.c
fm

The site features fairytales & folk tales


from around the world that speak to
themes of positive human behavior such as
courage, justice & kindness.

k-12

no

no

http://www.good
character.com/T
eacherResources
.html

This website is just packed with great


stuff for propagating basic human
kindness. Their own description is way too
modest, but here it is: "Want to encourage
kindness on campus? Access our free
Teachers Guide, lesson plans, activity
ideas, teachers experiences, and other
materials to help you successfully
incorporate kindness into your school." A
real gem.

k-12

no

yes

http://www.hear
twoodethics.org/

Heartwood Institute is a non-profit


organization dedicated to helping teach
children universal attributes of good
character that form the foundations of
community. Through research, product
development, and support for teachers and
families, Heartwood is contributing to a
better world for all.

k-12

yes

yes

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

227

http://www.urba
next.uiuc.edu/ce
/stratindex.html

http://www.char
actercounts.org/
defsix.htm
http://www.good
character.com/E
Stopics.html

http://www.aaet
eachers.org/cha
racter.shtml

http://www.star
sportsmanship.co
m/kc2005/star.
php

The activities are divided into primary,


intermediate, and upper-grade levels, each
with appropriate developmental strategies.
The purpose of each activity is to address
the holistic approach to teaching. The
focus concentrates on blending the
affective and cognitive domains in an
integrative and cohesive manner.
These six core ethical values form the
foundation of the CHARACTER COUNTS!
youth-ethics initiative
Discussion Questions, Writing
Assignments, Student Activities, and
Parent Involvement tips for Character
Education and Life Skills. Just pick and
click.
"Core Virtues" is a practical, nonsectarian
approach to character education on a K-6
grade level that involves approximately
twenty minutes per day of reading and
discussion. Its goals are the cultivation of
character through such virtues as respect,
courage, diligence, patience, responsibility,
compassion, perseverance, faithfulness,
and more. Core Virtues is distributed by:
The Link Institute
STAR Sportsmanship is the first web-

k-4

yes

no

k-6

yes

no

k-12

yes

yes

k-12

yes

yes

3-12

yes

yes

based role-play simulation program focused


on teaching sportsmanship to K-12
students, their coaches, and parents. The
program teaches behavioral skills for
school, sports, and life and enhances
students decision-making skills.

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

228

Leadership skills--good citizenship----patriotism----youth service--- community service


Website Resources

Website

Brief Summary

http://www.midgefrazel.ne
t/patriotism.html
http://www.patriotism.org/
memorial_day
http://www.partnershipinp
atriotism.com/

Connecting Patriotism and Character


Education
Gives information on how this holiday first
came to be.
Through its focus on patriotism, children
are provided with age appropriate
activities ...
This page is from the teaching guide for
the video "Citizenship" in the video series
The Six Pillars of Character featuring
the Popcorn Park Puppets. Even if you
aren't showing this video there is a lot of
material here you can use to create a
lesson plan. Feel free to modify it to suit
your needs.

http://www.goodcharacter.
com/pp/citizenship.html

http://doe.sd.gov/octa/ddn
4learning/themeunits/Patri
otism/general.htm

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

General Sites and Activities button1. U.S.


Presidents button1 ... Revisit the hymns,
protests, and patriotism of America's
grassroots music. ...

Age
Group

SelfPaced

k-4

no

Ways
to
assess
student
knowledge
no

k-4

no

no

k-4

no

no

k-4

no

no

k-4

no

no

229

Aerospace Education --weather, flight, airplanes, helicopters, adopt-a-pilot, hot air balloons,
space exploration, fun sites for all ages of kids and all areas of aerospace
Website Resources
Website

Brief Summary

http://wright.n
asa.gov/index.h
tm

Learn about the development of


the first manned, powered flight
from its conception through
research and experimentation, to
success and beyond. This website
features facts, lesson plans,
simulations, activities, and
contains information on how to
participate in the Centennial of
Flight Celebration
This project helps integrate
NASA research and technology
into the K-12 curriculum through
web-based resources, computer
simulations, and videoconferences.
Many ready-made lesson plans,
activities, and experiments that
deal with the science of
aerodynamics are available.
This program helps students
design and study the flight of a
kite. Kites with different lengths,
widths, and materials can be
designed and tested with variable
wind speeds and control lines. The
aerodynamic forces on the kite,
and the stability of the design are
computed by this software.

http://learn.ar
c.nasa.gov/

http://www.gr
c.nasa.gov/WW
W/K12/airplane/kit
eprog.html

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

Ways to
assess
student

Grade
level

SelfPaced

6-12

no

knowledge
yes

k-12

no

no

Interactive
game

6-12

yes

no

Interactive

Etc

Website, Lesson
Plans/Materials,
Activity, Web
casts/Video, CDROM, Simulation

230

http://www.gr
c.nasa.gov/WW
W/K12/airplane/bg
p.html
http://www.gr
c.nasa.gov/WW
W/K12/airplane/bg
a.html

http://www.avs
cholars.com/Av
Scholars/Chan
nels/Outreach
_Sectors/ed_
main.htm

http://www.av
kids.com/

http://www.bo
eing.com/comp
anyoffices/abo
utus/kids/
http://www.youn
geagles.org/gam
es/

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

This interactive website serves as


a guide to how jet engines work.
Activities, data, and engine
simulations are available for
teachers and students.
Learn about how airplanes fly,
including the forces that lift them
off the ground, keep them in the
air, and help them land.

k-12

yes

no

k-12

yes

no

The channel for educators


contains information to help
educators explore ways
aviation/aerospace programs can
be incorporated into their
curriculum. Educators are
directed to various organizations
that offer aviation educational
programs and activities for
students of all grades (K-12).
Students and educators can have
fun while they learn, and aviation
can provide the motivation to open
young minds.
Here educators can review and
download lesson plans, classroom
activities, reading lists and
resource materials. Download the
free AVKids Activity Guide and
Teachers Resource, a 120-page
book of lesson plans in a format
similar to AIMS. PDF versions
of the Guide are available in
English, French, German,
Portuguese and Spanish.
Kids Activity pages

k-12

no

no

k-12

yes

no

Interactive
game

k-6

no

no

Printable games

Pitch, yaw, roll game, Flying


checklist game, and mission match

k-12

yes

no

231

http://www.fa
a.gov/educatio
n_research/ed
ucation/

The Federal Aviation


Administration (FAA) maintains a
wealth of information at the FAA
Aviation Ed Program for students
and teachers. The FAAs Aviation
Education Programs offer a wide
range of information on their web
site, including curriculum guides,
career information, resource
materials, teacher workshops,
aviation career education summer
camps for teens, special field
trips, government/ industry/
education partnerships, and
activities for the classroom,
games, and fun experiments that
enhance learning and increase
students awareness of aviation
careers. Students and teachers
can have fun while they learn, and
aviation can provide the
motivation to open young students
minds about aviation career
opportunities.

k-12

no

no

http://spaceplac
e.nasa.gov/en/ki
ds/

This website is filled with games,


animations, projects, and fun
facts about Earth, space and
technology.

k-12

yes

no

A Learning Center for Young


Astronomers

k-3

yes

no

Calling all paper airplane experts!


Start a Paper Airplane Contest in
your school and prove just how far
and how long your airplanes can
fly. It's a fun way to learn about
aerodynamics!

k-12

yes

no

http://starchil
d.gsfc.nasa.gov
/docs/StarChil
d/StarChild.ht
ml
http://teacher.
scholastic.com/
paperairplane/i
ndex.htm#top

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

232

http://educati
on.nasa.gov/ho
me/index.html

http://www.na
sm.si.edu/wrig
htbrothers/cla
ssroomActiviti
es/K3_teacher_ins
tructions.html
http://inventin
gflightschools.
org/links/links.
html

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

National Aeronautics and Space


Administration (NASA) provides a
wealth of educational information
& resource materials for students,
parents, and educators. A wide
range of information is available
through various NASA web sites.
Visit NASAs numerous web sites
below for more information:
NASA Connect For Kids Only
Earth Science Enterprise
NASA Space Place Space Link
NASA Education Amazing Space
Destination Earth
NASA Why Files Star Child
NASA Kids NASA Glenn
Educational Activities
Imagine the Universe! SciJinks
Classroom of the Future
QUEST: The Internet in the
Classroom
NASA Glenn Research Center:
Beginner's Guide to Aeronautics
By assembling online puzzles,
students learn to identify the
parts of a modern DC-3 airplane
and the parts of the 1903 Wright
Flyer. Students are introduced to
how the parts function to make
the airplane fly.
This website contains excellent
resources for information related
to flight, additional student
activities, sources for curriculum
materials, help and mentoring
from interested flight
organizations, and other Teacher
resources.

k-12

yes

yes

k-3

no

no

k-12

no

no

This curriculum
incorporates a
multidisciplinary
approach to
teaching.
Interactive
activities are
provided as
extensions to
the content and
scope of the
curriculum.

233

http://www.bui
ldandfly.com/

http://webspa
ce.webring.com
/people/us/sse
agraves/aerosp
aceandastrono
myunit.htm

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

The Academy assists classroom


teachers who wish to integrate
aerospace education concepts into
math, science, social studies, language
arts and technology education
programs to meet goals and
objectives of the national standards
for these disciplines.
The Academy's work with informal
after-school programs, community
groups and summer camps enables it
to be a valuable resource to help train
newcomers to the sport, hobby and
educational opportunities of model
aviation. Curriculum support and
materials for middle school physical
science and math programs may by
found by contacting us for a copy of
AeroLab, a DVD/CD featuring
activities developed by science
teachers for teachers thanks to the
generous support of the Alcoa
Foundation. AeroLab lessons feature
simple foam and balsa aircraft as
tools to teach the concepts of force
and motion, potential/kinetic energy
and centripetal force. The activities
allow students to practice important
math skills to determine average
speed and distance flown. All labs are
aligned with middle school physical
science and math standards and are
"S.T.E.M. Compliant." The labs
provide opportunities for students to
make predictions, collect data, graph
results and draw conclusions, as well
as participate in lessons designed for
directed and guided inquiry.

Aerospace and Astronomy


Lesson Plans ~ Thematic Units ~
Online Activities ~ WebQuests

k-12

yes

yes

k-8

yes

yes

Teacher created
lessons and
online activities.

234

http://inventin
gflightschools.
org/links/links.
html

This website contains excellent


resources for information related
to flight, additional student
activities, sources for curriculum
materials, help and mentoring
from interested flight
organizations, and other teacher
resources.

k-12

no

no

http://www.ka
thimitchell.com
/balloons.htm
http://www.lap
laza.org/about
_lap/kellogg/ta
os/michelle/te
acher.html

Links, history, models

k-12

no

no

This lesson provides the students


with an understanding of how hot
air balloons are designed, tested,
and the parts of a balloon. Hands
on activities have been
incorporated to extend and
reinforce the concepts. The
students will make two models of
hot air balloons. There are also
color pages, frequently asked
questions on ballooning, a virtual
balloon ride, a worksheet on the
parts of a hot air balloon, and an
exam.
This astronomy website is packed
with games, activities, fun facts,
and resources to help teachers,
parents, and students of all ages
reach out and touch our universe.
Discover the wonders of our solar
system in a spectacular 3-D
environment. Take a flyby tour of
the sun and each planet in its
orbit, observe planets and
extraterrestrial weather patterns
up close, and more.

k-12

no

yes

k-8

yes

yes

k-12

no

yes

http://www.kid
sastronomy.co
m/

http://www.nat
ionalgeographic
.com/solarsyst
em/splash.html

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

This curriculum
incorporates a
multidisciplinary
approach to
teaching and
learning. The
interactive
activities are
provided as
extensions to
the content and
scope of the
curriculum.

interactive

235

http://wings.av
kids.com/
http://www.em
ints.org/ethem
es/resources/
S00000017.sh
tml

http://www.ench
antedlearning.co
m/subjects/astr
onomy/

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

The K-8 Aeronautics Internet


Textbook
These sites are about space
exploration and the various
technologies that have made this
possible. Learn about satellites
and spacecrafts. There are many
interactive features, such as
virtual tours of the planets,
webcasts, and other exhibits. See
photographs and videos of various
launches and space explorations.
There is a link to an eThemes
Resource on the International
Space Station.
Zoom Astronomy is a
comprehensive on-line site about
space and astronomy. It is
designed for people of all ages and
levels of comprehension. It has an
easy-to-use structure that allows
readers to start at a basic level
on each topic and then to progress
to much more advanced
information as desired, simply by
clicking on links.

k-8

yes

yes

k-12

yes

yes

k-12

yes

yes

236

Physical Fitness: good health; exercise; dance; aerobics; healthy food; fun outdoor games;
fun indoor games
Website Resources
Brief Summary

Age
Group

SelfPaced

http://www.kidshealth.
org/parent/nutrition_fi
t/fitness/hate_sports.
html

Team sports can help a child gain


self-esteem, coordination, and
general fitness, and help them learn
how to work with other kids and
adults. But some kids aren't natural
athletes and they may tell you directly or indirectly - that they just
don't like sports. What then?

k-12

no

Assess
student
knowledge?
no

http://www.pecentral.o
rg/

Welcome to the premier website for


health and physical education
teachers, parents, and students. Our
goal is to provide the latest
information about developmentally
appropriate physical education
programs for children and youth. To
combat the high obesity rate, we
offer programs like Log It and Get
Active Stay Active where students
can log their physical activity and
pedometer steps.

k-12

yes

yes

http://www.mypyramid.
gov/kids/kids_game.ht
ml

An interactive computer game where


kids can reach Planet Power by
fueling their rocket with food and
physical activity. Fuel tanks for each
food group help students keep track of
how their choices fit into MyPyramid.

k-12

yes

yes

Website

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

237

http://www.tandalay.co
m/?gclid=CKGRtqywhY0
CFQT4gAodYgZCgg

Tandalay PE & Recreation Lesson


Plans are consistent with NASPE
Standards and benchmarks for
Physical Education. Your Site License
includes a complete online
assessment and grading program. Our
one-of-a-kind assessment program
enables users to assess ALL aspects
of NASPE standards and benchmarks
with ease. Percentages and grades
are automatically calculated based on
developmental level, skill, cognitive,
behavioral, and social assessments all with no extra prep! Easy,
effective, and enjoyable!

k-12

yes

no

k-12

no

yes

Tandalay offers staff development


workshops anytime - anywhere! Put
FUN into fitness, and PLAY into PE
with Tandalay! Call today to reserve
your dates.
Our goal at Tandalay is to provide
every student with a successful
movement experience, in a physically
and emotionally safe environment.

http://www.mrgym.com/

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

Our goal is to provide one of the


most comprehensive Elementary
Physical Education and Secondary
Physical Education resources
available on the internet. On this
site you will find a wide variety of
physical education games, including
cooperative games and activities,
sports games, lead up activities, and
much more. Furthermore, you will
find ideas on physical education
assessment, field day ideas, cheap or
free physical education equipment
and more.

238

http://www.fda.gov/oc/op
acom/kids/default.htm

Tons of interactive health games

k-12

yes

no

http://www.learntobehe
althy.org/?wt.srch=1&g
clid=CJCv9P23hY0CFQ
0ggAodiwgtiw

LearntobeHealthy.org is an online
health science learning site designed
to help educators communicate
important health concepts to
children K-6. The site contains
comprehensive lesson plans,
interactive games and activities,
webquests and more. The goal of the
site is to inspire children and their
families to make healthy choices
that will last a lifetime.
Want to learn all about vaccines?
What should you do after you touch
raw meat? What are antihistamines
used for? Find out answers to these
questions and more.
There is a lot of cool information you
can use. Maybe you want to start
working out or youre stressed out
about school. There are lots of
different topics from which to
choose.
This website is designed to help
teach youth how to better manage
daily conflicts and challenges.
Your body and how it works.
Interactive games.

k-12

yes

yes

k-12

no

no

k-12

yes

yes

k-4

yes

no

k-12

yes

no

http://www.kids.gov/k_
health.htm

http://www.girlshealth.
gov/

http://www.urbanext.ui
uc.edu/conflict/index.h
tml
http://www.brainpop.co
m/health/seeall/

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

239

Character education--team work---respect for self and others-----goal setting----etc.

Literature Resources

Title/Author

Abiyoyo Returns/
Pete Seeger

Amber Was Brave,


Essie Was Smart/
Vera B. Williams
Anna Banana &
Me/
Lenore Blegvad
Arthurs Computer
Disaster/ Marc
Brown
Best Best
Friends/
Margaret ChodosIrvine
Cork & Fuzz: short
and tall/
Dori Chaconas
Evie & Margie/
Bernard Waber

Faithful Friend/
Robert San Souci

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

Brief Summary

An African tale which tells what happens


when a giant who has been banished is
called back to save a town from flooding.
(Teamwork)
A series of poems tells how two sisters
help each other deal with life while their
mother is working and their father has
been sent to jail. (Respect & Teamwork)
Anna Bananas fearlessness inspires a
playmate to face his own fears. (Goal
setting)
Arthur disobeys his mother by playing his
favorite game on her computer, which
leads to a lesson in taking responsibility
for ones actions.
Mary and Clare do everything together at
preschool but Marys birthday
celebration puts a strain on the girls
friendship. (Teamwork & Respect)
The friendship between Cork, a muskrat,
and Fuzz, a possum, is in trouble when
Cork decides that since he is older, he
has to be taller. (Respect)
Best friends, Evie and Margie, are
surprised to experience jealousy when
they try out for the same part in the
school play. (Teamwork & Respect)
A retelling of the traditional tale from
the French West Indies in which two
friends, Clement and Hippolyte,
encounter love, zombies, and danger on
the island of Martinique. (Morals)

AR
Level

Age
Range

Interest
Level

2.7

6-9

LG

4.2

7-11

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-6

2.3

4-8

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-3

2.4

4-8

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-3

2.0

3-7

LG

2.0

6-9

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-2
Easy Fiction
Grades 1-4

3.2

4-8

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-3

5.2

5-10

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades K-5

Library
Classification
& Grade
Levels
Non-Fiction
Grades 1-4

240

1.0

2-5

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K

2.3

3-7

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades K-2

3.1

4-8

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-3

4.0

4-8

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades K-3

4.2

5-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades K-4

A collection of folktales from around the


world that demonstrate the triumph of
brains over brawn. (Morals)

5.0

8-12

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades 3-7

Six-year-old Lily has a best friend all


picked out for play group day, but
unfortunately the differences between
first-graders and second-graders are
sometimes very large. (Respect)

2.2

4-8

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-3

Rosie & Michael/


Judith Viorst

Two friends tell what they like about


each othereven the bad things.
(Respect)

3.3

6-9

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades 1-4

Saint Francis and


the Wolf/
Richard Egielski

In Gubbio, Italy, Saint Francis shows the


villagers that neither wealth nor
strength are as powerful as love and
compassion. (Morals & Respect)

4.3

8-12

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 3-7

Gossie & Gertie/


Olivier Dunrea

Head, Body, Legs:


a story from
Liberia/ Won-Ldy
Paye
Hooway for
Wodney Wat/
Helen Lester

John Henry/
Julius Lester

Legend of the
Bluebonnet: an Old
Tale of Texas/
Tomie De Paola
Mightier Than the
Sword: World
Folktales for
Strong Boys/ Jane
Yolen
My Best Friend/
Mary Ann Rodman

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

Gossie and Gertie are best friends, and


everywhere Gossie goes, Gertie goes
tooexcept when she doesnt, and
sometimes thats even better. (Morals)
In this tale from the Dan people of
Liberia, Head, Arms, Body, and Legs learn
that they do better when they work
together. (Teamwork)
All his classmates make fun of Rodney
because he cant pronounce his name, but
it is Rodneys speech impediment that
drives away the class bully.(Respect &
Morals)
Retells the life of the legendary AfricanAmerican hero who raced against a steam
drill to cut through a mountain. (Goal
setting)
A retelling of the Comanche Indian
legend of how a little girls sacrifice
brought the flower called bluebonnet to
Texas. (Morals)

241

Shrinking Violet/
Cari Best

Sophies Window/
Holly Keller

Alex Ryan, Stop


That! /
Claudia Mills

All of the Above: a


novel/
Shelley Pearsall
Happy Kid! / Gail
Gauthier

Sixth-Grade
Glommers, Norks,
and Me/ Lisa
Papademetriou

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

Violet, who is very shy, finally comes out


of her shell when she is cast as Lady
Space in a play about the solar system
and saves the production from disaster.
When Caruso, a little bird who is afraid
to fly, is blown out of his home one windy
night, he must rely on a new friend, a dog
named Sophie, to take him back to his
parents. (Teamwork)
Seventh-grader Alex Ryan enjoys
attracting attention, but when his antics
cause problems with his would-begirlfriend on a school outing, he has
second thoughts about his
actions.(Respect)
Relates how a school project to build the
worlds largest tetrahedron affects the
lives of everyone involved. (Teamwork)
After his mother bribes him into reading
a self-help book on how to form
satisfying relationships and enjoy a happy
life, Kyle finds there may be more to the
book than he realized. (Morals &
Respect)
Allie Kimball finds that middle school is
full of strange new beasts, like
glommersgirls who never go anywhere
aloneand norksa combination of a
nerd and a dork. (Respect)

4.2

4-8

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-3

2.4

4-8

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-3

4.9

8-12

MG

Fiction
Grades 3-7

5.3

8-12

MG

Fiction
Grades 3-7

4.9

10-14

MG

Fiction
Grades 5-9

4.2

10-12

MG

Fiction
Grades 5-7

Morals

242

Leadership skills--good citizenship----patriotism----youth service--- community service


Literature Resources
Title/ Author
Goodbye, Curtis/
Kevin Henkes
Mrs. Katz and Tush/
Patricia Polacco

Miss Rumphius/
Barbara Cooney

Somebody Loves You,


Mr. Hatch/ Eileen
Spinelle
Chrysanthemum/
Kevin Henkes
Down the Road/ Alice
Schertle
Emmas Magic
Winter/
Jean Little
Flower Garden/ Eve
Bunting
Gardener/ Sarah
Stewart

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

Brief Summary
Everyone in the neighborhood says a
fond farewell to Curtis, their
beloved longtime letter carrier, on
his last day of work. (comm. service)
A long-lasting friendship develops
between Larnel, and young AfricanAmercian, and Mrs. Katz, a lonely,
Jewish widow, when Larnel presents
Mrs. Katz with a scrawny kitten
without a tail. (citizenship)
Great-aunt Alice Rumphius was once
a little girl who loved the sea, longed
to visit faraway places, and wished
to do something to make the world
more beautiful. (community service)
An anonymous valentine changes the
life of the unsociable Mr. Hatch,
turning him into a laughing friend
who helps and appreciates all his
neighbors. (citizenship)
Chrysanthemum loves her name,
until she starts going to school and
the other children make fun of it.
(citizenship)
Hetty is very careful with the eggs
she has bought on her very first
trip to the store, but she runs into
trouble. (youth service)
With the help of her new friend who
has magic boots just like her own,
Emma overcomes her shyness and no
longer hates reading out loud in
school. (citizenship)
Helped by her father, a young girl
prepares a flower garden as a
birthday surprise for her mother.
(youth service)
Explains what happens when, after
her father loses his job, Lydia Grace
goes to live with her Uncle Jim in
the city, but takes her love for
gardening with her. (comm. service)

3-6

Interest
Level
LG

Library
Classification
& Grade Levels
Easy Fiction
Grades K-1

3.1

4-8

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-3

3.8

3-8

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-3

3.9

4-7

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-2

3.3

4-8

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-3

3.4

4-8

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-3

2.5

7-9

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades 2-4

2.2

4-8

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-3

3.9

5-9

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-4

AR
Level

Age
Range

2.4

243

Hot Day on Abbott


Avenue/
Karen English
The Josefina Story
Quilt/
Eleanor Coerr
Mr. Putter and Tabby
Bake the Cake/
Cynthia Rylant
My Best Friend/
Mary Ann Rodman

Once Upon a Time/


Niki Daly

Planting a Rainbow/
Lois Ehlert
Scarebird/ Sid
Fleischman

America the
Beautiful/
Katherine Lee Bates
American Flag/
Patricia Quiri
American Flag/
Debbie Yanuck

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

After having a fight, two friends


spend the day ignoring each other,
until the lure of a game of jump rope
helps them to forget about being
mad. (citizenship)
While traveling west with her family
in 1850, a young girl makes a
patchwork quilt chronicling the
experiences of the journey. (youth
service)
With his fine cat Tabby at his side,
Mr. Putter bakes a Christmas cake
for his neighbor Mrs. Teaberry.
(good citizenship)
Six-year-old Lily has a best friend
all picked out for play group day, but
unfortunately the differences
between first-graders and secondgraders are sometimes very large.
(good citizenship; character ed.
respect)
Sarie struggles when she reads
aloud in her class, but then she and
her best friend find a book about
Cinderella and begin to read
together. (youth service)
A mother and child plant a rainbow
of flowers in the family garden.
(community service)
A lonely old farmer realizes the
value of human friendship when a
young man comes to help him and his
scarecrow with their farm. (youth
service)
Four verses of the nineteenthcentury poem, illustrated by the
authors great-great-grandnephew.
(patriotism)
Describes the history and symbolism
of the American flag. (patriotism)

2.9

5-8

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-3

2.7

7-9

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades 2-4

2.8

6-9

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades 1-4

2.2

4-8

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-3

3.4

4-8

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-3

2.6

3-8

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-3

3.9

5-8

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-3

2.9

8-12

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 3-7

4.8

7-9

LG

An introduction to the American


flag, including its design,
modifications through the years,
uses on holidays, and importance as
a symbol of the United States.
(patriotism)

3.6

5-8

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-4
Non-Fiction
Grades K-3

244

American Heroes/
Marfe Ferguson
Delano
American Moments:
Scenes from
American History/
Robert Burleigh
Impossible Patriotism
Project/
Linda Skeers

Nothing but the


Truth: a
Documentary Novel/
Avi
O, Say Can You See?:
American Symbols,
Landmarks, and
Inspiring Words/
Sheila Keenan
Red, White, and Blue:
the story of the
American Flag/
John Herman
Red, White, Blue and
Uncle Who?: the
Stories behind Some
of Americas Patriotic
Symbols/
Teresa Bateman
Stars and Stripes:
the Story of the
American Flag/
Sarah Thomson
This is America: the
American Spirit in
Places and People/
Don Robb

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

Profiles of fifty-three Americans


from the past four hundred years
who set out, spoke up, stood tall,
fought hard, or dared to dream.
(patriotism)
A look at a cross-section of people
and events in American history from
1621 to 2001 representing the many
facets of American life. (patriotism)

8.4

10-14

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades 5-9

5.6

6-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 1-5

Caleb has a hard time coming up with


a way to symbolize patriotism for
Presidents Day until he realizes
that his dad, who is away from home
in the military, is what patriotism is
all about. (patriotism)
A ninth-graders suspension for
singing The Star Spangled Banner:
during homeroom becomes a national
news story. (patriotism)

3.0

4-8

LG

Easy Fiction
Grades K-3

3.6

11-16

UG

Fiction
Grades 6-11

Explains places, objects, documents,


and holidays that symbolize life in
the United States. (patriotism)

5.6

4-8

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades K-3

Describes how the American flag


came into being, how it has changed
over the years, and its importance
as the symbol of our country.
(patriotism)

3.2

6-8

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 1-3

7.5

6-10

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades 1-5

An introduction to the history of


the American flag, from colonial
times to the present. (patriotism)

4.5

4-8

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades K-3

Discusses people, places and ideals


that express the American spirit.
(patriotism)

7.2

6-11

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 1-6

Examines seventeen patriotic


symbols-from birds to bells to
mountains to monuments-and
explains how they came to represent
America. (patriotism)

245

Aerospace Education ---weather---flight---airplanes---helicopters---careers--hot air balloons---space---astronomy


Literature Resources
Title/Author

Brief Summary

AR
Level

Age
Range

Interest
Level

Library
Classification
& Grade
Range
Fiction
Grades 3-7

Amazing Flight of
Darius Frobisher/
Bill Harley

When his adventurous father disappears


during a hot-air balloon flight, 10 year old
Darius is sent to live with an aunt. A
strange bicycle repairman changes his life
with a secret he has built.

4.4

8-12

MG

Can it Rain Cats and


Dogs? /Melvin Berger

Answers questions about the weather.

4.6

7-9

MG

El Nino: Stormy
Weather for People
and Wildlife/ Caroline
Arnold

Explores the nature of the El Nino and


its effects on people and wildlife.

8.4

8-11

MG

Experiments on the
Weather/
Zella Williams
Fantastic Flights:
One Hundred Years
of Flying on the
Edge/PatrickOBrien
Flight: the Journey
of Charles
Lindbergh/ Robert
Burleigh
The Glorious Flight:
Across the Channel
with Louis Bleroit,
July 25, 1909/ Alice
Provensen
Magic School Bus
Kicks Up a Storm/
Nancy White

A collection of science experiments


related to weather, from the greenhouse
effect to making a cloud.

4.3

7-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-5

Describes seventeen twentieth-century


historic flights and their pilots, from the
Wright Brothers to those of the space
shuttles.

6.0

6-10

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades 1-5

Describes how Charles Lindbergh


achieved the remarkable feat of flying
nonstop and solo from New York to Paris
in 1927.

3.5

7-11

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-6

A biography of the man whose fascination


with flying machines produced the Bleroit
XI, which in 1909 became the first
heavier-than-air machine to fly the
English Channel.

2.6

3-8

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades K-3

Led by Ralphie as superhero


Weatherman, Mrs. Frizzles class
boards the magic school bus for a trip
inside a storm cloud.

3.4

5-8

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades K-3

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-4
Non-Fiction
Grades 3-6

246

Pink Snow and


Other Weird
Weather/ Jennifer
Dussling
Weather
Forecasting/
Gail Gibbons
Weather Words and
What They Mean/
Gail Gibbons
Weather/ Lorrie
Mack
Weather/ Simon
Seymour
What Will the
Weather Be?/
Lynda DeWitt
Whatever the
Weather/
Karen Wallace
Apache Helicopter:
the AH-64/
Matthew Pitt
Asteroids, Comets,
and Meteorites/
Steve Kortenkamp
Blizzards/ Nathan
Olson
Bombers/ Jennifer
Reed
Comets and
Asteroids/
Ian Graham
Comets, Meteors,
and Asteroids/
Simon Seymour

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

Discusses what makes some weather


patterns so unusual.

2.9

6-8

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 1-3

Describes forecasters at work in weather


stations as they use sophisticated
equipment to track and gauge the changes
in the weather.
Introduces basic weather terms and
concepts.

4.0

6-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 1-5

3.5

4-8

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades K-3

Text and atmospheric photography look


at how weather can affect our lives.

5.0

5-8

LG

Explores the causes, changing patterns


and forecasting of weather.

6.3

7-11

MG

Explains the basic characteristics of


weather and how meteorologists gather
data for their forecasts.

3.6

5-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades K-3
Non-Fiction
Grades 2-6
Non-Fiction
Grades K-4

Text, illustrations, and photographs of a


boy looking out the window introduce
different kinds of weather as it changes
day to day.
Provides general information about
helicopters and specific facts about the
features and operation of the Apache
helicopters.
This book describes the small solar
system bodies: asteroids, comets, and
meteorites.

1.6

4-8

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades K-3

5.8

10-14

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades 5-9

3.7

6-9

LG

Non-Fiction

3.9

7-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-5

TBD

4-8

5.8

8-12

MG

Non-Fiction

6.4

8-11

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades 3-6

A brief introduction to blizzards,


including how they form, where they
happen, and blizzard safety.
Simple text and photographs describe
bombers, their parts, and what they do.
This book explains how comets and
asteroids form, what they are made of,
and how they are studied by astronomers.
It presents facts on specific comets,
asteroids, and meteorites.
Text and illustrations explore the
characteristics of comets, meteors, and
asteroids.

Non-Fiction

247

Destination Jupiter/ Describes the characteristics of the


planet Jupiter and its moons, as revealed
Simon Seymour

5.7

5-9

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades K-4

Destination Mars/
Simon Seymour
Destination Space/
Simon Seymour

6.4

5-9

MG

Explains new discoveries about the


universe made possible by the Hubble
Telescope.
A brief introduction to droughts,
including what they are, what they
impact, and types of droughts.
An introduction to the Earth and its
relationship with the sun and the moon.

6.5

5-10

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades K-4
Non-Fiction
Grades K-5

3.9

7-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-5

3.9

7-11

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-6

This introduction to Earth describes how


the planet looks from space, discusses its
orbit in the solar system, explains why
Earth can support life, and looks at what
missions to outer space have revealed
about the planet.
A brief introduction to comets, icy
objects from the far reaches of the solar
system that pass by Earth at regular
periods in their orbit around the sun.
A brief introduction to meteors, from
their origins to the differences between
meteors, meteorites, and meteoroids.
A brief introduction to the planets in our
solar system.

4.6

8-10

LG

Non-Fiction

5.1

8-11

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 3-6

4.6

8-11

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 3-6

4.1

8-11

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 3-6

A brief introduction to the star at the


center of our solar system, the sun.

4.0

8-11

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 3-6

Photographs, diagrams, and illustrations


describe the four planets that are the
farthest from the Sun.
Discusses real-life missions, training
required to be a pilot, and descriptions of
planes.

5.5

8-12

MG

Non-Fiction

6.9

9-15

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades 4-10

This book describes the first landing on


the Moon, including information about the
space race and the "Apollo 11" crew and
spacecraft.

3.9

6-9

LG

Non-Fiction

Droughts/ Nathan
Olson
Earth: Our Planet in
Space/
Simon Seymour
Earth/Elaine Landau

Exploring Comets/
Jennifer Way
Exploring Meteors/
Rebecca Olien
Exploring the
Planets in Our Solar
System/Rebecca
Olien
Exploring the Sun/
Rebecca Olien
Far Planets/ Ian
Graham
Fighter Planes:
Fearless Fliers/
Karen & Glen Bledsoe
First Moon Landing/
Steve Kortenkamp

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

by photographs sent back by unmanned


spaceships.
Examines old beliefs and newest
discoveries about Mars.

248

Floods/ Lisa
Trumbauer
Galaxies/ Simon
Seymour
Helicopters: HighFlying Heroes/
Karen Bledsoe
Jupiter/ Elaine
Landau
Lets Explore
Comets and
Asteroids/ Helen
Orme
Lets Explore Earth/
Helen Orme

Lets Explore
Jupiter/ Helen
Orme
Lets Explore Mars/
Helen Orme
Lets Explore
Mercury/
Helen Orme
Lets Explore
Neptune/
Helen Orme
Lets Explore Pluto
and Beyond/
Helen Orme

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

An introduction to floods and their


impact on the natural environment and
people.
Identifies the nature, locations,
movements, and different categories of
galaxies, examining the Milky Way and
other known examples.
Discusses various types of helicopters
and their role in the military and the
flying skills necessary to become a pilot.

Not
AR

10-12

Non-Fiction
Grades 5-7

6.8

8-11

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades 3-6

7.3

9-15

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades 4-10

This book is a description of Jupiter and


includes information on its numerous
moons, the space probes which have
studied it, and its unique characteristics.
Investigates the latest discoveries about
comets and asteroids, describes how they
differ and where they are found,
highlights space missions to various
comets and asteroids.
Investigates the latest discoveries about
Earth, how movements of its plates cause
earthquakes and volcanoes, and the use of
robots to explore the planets deepest
oceans.
Investigates the latest discoveries about
Jupiter, its windy storms, and the
possibility of drilling for water on its
moon Europa.

4.6

8-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 3-5

4.7

7-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-4

4.1

7-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-4

4.2

7-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-4

Investigates the latest discoveries about


Mars, the discovery of frozen water on
the planet, and the possibility of manned
missions to the planet.
Investigates the latest discoveries about
Mercury, its huge cliffs and craters, and
NASAs MESSENGER mission to the
planet.
Investigates the latest discoveries about
Neptune, its rocky and dusty rings, and
the most recent findings sent to Earth by
the Hubble Space Telescope.
Investigates the latest discoveries about
Pluto, explains its change in classification
from planet to dwarf planet, and
describes the other space objects found
beyond Plutos orbit.

4.1

7-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-4

4.6

7-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-4

4.3

7-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-4

4.5

7-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-4

249

Lets Explore
Saturn/ Helen Orme
Lets Explore the
Moon/
Helen Orme
Lets Explore the
Sun/
Helen Orme
Lets Explore
Uranus/
Helen Orme
Lets Explore Venus/
Helen Orme
Look at Earth/ Mary
R. Dunn

Look at Jupiter/
Suzanne Slade
Look at Mars/ Mary
R. Dunn
Look at Mercury/
Mary R. Dunn
Look at Neptune/
Suzanne Slade
Look at Pluto and
Other Dwarf
Planets/Anna Kaspar
Look at Saturn/
Suzanne Slade

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

Investigates the latest discoveries about


Saturn, describes its fabulous rings and
intricate moon system, and highlights
ongoing and future missions to the planet.
Investigates the latest discoveries about
the moon, explains why the moon appears
to change shape, and describes the
historic moon missions.
Investigates the latest discoveries about
the sun, describes its birth and eventual
death, and highlights its importance to all
objects in the solar system.
Investigates the latest discoveries about
Uranus, describes its crazy spin, and
highlights other facts unique to the
seventh planet.
Investigates the latest discoveries about
Venus, the use of radar to examine its
surface, and the possibility of a mission
to the planet.
This introduction to Earth discusses its
orbit and axis; provides facts about the
planet and its moon; and looks at the
atmosphere, oceans, and interior of the
ever-changing planet.
This book is an introduction to the planet
Jupiter and some of its many moons.

3.9

7-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-4

3.7

7-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-4

4.1

7-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-4

4.0

7-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-4

4.3

7-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-4

4.5

7-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-5

4.2

7-10

LG

This book describes Mars's year,


environment, surface, and moons. It also
discusses plans for a spacecraft to be
sent to the planet.
This book describes Mercury's year, size,
environment, and surface. It also
discusses spacecraft that have been sent
to the planet.
This book describes Neptune's year,
environment, moons, and rings. It also
explains how scientists study the planet.
This book describes what a planet is and
provides information about Pluto's moons,
the Kuiper Belt, Eris, asteroid belts, and
Ceres.

4.6

7-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-5
Non-Fiction
Grades 2-5

4.7

7-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-5

5.0

7-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-5

4.9

7-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-5

This book describes Saturn's year,


environment, moons, and rings. It also
discusses spacecraft that have been sent
to the planet.

4.4

7-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-5

250

Look at Uranus/
Suzanne Slade
Look at Venus/
Mary R. Dunn

Magic School Bus


Inside a Hurricane/
Joanna Cole
Magic School Bus
(MSB) Inside the
Earth/
Joanna Cole
MSB Lost in the
Solar System/
Joanna Cole
MSB Sees Stars: a
Book about Stars/
Joanna Cole

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

This book describes Uranus's year,


rotation, environment, moons, and rings.
It also explains how scientists study the
planet.
This introduction to Venus, the second
planet from the Sun, discusses its orbit
and axis; provides facts about the planet;
looks at its landforms; and reviews the
history of the exploration of this planet.
Ms. Frizzle introduces her class to
weather projects and takes them on a hot
air balloon ride into a hurricane.

4.4

7-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-5

4.6

7-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-5

4.3

6-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 1-4

On a special field trip in the magic school


bus, Ms. Frizzles class learns firsthand
about different kinds of rocks and the
formation of the Earth.

3.6

7-11

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-6

On a special field trip in the magic school


bus, Ms. Frizzles class goes into outer
space and visits each planet in the solar
system.
Ms. Frizzle and her class take a trip to
outer space to learn all about the stars.

3.7

6-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 1-4

3.3

5-7

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades K-2

251

Physical fitness---good health---exercise---dance---aerobics---healthy food----fun outdoor games----fun indoor


games

Literature Resources
Title/ Author

Basketball for Fun!/


Brian Eule

Blood: the
Circulatory System/
Gillian Houghton
Bones: the Skeletal
System/
Gillian Houghton
Breath: the
Respiratory System/
Gillian Houghton
Guts: the Digestive
System/
Gillian Houghton
Muscles: the
Muscular System/
Gillian Houghton
Nerves: the Nervous
System/
Gillian Houghton

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

AR
Level

Age
Range

Describes the basic rules, skills and


important people and events in the
sport of basketball. (outdoor/indoor
games)
An introduction to the circulatory
system and how it is connected to the
other systems of the body.
(health/exercise)

4.6

8-11

Interest
Level
LG

5.4

7-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-6

An introduction to bones and the


skeletal system and how it is
connected to the other systems of
the body. (good health)
An introduction to the body system
that helps us to breathe and how it is
connected to the other systems in
the body. (good health)
An introduction to the process of
digestion and how it is connected to
other systems of the body. (good
health)
An introduction to the muscular
system and how it is connected to the
other systems of the body. (good
health)

4.7

7-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-5

4.5

7-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-5

4.6

7-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-5

4.8

7-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-5

An introduction to the nervous


system and how it is connected to the
other systems of the body. (good
health)

5.5

7-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-5

Brief Summary

Library
Classification
& Grade Levels
Non-Fiction
Grades 3-6

252

Bread and Cereal/


Tea Benduhn
Card Tricks/
Cynthia Klingel

Chess/ Dana Rau

Chess for Kids/


Michael Basman

Fruit/ Tea Benduhn

Meat and Beans/


Tea Benduhn
Milk and Cheese/
Tea Benduhn
Vegetables/ Tea
Benduhn
Girls Basketball:
Making Your Mark on
the
Court/LoriColeman
Girls Soccer: Going
for the Goal/ Lori
Coleman
Girls Volleyball:
Setting up Success/
Heather Schwartz
Girls Softball:
Winning on the
Diamond/ Heather
Schwartz

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

Discusses how eating plenty of wholegrain bread and cereal helps to make
a healthy heart. (good food)
Presents a history of cards and card
tricks, along with tips and easy stepby-step instructions for performing
several tricks. (indoor games)
Introduces the history and rules of
chess and discusses how it can be
played with family and friends,
through the mail, on a computer, in
clubs, and in international
tournaments. (indoor games)
A fascinating step-by-step guide
from setting up the board to basic
moves, to more advanced tactics and
strategy. (indoor games)
Discusses how eating a wide variety
of fruit provides energy and
promotes healing. (good food)
Discusses how eating meat and beans
provides protein to build strong
muscles. (good food)
Discusses how eating milk and cheese
makes bones & teeth strong.
(good food)
Discusses how eating a variety of
vegetables keeps the entire body
healthy. (good food)
Describes the game of basketball and
the skills needed to play.
(indoor/outdoor games; exercise)

Not
AR

5-9

4.0

7-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 2-4

4.6

8-11

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 3-6

Not
AR

8-12

Non-Fiction
Grades 3-7

Not
AR

5-9

Non-Fiction
Grades K-4

Not
AR

5-9

Non-Fiction
Grades K-4

Not
AR

5-9

Non-Fiction
Grades K-4

Not
AR

5-9

Non-Fiction
Grades K-4

4.9

8-14

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades 3-9

Describes soccer, the skills needed


to play, and the ways to compete.
(exercise; indoor/outdoor games)

5.2

8-14

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades 3-9

Describes volleyball, the skills


needed for it and the ways to
compete. (exercise; indoor games)

5.0

8-14

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades 3-9

Describes softball, the skills needed


for it, and the ways to compete.
(exercise; outdoor games)

4.6

8-14

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades 3-9

Non-Fiction
Grades K-4

253

Magic School Bus


Inside the Human
Body/ Joanna Cole
Sleep is for
Everyone/
Paul Showers
Busy Body Book: a
Kids Guide to
Fitness/ Lizzy
Rockwell
Please Play Safe!:
Penguins Guide to
Playground Safety/
Margery Cuyler
Stompin at the
Savoy: The Story of
Norma Miller/
Norma Miller
Knockin on Wood:
Starring Peg Leg
Bates/ Lynne
Barasch
Dance/ Andree Grau

Good Sports:
Rhymes about
Running, Jumping,
Throwing, and More/
Jack Prelutsky

CAPs ACE Program (2011)

A special field trip on the magic


school bus allows Ms. Frizzles class
to get a first-hand look at major
parts of the body. (health; exercise)
Describes the importance of sleep
and what happens to our brains and
bodies during slumber. (good health)

4.6

6-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 1-4

2.6

3-6

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades K-1

An introduction to the human body,


how it functions, and its need for
exercise. (good health; exercise)

4.3

5-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades K-4

Penguin and his animal friends


demonstrate how to play safely and
use good manners. (exercise)

2.2

3-5

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades K

Chronicles Norma Millers early life


and rise to fame as one of the
original performers of the Lindy Hop.
(dance)

4.9

9-13

MG

Non-Fiction
Grades 4-8

Presents a picture book biography of


Clayton Peg Leg Bates, an African
American who lost his leg in a factory
accident at the age of twelve and
went on to become a world-famous
tap dancer. (dance)
Surveys all forms of dance
throughout the world, discussing its
cultural and social significance, its
costume, its history, and noted
dancers and choreographers. (dance)
A collection of poetry about
participation sports. (exercise;
games)

4.4

6-10

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 1-5

Not
AR

10-14

3.8

8-12

Non-Fiction
Grades 5-9

LG

Non-Fiction
Grades 3-7

254