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ASSIGNMENT SOLUTIONS GUIDE (2014-2015)

B.E.C.E.-002
Hkkjrh; vkFkd fodkl % eqs vkSj ifjizs{;
(Indian Economic Development: Issues & Perspectives)
Disclaimer/Special Note: These are just the sample of the Answers/Solutions to some of the Questions given in the
Assignments. These Sample Answers/Solutions are prepared by Private Teacher/Tutors/Auhtors for the help and Guidance
of the student to get an idea of how he/she can answer the Questions of the Assignments. We do not claim 100% Accuracy
of these sample Answers as these are based on the knowledge and cabability of Private Teacher/Tutor. Sample answers
may be seen as the Guide/Help Book for the reference to prepare the answers of the Question given in the assignment. As
these solutions and answers are prepared by the private teacher/tutor so the chances of error or mistake cannot be denied.
Any Omission or Error is highly regretted though every care has been taken while preparing these Sample Answers/
Solutions. Please consult your own Teacher/Tutor before you prepare a Particular Answer & for uptodate and exact
information, data and solution. Student should must read and refer the official study material provided by the university.

Hkkx&I

lHkh iz'uksa osQ mkj nhft;sA


(d) nh?kZ mkj iz'u (izR;sd iz'u dk mkj yxHkx 500 'kCnksa esa nhft,)
iz'u 1- ,-osQ- lsu osQ ekuo fodkl ls lacafkr ^{kerk* n`f"Vdks.k dh izeq[k fo'ks"krkvksa dh ppkZ dhft,A
mkj19oha 'krkCnh osQ var esa Hkkjr esa vFkZ'kkfL=k;ksa osQ ,d fo'ks"k lewg dk vkfoHkkZo gqvkA blosQ vfrfjDr vfkdrj fo}kuksa
us Hkkjr osQ vkFkd fodkl ij pru esa ;ksxnku fn;k gSA okLrfod :i ls ;ksxnkudkkZvksa dh la[;k O;kid gS vkSj muosQ fopkj
l'kDr vkSj foLr`r gSaA
20oha 'krkCnh osQ var esa fodkl vkSj dY;k.k dh izeq[krk dks cy nsus dh t:jr vuqHko dh xbZA T;knkrj ,sls vFkZ'kkL=kh
Fks] ftUgksaus vkFkd n'kZu esa bl izfreku varj.k dh fn'kk esa ;ksxnku fn;kA
veR;Z lsu % {kerk,a vkSj ekuo fodklveR;Z oqQekj lsu vFkZ'kkL=k esa ukscy iqjLdkj izkIr ,dek=k ,f'k;kbZ fo}ku gSaA
mudk ;ksxnku n'kZu esa mruk gh O;kid gS] ftruk vFkZ'kkL=k osQ fy, gSA lsu dk kafrdkjh ;ksxnku fodkl vFkZ'kkL=k vkSj lkekftd
lwpdkas osQ fy, ^{kerk* dh ladYiuk gSA ^{kerk* dh ifjHkk"kk vusd oSdfYid ifjHkk"kk ^gksuk vkSj djuk* dks fu:fir djus okys
izdk;kZRed caMyksa osQ lsV osQ :i esa dh gS] ftls O;fDr viuh vkFkd] lkekftd vkSj O;fDrxr fo'ks"krkvksa ls izkIr dj ldrk
gSA {kerk ls vFkZ gS fd O;fDr dks bl ckr dh Lora=krk gS fd og viuk thou fdl izdkj O;rhr djsA blfy, fodkl dk ewy
vius vki esa vktknh gS u fd ladh.kZ Hkkouk ls cksyus dh vktknh] vfirq O;fDr;ksa dks viuh {kerk izkIr djus dh vktknh gSA
bl fo"k; ij lsu dk izeq[k ;ksxnku ^MsoyiesaV ,t izQhMe* (Development as Freedom) 1999 esa gSA ;g {kerkvksa dh o`f osQ
fy, euq"; osQ dY;k.k dks iqu% ifjHkkf"kr djrk gSA mlosQ nk'kZfud vkSj lSkfUrd dk;Z us xjhch dh nj vkSj ekuo fodkl ekius
osQ fy, iz;qDr lwpdksa dk lqkkj djus esa enn dhA og ekuo fodkl lwpdkad osQ fodkl esa vkSj la;qDr jk"V fodkl dk;Ze
dh ekuo fodkl fjiksVZ esa mldh vfHkO;fDr esa lgk;d Fkk] ftlus xjhch eki ij uo&mnkjoknh ^ok'kxVu loZlEefr* dks fodYi
dk oqQN laosQr fn;kA lsu us Li"V fd;k fd T;knkrj ns'kksa esa ekuo fodkl lwpdkad vfkd Fkk] Hkys gh mudh izfr O;fDr vk;
de FkhA blfy, mlus roZQ fn;k fd fodkl izkFkfedrk,a o`f&osQfUnzr vkFkd uhfr osQ cnys foLr`r Js.kh osQ cgqpj lwfpdkvksa
}kjk ewY;kafdr ekuo fodkl lqkkjus dh vksj c<+kbZ tkuh pkfg,A
veR;Z lsu dk izeq[k ;ksxnku ^MsoyiesaV ,t izQhMe* gSA ;g {kerkvksa dh o`f osQ fy, euq"; osQ dY;k.k dks iqu% ifjHkkf"kr
djrk gSA mudk ekuuk gS fd fodkl esa vusd izdkj osQ Lora=krk brj dk;ks dh lekfIr lfEefyr gS] ftlesa yksxksa osQ ikl cgqr
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de fodYi gksrs gSa vkSj vius ;qfDrlaxr vfHkdj.k dk iz;ksx djus osQ de volj gksrs gSaA og dY;k.k dks nks dkjdksa esa ckaVrk
gSdY;k.k dk lacak futh fgrksa ls gS vkSj dY;k.k nwljksa osQ fgrksa ls Hkh lacafkr gSA
veR;Z lsu us ekuo dY;k.k dks loksZifj crk;k gSA veR;Z lsu bl ckr esa fo'okl djrs gSa fd O;fDr dh {kerkvksa esa vR;fkd
o`f dh tk ldrh gSA veR;Z lsu dgrs gSa fd O;fDr dks ;g Lora=krk izkIr gksrh gS fd og viuh ethZ ls Lora=k thou;kiu dj
losQA veR;Z lsu us ekuo dks {kerkvksa ls ;qDr ekuo djkj fn;k rFkk ;g Hkh dgk fd ekuo izR;sd dk;Z dj ldrk gSA veR;Z
lsu dk egoiw.kZ ;ksxnku bl ckr esa gS fd mUgksaus ekuo dY;k.k dks ifjHkkf"kr fd;k rFkk ekuo dh vlhfer {kerk dh ckr dhA
veR;Z lsu osQ ;ksxnku us xjhch rFkk ekuo fodkl dks ekius esa egoiw.kZ Hkwfedk vnk dhA ekuo {kerk dh vusd ifjHkk"kk;sa veR;Z
lsu us nh gSaA veR;Z lsu osQ vuqlkj xjhc yksxksa osQ ikl fodYi dkiQh lhfer gksrs gSa rFkk muosQ ikl fodkl osQ volj Hkh dkiQh
de gksrs gSaA veR;Z lsu osQ vuqlkj dY;k.k dk lacak dbZ igyqvksa ls gSA dY;k.k dk lacak futh fgrkas ls Hkh gks ldrk gS rFkk
dY;k.k dk lacak vU; yksxksa osQ fgrksa ls Hkh gks ldrk gS] ijarq O;fDr osQ fy, ;g vko';d gS fd og igys viuk dY;k.k djs
rHkh nwljksa dk dY;k.k djsA ;fn O;fDr Lo;a dk dY;k.k ugha dj ldrk rks og nwljksa dk dY;k.k Hkh ugha dj ldrkA veR;Z
lsu dh bl fopkjkkjk dks vU; ns'kksa us Hkh Lohdkj fd;k gSA veR;Z lsu dk ekuo fodkl ls lacafkr ^{kerk* n`f"Vdks.k cgqr
egoiw.kZ gSA veR;Z lsu us bl n`f"Vdks.k osQ }kjk ekuo {kerk dks mtkxj djus dk iz;kl fd;k gSA ekuo {kerk ls lacafkr veR;Z
lsu dk {kerk n`f"Vdks.k ekuo {kerkvksa dks mHkkjrk gSA veR;Z lsu us ekuo fodkl dh vko';drk ij Hkh cy fn;kA veR;Z lsu
osQ vuqlkj dbZ ns'kksa esa ekuo fodkl dk mPp Lrj ns[kk x;k] ijarq mudh izfrO;fDr vk; dkiQh de FkhA veR;Z lsu osQ vuqlkj
vYi fodflr ;k fodkl'khy ns'kksa dh vk; rFkk izfr O;fDr vk; izk;% de gh gksrh gSA okLro esa veR;Z lsu dk ekuo {kerk
ls lacafkr {kerk n`f"Vdks.k cgqr gh egoiw.kZ gS] tks ekuo dh {kerkvksa dks mHkkjus dk iz;kl djrk gSA
iz'u 2- Hkkjr tSls fodkl'khy ns'k esa ^fons'kh fuos'k izokg* dks grksRlkfgr djus okys dkjdkas dk mYys[k dhft,A
mkjfons'kh fuos'k varokZg dks grksRlkfgr djus okys dkjd (Factors Discouraging FI Inflow)
1- ?kfV;k ewyHkwr lqfokk, (Poor Infrastructure)Hkkjr dh [kjkc cqfu;knh lqfokk,a vusd dEifu;ksa osQ fy, le; ij
oqQ'ky rjhosQ esa oLrqvksa vkSj lsokvksa dk mRiknu vkSj forj.k djuk dfBu cukrh gSaA gkykafd osQUnzh; vkSj jkT; ljdkjksa us cqfu;knh
lqfokkvksa osQ foLrkj vkSj vkkqfudhdj.k esa izeq[k miyfCk izkIr dh gS] ysfdu varjkZ"Vh; ekudksa osQ vuqlkj cqfu;knh lqfokkvksa
dk vkkqfudhdj.k vkSj vuqj{k.k osQ fy, 'kh"kZ Lrj osQ fuos'k vfuok;Z gksaxsA Hkkjr dh ifjogu O;oLFkk Hkh ns'k dh rst o`f ls
dkiQh ihNs gSa] T;knkrj Hkkjrh; lM+osaQ ladjh] HkhM+HkkM+ okyh vkSj mudh ns[kjs[k ?kfV;k gSA jsyos iz.kkyh dh {kerk] fo'ks"k :i ls
'kgjh {ks=kksa esa mldh lsokvksa osQ fy, c<+rh gqbZ ekax esa o`f ls dkiQh ihNs gSaA Hkkjr osQ leqnzh iku osQ oaQVsuj dkxksZ esa ukVdh;
o`f vuqHko dh xbZ gSA ysfdu mlus viuh lapkyu {kerk ugha c<+kbZ gSA cqfu;knh lqfokk,a vFkZO;oLFkk dks ihNs kosQyrh gSa vkSj
laiw.kZ ns'k esa fo'ks"k :i ls fofuekZ.k {ks=k esa vuqHko fd, tkrs gSa] tgka mRiknu dh uE;rk] de ykxr vkSj cktkj dks 'kh?kz ifjogu
vo# lM+dksa] jsy] iku vkSj fo|qr yksi }kjk ckfkr gksrs gSaA
2- Je cktkj esa dBksjrk (Rigidity in the Labour Market)Hkkjr dh etcwr vkFkd o`f osQ ckotwn vFkZO;oLFkk osQ
laxfBr {ks=k esa jkstxkj esa o`f Je cy dh o`f osQ lkFk pyus esa vleFkZ jgh gSA Hkkjr osQ vkFkd fodkl osQ ykHk foLr`r :i
ls T;knk ugha iSQys gSaA Hkkjr esa fu;ksDrkvksa osQ fy, lcls cM+h dfBukb;ksa esa ls ,d deZpkfj;ksa dh dkecanh djus osQ fy, mudh
v{kerk gSA vkS|ksfxd fookn vfkfu;e] 1947 vkSj vuqorhZ la'kksku }kjk deZpkfj;ksa dh dkecanh vkSj la;a=kksa dh canh 'kkfey gksrh
gSA
3- ukSdj'kkgh vkSj Hkz"Vkpkj (Bureaucracy and Corruption)vR;fkd ukSdj'kkgh vkSj Hkz"Vkpkj us lalkkuksa osQ oqQ'ky
vkcaVu dks for dj O;kikj dh ykxr esa o`f djosQ ljdkjh vfkdkfj;ksa osQ vfo'okl iSnk djus ls fons'kh laLFkkxr fuos'k dks
grksRlkfgr fd;k gSA gkykafd Hkkjr us gky gh osQ o"kks esa fons'kh izR;{k fuos'k osQ fy, viuh vFkZO;oLFkk osQ T;knk {ks=k [kksyus
osQ iz;kl fd, gSa] ysfdu ns'k esa fons'kh izR;{k fuos'k varokZg ukSdj'kkgh vkSj Hkz"Vkpkj }kjk ckfkr jgrh gSA
4- jkT; Lrj dh #dkoVsa (State Level Obstacles)jkT; ls jkT; esa oLrqvksa osQ ifjogu ij yxk, x, izos'k 'kqYd fu;kZr
osQ fy, vkFkd okrkoj.k ij foijhr izHkko Mkyrs gSaA bl izdkj osQ dj NksVh vkSj cM+h dEifu;ksa ij foHksnd fch vkSj mRikn
'kqYd diM+k m|ksx tSls {ks=kksa esa fons'kh izR;{k fuos'k osQ fy, fuokjd gSa] tks fuos'k oL=kksa dh mRikndrk vkSj xq.kokk esa o`f dj
ldrs gSa vkSj bl izdkj fo'o cktkj vykHkdkjh jgrk gSA vU; xaHkhj leL;kvksa esa jkT; Lrj osQ ykyiQhrk'kkgh lacakh igyqvksa esa
Hkwfe iz;ksx vkSj i;kZoj.k lacakh fofu;e lfEefyr gSaA

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5- dkuwuh foyEc (Legal Delays)Hkkjr dh dkuwuh O;oLFkk dks vusd vU; fodflr vFkZO;oLFkkvksa esa T;knk dkuwuh
fo'ks"kKksa }kjk Js"B ekuk x;k gS] ysfdu O;ogkj esa bls vfkdrj fuos'k esa ckkd ik;k x;k gSA blesa laoknkRed izf;kvksa esa
vuko';d nsjh gksrh gS] tks U;kf;d izf;kvksa dh fo'ks"krkvksa dks fofun"V djrk gSA

Hkkx&II
([k) e;e mkj iz'u (izR;sd iz'u dk mkj yxHkx 250 'kCnksa esa nhft,)
iz'u 1- ^tula[;k o;kso`f* ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\
mkjtula[;k o;kso`ftula[;k o;kso`f rc gksrh gS] tc tula[;k dh e;e vkSj vkSlr vk;q c<+rh gSA tula[;k dh
vkSlr vk;q og vk;q gksrh gS] tks tula[;k dks nks vkks Hkkxksa esa ckVrh gS] rkfd tks tula[;k osQ 'kh"kZ vkks Hkkx esa gS] os vkSlr
vk;q vFkok vfkd vk;q osQ gSa vkSj tks fupys vkks Hkkx esa gSa] os vkSlr vk;q ls de osQ gSaA tula[;k dh vkSlr vk;q esa rc o`f
gksrh gS] tc cPpksa osQ vuqikr esa deh vkrh gSA Hkkjrh; tula[;k dh vkSlr vk;q esa c<+ksrjh gqbZ gSA ;g o"kZ 1971 vkSj 2001 osQ
e; 19-60 o"kks ls c<+dj 2001 esa 22-81 o"kZ gqbZ gSA oqQN vuqekuksa osQ vuqlkj lalkj dh vkSLkr vk;q 1937 esa 290 ls c<+dj
2000 esa 37-3 gqbZ vkSj o"kZ 2050 esa c<+dj 45-5 gksus dh laHkkouk O;Dr dh tkrh gSA
Hkkjr dh lEiw.kZ tula[;k esa 50 o"kZ ls vfkd dh vk;q okys yksxksa dh la[;k Hkh dkiQh vfkd gSA Hkkjr dh laiw.kZ tula[;k
esa ;qokvksa rFkk cPpksa osQ vfrfjDr o` yksxksa dh Hkh dkiQh vfkd la[;k gSA vxj orZeku rFkk vkus okys oqQN lkyksa esa Hkh ;gh
izo`fk cuh jgh rks Hkkjr dh tula[;k esa ;qokvksa osQ ckn o` yksxksa dh la[;k lcls vfkd gksxhA ;fn ;qokvksa rFkk o`ksa dh
tula[;k esa o`f gksrh gS rks laiw.kZ tula[;k dh vkSlr esa Hkh dkiQh o`f gksrh gSA ;g izo`fk ns[kus esa vk;h gS fd lalkj dh
tula[;k vkSlr esa dkiQh lqkkj gqvk gSA bldk dkj.k LokLF; lsokvksa dk foLrkj gSA fodflr ns'kksa eas tula[;k dh vkSlr mez
vfkd gksrh gS] ijarq vYifodflr rFkk fodkl'khy ns'kksa esa tula[;k dh vkSlr mez dkiQh de gksrh gSA Hkkjr esa Hkh ;k rks ;qokvksa
dh la[;k tula[;k esa vfkd gS ;k o` yksxkas dh la[;kA 'ks"k cpk Hkkx efgykvksa rFkk cPpksa dk gSA Hkkjr esa ;qokvksa dh tula[;k
lcls vfkd gSA ftlosQ dkj.k Hkkjr osQ ikl le` ekuo lalkku ekStwn gSa ijarq Hkkjr dh c<+rh tula[;k fpUrk dk fo"k; cuh
gqbZ gSA
iz'u 2- ^E;wP;qvy iaQM* osQ fy, roZQlaxr vkkkjksa dk mYys[k dhft,A bUgsa etcwr cukus osQ fy, vki D;k lq>ko
nsuk pkgsaxs\
mkjE;qP;qvy iaQM
yksxksa dh cprksa ls okf.kfT;d cSadksa vkSj lkoZtfud fokh; laLFkkvksa }kjk cuk;k x;k ,slk dks"k] ftldk iz;ksx eqnzk cktkj
esa fuos'k gsrq fd;k tkrk gks] eqnzk cktkj E;qpqvy iQaM dgykrk gSA Hkkjr esa E;qP;qvy iaQM dk vuqHko pkj n'kdksa ls T;knk izkphu
gS] ftlesa igys nks n'kdksa ls ;wfuV VLV vkWiQ bf.M;k bl {ks=k esa izeq[k .knkrk FkkA ysfdu foxr n'kdksa osQ nkSjku ,slh dEifu;ksa
dh la[;k dbZ xquk gks xbZ] ftUgksaus E;qP;qvy iaQM cktkj esa izos'k fd;kA
E;qP;qvy iaQMksa dk vkSfpR;
E;qP;qvy iaQMksa dk vkSfpR; fuos'kd rFkk iwth cktkj dh vksj ls Hkh dgk tk ldrk gSA futh fuos'kd osQ fo"k; esas ykHkka'k
vkSj iwth ewY; o`f osQ :i esa T;knk izfrykHk gSaA gkfu dk ladV de gks tkrk gS] D;ksafd iaQMksa dk izcaku lqfo[;kr O;kolkf;d
izcakksa }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA blosQ vfrfjDr futh fuos'kdksa dks fu.kZ; dh ijs'kkuh ls vyx j[kk tkrk gSA blfy, futh fuos'kd dh
n`f"V ls E;qP;qvy iaQM vR;fkd ykHkizn gSaA
iwth cktkj dh n`f"V ls ;fn fons'kh fuos'kd Hkh fuos'k dj jgk gS] rks ?kjsyw cktkj osQ fuos'kdksa osQ fy, udnh osQ O;kikj
lapkyu dh c<+h gqbZ ek=kk osQ dkj.k c<+ tkrh gSA lwpuk fo"kerk dh ijs'kkfu;ka de gks tkrh gSaA blls vkFkd cqfu;knh flkarksa
esa lqkkj djus esa enn feyrh gSA bl izdkj futh vkSj iwth cktkj nksuksa osQ fy, ykHk egoiw.kZ gSaA
E;qP;qvy iaQM lqn`<+ djuk
vuqlakkudkkZvksa us E;qP;qvy iaQM cktkj dks etcwr djus osQ fy, vusd lq>ko fn, gSa] tks fuEufyf[kr gSa
1- fofHk =kqfV;ksa dks nwj djus osQ fy, ;wfuV VLV vkWiQ bf.M;k osQ leku i`Fkd O;kid dkuwu cukukA
2- O;kolkf;d vuqeku vkSj ewY;kadu osQ vkkkj ij izfriQy laHkkfor vofkA
3- vyx&vyx cktkj izi=kksa osQ e; iaQM osQ iz;ksx dk vuqikr fofun"V djosQ ikjn'krk lqkkjukA

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iz'u 3- ^Hkkjrh; f"k* dh nh?kZdkfyd leL;kvksa dh la{ksi esa ppkZ dhft,A


mkjf"k dh nh?kZdkyhu leL;k,
vkkqfudhdj.k dh orZeku izkoLFkk us oqQN pqukSfr;k iSnk dh gSa] ftUgsa vc T;knk utjvankt ugha fd;k tk ldrkA ;s pqukSfr;k
fuEu izdkj gSa
1- o"kkZ ls lfpr iQlyksa ls lacafkr leL;k,o"kkZ ls lfpr tSls eksVs vukt] xjhc O;fDr dk Hkkstu] fo'ks"k :i ls
nyguksa osQ lanHkZ esa mRiknu esa o`f dh leL;kvksa ls lacafkr gSaA iw.kZ :i ls fodflr izkS|ksfxd;ka vkSj O;kid f;kfofk;ksa dk
iqujkoyksdu djuk visf{kr gSA fdlkuksa dh lkis{k xjhch vkSj lkFk gh vfuf'prrk dh mPp ek=kk vkkqfud lkkuksa osQ mi;ksx dks
dfBu vkSj tksf[keiw.kZ cukrh gS] Hkys gh mUgsa mUur ifr;ka ekuk tkrk gSA xzkeh.k xjhc] fo'ks"k :i ls lw[kk izHkkfor {ks=kksa esa vkSj
ns'k osQ nwjorhZ {ks=kksa esa jkstxkj vkSj vk; osQ mrkj&p<+ko gSa rFkk lw[ks osQ le; esa [kk|kksa dh vi;kZIr miyCkrk >syrs gSaA
2- iQkeZ mRiknksa osQ iz;ksx ls lacafkr leL;k,f"k esa mPp o`f nj fLFkj j[kuk de tfVy dk;Z ugha gS] blesa iQkeZ mRiknksa
dh Hkwfedk izeq[k gSA tSlslpkbZ osQ lacak esa gkykafd {ks=k us vPNh mfr dh gS] ysfdu ykHk dk izokg vkuqikfrd ugha jgk gSA
ge moZjdksa dh [kir osQ fy, lqfuf'pr ms'; osQ Lrj rd ugha igqap losQ gSaA
3- NksVs fdlkuksa dh leL;kns'k esa 9 djksM+ pkyw iQkeZ tksrksa esa ls 8 djksM+ ls T;knk vkdkj esa 2 gsDVs;j ls de dh gaSA
f"k ls ldy ?kjsyw mRikn dk yxHkx 60&70 izfr'kr mRikn bUgha tksrksa ls vkrk gSA
4- fuos'k dh mRikndrk esa klizeq[k fpark dk fo"k; vkkqfud fuos'kksa dh mRikndrk esa fxjkoV jgh gSA fuos'kksa dh fxjrh
gqbZ mRikndrk osQ vusd dkj.k fn, x, gSaA 'kq#vkr esa ubZ izkS|ksfxdh mu {ks=kksa esa viukbZ xbZ] tgka lpkbZ lqfuf'pr FkhA T;knk tfVy
{ks=kksa esa ubZ izkS|ksfxdh foLrkj T;knk egaxk vkSj iwth izkku gksuk t:jh gSA ubZ f"k izkS|ksfxfd;ka o"kkZ flafpr {ks=kksa esa Hkh iSQy jgh
gSaA lqfuf'pr flapkbZ okys {ks=kksa dh vis{kk o"kkZ lfpr {ks=kksa osQ ekeys esa fuos'k ykxr cgqr T;knk gSA mRikndrk esa fxjkoV fuos'kksa
osQ iz;ksx esa v{kerk osQ dkj.k vkbZ gSA
5- f"k esa mRiknu dh c<+rh gqbZ ykxrfoxr nks n'kdksa esa fdlkuksa }kjk izkIr dhersa lkkuksa dh dherksa] fo'ks"k :i ls
vkS|ksfxd lkkuksa dh dhersa ls ihNs jgh gSaA izfr o"kZ mRiknu dh ykxr vkSj lkku dherksa dk muosQ leku j[kus osQ fy, ljdkj
}kjk izeq[k f"k iQlyksa dh dherksa dk fo'ys"k.k fd;k tkrk gSA bl fLFkfr esa fdlkuksa osQ fy, mRiknu dh ykxr esa o`f osQ fy,
mUgsa leqfpr :i esa {kfriwr djus esa ljdkj dh detksjh jgh gSA
6- m|ksx vkSj f"k osQ chp nqcZy iM+rk lacak,slk ekuk tkrk gS fd vkt Hkh tula[;k dk vfkdrj Hkkx f"k ij fuHkZj
gS vkSj tula[;k dh laLfr esa mPp xzkeh.k iwokZxzg] bl lacak nqcZyhdj.k fpark dk eq[; fo"k; gSA
7- vR;ar fofu;fer {ks=kf"k ,slk vR;ar fofu;fer {ks=k gS] tks f"k mRiknksa dh eqDr vkoktkgh ij izfrcak yxkrk gSA buesa
vR;fkd egoiw.kZ gSa(1) vfuok;Z mi&dj] (2) ykblsalx t:jrsa] (3) vkarfjd O;kikj izfrcakA
iz'u 4- 1991&2009 osQ nkSjku Hkkjr esa fons'kh izR;{k fuos'k (,iQ-Mh-vkbZ-) varokZg dh izo`fk;ksa dh ppkZ dhft,A
mkjHkkjr esa fons'kh izR;{k fuos'k@fons'kh laFkkxr fuos'k esa izo`fk;ka
Hkkjr dks lap;h fons'kh izR;{k fuos'k varokZg dk lcls cM+k Hkkx ekWjh'kl ls izkIr gqvk gSA ;g 1991 vkSj 2006 osQ chp yxHkx
33 izfr'kr FkkA o"kZ 2001&02 ls nks o"kZ rd fxjkoV dh izo`fk dks n'kkZus ds i'pkr o"kZ 2004&05 esa fons'kh izR;{k fuos'k (fuoy)
vUrizZokgksa esa 36 izfr'kr dh o`f gqbZ vkSj vf/d izokg eq[;r% fctyh midj.kksa (dEI;wVj lkWVos;j vkSj bysDVkWfuDl lfgr)
vkSj lsok {ks=kksa esa jgsA Hkqxrku&'ks"k esa n'kkZbZ xbZ lexz izR;{k fons'kh fuos'kksa dh la[;k tkod izR;{k fons'kh fuos'kksa dks ?kVkdj gSA
o"kZ 2004&05 ds nkSjku 5-6 fcfy;u vejhdh MkWyj ij Hkkjr esa vkod izR;{k fons'kh fuos'k izokg o"kZ 2003&04 esa 4-3 fcfy;u
MkWyj ds ,sls vUrizZokgksa ls fcfy;u vejhdh MkWyj vf/d FksA
Hkkjr esa fons'kh izR;{k fuos'k 2005&06 esa 7-5 vjc MkWyj jgkA fokh; o"kZ 2005&06 esa Hkkjr esa fons'kh izR;{k fuos'k ds
vkadM+s okf.kT; ea=kky; us 19 vizSy] 2006 dks tkjh fd, FksA bu vkadM+ksa ds vuqlkj lUnfHkZr o"kZ esa ns'k esa fons'kh izR;{k fuos'k
esa rhoz o`f ntZ dh xbZA okf.kT; ea=kky; ds bu vkadM+ksa ds vuqlkj 2005&06 esa Hkkjr esa fons'kh izR;{k fuos'k 7-5 vjc MkWyj
jgk] tks iwoZ o"kZ (2004&05) esa 5-3 vjc MkWyj ds ,iQMhvkbZ dh rqyuk esa 41-5 izfr'kr vfkd jgkA
2006&07 esa fons'kh izR;{k fuos'k 12 vjc MkWyj jgus dh mEehnpkyw fokh; o"kZ 2006&07 esa Hkkjr esa fons'kh izR;{k
fuos'k 12 vjc MkWyj jgus dh laHkkouk okf.kT; ea=kky; ds vkS|ksfxd uhfr foHkkx us O;Dr dhA ;g fiNys o"kZ dh rqyuk esa 50
izfr'kr vf/d FkhA chrs o"kZ 2005&06 esa Hkkjr esa dqy fons'k izR;{k fuos'k 8-15 vjc MkWyj jgk FkkA

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{ks=kokj ,iQ-Mh-vkbZ-Hkkjr esa lcls vf/d ,iQ-Mh-vkbZ- fo|qr miLdj esa gqbZ gS (16-62 izfr'kr)A blds ckn LFkku
gSifjogu m|ksx (10-39 izfr'kr)] fokh; o xSj&fokh; lsok (9-53 izfr'kr)] nwjlapkj (9-6 izfr'kr)A
jkT;okj ,iQ-Mh-vkbZ-fnYyh us lcls vf/d ,iQ-Mh-vkbZ- vkdf"kZr fd;k gSA ikap lokZf/d ,iQ-Mh-vkbZ- vkdf"kZr djus okys
jkT;@{ks=k gSaubZ fnYyh (25-96 izfr'kr)] eqEcbZ (21-18 izfr'kr)] caxykSj (7-63 izfr'kr)] psUubZ (6-05 izfr'kr) rFkk vgenkckn
(3-32 izfr'kr)A
Hkkjr esa ns'kokj ,iQ-Mh-vkbZ- varizZokg ds varxZr izeq[k LFkku ekWjh'kl (34-49 izfr'kr) rFkk mlds i'pkr la;qDr jkT;
vesfjdk (17-08 izfr'kr) rFkk tkiku (7-33 izfr'kr) dk LFkku gSA ikap jkT;ksa@la?k jkT; {ks=kksaegkjk"V] fnYyh] rfeyukMq] dukZVd
rFkk xqtjkrftuesa lcls vfkd ,iQ-Mh-vkbZ- vuqeksnu izkIr gq,A ns'k esa ,sls dqy vuqeksnuksa dk 48 izfr'kr ls vfkd fgLlk izkIr
gqvkA

Hkkx&III
(x) y?kq mkj iz'u (izR;sd iz'u dk mkj yxHkx 100 'kCnksa esa nhft,)
iz'u 1- ^pkyw [kkrk ?kkVk* ij ,d fVIi.kh fyf[k,A
mkjpkyw [kkrk ?kkVkpkyw [kkrk ls rkRi;Z ns'k dh cpr ls T;knk fuos'k gSA ;g ?kkVs essa py jgs ns'k osQ fy, 'ks"k fo'o
ls lalkkuksa dk fuoy LFkkukarj.k fu:fir djrk gSA fdlh Hkh ns'k osQ fy, lgh pkyw [kkrk ?kkVk iwth varokZg lafoyu djus vkSj
mi;ksx djus dh mldh {kerk ij fuHkZj djrk gSA ;s lalkku mRikndrk rFkk pqdkus osQ fy, mldh {kerk c<+kus esa bLrseky gks
ldrs gSaA
pkyw [kkrk ?kkVs esa py jgs ns'k osQ fy, 'ks"k fo'o ls lalkkuksa dk fuoy LFkkukarj.k fu:fir djrk gSA blfy, fuos'k osQ fy,
vR;fkd t:jr okys fodkl'khy ns'k esa pkyw [kkrk ?kkVk vifjgk;Z gS] D;ksafd ;g ml fuos'k dks fu:fir djrk gS] tks viuh gh
cpr ls fok O;oLFkk osQ fy, viuh vk'kkvksa osQ izfrowQy gks ldrk gSA bl n`f"V ls pkyw [kkrk ?kkVk lcls csgrj gS] tc fons'kh
iwth varokZg }kjk fok iksf"kr fd, tkrs gSaA mPp pkyw [kkrk ?kkVs ls ldy ?kjsyw mRikn vuqikr osQ lanHkZ esa fpark dk dksbZ dkj.k
ugha gSA ysfdu ;fn os fok iks"k.k ugha dj ldrs gSa] rc ;g leL;k iSnk dj ldrk gSA
iz'u 2- ^lkekU; eq[;@lgk;d xfrfofk izfLFkfr* ij ,d fVIi.kh fyf[k,A
mkjekax vkSj vkiwr nksuksa i{k Hkkjr esa lsok {ks=k dks o`f osQ batu dh izfLFkfr iznku djrh gSA lsok {ks=k dks ^o`f osQ batu*
osQ :i esa ekuk tkrk gS] ;fn ;g vFkZO;oLFkk esa vkxs o`f osQ fy, vR;fkd vkosx iSnk djrk gSA o"kZ 2000 vkSj 2005 osQ chp
lsok {ks=k dk ^pkyw nSfud izfLFkfr* jkstxkj esa o`f] ^lkekU; izkku izfLFkfr* jkstxkj (1-2 izfr'kr) esa o`f dh vis{kk T;knk gSA
pkyw nSfud izfLFkfr dk lacak ?kaVsokj jkstxkj dh fo'ks"krk gSA blfy, pkyw nSfud izfLFkfr o`f vFkkZr jkstxkj o`f esa de oqQ'ky
dkexkjksa osQ fy, mfpr {ks=kksa] tSls O;kikj] ifjogu osQ {ks=kksa esa yxs gksrs gSa vkSj jkstxkj esa o`f osQ fy, lgk;d gksrs gSaA

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