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Katyayini is the sixth form amongst the Navadurga or the nine forms of Hindu god

dess Parvati or (Shakti), worshipped during the Navratri celebrations.[1] this i

s the second name given for Parvati in amarakosha, the Sanskrit lexicon. (uma ka
tyayani gaouri kali haimavathi iiswari) In Shaktism she is associated with the f
ierce forms of Shakti or Durga,a Warrior goddess, which also includes Bhadrakali
and Chandika,[2] and traditionally she is associated with the colour red, as wi
th Goddess Durga, the primordial form of Shakti, a fact also mentioned in Patanj
ali's Mahabhashya on Pa?ini, written in 2nd BCE.[3]
She is first mentioned in the Taittiriya Aranyaka part of the Krishna Yajurveda.
Skanda Purana mentions her being created out of the spontaneous anger of Gods,
which eventually led to slaying the demon, Mahishasura, mounted of the lion give
n to her by Goddess Gauri. This occasion is celebrated during the annual Durga P
uja festival in most parts of India.[4]
Her exploits are described in the Devi-Bhagavata Purana and Devi Mahatmyam, part
of the Markandeya Purana attributed to sage Markandeya Rishi, who wrote it in S
anskrit ca. 400-500 CE. Over a period of time, her presence was also felt in Bud
dhist and Jain texts and several Tantric text, especially the Kalika Purana (10t
h century), which mentions Uddiyana or Odradesa (Odisha), as the seat of Goddess
Katyayani and Lord Jagannath[citation needed].[5]
In Hindu traditions like Yoga and the Tantra, she is ascribed to the sixth Ajna
Chakra or the 'Third eye chakra', and her blessings are invoked by concentrating
on this point.[1]

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According to ancient legends, she was born a daughter of Katyayan Rishi, born in
the Katya lineage, thus called Katyayani, "daughter of Katyayan" . Elsewhere in
texts like the Kalika Purana, it is mentioned that it was Rishi Kaytyayan who f
irst worshipped her, hence she came to known as 'Katyayani. In either case, she
is a demonstration or apparition of the Durga, and is worshipped on the sixth da
y of Navratri festival.[1][6]
Devi Mahatmya in Sanskrit, the central text of Shaktism, dated 11 CE
The Vamana Purana mentions the legend of her creation in great detail: "When the
gods had sought Vishnu in their distress, he, and at his command Shiva, Brahma,
and the other gods, emitted such flames from their eyes and countenances that a
mountain of effulgence was formed, from which became manifest Katyayini, refulg
ent as a thousand suns, having three eyes, black hair, and eighteen arms. Siva g
ave her his trident, Vishnu a Sudarshan Chakra or discus, Varuna a shankha, a co
nch-shell, Agni a dart, Vayu a bow, Surya a quiver full of arrows, Indra a thund
erbolt, Kuvera a mace, Brahma a rosary and water-pot, Kala a shield and sword, V
isvakarma a battle-axe and other weapons. Thus armed, and adored by the gods, Ka
tyayini proceeded to the Vindhya hills. There, the asuras Chanda and Munda saw h
er, and captivated by her beauty they so described her to Mahishasura, their kin
g, that he was anxious to obtain her. On asking for her hand, she told him she m
ust be won in fight. He came, and fought; at length Durga dismounted from her li
on, and sprang upon the back of Mahisha, who was in the form of a buffalo, and w
ith her tender feet so smote him on the head that he fell to the ground senseles
s, when she cut off his head with her sword, and hence was called Mahishasuramar

dini, the Slayer of Mahishasura.,[4] the legend also finds mention in Varaha Pur
ana, and the classical text of Shaktism the Devi-Bhagavata Purana[7]
According to 'Tantras, she revealed through the North face, which is one six Fac
es of Shiva. This face is s blue in color and with three eyes, and also revealed
the Devis, Dakshinakalika, Mahakali, Guhyakah, Smashanakalika, Bhadrakali, Ekaj
ata, Ugratara (fierce Tara), Taritni, Chhinnamasta, Nilasarasvati (Blue Saraswat
i), Durga, Jayadurga, Navadurga, Vashuli, Dhumavati, Vishalakshi, Gauri, Bagalam
ukhi, Pratyangira, Matangi, Mahishasuramardini, their rites and Mantras.[8]
Elsewhere in history, Katyayani and Maitreyi are mentioned as a wives of Sage Ya
jnavalkya (???????????) of Vedic India, credited with the authorship of the Shat
apatha Brahmana[9]
The Bhagavata Purana in 10th Canto, 22nd Chapter, describes the legend of Katyay
ani Vrata, where young marriageable daughters (gopis) of the cowherd men of Goku
la in Braja, worshipped Goddess Katyayani and took a vrata or vow, during the en
tire month of Margashirsha, the first month of the winter season, to get Lord Kr
ishna as their husband. During the month, they ate only unspiced khichri, and af
ter bathing in the Yamuna at sunrise, made an earthen deity of the goddess on th
e riverbank, and worshipped the idol with aromatic substances like sandalwood pu
lp, and lamps, fruits, betel nuts, newly grown leaves, and fragrant garlands and
incense. This follows the episode where Krishna takes away their clothes while
they were bathing in the Yamuna River.[10][11]
She is worshiped as the Adi shakti swaroop who if you make vow of fasting, would
give you the husband you have wished and prayed for. The fasting, called Katyay
ani-vrata is made for a whole month, offering such things as sandal, flowers, in
cense, etc.
Devi Kanya Kumari
"During the month of Margasir?a, every day early in the morning the young da
ughters of the cowherds (gopis) would take one another's hands and, singing of K
rishna's transcendental qualities, go to the Yamuna (Jamuna) to bathe. Desiring
to obtain Krishna as their husband, they would then worship the goddess Katyayan
i with incense, flowers and other items".
Each day they rose at dawn. Calling out to one another by name, they all held ha
nds and loudly sang the glories of krishna while going to the Kalindi (Kalindi per
sonified Jamuna) to take their bath.
The Adolescent Virgin Goddess in the southern tip of India, Devi Kanya Kumari is
said to be the avatar of Devi Katyayani. She is the goddess of penance and Sany
as. During the Pongal (Thai Pongal), a harvest festival, which coincides with th
e Makara Sankranthi, and is celebrated in Tamil Nadu, young girls prayed for rai
n and prosperity and throughout the month, they avoided milk and milk products.
Women used to bath early in the morning, and worshiped the idol of Goddess Katya
yani, carved out of wet sand. The penance ended on the first day of the month of
Thai (January February) in Tamil calendar