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Industrial Gas Turbine

Performance Improvements Through


Advanced Controls & Modeling

Tim Healy
April, 2009
1

The Difference Between


Failure,
and Success,

Often Rests Heavily on The Control System

There Exists Significant


Opportunity To Improve
Performance & Emissions
In The Thermal Sector
Through Advanced Control
& Modeling

Thermal

Nuclear

Increasing Generation Diversity Requires


Increasing Flexibility From All Sectors

Nuclear

Cleaner Coal

Renewables

Gas

Biomass

Wind

Solar

Hydro
3

Thermal Sector Remains A Very Large Part of


The Generation Portfolio
Projected World Electricity Generation by Fuel
35
30
25

Trillion Kilowatt-Hours

Coal
Natural Gas
Liquids
Renewables
Nuclear

20
15
10
5
0
2005

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

Source: History: Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Annual


2005 (June-October 2007), Projections: EIA World Energy Projections Plus (2008)

A Dramatically Revised Outlook for 09


2009 economic outlook
8.7%

Last years outlook (April 2008)


Current outlook (January 2009)

6.4%

8.2%

6.5%
5.1%

4.7%
3.2%
1.7%

-0.5%
World

1.6%

-1.5%

1.7%

2.2%
1.4%

Russia Middle
East
-2.3%

China

India

-2.5%
USA Eurozone Japan

World real GDP growth slowed from about 4% in 2006 and


2007 to 2.4% in 2008, expecting -0.5% in 2009
Source: Global Insight Outlook, April vs. December 23, 2008

24

Outline
Industrial Gas Turbines Short-Course
Legacy Control Algorithms
Model-Based Control for Fuel Flexibility
The Road Ahead

A Sense of Power
x 10
Ford Shelby GT500
~500 SHP

GE Evolution Locomotive
~5000 SHP

GE 9H Industrial GT Engine
~500,000 SHP (combined-cycle)

x 10

x 10
GE-90 Aircraft GT Engine
~50,000 SHP

Gas Turbine Plant - Simple Cycle


Fuel
Air

1
2
Gen

Comb

Comp

4
Turb

Heat Source

Stack

T
GT

BRAYTON GAS CYCLE


COMPRESSI
ON

TEMPERATURE

COMBUSTION

2
K
STAC

1
ENTROPY

S
8

Gas Turbine & Steam Turbine - Combined Cycle


7

Integrated Combined Cycle

HRSG

9
Gen

ST
10
Pump
6

Air
1
Gen

Cond
5

Fuel
2

Comb

Comp

4
GT

Heat Source

GT

BRAYTON GAS CYCLE

GAS
UST
EXHA

2
HRSG

8
7

STACK

5, 6

4
9
ST

COMPRESSI
ON

TEMPERATURE

COMBUSTION

RANKINE
STEAM CYCLE

CONDENSER

10

Heat Sink

ENTROPY

S
9

Industrial Gas Turbine Overview


Inlet
Flow

Fuel
Flow

Combustor
Turbine

Exhaust
Flow

Compressor

Shaft

10

CanAnnular Combustion Systems


Cross-Section Through
One Chamber

Chamber Arrangement
on Gas Turbine

Multiple Fuel
Nozzles
11

Industrial Gas Turbine Operability


(Also Known as Control Requirements)
Hot Gas
Path
Durability

Fuel
System
Operability

Exhaust
Frame
Durability

Compressor
AeroMechanics

Combustor
Flashback
(Flameholding)

Compressor
Surge

Combustor
Emissions
(NOx, CO, UHC)

Power
Output

Combustion
Dynamics
Optimal
Efficiency

AutoIgnition

Combustor
Lean BlowOut (LBO)

12

Outline
Industrial Gas Turbines Short-Course
Legacy Control Algorithms
Model-Based Control for Fuel Flexibility
The Road Ahead

13

Typical Industrial Gas Turbine


Sensor/Effector Suite
Inlet Bleed Heat (IBH)
Compressor
Inlet Guide
Vanes (IGV)

Actuator stroke feedback and some


fuel system pressures not shown

Ambient Pressure
Ambient
Temperature

Generator
Power
Generator
Losses

Inlet
Pressure
Drop

Effectors

Total Fuel Flow (Wf)

Exhaust Pressure Drop


Fuel Temperature
Exhaust Temperature

Inlet Temperature
Inlet Humidity

Sensors

Fuel Splits

Compressor
Discharge
Pressure
Compressor
Discharge
Temperature
14

Sensor-Based Control Approach


Isentropic
Compression

P3

Ideal Brayton Cycle

Isentropic
Expansion

Temperature

e
ssur
t Pre on
n
a
t
i
s
Con at Addit
He

P 2=

Maximum Cycle
Temperature

Cycle =
P 1= P4

P2 T2
=
P1 T1

Entropy
Cycle

Comp
1

Work Output (T3 T4 ) (T2 T1 )


=
Heat Added
(T3 T2 )

Turb

2 Comb 3

P T
= 3 = 3
P4 T4

T
= 1 3
T4

Problem:
Desire To Control T3,
But T3 is Not Measured

(1 ) ( 1)

Higher T3 = Higher Cycle

Turbine Efficiency

Solution:
Correlate T3 to a
Measured Variable

turbine =
T3 =

T
T'

T4

1 - turbine 1

( )

P3 1
P4

T3 = f ( T4 , PRc )

for assumed t and PRc ~= PRt

T3 = f ( T4 , t , PRt )
15

Indirect (Schedule-Based) Boundary Control


Fuel
Splits

Splits

X ~ Tx

PRc

T4_max

MINIMUM

T4

T4_req +

P+I

Wf / IGV

T4

Pre-Programmed
Control Schedules
Field-Tuned For
Performance &
Operability

PRc

Characteristics
Simple
(Easily Understood and Verified)

Approximate Boundary Protection


(Accommodates Worst-Case Condition)

Poor Accommodation Of Ambient/Fuel


Variation

No Explicit Accommodation Of Machine


Deterioration
(New & Clean / Mean Machine Assumption)

Coupled Effectors Prohibit Optimization


(Part-Load Exhaust Temperature & Fuel Splits)

(Impact to Emissions, Combustion Dynamics, LBO Margin)

16

Outline
Industrial Gas Turbines Short-Course
Legacy Control Algorithms
Model-Based Control for Fuel Flexibility
The Road Ahead

17

Gas Fuel Composition Variation


98
USA

94

Ethane
Content [%]

Methane
Content [%]

Abu
Dhabi

14

Trinidad
96

Norway

92

Nigeria
Algeria

90
88

Malaysia

Abu
Dhabi

86

Qatar
Oman

84
82

12
10
Algeria
8

Oman

6
4

Qatar

Malaysia
Nigeria

Norway
Trinidad

USA

80
US (Typical)

Abu Dhabi

Algeria

Malaysia

Nigeria

Norway

Oman

Qatar

Trinidad

Geographic Origin

US (Typical)

Abu Dhabi

Algeria

Malays ia

Nigeria

Norway

Oman

Qatar

Composition Variation
Will Increase As More
LNG Is Injected Into
Pipelines

Trinidad

Geographic Origin
4.5

1500

Propane
Content [%]

Oman

3.5
Nigeria

Qatar
2.5
Norway

Abu
Dhabi

1.5

Algeria

1
USA

Trinidad

0.5
0

Wobbe Index

Malaysia

1450

Abu Dhabi

Algeria

Malays ia

Nigeria

Norway

Oman

Qatar

Trinidad

MWI =

HHV
Sg

Wobbe Index

LHV
S g T

Modified Wobbe Index

HHV, LHV
Sg

Qatar

Norway

1400

Trinidad
USA
1350

US (Typical)

Abu Dhabi

Geographic Origin

WI =

Nigeria
Algeria

1300
US (Typical)

Oman

Malaysia

Abu
Dhabi

Algeria

Malaysia

Nigeria

Norway

Oman

Qatar

Trinidad

Geographic Origin

Fuel Higher/Lower Heating Value [BTU/Scf]


Fuel Specific Gravity
Fuel Temperature [R]

18

What Is At Risk?
Gas turbine operability concerns due
to composition variation:
Addressed by gas
fuel specification
(given expected variation,
not an issue for most premixed combustion systems)

Auto-Ignition
Flashback
Emissions (NOx, CO)
Combustion Dynamics
Blow-out

Addressed today
by manual tuning
(given expected variation,
potentially a very serious issue)

Tuning is required to protect against fuel


composition variation

19

Gas Fuel Composition Rate-of-Change


Significant & rapid
shifts in Null-Point
are possible

NP

NG

NG
NP

NG

Rate and frequency of pipeline


composition changes will increase
An automatic tuning process is
required to support continuous &
reliable operation

LNG

NP

LNG

LNG

Fictitious
region /
pipeline

20

Legacy Solution
Closed-Loop MWI With Fuel Temperature

IP Feedwater
Control

Dual GCs

Performance
Heater

Characteristics
Costly
(Dual Gas Chromatographs)

Low-Bandwidth
(GCs & Fuel Heat Exchangers)

Limited Authority
(Performance Heater Capability)

Sub-Optimal Efficiency
(Any Off-Nominal Fuel Temperature)
21

Limit Scheduling

Direct (Model-Based) Boundary Control


+_
+_
+_

Loop
Selection

+_
+_
+_

Loop
Selection

+_
+_

0 . 16

(6 . 394 * SH )
W
3 . 95 * e

T3

NOx@ 270

1 . 25
O2 =
15
%
P3 * e

Physics-Based
Boundary Models

NOxref * e
*e

.006*(Tfl Tfl ref )

9.5( SH SH ref )

IGV

Loop
Selection

+_

(SISO vs. MIMO:


Industrial GT System
Coupling & Time Scale
Does Not Demand
MIMO Control, Yet)

Wf
Fuel
Splits

Virtual
Sensors

ARES - Parameter
Estimation

*Q
Engine Model

Characteristics
Robust / Flexible / Expandable
(Additional Boundaries / Loops)

Direct Boundary Protection


(Physical Space of Boundary)

Accommodation Of Machine Deterioration


(Adaptive Model Ensures Accurate Virtual Sensors)

Implicitly De-Coupled Effectors


(Automatic Performance Optimization)

Good Accommodation Of Ambient / Fuel


Variation
(Manages Emissions, Combustion Dynamics, LBO Margin)

22

Adaptive Real-time Engine Simulation (ARES)


Model
Non-Linear Component-Level Cycle Model
Optimized for Real-Time Operation

Filter
Extended Kalman Filter Formulation
On-Line Jacobian & KF Gain Calculation
Re-configurable for Fault Accommodation
Avoids Parallel Linear Model Process
Measured
Inputs

Measured
Outputs

On-Line Partial Derivative Calculation

x , y

Estimated
Outputs
ARES - Parameter
Estimation

u
x prt

+
_

State
Estimate

On-Line Filter Gain Calculation

Extended
Outputs

P = a P aT + Q
s = J P JT + R
K = P J T s 1

x
+
+

Z-1

Partial
Deriv.
Calc.

y prt

Engine Model

y ext
Engine Model

ARES - Parameter
Estimation

P = P K J P

(Covariance of
Prediction Error)
(Covariance of
Residual)
(Gain Matrix)

a, J
Q, R

(Covariance of
Prediction Error)

Z-1

23

eNOx

min

eNOx
+_

Control

NOx

Fuel_
Fraction

+_
+_
+_
+_
+_
+_
+_
+_
+_

Loop-In-Control
Structure

Environment
Limit Scheduling

NOx
(target)

e1
e2

max

Model-Based Control Adapts Well To


Environmental / Fuel Variation

CDM

Physics-Based
Boundary Models
NOx @15%O2 =
f ( Tflame, Humidity,
Fuel_Fraction )

Virtual
Sensors

GT

Effectors

Sensors
ARES - Parameter
Estimation

Engine Model

Tflame, Tfire,
W2, etc.
24

Integrating Models, Sensors, & Algorithms


1.5

Adaptive-Model Approach

15
Site
Site
Site
Site
Site

14
13
12

A
B
C
D
E (10% C2)

XR

1.0

11

Closed-Loop
Control
+_

10
9

8
7

Boundary
Sensor

0.5

Predicted
Dynamics
[psi]
Predicted
NOx
[ppm@15%O2]

Physics-Based Boundary Models

0.5
5

1.0
1.5
10 11 12 13 14 15

Measured
[psi]
Measured Dynamics
NOx [ppm@15%O2]

Design
Center

( Small
Performance
Impact )
( No Performance
Impact )

( Performance
Impact )
Load
Runback

Fuel
Temp.

Fuel
Fraction

Expected
LNG Range

Boundary
Model

Performance optimization
through hierarchical
application of effectors

Wobbe

25

Model-Based Control Performance

200

400

NOx [ppm @15%O2]

2%
0%

9
8
7
6
400

-20

~260F fuel
temperature
excursion imposed
(~20% MWI) over
five minutes (max
capability of fuel
heat exchanger)

20

40

60

10

80

80
60
40
20
0

Time [sec]

OpFlex Wide Wobbe


algorithm maintains
emissions &
dynamics levels
using fuel
distribution only

100

120
NOx
Load

110

100

90

6
-20

600

OpFlex Wide
Wobbe system
maintains
emissions &
dynamics levels
using fuel
distribution only

Combustion Dynamics
Amplitude [% Of Target]

Combustion Dynamics
Amplitude [% Of Target]

Frequency 1
Frequency 2

400

~10% WI change
imposed over ~30
seconds (rate
>18%/minute)

-6%

20

40

60

80

80
100

Time [sec]

200

-4%

600

120

Closed-loop
simulation of modelbased control
algorithm (7FA+e
DLN2.6, base-load,
ISO Day)

-2%

Time [sec]

100

Time [sec]

10

200

4%

600

Time [sec]

7FA+e DLN2.6 gas


turbine operating in
combined-cycle at
base-load

6%

Gas Turbine Output [%]

Wobbe Index (WI)


Change [%]

MWI
Fuel Temp.

400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

Closed-Loop Simulation

NOx [ppm@15%O2]

56
54
52
50
48
46
44
42
40

Fuel Temperature [degF]

MWI Reaching Combustor

Field Test

120
100

Frequency 1
Frequency 2

80
60
40
20
0

-20

20

40

60

80

100

Time [sec]

26

Assessment
The Model-Based Control system provides many
advantages over competing technologies with similar
objectives:
Cost
 No additional auxiliary equipment required beyond control system sensor
redundancy. No gas analyzer required
Operability
 Negligible change in output or efficiency as a result of changing fuel
properties
 Lower combustion dynamics across the operational envelope
 Improved output & efficiency at off-design conditions
Reliability
 Increased system availability due to sensor fault detection and
accommodation
Emissions
 Tighter NOx control over a wider operational envelope
27

The Road Ahead


Advanced Controls & Modeling Will Play A Greater Role In
Thermal Sector Technology / Solutions
Fuel Flexibility
Integrated Gasification / Combined-Cycle
Plant-Level Optimization
Grid-Code Compliance
Health Management

28

Fuel flex expanding the envelope


Power producers seeking fuel diversification & flexibility
Increasing fuel prices & volatility driving substitution
Cleaner & more flexible technology lower emissions, increased turndown,
multi-fuel, durability
Gas fuels

NG LNG wide wobbe


High BTU hydrogen/EOR
Low BTU Steel BFG/COG

Liquid fuels

Light crude
Heavy crude
vanadium & sulfur

Synthetic fuels

Pet coke refining


Coal syngas IGCC/SNG
Biofuels ethanol

29

HRSG

Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle

Pump

Cooling
O2

Gasifier

Gen

ST

CleanUp

Cond

Syngas

Air

Comb
Feed
Prep.

Gen

Comp

GT

Fuel + H2O

Electricity /
Steam

as
Syn g

Gasifier
Sulfur
Removal

Solid feed Slag


Gas/Liquid feed - Ash

Sulfur

Combined Cycle
Power Block
30

Plant-Level Optimization
Model Predictive Controls for
Combined-Cycle Plant Start-Up

Optimized
Load Profile

Physics-based models to predict stresses


real-time optimization to choose best loading profile
Handles multiple ST Stress constraints simultaneously
Handles multiple control actions simultaneously
Accommodates any initial thermal state of the plant

Time

Stress
constraints
HP & IP maximum rotor stresses
Final CC load

Time

MPC Controller
GT, HRSG, ST models
HP & IP rotor stresses

Optimize
GT loading
over Time
Horizon

GT load
reference

Control
System

State estimation
Measurements
Steam & metal Temperatures, Steam Pressures

Measurements

31

Back-Up
32

2007

2030

Cold Tone
Hot Tone
Dynamics
Dynamics
Window

NOx

Dynamics

Combustion Operability

Limit

Dynamics

Window NOx
Guarantee

NOx
Fuel-Air Ratio

Lean
Blow Out
Lean
Blow
Out

Operability
Window
CO
CO

Window

Fuel-Air Ratio

CO

Tfire (Power)

Fuel-Air Ratio

Window

Guarantee

Fuel-Air Ratio
35