Information about Gears

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Information about Gears

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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A PROJECT REPORT

By

M.V.Vamsi

(09241A0353)

S.Bhargav

(09241A0308)

A.Sriram

(09241A0344)

Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology

Bachupally, Hyderabad-500090, A.P., INDIA

2013

II

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the

Requirement for the award of the

degree of B.Tech

By

M.V.Vamsi

(09241A0353)

S.Bhargav

(09241A0308)

A.Sriram

(09241A0344)

Dr. S. K. Singh

Professor

& Co-Guidance of

Dr. B. R. Ravi Shankar

Associate Professor

Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology

Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology

Certificate

This is to certify that the project report entitled Spur Gear tooth stress analysis

and stress reduction being submitted by M. V. Vamsi, S. Bhargav & A. Sriram

in partial fulfilment for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology in

Mechanical Engineering to the Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University

Hyderabad is a record of bona fide work carried out by them under my

guidance and supervision.

The results embodied in this project report have not been submitted to any other

University or Institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma.

Guide

Co-Guide

II

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

college, Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering & Technology, for

gifting us the opportunity to pursue our bachelor degree and providing us

support and encouragement during our study.

We would like to express our gratitude to the Head of Department

Dr. K. G. K.Murthy and Dr. P. A. P. N. Varma for giving us permission to

commence this thesis and to do the necessary study.

We wish to express our sincere gratitude to Dr. S. K. Singh & Dr. B. R. Ravi

Shankar, for their invaluable guidance throughout the study and for their

support in project completion. We also take this opportunity to show our

appreciation to all the teaching and non-teaching staffs, family members,

friends for their support.

III

ABSTRACT

Gears are commonly used for transmitting power. They develop high stress

concentration at the root and the point of contact. The repeated stressing on the fillets

causes the fatigue failure of gear tooth. The main objective of this study is to add

different shaped holes to reduce stress concentration. A finite element model of Spur

gear with a segment of three teeth is considered for analysis and stress concentration

reducing holes of various sizes are introduced on gear teeth at various locations.

Analysis revealed that aero-fin shaped hole introduced along the stress flow direction

yielded better results.

IV

List of figures

10

11

13

19

20

26

26

27

29

29

33

Graphs

41

Contents

Chapter-1

Introduction

1.1 Purpose

Chapter-2

Gears

10

10

12

2.4.1 Cycloidal

12

2.4.2 Involute

12

14

Chapter-3

16

3.1 FEM

16

3.2 Calculix

17

18

18

3.4 Geometry Creation and Mesh generation

Finite Element Mesh Generation

18

21

28

Chapter-4

30

30

30

31

32

32

VI

Conclusion

43

43

References

44

VII

Chapter-1

Introduction

Gears are used for a wide range of industrial applications. They have varied application

starting from textile looms to aviation industries. They are the most common means of

transmitting power. They change the rate of rotation of machinery shaft and also the axis of

rotation. For high speed machinery, such as an automobile transmission, they are the optimal

medium for low energy loss and high accuracy. Their function is to convert input provided by

prime mover into an output with lower speed and corresponding higher torque. Toothed gears are

used to transmit the power with high velocity ratio. During this phase, they encounter high stress

at the point of contact.

A pair of teeth in action is generally subjected to two types of cyclic stresses:

i) Bending stresses inducing bending fatigue

ii) Contact stress causing contact fatigue.

Both these types of stresses may not attain their maximum values at the same point of contact.

However, combined action of both of them is the reason of failure of gear tooth leading to

fracture at the root of a tooth under bending fatigue and surface failure, due to contact fatigue.

When loads are applied to the bodies, their surfaces deform elastically near the point of

contact. Stresses developed by Normal force in a photo-elastic model of gear tooth are shown in

the Fig.1.1. The highest stresses exist at regions where the lines are bunched closest together.

The highest stress occurs at two locations:

A. At contact point where the force F acts

B. At the fillet region near the base of the tooth.

1

The surface failures occurring mainly due to contact fatigue are pitting and scoring. It is a

phenomenon in which small particles are removed from the surface of the tooth due to the high

contact stresses that are present between mating teeth. Pitting is actually the fatigue failure of the

tooth surface. Hardness is the primary property of the gear tooth that provides resistance to

pitting. In other words, pitting is a surface fatigue failure due to many repetitions of high contact

stress, which occurs on gear tooth surfaces when a pair of teeth is transmitting power. Gear teeth

failure due to contact fatigue is a common phenomenon observed. Even a slight reduction in the

stress at root results in great increase in the fatigue life of a gear.

For many years, gear design has been improved by using improved material, hardening

surfaces with heat treatment and carburization, and shot peening to improve surface finish etc.

Few more efforts have been made to improve the durability and strength by altering the pressure

angle, using the asymmetric teeth, altering the geometry of root fillet curve and so on. Some

research work is also done using the stress redistribution techniques by introducing the stress

relieving features in the stressed zone to the advantage of reduction of root fillet stress in spur

2

gear. This also ensures interchangeability of existing gear systems. The studies in which

combination of circular and elliptical stress relieving features are used obtained better results

than using circular stress relieving features alone which are used by earlier researchers. In this

research work, an aero-fin shaped stress relieving feature is tried. A finite element model with a

segment of three teeth is considered for analysis and a stress relieving feature of various sizes are

introduced on gear teeth at various locations.

1.1

Purpose:

Gearing is one of the most critical components in mechanical power transmission

systems. The transfer of power between gears takes place at the contact between the mating

teeth. During operation, meshed gears teeth flanks are submitted to high contact pressures and

due to the repeated stresses, damage on the teeth flanks, in addition to tooth breakage at the root

of the tooth is one of the most frequent causes of gear failure. This fatigue failure of the tooth

decides the reliability of the gear. However, by introducing stress relieving features to the gear,

the points of stress concentration can be decreased which enhances life of gear. A study is done

on spur gear with involute profile by adding stress relieving features of different shapes and best

among them is proposed.

Software used:

All the modelling is done in AutoCAD 2010, Mesh generation is done in Gmsh 2.7,

solving and post-processing are done in Calculix(cgx_2.5).

3

Investigators analyzing the gear tooth for stresses have done several studies:

A.Manoj Hariharan[1] conducted stress analysis on 8 different gears by determining the

highest point of contact for all gears. Stress analysis for the load contact point travelling along

the involute curve is done for gears. The point of contact where maximum stress occurs is

determined for all eight test gears and the variation of this H (Highest point of Contact) diameter

for contact ratio greater than one is studied. Then the gear ratio where it is maximum is taken for

application of force for all studies. From the results, he compared the stresses on each gear with

their respective highest point of contacts and selected the weak gear among those for stress relief

studies. He introduced circular holes as stress relieving features at different locations and also

varied the diameters of holes. He concluded with an optimization study of drilling two circular

holes, each on two mating teeth at the same location relative to each tooth, stress can be reduced.

M.S.Hebbel, V.B.Math and B.G.Sheeparamatti [2] used elliptical and circular holes as a

stress relieving feature. Analysis revealed that, combination of elliptical and circular stress

relieving features at specific, locations are beneficial than single circular, single elliptical, two

circular or two elliptical stress reliving features.

Shanmugasundaram Sankar, Maasanamuthu Sundar Raj, Muthusamy Nataraj [3] did a

study using circular root fillet instead of the standard trochoidal root fillet. The result reveals that

the circular root fillet design is particularly suitable for lesser number of teeth in pinion and

where as the trochoidal root fillet gear is more opt for higher number of teeth.

Ashwini Joshi, Vijay Kumar Karma [4] did a work which deals with the effect on gear

strength with variation of root fillet design using FEA. Circular root fillet design is considered

for analysis. The loading is done at the highest point of single tooth contact (HPSTC).

4

Fredette and Brown [5] used holes drilled across the entire tooth as a function of size and

location. The ultimate objective of this work was to find the overall effect of hole size and

location on the critical stresses in the gear.

Sorin Cnnu-Based [6] on an exact geometry design of the involute gear tooth, a set of

profile gears is obtained in order to calculate the 2D contact. A stress analysis was performed for

CAD profiles results using the finite element procedure. The paper investigates the 2D analysis

versus 3D analysis for stress in the root region of teeth. By this approach, is also investigated the

influence of non-uniform load along contact line to the fillet stress.

Ali Raad Hassan [7] did a research study in which Contact stress analysis between two

spur gear teeth was considered in different contact positions, representing a pair of mating gears

during rotation. A programme has been developed to plot a pair of teeth in contact. Each case

was represented a sequence position of contact between these two teeth. The programme gives

graphic results for the profiles of these teeth in each position and location of contact during

rotation. Finite element models were made for these cases and stress analysis was done. The

results were presented and finite element analysis results were compared with theoretical

calculations, wherever available.

The idea of using holes to reduce stresses is not a new one. In 1990, Dippery [7]

experimented with the use of supplementary holes in a structure as a method of reducing the

stress concentration that was already present. His result showed that stress concentration

reductions are possible in a generic shape using holes as stress relief.

The researchers till now used circular and elliptical holes as stress relieving features with

different sizes and at various positions which showed evidence that stress can be reduced

interrupting the stress flow path from contact point to fillet.

This project is an extension of work done by A.Manoj Hariharan. He has taken a weak

profile gear from his studies and conducted stress analysis on it by inserting circular holes as

stress relieving features at different locations. The gear with all its dimensions is replicated and

the highest point of contact is calculated in the similar way in the contemporary project. In this

project, an aerodynamic fin shaped hole is used as a stress relieving feature which differs from

circular holes used in the former one. It yielded better results comparatively but this aerodynamic

shaped hole is limited to uni-directional gears only.

Chapter-2

Gears

2.1 Gear Nomenclature:

Pitch surface: The surface of the imaginary rolling cylinder that replaces the toothed gear.

Pitch circle: A normal section of the pitch surface.

Addendum circle: A circle bounding the ends of the teeth, in a normal section of the gear.

Dedendum circle or Root circle: The circle bounding the spaces between the teeth, in a normal

section of the gear.

Addendum: The radial distance between the pitch circle and the addendum circle.

Dedendum: The radial distance between the pitch circle and the root circle.

Clearance: The difference between the Dedendum of one gear and the Addendum of the mating

gear.

Face of a tooth: That part of the tooth surface lying outside the pitch surface.

Flank of a tooth: The part of the tooth surface lying inside the pitch surface.

Top land: The top surface of a gear tooth.

Bottom land: The bottom surface of the tooth space.

Circular thickness (tooth thickness): The thickness of the tooth measured on the pitch circle. It is

the length of an arc and not the length of a straight line.

Tooth space: The space between successive teeth.

Width of space: The distance between adjacent teeth measured on the pitch circle.

Backlash: The difference between the tooth thickness of one gear and the tooth space of the

mating gear.

Circular pitch p: The width of a tooth and a space, measured on the pitch circle. It is equal to the

pitch circumference divided by the number of teeth.

Diametrical pitch P: The number of teeth of a gear per unit pitch diameter. The diametric pitch is

hence the number of teeth divided by the pitch diameter.

Module m: Pitch diameter divided by number of teeth. The pitch diameter is usually specified in

millimeters.

Fillet Radius: The small radius that connects the profile of a tooth to the root circle.

Base circle: An imaginary circle used in involute gearing to generate the involutes that form the

tooth profiles.

Contact Ratio: The average number of gear tooth pairs in contact on a pair of meshing gears.

Pitch point: The point of tangency of the pitch circles of a pair of mating gears.

Common tangent: The line tangent to the pitch circle at the pitch point.

Line of action: A line normal to a pair of mating tooth profiles at their point of contact.

Path of contact: The path traced by the contact point of a pair of tooth profiles.

Pressure angle : The angle between the common normal at the point of tooth contact and the

common tangent to the pitch circles. Pressure angle is also the angle between the line of action

and the common tangent.

Crowning: Grinding of tooth edges to prevent edge loading is known as crowning.

Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They are used to transmit rotary motion

between parallel shafts i.e., they are usually cylindrical in shape, and the teeth are straight and

parallel to the axis of rotation. Sometimes many spur gears are used at once to create very large

gear reductions. Spur gears are used in many devices but not in cars as they produce large noises.

Mating gear teeth against each other to produce rotary motion are similar to cams. When

the tooth profiles are designed so as to produce a constant angular-velocity ratio during meshing,

they are said to have conjugate action. A geometric relationship can be derived for the form of

tooth profiles to provide conjugate action which is summarized as Law of Gearing as follows:

A common normal to the tooth profiles at their point of contact must, in all positions

of the contacting teeth, pass through a fixed point on the line-of-centres called the pitch point."

10

Any two curves or profiles engaging each other and satisfying the law of gearing are

conjugate curves.

When one curved surface pushes against another, the point of contact occurs where the two

surfaces are tangent to each other (point c), and the forces at any instant are directed along the

common normal ab to the two curves. The line ab, representing the direction of action of the

forces, is called the line of action. The line of action will intersect the line of centres O-O at

some point P. The angular-velocity ratio between the two arms is inversely proportional to their

radii to the point P. Circles drawn through point P from each centre are called pitch circles, and

the radius of each circle is called the pitch radius. Point P is called the pitch point.

11

2.4.1 Cycloidal:

The cycloidal gear profile is a form of toothed gear used in mechanical clocks. The gear

tooth profile is based on the epicycoid and hypocycloid curves, which are the curves generated

by a circle rolling around the outside and inside of another circle, respectively. An advantage of

the cycloidal teeth over the involute one is that wear of Cycloidal tooth is not as fast as with

involute tooth. For this reason, gears transmitting very large amount of power are sometimes cut

with cycloidal teeth.

1) Since the cycloidal teeth have wider flanks, therefore the cycoidal gears are stronger than the

involute gears, for the same pitch. These are preferred for cast teeth.

2) In cycloidal gears, the contact takes place between a convex flank and concave surface,

where as in involute gears, the convex surface are in contact. This condition results in less wear

in cycloidal wear and however the difference in wear is negligible.

3) The interference in cycloidal gears does not occur at all. Though there advantages of cycloidal

gears they are outweighed by the greater simplicity and flexibility of the involute gears.

2.4.2 Involute:

The involute gear profile is the most normally used system for gearing. In an involute

gear, the profiles of the teeth are involutes of a circle. The involute of a circle is the spiraling

curve traced by the end of an imaginary taut string unwinding itself from that stationary circle

called the base circle. In involute gear design, contact between a pair of teeth occurs at a single

instantaneous point. Rotation of the gears causes the location of this contact point to move across

the respective tooth surfaces.

12

1) Involute teeth are very easy to manufacture and the actual distance between the centers may

deviate slightly from the theoretical distance without affecting the velocity ratio or general

performance. Because of this distinct advantage, gears with involute profile teeth are used more

than those with cycloidal teeth.

2) In involute gears, the pressure angle, from the start of the engagement of teeth to its end

remains constant. It is necessary for smooth running and less wear of gears. But in cycloidal

gears, the pressure angle is maximum at the beginning of engagement, reduces to zero at pitch

point, starts increasing again and becomes maximum at the end of engagement. This does not

yield smooth running of gears.

3) The face and flank of involute teeth are generated by a single curve where as in cycloidal

gears, double curves are required for the face and flank respectively. Thus the involute teeth are

13

easy to manufacture than cycloidal teeth. The only disadvantage of involute teeth is that the

interference occurs with pinions having smaller number of teeth.

Here we present the calculations for the gear we will use for our stress concentration reduction

studies. Please note that this is the same gear geometry used by Hariharan[1]. As given in

Shigley[8], the gear geometry calculations are as follows:

Considering the pressure angle () = 200

Pitch circle Dia. (PCD) = module(m) x no. of teeth

Tooth thickness = ( x module) /2

Root fillet = 0.2 x module

Addendum Dia.(Da)= PCD +2 x module

Dedendum Dia.( Dd) = PCD 2.5 x m

Base circle dia. (Db) = PCD x cos

Parameters of gear:

Module (m)

=2

No. of teeth (N)

= 25

Root fillet

= 0.628mm

Dedendum dia (Dd) = 45mm

Base circle dia (Db) = 46.984mm

Material used: Steel

14

Poisons ratio

= 0.3

The Pitch Diameter (D) = 50

The Pitch Radius (R) = D/2 = 25

The Base Circle Diameter (DB) = D * COS (PA) = 1.25 * COS (14.5 deg) = 46.984

The Base Circle Radius (RB) = DB/2 = 23.492

The Addendum (a) = 1/P = 1/6.28 = .15924

The Dedendum (d) = 1.157/P = 1.157/6.28 = .18424

Outside Diameter (DO) = D+2*a = 50.318

Outside Radius (RO) = 25.159

Root Diameter (DR) = D-2*d = 1.1054

Root Radius (RR) =o.5527

For method [9] described below following calculations are also required:

1. Circumference of the Base circle, (CB) = Pi * (DB) = Pi * 46.984 = 147.6

2. 1/25th of the Base Circle Radius, (FCB) = .9396

3. Number of times that FCB can be divided into CB, (NCB) = 157.08

4. 360 degrees divided by NCB, (ACB) = 2.29

5. Gear Tooth Spacing (GT) = 360/T = 14.4 degrees

15

Chapter-3

3.1 FEM: Finite Element Method (FEM) is a numerical technique for finding approximate

solutions to boundary value problems. A boundary value problem is a differential equation

together with a set of additional restraints, called boundary conditions. FEM uses various

methods to minimize an error function and produce a stable solution. Analogous to the idea that

connecting many tiny straight lines can approximate a larger circle, FEM encompasses all the

methods for connecting many simple element equations over many small sub domains, named

finite elements, to approximate a more complex equation over a larger domain.

The subdivision of a whole domain into simpler parts has several advantages:

Inclusion of dissimilar material properties

Easy representation of the total solution

Capture of local effects.

A typical work out of the method involves dividing the domain of the problem into a

collection of sub-domains, with each sub-domain represented by a set of element equations to the

original problem, followed by systematically recombining all sets of element equations into a

global system of equations for the final calculation. The global system of equations has known

solution techniques, and can be calculated from initial values of the original problem to obtain a

numerical answer.

16

A feature of FEM is that it is been proven to be numerically stable for linear static

analysis, meaning that errors in the input and intermediate calculations do not accumulate and

cause the resulting output to be meaningless. Moreover, it can be easily applied on complex

geometries. The element equations are simple equations that locally approximate the original

complex equations to be studied, where the original equations are partial differential equations

(PDE). To explain the approximation in this process, FEM is commonly introduced as a special

case of Galerkin method. In simple terms, it is a procedure that minimizes the error of

approximation by fitting trial functions into the PDE.

3.2 Calculix:

Calculix[16] is an open source finite element analysis application with an explicit and

implicit solver and a pre/post processor. It is a package designed to solve field problems. The

method used is the finite element method. With CalculiX Finite Element Models can be build,

calculated and post-processed. The pre- and post-processor is an interactive 3D-tool. The solver

is able to do linear and non-linear calculations. Static, dynamic and thermal solutions are

available. Both programs can be used independently. Because the solver makes use of the

ABAQUS input format it is possible to use commercial pre-processors as well. In turn the preprocessor is able to write mesh related data. Calculix is a very powerful tool of analysis, highly

configurable allowing the user to have complete control over the analysis, with more than 18

types of analysis covering most fields of study finite element. Calculix's user can modify any

variable on the analysis at discretion, the huge amount of information and documentation on the

web make CalculiX a great alternative for the development of research projects.

17

CalculiX user interface is cgx program, which allows one to create the geometric model,

making the mesh, generate the loads and constraints and post-processing of information.

Although it contains a graphical display area and certain model selection activities are made

possible through the computer mouse, most of the work is done by typing text on a command

line. Therefore it must know the name and syntax of each command. Despite this the quality of

documentation and logic handled at the command causes the program is easily manageable,

where skilled users might include their own functions. For example someone may need his own

functions to manipulate the result-data or he may need an interface to read or write his own

results format.

After the analysis is completed (on CCX), the results can be visualized by calling the

CGX program again in an independent session. The program is primarily controlled by the

keyboard with individual commands for each function. Only a subset of commands which are

most important for post-processing is also available through a pop-up menu. Also, a cut through

the model can be done which creates a section and it is possible to zoom through the model.

Shaded animations of static and dynamic results, the common color plots and time history plots

can be created.

Eight-node brick element (C3D8 and F3D8)

The C3D8 element is a general purpose linear brick element, fully integrated (2x2x2 integration

points). The node numbering follows the convention of Figure 3.1 and the integration points are

18

numbered according to Figure 3.2. This latter information is important since element variables

printed with the * keyword are given in the integration points.

19

Fig 3.2 2x2x2 integration point scheme in hexahedral elements (courtesy: mit.edu[9])

Although the structure of the element is straightforward, it should not be used in the

following situations:

due to the full integration, the element will behave badly for isochoric material behavior,

i.e. for high values of Poisson's coefficient or plastic behavior.

the element tends to be too stiff in bending, e.g. for slender beams or thin plates under

bending.

20

AUTO-CAD:

AutoCAD is a software application for computer-aided design (CAD) and drafting. The

software supports both 2D and 3D formats. The software is developed and sold by Autodesk,

Inc. It had become the most ubiquitous design program in the world, utilizing functions such

as polylines and curve fitting. The AutoCAD software is now used in a range of industries,

employed by architects, project managers and engineers. AutoCAD was initially derived from

a program called Interact, which was written in a proprietary language. The first release of the

software used only primitive entities such as polygons, circles, lines, arcs and text to construct

complex objects. Later, it came to support custom objects through a C++ application

programming interface. The modern version of the software includes a full set of tools for

solid modeling and 3-D. AutoCAD also support numerous application program interfaces for

automation and customization.

DWG (drawing) is the native file format for AutoCAD and a basic standard for CAD data

interoperability. The software has also provided support for design Web format (DWF), a

format developed by Autodesk for publishing CAD data.

21

concentric circles of the Pitch

Diameter (D), Base Circle diameter

(DB), Outside Diameter (DO), and

Root Diameter (DR). Make sure the

circles are concentric.

to the base circle perpendicular to

your grid. In other words at 0, 90,

180 or 270 degrees.

2) Draw a line 1/25th of the Base

Circle Radius (RB) long (FCB =

.9396) at a right angle from the end

of that line. This line is now tangent

to the base circle.

3) Radially copy the two lines make

14 copies at 2.29 degrees apart

(ACB), for a total of 15 line pairs.

Depending on the diameter of the

gear you may need more or less

lines, smaller gears need more,

larger gears may need a smaller

22

with 0 for the first one, going to 14

Drawing shows the two lines, and

the copies of the line laid out and

numbered

copy so it's length is the 1/25th of the

base circle radius (FCB) times the

number that you have next to that

tangent line (0 x FCB, 1 x FCB, 2 x

FCB14 x FCB) extend them from

the tangent point. Drawing shows

the tangent lines extended, and the

length of tangent #14.

23

line from the end of tangent #0 to

then end of tangent #1, from the end

of tangent #1 to tangent #2, tangent

#2 to tangent #3 and so on. You

should now have a very close

approximation of the involute curve

starting at the base circle and

extending past the addendum circle.

Trim the involute curve to DO, the

outside diameter of the gear.

Drawing shows the involute drawn

along the ends of the tangent lines.

the involute curve generated by the

process. Make a line that goes from

the intersection of the involute curve

and the pitch diameter circle (D) to

the center of the gear. Note that this

will not be the same as the line going

from the start of the involute at the

base circle (DB) to the center.

8) Draw a second line of the Gear

tooth spacing (GT) radially from the

first line; usually this is best

accomplished by radially copying

the line from the first. 3.60 degrees is

of the gear tooth spacing

(GT=14.4 degrees).

9) Now mirror a copy of the involute

curve around this second line, make

sure you leave the original curve,

thus copying the other side of the

involute 7.20 degrees (1/2 GT) from

the pitch circle (D) intersection with

24

the involute.

two involute curves. Draw a line

from the start of each involute at the

base circle to the center of the gear.

Trim those lines to the Root

Diameter (DR) circle.

Root Diameter (DR) circle. Draw a

curve from the outside tip of one

involute to the other, which has a

center at 0,0 (the center of the gear)

thus drawing the outside of the tooth

(the curve has the radius of RO).

12) Radially copy the completed

gear tooth 25 times around the Root

Diameter (DR) circle, spacing the

copies 14.4 degrees apart (GT),

making 25 gear teeth (T) in total.

13) Erase the Root Diameter (DR)

circle and make a curve (or straight

line) between ends of two teeth

which has a center (the center of the

gear).

25

26

GMSH:

Gmsh [17] is a three-dimensional finite element mesh generator with a build-in CAD

engine and post-processor. Its design goal is to provide a fast, light and user-friendly meshing

tool with parametric input and advanced visualization capabilities.

Gmsh is built around four modules: geometry, mesh, solver and post-processing.

Geometry module is used to define geometrical objects such as points, lines, surfaces and

volumes while mesh module is used to create mesh (nodes and element topology). All

instructions of the modules are prescribed either interactively using the graphical user interface

(GUI) or in text files using Gmsh's own scripting language.

27

A finite element mesh is a positioning of a given subset of the three-dimensional space

by elementary geometrical elements of various shapes. The mesh generation is performed in the

bottom-up flow i.e., lines are discretized first; the mesh of the lines is then used to mesh the

surfaces; then the mesh of the surfaces is used to mesh the volumes. In this process, the mesh of

an entity is only constrained by the mesh of its boundary. For example, in three dimensions, the

triangles discretizing a surface will be forced to be faces of tetrahedra in the final 3D mesh only

if the surface is part of the boundary of a volume. This automatically assures

the conformity of the mesh. Every meshing step is constrained by a size field (sometimes

called characteristic length field), which Gmsh 2.7 prescribes the desired size of the elements

in the mesh. This size field can be uniform or specified by values associated with points in the

geometry.

Gmsh is good at:

Generating 1D, 2D and 3D simplicial finite element meshes for CAD models in their

native format

Specifying target element sizes accurately. It provides several mechanisms to control the

size of elements in the final mesh: through interpolation from sizes specified at geometry

points and using flexible mesh size fields.

Creating simple extruded geometries and meshes with the help of respective commands.

28

29

Chapter4

Results & Discussions

4.1 Problem definition:

A gear having specifications of Module (M)=2, No. of teeth(N)=25 to study and

experiment is chosen from our reference thesis [1]. A load of 89MPa as given in thesis is applied

at the highest point of contact of gear teeth. The stress at root fillet region is of the value 168Mpa

which is much higher than the actual applied load. Then the stress relieving features are

introduced, which are the circular holes of different dimensions which decreased the stress at the

fillet to 124MPa. The stress relieving features used in the gear till date are circular holes or the

combination of circular and elliptical holes. Here we have tried an aerodynamic structured hole

in the path of stress flow analogy and the results are analysed. A segment of three teeth is

considered for analysis and stress relieving features of various sizes are introduced on gear teeth

at various locations.

30

For relieving stress concentration in gears conventional methods used are making Fillets,

Notches and Holes.

The flow analogy is used to visualize the stress concentration. It gives us a physical

picture of why and where stress concentration exists and it can be used as a tool to decrease

stress concentration. The path of flow analogy in gear starts from highest point of application of

load and ends at the root fillet of the tooth. This indicates that lines of force travel from contact

31

point to root fillet, with gradual decrease in width of the flow pattern. So, the stress concentration

is more at the fillet region which causes breakage of the tooth. The problem of stress

concentration is solved by removing material in the path of stress flow analogy. When the

material is removed in the path of flow analogy, the lines of force will travel uniformly. In our

experiment, the material is removed in the shape of an aerodynamic fin which decreased the

maximum principal stress at the fillet.

The shape of aero-fin selected for this study is such that it modifies the stress flow into a

smoother way, i.e., smoother flow of stress is achieved best by an aero-fin type of design because

the curvy nature of this helps stress flow lines of stress to find a fluent path without any

interruptions, the shape becomes narrowed towards the fillet end which will help the stress lines

to flow smoothly to the fillet without increasing stresses.

The gear without hole is examined to determine the maximum stress at the fillet and then

the aero-fin hole is introduced to gear. The position and size of the aero-fin hole can be varied by

changing input values of center of one of the arcs of hole and scaling factor using

Parametrization in Gmsh. Now, the gear is experimented with different modifications done to the

aero-fin hole by varying the parameters mentioned above. The stresses and displacements are

calculated and analyzed so that the maximum stress at the fillet is reduced which is the main aim

of this project.

32

The Fig 4.1 illustrates the co-ordinates of a focus point. It is considered as the centre of

aero-fin hole which is used for transformation of entire hole.

33

The maximum stress at the fillet is 168Mpa which much higher compared to the applied

load on the gear.

34

Gear

No.

1

%

Displacement

%

Scaling

Stress

Stress

(mm)

Displacement

Of

(N/mm2)

Reduction

Reduction

Hole

38.7653, 0.75

98.3

41.48

0.00235

40.8

65.4081,

25.4

38.7663, 0.75

93.7

44.22

0.00235

40.8

65.4061,

25.4

38.7663, 0.70

89.3

46.84

0.00229

42.31

65.3061,

25.4

38.7663, 0.60

85.8

48.92

0.00224

43.57

65.5561,

25.4

38.7653, 0.60

83.6

50.23

0.00217

45.34

65.4081,

25.4

Center

of Hole

Table 4.1

According to the results tabulated above, the decrease in stress is 50.23%, whereas in the

reference thesis[1] stress is reduced by 24.07%. From this it can be inferred that aero-fin hole

serves better as a stress relieving feature compared to circular hole.

35

The maximum stress at the fillet is 98.3Mpa after the introduction of aero-fin hole with a scaling

factor of 0.75.

36

The maximum stress at the fillet is 93.7MPa, which is obtained by changing the position of hole

and unvarying the scaling factor.

37

The maximum stress at the fillet is 89.3MPa. The scaling factor is decreased to 0.7

38

The maximum stress at the fillet is 85.8MPa. The stress is decreased by decreasing the

scaling factor to 0.6.

39

The maximum stress at the fillet is decreased to 83.6MPa with the scaling factor of hole

as 0.6. The stress obtained is approximately half of the stress without aero-fin hole.

40

GRAPHS:

From the above graph it can be concluded that as the size of hole decreased, stress induced in the

gear decreased significantly due to the modulation of hole in the stress flow direction.

41

From this graph, as the scaling decreased, the displacement also decreased. This is because as the

hole size is less, material will be more due to which gear will be stiffer and finally displacement

will be lower.

42

Conclusion

The main aim of the above study is to relieve stress from the maximum value to as

minimum as possible. So the highest point of contact of teeth is selected as pressure application

point which causes highest stress.

Stress relieving feature having a shape of aero-fin is used in the path of stress flow which

helped to regulate stress flow by redistributing the lines of force. This also yielded better results

when compared to elliptical and circular holes.

In this study, the best result is obtained by introducing aero-fin hole at

(38.7653, 65.4083, 0) and having scaling factor of 0.6. The result displayed a stress reduction by

50.23% and displacement reduction by 45.34%.

43

References

[1]

Engg. & Tech., 2006.

dspace.thapar.edu:8080/dspace/bitstream/123456789/.../8048113.pdf

[2]

Stress in Spur Gear Using Internal Stress Relieving Feature of Different Shapes, International

Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 5, May 2009.

http://www.academia.edu/200020/A_Study_on_Reducing_the_Root_Fillet_Stress_in_Spur_Gear_Usi

ng_Internal_Stress_Relieving_Feature_of_Different_Shapes

[3]

Modification for Increasing the Tooth Strength in Spur Gear Using CAD, Scientific research,

September 2010.

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=2800

[4]

Ashwini Joshi, Vijay Kumar Karma, Effect on Strength of Involute Spur Gear by

Changing the Fillet Radius Using FEA, International Journal Of Scientific & Engineering

Research, Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2010.

http://www.ijser.org/researchpaper%5CEffect-on-Strength-of-Involute-Spur-Gear-by-Changing-theFillet-Radius-Using-FEA.pdf

44

[5]

Fredette.L and Brown.M., Gear Stress Reduction Using Internal Stress Relief Features,

[6]

http://www.om.ugal.ro/AnnalsFasc8Tribology/pdf/2003/I-ANALE-120-CANANAU.pdf

[7]

Ali Raad Hassan, Contact Stress Analysis of Spur Gear Teeth Pair, World Academy of

http://www.scribd.com/doc/29351224/Contact-Stress-Analysis-of-Spur-Gear-Teeth-Pair

Books:

[8] Joseph Edward Shigley, Mechanical Engineering Design, McGraw Hill, 1986.

file:///E:/Shigley%27s%20Mechanical%20Engineering%20Design%209th%20Edition.pdf

Websites:

[9]

http://www.cartertools.com/involute.html

[10]

WWW.mit.edu

[11] www.wikipedia.org

[12] http://www.roymech.co.uk/Useful_Tables/Drive/Gears.html

[13] http://www.gearsandstuff.com/gear_

[14] http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/IIT-MADRAS/Machine_Design_II/pdf/2_3.pdf

[15]

http://www.tribology-nikas.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/gear2.gif

45

[16]

www.bconverged.com

[17]

www.gmsh.org

46

47

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