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TECHNICAL HANDBOOK 3” Edition ‘The Australian institute of Refrigeration, Ai Conditioning and Heating Mine.) (ALRAH) James Harison House, 52 Rossiyn Street, West Melbourne VIC 3003, Australia Tok: (+81 3) 95282998, Fax:(+61 3) 928 4116 Email sirah@airah,org.au Website: www airah org.au coment ‘stitut of Reigeraion, Hearing and Ait Condicing Enyinews of New Zealand ine, ARHACE) PO Ber $7251, SAME Ayekland, Now Zvolend To: | + B49} 282 14D6, Foxe [+ B44) 262 1406 rai: simin@ihaceov.ne Website: www iehace apne DISCLAIMER ‘The information or advice contained in this document is intended for use only by persons who have ha ‘adequate technical training in the field to which the information relates. The document has bee cumpiled as an aid only and the information or advice should be verified before it is put to use by an ‘person. The user should also establish the applicability of the information or advice in relation ta an ‘specific circumstances. While the infarmation ar advice is believed to be correct the Australian Institut ‘of Refrigeration. Air Conditioning and Heating Inc., its officers, employees and agents, disciaim an resgensivility far inaccuracies contained within the document including those due ta any negligence { ‘the preparation and publication of the said document. (© Copyight The Austratanietewte af Refnigeration Ar Condaning and Heating Wine.) ACN 003 082 928 Feet Eaton May 1088 Scand tion May 1995 Trot ation daruary 2000 Printed by Pert Pili Pass Py Lad (Sane saaaae 178 PREFACE TO 3” EDITION The handbook has now been in use for over ten years and by all reports has proven to he af yood service ta embers. It has been prepared with the abjective of presenting commonly usad data in a convenient form for use a5 2 quick reference eitter in the office arin the field. ‘Some date contained in the handbook requires interpretation and theretare a deqree of experience is required in its ase. It is expacted that the handbook will prove useful to students who could agply the iniormation under the quidance of a lecturer. This handbook is not available far purchase. One capy of this handbook is issued free to members af the Institute. For the first time, source material for the handbook has heen collated in electronic format. The process of transfecting data has been a lengthy and complex one. Having now completed this task uadates and revisions will ‘be completed on a more regular and timely basis. In order te assist the preparation of future editions, users are encouraged to make known their experience in using ‘the handbook and to notify any additional information, which they tan provide or to which reference canbe made. This information may be forwarded to AIRAH by using the feedback form on the following page, There are many new and improved features in this edition. The improved table of contents will enable faster location of specific information and the editariel changes to many of the tables and charts clarify their use. ‘Much additional information is provided the folowing are just same of the new items included: ‘= The pressure loss charts now include 200 mm copger pipe and class 6, 9, 10 & 12 ARS pipe = CSIRO revised and updated thermal data + A guide to control valves + Updated information on cool roam product storage © Extensive data on A1343.& Ammonia + A.guida for refrigerant charging « Thelatest internationally used acoustic terms clearly explained. M.A. Hughes J Fricker 8 Mech. MAIRAH, MIE Aust MLAIRAH, CP Eng, MIE Aust Editor 1995 - 1999 Editor 2000 w AIRAH TECHNICAL HANDBOOK FEEDBACK FORM FAX TO AIRAH (+61 3) 9328 4116 Dr past to: James Harrison House, 52 Ressiyn Street, West Melbourne VIC 2003, Australia Or email your comments to sitah@aitah.org.au My comments on the 3° Edition af the AIRAH Handbook ace: a SS a See a ca se ape see ee se ey AIRAH ‘baating, ventilation, air conditioning and ratrigar ation (HVAC&R) industry is widespread and of paramount ‘hroughaut Australia’s vast range af climatic conditions. in terms af the well being of the environment, naton's economic develagment, food preservation and the persanalheaith and comfort of al Australians. it is jannual turnover is in exces of $1000 miffon and it empinys more than 100,000 penple. tt cavers an enormous of essential industrial, commercial and household operations inciuding environmental protection, food ing and transport, cold storage, food storage, contrallad environments, chemical, retail, hospital and many Te Institue, established in 1918, has around 3000 members in Australia ané overseas and is active in the industry to related groups and government, AIRAH's objectives are: + Improve the technical and practical knowledge of its members and their professional and ethical standards: through the pramotion af education and continuing professional development. ‘+ Promote the practice and science of refrigeration, gir conditioning, heating, ventilation and allied Suilding services. ‘+ Enhance the professional standing and reputation of its members within the industry and the caremurity. Benefits of Membership AIRAH Journal AIRAH membership means you receive an infarmative technical journal every manth full of news, trade information and technical articles - & must for everyone. Far lacal news, most Divisions ‘produce 1 regular newsletter crammed with lacal ‘industry informatian, The Industry Reference Centre Finding the right technical reference material can often bea time consuming and frustrating activity. or this reason, @ cooperative venture with a numer al Kindreé organisations has been established to provide @ comprehensive listing of industry information available in ¢ variety of media including, books, charts, video's and CO ROMs. ‘The AIRAH Applicatign Manuals and Technical Guides (available at reduced rates to members) are {ul of saecialised design data and technical guidance jor HVACBR specialists and technicians, Subjects ‘such as load estimation, duct design and water ‘treatment ace covered by these manuals. Annual Conference and Exhibition Members have access to reduced rates to the AIRAH Conference held every year. The AIRAH conference {sa world-renowned forum on environment, research, technology, commerce, new products and services, business trends, government regulations and much more. AIRAH also participates in the ARGS Exhibition, held every two years, itis the leading wade exhibition in the industry ta keep you in ‘touch with the latest industry products and services. Code of Ethics (AIRAH fas an industry-recognised code af Ethics, ‘which specifies standards of conduet to be followes ‘by members in their professional capacity. Professional Development Program AIRAH researches members’ needs and designs short course in @ range of subjects vita to business and career development. These professional development activities are aimed at enhancing your technical knowledge and career prospects in @ ‘national program. Representation and Image AIRAH promotes the professionalism of its members and the importance af the HVAC&A industry to ‘government and retated industries, AIRAH assists members with accreditation as industry practitioners. Industry Network ‘A wide-ranging network of professional contacts ‘throughout the industry, with which you can share ideas and interest, helping each other to solve problems and enhance oppartunities far career development, AIRAH provides industry contacts ‘overseas through affiliated institutes and conventions, Local Network Each State and Territory has an AIRAH Davison and ‘Committee who run technical visits, meetings and ‘seminars to address local issues and concerns of members where they wark and live, AIRAH DIVISIONS Australian Capital Territory Cantact: Graeme Field ‘Address: 15 Altree Court, PHILLIP 2605 ‘Tek 02 6285 1822 Fox 02.6285 1863 ‘New South Wales ‘Contact: Rass Piper ‘Address: PO Box 495, EPPING 17/0 ‘Tek 02 9876 8073 Fa 02.9676 8148 ‘Emit sirahnsw(bigpond.tom Northern Territory ‘Contact: John Wills ‘Address: 21 Cunjevoi Cres, NIGHTCLIFF 0810 ‘Tek 08 8999 4665 Fox: 08 8999 4738 Emil: jahn.wills@nt.gov.au Oueenstand “Contact Ken Lith ‘Adéras: GPO Box 880, BEENLEIGH 4207 Yok 07 9805 2718 Fax: 07 3805 2718 email: AIRAH is affiliated with: South Australia Contact: Peter Carter Address: 52 Scenic Way, HACKHAM 5163 ‘Tek: 08 8984 7958 Faw: 08 6384 7958 ‘Tasmania Cemtact: David Orpin Adress: 20255 Bathuest Street, WEST HOBART 7000 To OF 82311201 Far 036231 1146 Emait Drpid@lsernf.com.au Victoria Contact: Joan Stephens Aééress: 82 Rassiyn Street, WEST MELBOURNE 3003 Tet: 03 9326 3028 Fax: 03.9928 4116 mat: airah@airah.org. 20 Westarn Australia Contact: Peter Taylor ‘Address: Technolagy Centre, Gre Oates & Gank Streets, CARLISLE 6107 ‘Tek 08 9267 7377 Fax: 08 9267 7376 Email: peter taylor @seme.wa.yav.au '» The Institute at Refrigeration Heating and Air Conditioning Engineers at New Zealand Ine. (IRHACE) +The Institute of Refrigeration (IOR) Lond © The International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR) Paris ‘s The Amertan Society of Heating. Aetigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE! + Scandinavian Federstion of Heating, Ventilating and Sanitary Engineering Association (SCANVAC) Denmark Ka (ss REQUEST FOR INFORMATION FAX TO AIRAH (+61 3) 9328 4116 Orpast te: James Harrison Hause, 52 Rossiyn Street, Wast Meibaumme VIC 3003, Australia ternal sical ob Please provide me with intormatian on the tollewing: D1 New Membership Information 1 industry Reference Centre - Publications Catalogue Co ares Exhibition Sta SECTIONS GENERALINFORMATION 1 DESIGN DATA 2 METRIC DATA 3 DUCT SYSTEMS 4 PIPESYSTEMS 5 AIR CONDITIONING 6 ELECTRICALDATA 7 FUELS AND ENERGY 8 NOISE AND VIBRATION 9 REFRIGERATION DATA 10 TABLE OF CONTENTS Section 1 - General Information or 102 103 104 106 106 107 108 10s 110 Wz 3 4 115 19 120 124 122 123 124 mW Physical Constants & General Date Proparties Of Marais Proparties Of Liquids Properties Of Gases Propasties Of Ait Other Censities And Specific Heats Properties Of Water And Saturated Steam ‘Properties Of Saturated Steam Ideal Gas Lews Equations Fan Laws Pump Laws Logarithmie Mean Temperature Gitterence Air Fitters: Airborne Particie Size Comparisan Contaminants In Outdoor Air Beams Metal Gauges Financial Analysis Greek Alphabet Section 2 - Design Data 201 204 208 207 208 a 2 a aa: ar 228 229 230 gus boa 210 a3 223 Uasign Parameters Couling Laad Check Figures Energy Consumption In Office Buildings Energy Consumption Of Mechanical Equipment Energy Targets For Office Buildings Design Temperature Data ‘Minimum Outdoor Air Recuicements Minimum Exhaust Air Requirements Heating Degree Days ‘Heat Gain From People ‘Heat Gein From Electric Mators Heat Gain From A/C Fans Heat Gein To Supply Duct Air Flow Vs. ACH & Ceiling Height Air Flaw Vs. CSA & Velocity Economic Lite Of Equinment ‘Psychometric Frequency Data Temperature Octurences, (12 hv) Adelaide PSRRRESR EARS REET EAE 1 a4 a7 Temperature Occurences, (24 hr) Adelaide. ‘Temperature Occurences, (12 he)-Alice Springs Temperature Oceurences, (24 he} Alice Springs Temperature Occurencas, (12 hw Brshane ‘Tamparature Occurences. (28 hy) Brishane Temperature Occurences. (26 hw Sydney Tamperature Occurances, (12 'he} Townsville Temperature Decureness, (28 he Townsvile 3 - Metric Data Weights & Areas Of Circular Steel Duct Section 5 - Pipe Systems 501 = 502 Pumping System Configuration = ‘Pipa Syston Prasture Losses: 504 Conte Valves: 50S = S06 ‘Stasl- Loss Coofficients (Ks) 507 ‘Copper & PVC Fittings - Loss Coetficients (Kt) 508 Velocity Pressure - Water 509 ‘Pressure Loss 20° Water In Light Steel Pipe 610 Pressure Loss 10° Water hn Med. Steel Pipe an Pressure Lass 20° Wator ln Mae. Steel Pipe 12 Pressure Lots 82° Water ln Med. Steel Fipe 513 Pressure Lass 175° Water In Med, Stoel Pige 514 Pressure Lass 10° Water In Heavy Steel Pipe 518 Pressure Loss 20° Water In Heavy Steel Pipe 516 Pressure Luss 82° Water i Heavy Steel Pipe a7 Pressure Lass 175° Water in Heavy Steel Pipe 51a Pressure Loss 10° Water In Ansi Sid We Steel Pipe 518 Pressure Loss 20° Water in Arsi Std Wt Steel Pipe 520 Pressure Loss 4° Water In Copper Tube 521 Pressure Luss 10° Water In Copaer Tube Prassure Loss 20° Water in Copper Tube Pressure Luss 95° Water In Capper Tube Pressure Loss 82° Water In Capper Tube Pressure Lass 20* Water In Puc Pipe Pressure Loss.35* Water In Pvc Pipe Prossure Loss 20° Water In Class 6 Abs Pipe Pressure Loss 20° Water in Class $ Abs Pips Pressure Loss 20° Water In Class 10 Abs Pipe Pressure Loss 20° Water In Class 12 Abs Pipe ‘Natural Gas in Capper Pipe Natural Gas n Steel Pipe ‘Log in Copper Pipe pain Stee! Pie ‘Steam Pipe Sizing ‘Steam Condensate Pipe Siting Compressed Ait Pipe Sizing ‘Vacuum Ia Copper Pipe ‘Medical Gases in Copper Pipe ‘Metical Compressed Ai In Copger Pipe = 542 Heat Loss From Bare Pipes ‘Heat Transter- Stee Pipe, 25mm Insulation, Stil Air eat Transier- Steel Pipe, 98mm insulation, Still Ait Heat Transfer - Steel Pipe, 60m insulation, Stil Ai Heat Trensier- Stee! Pipe, 831mm Insulation, Stil Air Heat Transier- Steel Pipe, 75irmn Insulation, Stil Ai ESSEGESRRSERSSRSEeesesegs a SEEEZSELLELESES Heat Transfer - Steel Pipe, 25mm Insulation, S/S Neat Transfer - Steel Pige, 38mm Insulation, SmiS Heat Transfer - Stee! Pipe, 50mm Insulation, S/S. ‘Stoel Pipe To AS 1074 & AS 1896 Pipe Mass Pipe Thermal Exparsion Water Flow Rates: Dorrestic Hot Water System Sizing Guide Water Storage Tank Capacity for Office Buiekngs ‘Tank Capacity Diversity - Medical Gases Section 6 - Air Conditioning ant 613 614 a7 B10 B12 Poychromettie Plotting Airah Psychrametris Chart Room Air Canditioner Load Estimate. Heat Transmission Through Building Structures: Overal Heat Transier Coefficient (U) ~ Masonary Walls Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient {Ul - Frame Walls Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (U) - Sandwich Panal Walls & Partitions ‘Overal Heat Transfer Coafficient (Ui) ~ Conditioned Flers with Ror Below ‘Overal Heat Transfer Coetficient I} ~ Conditioned Floers Above Ventilated Soace Overall Heat Transier Coefficient \U) ~ Flat Roots Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient {U) - Pitched Roots Overall Heat Transier Coefficien:(U) ~ Windows ‘Thermal Properties af Building and Insulating Materials - Notes ‘Thermal Properties of Building and insulating Materials ‘Thermal Properties of Bulking and insulating Materials ~ Sources of {information ‘Typical Thermal Properties of Comman Building Materials ‘Overal Heat Transfer Coefficient (U) with Insulation or Air Space Added Insulation Thickness Guide Section 7 - Electrical Data 701 702 ‘lectricel Formulae Ratings For 3 Phase Induction Mators Section 8 - Fuels and Energy 80 Fuel Gil Properties 802 Energy Conversion Factors 803 Gas Conversion Factors 804 ‘Fuel Heating Values “805, “Typical Natural Gas Analysis, Section 9 - Noise and Vibration 901 - 902 Acoustic Terms: $03 “Nove Rating Curves, 908 = 909 Recommended Design Sound Levels 310 ‘Sound Transmssion Loss For Materials on Werghted Sound Reduction Index Of Matenals S12 ‘Absorption Coefficients For Materials a3 ‘Standard Frequency Bands a4 Addiuon & Subtraction Ot Noise Levels: 915 ‘Anti Vibration Mounts & Hangers: S16 ‘Vibration Isolation Section 10 - Refrigeration Data 1002 ‘Cool Roam Refrigeration Plant Sizing 003 Cool Ream Preduct Storage 1008 Refrigerant Charging 1005 Properties Of Benes 1005 - 1009 Aeirigerant Equations 1010 ‘Re 1340 1011-1012 Amvrenia Liquid Line Capacities 1013 ‘erigerant Wet & Dry Suction Line Capacities for Amman 1018 1015 Ammonia - Refrigerant Pipe Sing W016 = - $017 R22 - Refrigerant Pipe Capacity SECTION 1 GENERAL PHYSICAL CONSTANTS & GENERAL DATA Physical constants - Walocty of ight in vacuum 2.998 10'ms" ‘Avogadro constant (particles per male} 6.021 x 10" mol’ “Universal gas constant 8.315 J mol" K! ‘Absolute termperature al freezing point of pure water 2715 K ‘Acceleration af gravity - Standard 9.807 ms* Velocity of sounelin dry air at 20°C 943 ms! Velocity of sound in dry air at 0 °C 332ms" Density of ret 20°C and 1 stmosphore 1.184 leg? General data - 1 Micron = 10% m TAngstrom anit ~ 10"* m Standard Atmosphere ~ 101.325 kPa Standard Temperature and Pressuee(8.1.P.)- a prassuta of 101.325 kPa and temperature af O°C. Normal temperature and Pressure (N.T.P.|- as for S.7.P. above, 101 PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS Name Density | Melting Boiling Specific at 20°C Paint Paint Heat Capacity at 20°C ‘bglin c © dik K | ieete aid ious 7 Tr) 160 Acetone 780 i oF 2210 Benaene 878 6 80 1.700 Bromine 3100 z $8 0.400 Carpen disulphide 1280 ut 6 1.000 Carban tetrachloride 1632 a n 0.840 Chloroform ts0 a 81 0.980 Eh! alesho! 789 7 9 2.500 Giyceral 1282 20 20 2a00 ‘Mercury 13596, an 37 veo Methyl alcatot a a ot 2500 \Nitobencene 1175 6 m1 1.400 Give ot 820 27 170 Phenol 1073 41 182 2.390 Toluene 867 % m 1.870 Turpentine 870 40 156 1.760 Water 939 o 100 sn | Density | Boiling ‘Specific Ratio of at STP Point Heat Specitic Capacity Heats ot STP alin c lag K ty, Vi Ty 0) a 1784 186 0824 1.667 art “18 oat 1.304 1.250 192 1.080 1404 324 Bs 47a 1.98 1.280 103 100 1.28 oe 2689 5.240 188 030 1528 14.300 1a 1.640 44 0.196 140 1998, a2 1.020 132 O77 164 2200 wo 1.250 198 1.080 1408 1978 0 ons2 1909 1429 183 asia 140 2921 ato 0.645 126 PROPERTIES OF AIR Enthalpy Content of Air at Various Wet Bulb Riera Wet Bub | like mae Wuiky | Wer Bulb | Kuikg Temp. °C Temp. °C 0 | 80.594 - “18545, 20 53 | B26 18 = | 17.380 2 a $8 | 48.917 Ww 116.201 2 2 a7 487.308 17 15.008 a 62 58 $6,298 AG | 19.739 ca 65 55.288 16 | 12587 % 6 ‘$4 | 58.778 V4 | 11311 cI 68 63 | 63.267 13 | ag039 2 a7 2 | 62255 az | 442 2B 3 1 A1243 a 1421 2 a so] 50.230 ib | B07 cy 7 48 | 48-216 a 4.693 n n 48 | 48.202 4 “4283. n R at | A786 a 4.838, a 73 46 46.170 6 0.357 4 4 45) 45151 |G | 1.184 6 6 44 | 44.132 4 2728 6 76 43 ABA a 4336 v7 7 42 42.088 2 5.995 B 78 ay | 41.063 | 4706 38 Ei a0 | A037 a [ears ‘a0 39 -39.007 1 11.203 4 a 38 | 37.976 2 | r2g82 a2 az at | 38.942 a | 14881 43 8 36 | 35.905 4 | 16.896 4 at 6 “38.864 a 18.639 48 as “4 “33.820, 6 20.644 46 86 30 | a2772 7 | mn 47 a7 er Ue a ci 88 ay 30,68) s 22.004 48 83 30 | 29.587 wo] 28.382 $0 | 278.35 a “28.523, 1" 3.724 1 289.62 8 | 27.454 | 3479 $20 | 30488 a ‘26.372 ck 38.726 53 320.60 26 28.282 nd 39,370 * 37.38 6 | 24.184 we /4ar13 5S | 398.18 4 23.078 16 44.083 56 ‘392 a 21.961 ww 47.926 ? 383.80 Rm | 28 ta | 51.008 se | 41485 au 19.695 ig 54.2168 so 4370.19 J roms CIOS prwen DENSITIES AND SPECIFIC HEATS s at 101.325 kpa atmospheric pressure ‘Substance ‘Density ‘Specific Heat } a es ee edikgk i by Das 128 jet Wie Dry 120 ‘1025 B21°C a Dry Lat @Ir°c fe Moist 1.88 1.890 @20°CIS%4RH Water Vapour 42v4@0'c ‘Ruminiun 2675 2675 1oeor Bick 1a 1800 osaaore “Caner coy ‘Be eT Tad ‘Cork ova 14 oreo oe 2 19300 neo ie 0926 28 210 @0°C iran 1a? 7370 wee Kerosene Om 780 2ioB0r leat W398 11350 aus@orc Nagnesium 114 1740, 1.0500°C ‘Netcuty 1 13 580 oMecr Timaer (Pine! 85 550 roe Water 1.00 000 arer gee Water 4.188 @16°C our 4.2148 @100°c: ine (78 7190 oaz@ ore PROPERTIES OF WATER AND SATURATED STEAM FROM TRIPLE POINT TO ONE ATMOSPHERE WATER ‘STEAM Temp | Density] Heat | Thermal | Sensible| Latent | Total | Entropy | Heat | Volume ‘Capacity | Conductivity! Heat | Heat | Heat Capacity T * + he ww | % Py Me sc | kgim?| kite | mWym Hag | tes tieg | eatieg | et feg 6 | Keegy | ke oo1 | sas | azir 5620 90 | 25018] 25016) a1sr 1854 - s | wooo) 4203 S723 210 | 24997 | 25107| 9027 1.957 - ce 2 582.0 420 | 24779) 25199] B02 1860 | 106.43 15 | gag2 | 4.108 5914 29 | 24661| 25201| 783 | 1863 | 77.98 20 | 996.3] 4.182 599.6 839 | 24543) 25982) 8.688 1.868 31.84 2s | oert | 4180 5076 104.8 | 20925) 25475| 8559 17 | 4340 30 | gesr | 4are 5159 1as7 | 2307 | 25564| 8.455 ier | 3299 a5 | pean | aime 6220 146.6 | 20188 | 25654) 8.354 1gao | 2525 wo | se22 | 4178 628.6 167.8 | 20069 | 25744) 8.258 1885 19.55 2 | 9902] 4.190 our yasa | 23950| 25633) 16s | 1a92 | 1528 so | o880 | 4.181 6405 209.3 | 23829] 25922) 8.078 1899 1208 ss | ses? | 4403 645.8 2002 | 2a7on| ze010| 7503 | igor | gs7t bo | gaat | 4185 650.7 251.1 | 29566] 26097) 7.911 sos | 7879 65 | 9805 | 4.187 655.2 2720 | 23463] 25184) 7.832 1925 6.202 ma | s7r7 | 4ts0 5594 293.0 | 23340) 26269) 7-755 gas | 5.046 ws | ara7 | 4.t93 8633 3139 | 23215] 26354 7.584 94g | 4138 go | arte | 4.as7 8868 aa4s | 29088| 2es9@ | 7613 1g62 | 3409 as | 9684 | 4.200 669.9 3559 | 27961] 26520] 7.545 1976 | 2529 90 | 9651 | 4.205 e727 376.8 | 22832] 26601] 7.480 1ge2 | 2361 es | str | 4210 8753 gogo | 22702) 2068.1) 7.417 zoo | 1362 100 | 958.1 4216 ors 419s | 22570] 26760) 7355 2028 1er3 NOTE: Specie Volume (m* | kg! + 1 / Density kg { rm?) For water temperatures ahave 120°C, reter AIRAH DA1B. ‘Sawce: ASME Steam Tables 1882 1a? PROPERTIES OF SATURATED STEAM 180 2513 1276 6361 | 21805 200 3013 1997 se2i | 21828 20 314 1390, seas | 27a | 2731a | tom | ose | 390 4013 1437 052 | 21326 | 27a7e | toes | oan | 350 4313 148.0 e238 | 2194 | 27430 | 1089 | asia 490 301.3 11 6406 2107.1 | 27477 1.093 0374 450 5513 155.8 e562 | 20056 | 2751.8 | 1ocr | o3ea 00, 6013 158.9 eros | 2oe48 | 2756 | 1101 | oats $50 19 482.1 ess | 20ras | 27800 | 1405 | o2zez 600 701.3 165.0 6a74 2064.7 | 2762.1 1108 O27 650 751.3 1678 oss | 20553 | 27649 | 1112 | O25 700 8013 1705 7a12 | 20463 | 27875 | 1115 | oz 750 e513 730 aga | mare | 2emo | 11a | oz | %0 201.3 1754 n29 850 9513 wt 753.1 soo voors | i99 7829. | 350 1051.3 1921 7723 | 1000 1101.3 1841 Ted woo | 12013 1800 7987 | 100 | 1013 1917 e149 s300 | 1401.3 195.1 8303 | woo | 15013 198.3 4s 1500 | toni | amie a587 IDEAL GAS LAWS Real gases behave like ideal gases whan they are tar from theit boiling points. From Boyles Law PY is aconstant, ‘constant temperature nd from Chaves Law VT is constant at constant pressure. Boyles and Charles Laws can be combined in the form: - PV = maT PAT where P= Absolute pressure kPa Vs volume m= mars kg P= density kgim'T ‘T= Absolute temperature {*C +273) ‘A ~ Gass constant R for ‘it = 0.287 kulkigk p= P 102071 Maist Air ~ 0.292 ktkgk (at 20°C SOWRK and 101.325! Water Vapour Seeaee, Oxygen = O26 kik hutropen = 0.297 kung Hydrogen 7 AAST hah Carbon Droxnde ~ O1BD kkk = 4.187 1 (List ATURE = 4.987 9 Le ATK) (9600 4] ~ Specific heat capacity of water tkJ/kg X @ 14°C) HEAT CONTENT OF AIR ~~ (2080 hdtg / 0.848 mtg) x HLis 1000). gig = 2.900 1 Lis x gtkg 2450 Late heat of water (lky @ 21°C) = Specific volume of moist air img) = (L025 kita K / 0.845 mmtpeg) «Lise ATI © 1.213 «Use ATI) 025 Specie heat of moist air ag K 11840 Us x hathgy > Density of moist ait @ 20°C | 50% RH (gin) EQUATIONS (cont.) POWER - GENERAL EQUATION iW (G.8tahe p 20) / 100009 where - P= Density (gin?) = Head imetie) tote: 8.81 2h ~ KPa ‘y= etficienty 0 = Flowrate Wis) POWER - FAN AND PUMP. AW = (8870 p xO / 100010 POWER - SHAFT WWe= (22 x rps. sore (ma) 1 1000 Examples of heating or cooling a flowing fluid ‘General equation: ‘Rete-of Heat Flaw (kW) ~ Flow rate fLls) x Density thg/l) 1 Specific heat (kJ/kg! x Temp. change (K) ‘Example: Caleulate tomparature rise in 10 minutes whan 100 L of water is heated with a 10 kW heater. Ke» Us 1 0.999 24.167 1K ‘nansposing Ws = Lx 4187 K 10 19.680 ~ 100.10.990 1 4.187 eK Ke 143 ‘Example: Calculate time required to heat 100 Litre of water through 10 K with @ 10 kW heater. kW = Lis 1 0.999 » 4.187 9 K ‘wamsgosing- — kis = Lx 4187 4K 8 = (100 x 0.999. 4.987 x 10)/ 10 8 = 418 seconds ni PP, = 00, AA, = 0h IN, = aa, = A, + J tayid ee AlAs © Bile ant Air power (Wart) = Impeller diameter (metre! N= Revoiutions!second Yalu flow (Lis) = Density tkgi' 9 > Fan Efficiency P = Total pressure (Pa) Laws apply to geometrically similar fans operating at the same point on the fan curve, resistance varies nearly as the air velocity seuared. Tr PUMP LAWS Affinity Laws:- The following affiruty laws apply ta centrifugal purrps- er na T TERMINAL TEMP. DEFFERENCE (K) LOGARITHMIC MEAN TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE ‘The agarithrric mean temperature ifference (LMTD} canbe calculated from the following equetion which ix strictly -eorect oily for constant U aver the entira surface, steady operation, constant specific heat and paral or counter - finw adiabatic operation. If the temperature af ene of the fluids is constant, direction of flow is immaterial. LMTD = (GITD- STTD)/ GTTOISTTO IK) where GTTD = Greatest terminal temperature difference (K) ‘STTD = Smatest terminal temperature difference (K) =o TY Li IY VV | a BoB See SB 7 A 7 EH TY Me JV [LAS V7 A, Noe Ke oS | a AIR FILTERS Air cleaning The application of air filters in general air conditioning ‘The rolovant Australian Standard far particulate fiters used in general air conditioning is AS 1324-1998 “Air ‘ters tor use n general ventiation and ai concitaning’, Part | “Application, Pertormance and Construction’, and Pari 2"Methods of Tast”. This defines classifications and performance ratings: AS 1324,1-1996 FILTER TYPES Type} Ory, ¢.9. woven ar non-woven fabrics, which when unused feel dry to touch, Type 2 Viscous impingement, e.g. woven or nonwoven vil or gel-cuated fabrics and metal-viscous filters. ‘Type 2 Electrostatic precipitators. AS 1324.1-1996 FILTER CLASSES ‘Chats A Fully disposable (entire call replaced, including frame}. Class B Replaceable media (reusable frame. Class © Reusable media and frame (after cleening). ‘Class O Self renewable (in respect of media advencement and cleaning) 1 AIR FILTERS (cont.) Filter performance ratings AS 1324.1-1996 - Table 2.1 | a, Performance | (ASHRAE Dust} | (Atmospheric Dust Spot! = No.4 Dust) ‘Mo.t Dust) rrestance Filters (Coarse G Filters) Initial Efficiency Eo <20% a ‘Am < 65 20 a | ean 0 8 80<-Am< 90 @-107 250 w S0< =i 17 250 ‘Efficiency Filters (Fine F Filters), Initial Elficioncy Eo> —20% 7 2<-En. The useof methanica! ventilation and air corditoeig in buildings, Part 2 Mectarical vaniaton for acceptable indoor air quay. Av initia (claan) No.1 Oust etiiency test fat he application sr low) is usualy acceptable as te Wo.1 Oust ficiency neatly aways ncreases wit oading of amtient Gusts, AIRBORNE PARTICLE SIZE COMPARISON LOGARITHMIC SCALE OF PARTICLE DIAMETERS, microns RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM ACCEPTABLE CONCENTRATIONS OF SOME CONTAMINANTS IN OUTDOOR AIR pn — Far per hunaret Som, = Fart per inion by solo Bim! = erouram per aie mere NOTE RE PARTICULATES (T3P AND MATTER): Thete i no upper parte tr cooled a valeot SHY bieorocbnse be tne note sac soos Source: AS 7868.) 1991 Table CY BEAMS Min Newton.metres. |in metre’, W + w.L = total load in Newtons mae oH “loot, ‘Note: E for mild steel ~ 206 x 10° Nev? aporoximately wy System Max Diegram Shear : of jing BM Reactions Deflection w Unitormly es 2 loaded wk . tT) ww eee: ee L_aae~ nee Teac cSt, Uniformly Me ME =o, at wid ends thee WL SE “oN Re SBE Me = “ek | el aan Uniformly —— Rye W we Me ongendpies| MR | Te mea | ter al tea, ae w conta ——t ‘ atfree end | Ms WL = Rye W We el |e i concentrated WL rt aot 1 jeqat satie, | MOE i= w | a Ry fet, | YF % Ww entities | oO | SPE) oe St centre TESS Wi ' Ends fixed oe Rey METAL GAUGES No, BG. (Birmingham Gauge) Millimeters 7 aa7 Bz x 7.99. ums 7.01 0278 3 72 0.280 640 ose 4 635 o280 5.89 0.292 5 5.5 022 539 oz 8 503 0.198 4.88 192 7 488 a6 aar 0178 j 8 389 187 4.08 160 9 385 0.140 265 nae 0 478 0.125 2.251 oz 2 2517 o.089 2582 D108 a 1.894 0.0785 2032 080 % 1588 0.0625 1.828 0st 18 1.257 0.0495 zie 0.098 2 998 o.nse2 gia 0.036 2 0794 0.0312 om 0.028 628 0.247 0.589 non ct) 438 01g ‘0457 1.018 8 0387 Onis 0.378 one ! 0 0312 oni oat oor FINANCIAL ANALYSIS Fw = FWE ¢ 1000 ~ 2.5940 1 1000 = $2504 resent worth af § 1000 10 years at 105: interest rate Pw ~ PWF x 1000 ~ 0.9885 1 1000 = $386. of a series of uniform annual ‘amounts lannwity) escalating ‘at the end of Jn years (sinking ‘un Todetermine the present worth | PWE = {{1 +8) (hel) WaAF =i PT Uniform annual amount to repay 2 sum Present worth af a tingle sum of {$1000 occurring in 10 years with interest rate of 10% and escalation rateot GH canrualy for 10 years at 10% interest: FW = WF © 1000 = 16.840 1 1000 ‘ate PW = PWF x 1000 = 6.144 1000, = $6144 Present worth of $1000 annual energy ‘saving (yeat 0) which is escatating at ‘8% per year with interest rate (market 2 ili we PPwE «tooo ~ 16.5879 x 000 ~ $6587 of $1000 over @ 10 year periad at 10% interest- WAA = UAAF x 1000 = 0.1828 x 1000 = $163 Unifarm anual amaant to be invested at 10% interest to accumulate $1000 at the eng of 10 years: DAA = UAAF 4 1000 ~ 0.0628 x 1000 = 883 GREEK ALPHABET A Lower Cave r a £ € ” SECTION 2 DESIGN DATA DESIGN PARAMETERS NOTE: Judgment and experience should be used in the application of these figures as they are typical aniy and ‘may vary depending on the application. TEMPERATURE - AIR / WATER / REFRIGERANT Heating Water Entering Coil gore Heating Water - Leaving Coil 85.70°C ‘Condenser Water Entering Tower ec Condenser Water Leaving Tower 2as°c Chilled Water - Entering Coil re Chilled Water - Leaving Coil 18° ‘Ait Cooled Candenser - Air Entering wre ‘Ait Cooled Condenser : Air Leaving are. ‘Mixed Air on Cooling coil 26°C ‘Air off Cowling coil 18 Refrigerant Temperature - Chiller evaporator ae ‘Mains Water ree ‘Hot Water - Basin °c Hot Water Shower 40°C Hot Water Kitchen Sink 60°C Hot Water Dishwaster, commercial 60-77°C Hot Water Laundry, commercial B2°C 11.00 mis 6.00 mis 3.00 mis 6.00 mls 3.5 mis 2.50 mis 2.25 mis 3.50 mis 1.80 - 2.50 mis. 2.50 mis Louvtes » Exhaust (Velocity through tree area} 2.50 mis Kitchen Hood Exhaust Duct 10.00 mis min. ‘Door Grille (through free area) 2.50 mis: VELOCITY - STEAM ‘Steam pipe work - Mains 30.00 - 60.00 mis Stearn pipe work - Branches 18.00 - 25.00 mis 201 DESIGN PARAMETERS (cont.) VELOCITY - WATER Narmally water velocity in pipe work should not exceed 2.4mis ta minimise erosion and should not be less than 0.75 Ins to ensure entrained air is transported ta venting points. hited Water pipe work 1,80. 2.40 mis Condenser Water pipe werk 1.80: 2.40 mis Alisers. and Droppers 0.90. 2.40 mis Cols - Cooling 1.00: 1.50 mis ois - Heating 1.00- 1.50 mis Condensers 1.50 2.00 mis ung Discharge pipe work 1.80-2.70 mis Puma Suction pipe work 1.20- 2.10 mis Drain Pipe 1.20- 2.10 mis Mains Pressure Water Service Pipelines 1.00- 2.19 mis Gravity Flow Pipelines from Upper Level Storage Tanks 0.50. 0.49 mis {ep 2 Floors Oni) Gravity Flow Pipelines tram Upper Level Storage Tanks 1.000- 1.50 mis {Below Tap 2 Floors) PRESSURE - STEAM ‘Tamperature control and stability are usually improved when used in conjunction with low steam pressure. Steam: pressures recommended for the following services ate: Cartier 200-450 kPa ‘Hoi Water Heat Exchanger 200 450 kPa Hosting Coils 200 kPa max, Humidifier 80-120 kPa PRESSURE DROP - AIR Cols - Coating 100. 250 Pa Cols - Heating 30-100 Pa ‘Air relief grilles - Size for 15 Pa maximum pressure drop For ductiwark sized by the Equal Friction Method use 1.00 Paim.maximum, Ensure that pressure drap between first cand last takeaff to air outlets is nat greater than 80 Pa, PRESSURE DROP - WATER Cols « Caoling 24-75 KPa Cais Heating 15-45 kPa DESIGN PARAMETERS (cont.) PRESSURE DROP - STEAM PRESSURE DROP - GAS Allowable pipeline pressure drop > Natural Gas Mains Allowable Pressure Drop Taw Pressure up to- 1,2 WPa High Presse 250 KPa 185 Ps 280 Pa 4.0048 7.00 kPa Pressure Drop - L.P.G. Pressure ‘Allowable Pressure Drop Low Pressure a High Pressure 1000 Pa LING LOAD CHECK FIGURES Cooling Load Occupancy Wim? a Apartments, residence 120 Auditorium 280 Banks 15 Hairdresser 25 Beauty Shop 260 Cafeteria ‘350 ‘Classroom 95 Clinic 190 Clothing Store 165 Computer Raom 480 Conference Raom 2 Department : + Basement 135 + Main Floor 150 + Upper Floors 126 Factory - Light Manufacture. mm Factory - Heavy Manufacture 490 Food Stores 160 Hetel & Motel Roorns 120 Laboratory 130 Library 180 ‘Mall 135 Medical Offices 185 ‘Milk Bars, Fast Food 20 Office - General (Perimeter) 170 Office - General (Interior) 100 Office - Private 180 Post Office 180 Restaurants 930 ‘Shoe Store 185 | ‘Super Market 160 Theatre 280 (GTE: The abave values are for preliminary estimates only, | detaled heat load estimate based on an accurate survey of the space to be air-conditioned must follaw. 204 ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN OFFICE BUILDINGS Typical Energy Consumption Element So kWhiyram? Mulyeam* ‘hi Conditioning Fans etc. 3 60-130 Retrigeration 17-28 60-100 Lifts ma 2550 Public ight and power 11.2 4080 ‘Car pavkighting and vestilation om 950 Owners light and power - Sub Total ert 185-410 Tenant light and power 4284 150.300 Building light and pawer - Total 54-195 335710 Heating Hectric Gas ‘Ait Conditioning 30.80 180-300 Hot water service 14 $30 Heating fuel - Total 31.66 155-330 Building Total, Electricity and Gas 126-261 430-1090, Notes: 1. Energy consumption in MJ refers to the heat consummation ofthe fuel ar electricity supped. 2. Araain n? refers to tho necugiud or net rentable area (not necessarily the area served by the slament. 3. Values have been standardised ta 2500 operating hours ger year. 4. Energy consumption may be considerably greater due to electronic equipment, catering equipment ete, 5. Values presented in the above table are a general guide only. ‘6. Buildings operating efficiently may cansume energy at much higher levels than the above table. 2. |. The above values are applicable to temgerate climates. Trapical climates would have higher energy consumption ‘for refrigeration and little or none for heating. Source: 1994 BOM Energy Guneties ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN OFFICE BUILDINGS (cont.) ‘Notes: 1. The wide range is due ta the differences between fuel firing, direct glactric and heat ump systerns. 2. For temperate climates similar to Melbourne.” | Sauce: 1984 BOMA Energy Guidelines: TYPICAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT kW/kWR Packaged plant up to S0KW O40 (Grrect expansion: «alt eoeled oat water-cooled 023 Chutiers (electrics: reciprocating ait cooled 0.34 reciprocating water-cooled 028 centrifugal air couied ost centrifugal water-cooled 023 ‘Chiller absorption auxiliaries on PUMPS kWIkWR_ Chile water 0028 Condenser water 0.078 Hat water oo10 FANS ‘kW/1000 Lis Air handling plant: room units 0.84 - packaged with law velocity ducts 1.00 - large packaged plant 157 ‘matiuim velocity VAV 1a thigh velocity VAV 219 + induetion primary ait 154 «high pressure systems 4.38 ‘Ar cooled condenser fans 0.046 Evaporative candenser fans & cooling towers 0022 Tower fans tor absorption units 0028 EVAPORATIVE COOLING Packaged evaporative cuoler fan ‘0.60 kW/1000 Lis ‘Water pump for above ‘80 Wattiunit 207 JESIGN TARGETS FOR ENERGY ONSUMPTION IN OFFICE BUILDINGS DESIGN TARGETS FOR ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN OFFICE BUILDINGS (cont.) Gas Migr! aol Z| 17 =| 134 Maiyem’ | ng ‘Source: 1994 BOMA Energy Guidelines, 140 IGN TARGETS FOR ENERGY UMPTION IN OFFICE BUILDINGS (cont.) a 3 60 "Note: "Heating Type” refers respectively to direct resistance electric, air-to-air heat pump and heating with gas ino lactric), Other systems such as water ta aw heat purtps and thermal storage require spacific calculations. Sree: 194 BOMA Energy Guelines, DESIGN TEMPERATURE DATA LOCATION WINTER Critical proses Com | Critical fort 24 hour | 0800-1800 24 | ogoo- fe, | 1800 we | 0B | we | OB | DB DE Australia Acelaide 225| 00] 230] 49] 30) 48 Alice Spring 235] 410] 20) 21] ne} oi Albany 2o| 335] 215] 61) 40] a1 Albury O15 Baltorat 13 Bendiga a7 Bunbury 65 Brisbane %5| 335] 260] 92) a0) a2 Broken Hill 21 Broome 150 Canberra 200) %0| 25) 22) 40) 22 Cairns 270) 35) 275) 181) 125] 151 Cooma “82 Darwin 275| 345] 280] 1] 185) iat Geeiang 1 Gratton e 53 Griffin r a2 Geraldton 202] 984] 227) 396] 40.0) 235] 410] 240) 24) SO) 74 Hobart 168) 27.1| 185) 263] 290] 190] 310] 195] 15] O86) 18 Katherine 236] 39.1| 289] 352 ng Kalgaorie 185] 383} 204| 339| 400) 215) 41.0] 220] 41] Os) 49 Louncestm | 184| 284) 194] 204 18 ‘Melbourne 14) 343) 205) 323) 3BC) 210) 975) 215) 35) 25 a5 Mildura 197) 398] 214) 355] 400) 220] 415] 225) 08) Os) 08 ‘MeGambier | 181) 342] 193] 296] 356 / 209] 380) 210) a1] 10) 34 Meise 200] 38:9] 263] 336) 405) 250] 415| 250) 68) 38 a Newcastle 202| 304) 228] 255 Ld at DESIGN TEMPERATURE DATA (cont.) [tocarion 7 Porth Ph Augusta m9 Pt Hedland 360 Pt. Lineal 265 Pr. Pirie: M2 Sele 28 Sydney 235 Tennant Ch, 36.0 Toownomba 28.9 Townssille 3.0 70 as} 131] go} 10 ‘Woomera 362 ms) 44] a5) 44 Wagga aT 225| 08] 20) of ‘Wyndham 62 18.8 Papua New Guinas P Lae ma} 2a] no} 2a Pt Moresby: 2a) 212| 80] 212 Rebaul 275) 24.0) 210) 230 at 08 20 32 12 DESIGN TEMPERATURE DATA (cont.) LOCATION ‘Salomon Islands Honiara 58) 320] 22) WT) 120) 7B) 328] 270) 2.3) 200) 29 Vanuatu ‘Aneityum J) WE) 26) 2.5) 0) 2S) 310) 270) Ie) 4) 175 Bangladesh Ohaka 369) 208 120 ‘Hong Kang Hong Korg | 312] 28 a3 ‘Singapore ‘Singapore 32.7) 22.8 76 Thailand Bangkok 364) 28.0 170 Viet Nam Lang Hanoi 368] 289 a0 Philippines wants |_| asa] ans 202 =i ‘Notes: |. The above data is an-eatract from more extensive infarrnatian contained in OA. Refer ta DAS fur data for other localities, information concerning Daily raege. Yearly range and location. Comfort summer design temperatures are 3.00 pmdry - but and wet - bulb temperatures wivich are individually ‘excveded on 10 days per year. Critical process design temperatures are the OB and WB temperatures, which are indwidu aly, exceeded 0.25% of ‘the plant operating hours. Either side of the comfort design temperatures are shown the mean coincident wet bult (CWA) associated with the design dry bulu and the mean coincident dry tula (C08) assuciated with the design wer bua. Refer ww DAS for applicetion of coincident WB and 0B data, Comfort winter design temperatures are 6.00 am dry bulb, which is not exceeded an 10 days per year. Critical process winter design temperatures are the dry bulb temperatures, which arg not exceeded on 0.25% af alart operating hours, 6 The above data for surnmer are for the month of January. O49 contains data tor design OB and WB tor other ‘months of the year tar many lacalties, which tacittates estimation of peak coaling loads. 7. Data for Philippines is aximurn DB and WE rater than 3 pm data ard thal for Thalland and Viet Namis far # pr. ‘Sowte: AIRAH Application Marva! Ne O49 1998 Aw Conditioning Load Estimaton and Psychometrics: 2s w w = - UM OUTDOOR - AIR REQUIREMENTS ON CLASS OF OCCUPANCY We Tear ‘Minimum cutdeor airflow rate «| type area per — Quantity Comments “See sors centres services ‘Sav food services ‘See theatres ‘See education centres See prisons See hotels ‘More ait hay be required to laundries to * ‘satisfy exhaust ait requirements 10 | 10s. person Ee nen 5 | 10s. person ‘Coin onerated ec) pakosgenn Fick un areas 95 | 10Us. person ‘Storage areas 38 | 10Us. persan ‘Classraams serving ‘persons up to T6 yt mee SeiEe 2 | 10s. person Special containment antral systems may be 35 | 10Us:person | required for process or functions incuting labor steey stv eccopaney 9 | SUs:person Rooms 2 | 10Us. person 1.5 | 10s. person Rooms 2 | 10 Us. person Shops 38 | 10Us.person ms MINIMUM OUTDOOR - AIR REQUIREMENTS BASED ON CLASS OF OCCUPANCY (cont.) Nett float Minimum airflow rate Geeupancy type ea por a eo) | me Quantity Comments For occupancies where smoking is nat permitted 10 Lis. person may be approved, Rea subject to requirements such as the display of signs et. Bars 1 | 20Lis. person Cabarets 1.8 | 20L/s. person Cafeterias 1 | 181s. person Cocitail lounges. 1 20 L's. person Dining rooms =| 1,8 | 15 Lis. person Fast food outlets 1 ‘15 Us. person fom beparion, | 35 | 10Us.poran | forcaoking. soe Seton ot AS 168.2 Funeral parlours Chapels 0.6517 | 101s. person Embalming rooms 5 15s. person | Air shall nut be recirculated inte spaces: ‘leception roams 1 | 10s, person ibaa General requiramants (applies ta al farms Te unless separately iste) Contidars 1 Us. floor Dressing rooms 2 10s. person Foyers 1 Usom floor Lobbies 1 Us. floor Locher rooms 2 TO Us. locker Pedestrian tunnels 1 Us.e floor Ramps 1 Us. floor Rest roams 1 VO LUs. person ‘Smoking roams V5 | 25 Us. person "a oni tai, passageways, etc, used a5 8 means: Stairs 1 Lisa? floor jr Unity coors z TUsm? floor | See AS 1688.1 as MINIMUM OUTDOOR-AIR REQUIREMENTS BASED ON CLASS OF OCCUPANCY (cont ) aid Quantity Comments Applies to convalescent homes, dentists, doctors, hospitals, aursing homes, etc. Special ‘requiremants ar codes and pressure relationships may determine minimum ventilation rates and fiter efficiency G8 | 10Ls. person § | SOLIs. person 35 | 10Us.person | NOTE: tt should not be recirculated $ | 20Us. person 3 ‘VO Lis. person | Procedures generating contaminants may 3 | 20s person | raguive higher rates, laminar flow or dedicated 10 | 10Ls person | systems, S| 10 Us. persen 10 | 10 Lis: person S| 10LIs. persen 5 | 10Us person, 15 | 1OUs. person 1 | Us. person 10 | TOLis. person 2 15 Us. person 7 10 Lis. person 15 | 15Us person 8 | T8Lis. person 35 | 10Ls. person ‘See dry cleaners MINIMUM OUTDOOR-AIR REQUIREMENTS BASED ON CLASS OF OCCUPANCY (cont.) er Minimum outdoor airflow rate Occupancy type nen Quantity c General requirements apaly ta all forms uniess Serene separately isted Arcades: 5 TO Lis. person Dispatch areas 10 | 10 Lis. person Ficting rooms 1 | 10Us. person Kiosks 1 | 10Lis. person Malis 6 VO Lis. person Receiving areas 10 | 10s: person Sales tloors ur: = et a8 | ro uierson Street floors Upper floors 5 | 10s: person ‘Storage areas (serving sales & 10 | 10Us. person storersams| Warehouses 20 | 10 Us. person motets ‘Sze hotels ‘Museums ‘Exhibit halls ce] ‘10 Us. person Warehouses 20 | 10 Ls. person Offices Art rooms: 5 10 Ls. person Baard ravns 1 18 Us. person Commitee rooms: t ‘15 Lis. persan Computer rooms 28 | 10Us person Conference roars: 1 15. Us. person Drafting roams s 10 Lis, person Office areas 0 10 Us. persion Wanting. 2 10 Lis. person n? MINIMUM OUTDOOR-AIR REQUIREMENTS BASED ON CLASS OF OCCUPANCY (cont.) ae Minimum outdoor airflow rate Oneeer tere mmnan | santy Comments Prisons Call blocks: 5 15 Lis. person Eoting halls 1.6 | 15.Uls. person ‘Guard stations 25 | 10.Us person Private dwelling places, multiple or singie high Residential tien Private dwellings, 10 | 10'tis. person Living areas ~ as 70 | 101s. person ‘Other dwelings Boarding houses Sex hotwls ‘Guest houses Sao hotels Hasta See hotels ‘Mobile hornes § | 10.Ls. person Resorts See hotels Schools ‘See education Specialty services ‘Animal roams ‘S.Us.m* floor Barber shops 4 | 15.Us. person ‘Beauty salons 4 | 15 Us. gerson Broadsasting studios | 1.6 | 10 Lis. person Eectrical meter, nahuen 4 Lis. floor Exercise reams $ | 101s, person Fre contra! rooms ‘30 ar changes (hour Florist 10 | 10.Us. persan Greenhouses 100 | 10Us. person Hairoressers 4 | 1 Us person Health saa % | 10.Us. person PABX rooms 4 Lis.in? fhaor 218 MINIMUM OUTDOOR-AIR REQUIREMENTS BASED ON CLASS OF OCCUPANCY (coni.) Wet Hear “Minimum outdoor airflow rate area per ‘Occupancy type ve Ausotity c Specialty services Pet shops § Lis. floor Press booths. iw |i belied 5 | 10Us. person ‘Radia booths 15 | 10.Us. person Reducing salons, S| 10 Us: person Saunas * 4Us. person ‘Shoe repaie shops (combined wotkreorrs trade © | Mice ‘areas ‘Steam rooms | 4 Us. person Survival snelters 1 | 10 Us. person Telephone MOF sua 10 Us. person Television booths: 1.3 | 10Us. person When internal combustion engines are operated tor maintenance of plying surfaces, o any. es orher purge, exhaust vertlaion ray be required. ‘Ballrooms 1.8 | 15s. persan ‘Bowling alleys ionique 13 ‘Tam Discotheques 1.0 | 15.Lls. person ‘Games rooms 1.5 | 15 Us.person | Amusement machines, silliards, cards etc. Locker rooms 2.0 | 10.Us. person Phayi Cricket, gymnasiums, ica skating, roller ont a | Mune skating, squash, tennis, ete. ‘Spectator areas 0.6 | 10.Us. person ‘Swimming pools <1 alae ae eel Deck & pool area 35 | 10 Lis! area ‘Spectator areas 1.6 | 10 Us. person Temples ‘Ste theatres MINIMUM OUTDOOR - AIR REQUIREMENTS BASED ON CLASS OF OCCUPANCY (cont.) ‘For auditoriuens where smoking is pratibites ‘Aucitariams. 1.6 | 15 Us.person | the figure af 1 may be reduced to 10, subject ‘to the requirements of the regulatory authority Concert als 0.6 | 18°Us. person Foyers 0.6 | 15 Us, person Green rooms 5 | 18 Us. person Lecture halls 06 | 19 Us. petson ‘ 45-10Us. ‘Lobiaies 0.6 ine (Opera halls 0.6 | 15 Us. person ‘Soecial ventilation wil be needed 10 elmminate Stages 15 | 10 Us. person | special effects, e.g. dry ice vapours, mists, etc, used in teevision, film & ratio productions ‘Studios 1.8 | 10s. person Ticket booths a 10 Lis. parson ‘Transportation centres Baggage areas 1S | 10Us. person Conesurses 0.6 | 10 Us. person Control towers 2 | 10 Lis. person Corridors 1.8 | 0Us. person Gate areas 1.8 | 10Us. person - 50 | 10 Us. person Ticket areas 15 | 15s. person Wasting rooms 18 | 19 Us person Air traffic cantral & 20 Lis. person — | Rater to aviation standards Veterinary centres Kennels 3.Usi floor Gperating rooms ‘5 Lis floor Reception rooms, Lis floor Stas SLs floor Requirement covers continuaus occupancy Workrooms: ‘When occupancy is intermittent, iniltration will normally be sufficient ventilation Bank vaults | 10 Lis. person MINIMUM OUTDOOR - AIR REQUIREMENTS BASED ON CLASS OF OCCUPANCY (cont.) Installed equipment may require exaust, 10 control contarninants Contaminants * Where an secupancy types nly ised under one buiding type, the values yiven apy 10 that type of occupancy al bailing types. NOTE: For impartant notes telaling to these tables, refer to AS 1688.2 - 1901, As Australian Standards ‘continually under review, refer Standards Australia for current status. ‘Source: AS 1668-21981 with permission of Standards Austria 22 UM EXHAUST - AIR REQUIREMENTS Comments: ‘85 1660.2 1991 Section ¢ ‘See AS 2676 See AS 1668.2. 1997 Section 4 5 Us foot 3 Lis.’ floor 20 Lis. oor ‘May be 18 Usinv’ of floor when approved local exhaust provided aver sterilizers (soe AS 1668.2 Clause 33.100 5 Us floor ‘80 Lis. room Rate is independent of room size. Operation of the system may be (otermittent ‘15 Us.m? floor 15 Us mi floor 20 Lis.rnom Rate it independant of enclnsure size. Operatian of the system may be intermittent ° ‘The greater of | For calculation purposes, ‘ioor aree per 10 Lis. floor — | fixture shal be not less than 2.5 m*, and 0.6 mlength of urinal shall be 25 Us sted ‘equivalent to one fixture: Finture MINIMUM EXHAUST - AIR REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE OF ENCLOSURE (cont.) (Mey include bath, shower water closet and hand basin in ane compartment, Rate is independent of room site. of system may be intermittent. Air locks 10 Lis.mv? floor Privacy lack $Us.mF floor ‘Sowaye ejection 5 Lis. floor ‘Spa aoais 7 ‘5 Lis.m’ floor Includes water surface area Theatre arojection (carbon are equipment) | 5 L/s.m* flaor Additionally, exhaust each lamp housing 50 Ls. Plant raom ‘5 Usm? tleor Boilers and furnaces ‘See AS 1200 Electrical equipment ‘See 4S 3000 Lifts ‘See AS 1735 Aefrigeration Sea AS 1877 NOTE: For important notes r lating to these tables, refer to AS 1668.2 - 1991, As Australian Standards are continually under review. refer Standards Australia for current status. Source: AS 1888.2 1981 with permssian of Standards Austral TING DEGREE DAYS Base Temp. C ic is | i 2) 108 167] 428 106 a) 238 380 51) 235 $8 o} 8 ag | 1a 4) 37 aar| 72] 1357 aay.) ae 29a) 752] 1401 402) 834 83} 182) 446 73) 258 483) 1086 | 1895 ea) 309 207) BIS) 1236 Wt) 485 a7) | 909) 1853 et) 578 oo} 373] B60 403) 977 76) 37) ne sia) 1256 S02) 1004) 1657 o & m9) 1288) 2023 ST] 327] 888 | Broken Hit m3) aod) te o a 2 | Campbelitown var} 528) 1073 80) 383) 859 | Conberrs Aiport Brg | yaar} 2186 23) 202) 875 | Casino P.O. we) 120) 40r 135] 451 | 914 | Cessnock rae | 3er| 38 95] 302) 685 | Corowa 33] 955) 1408 Oo} 4] 35| owboro. 29) a2) 64 136} 457) 981 | Goulbuin 646 | 1208) 1945 thea. Oificer 2) 198) 645 | Hav P.O. m0) 829) 1188 Kings Park 36) 245) 734 | Jenolan Caves 912] 1874] 2403 ast Island 3) 105] 528 | Liverpoat, 37) ase] B70 Moree 40} 962) 773 1543 | 2414 | 3403 | Moss Vale “862 | 1260) 2049 32% | 820) 1549 | Narooma 143] S28) 1170 m5 | 1416) 2268 2is| saz 485 | 972 | 1638 2900 | aga 468 | ‘002 | 1701 geo | 1608 #15] 1290) 2150 ag) a7] 1627 1124] 2041 462] 971) 1637 3078 | 4148 8) 995) 1725 tat] 2133 464) 1052) 1850 tase | 2418 na] 9st) 1381 3952 24] 693) 1978 v4 22) $96) 1148 $04} oan) 1748 28 488} 1026) 1800 286 azz) ear) i512 448 yoag | 142 HEAT GAIN FROM PEOPLE ‘Note: Values given are heat gain in watts. ‘Saurce: AIRAM Appication Manual DAB Air Canditicaing Load Estimation and Paychrametics EAT GAIN FROM ELECTRIC MOTORS - KW Location of Equipment With Respect to Conditioned Space or Air Stream ae Efficiency “ Dutput power | Dutput power | Output Power \1 Ett) | ‘Welficiency Efficiency a7 E 0.25 12 7 037 O16 055 O21 07s an 110 ts 15 0.38 22 036 40 082 35 108 18 1.32 a 1 18 ar 6 22 88 16.5 2 8B 2 30 9 3 - a w v7 6 a0 500 5 50 30 at 6 61 0 833 6 a3 9c 100 90 10.0 above values are for continuously operating plant. p AIRAH Application Manual DAS - Ar Conditioning Luad Estimation and Psychrometrics ‘eration, an appropriate usage factor should be used - preferably measured. HEAT GAIN FROM AIR CONDITIONING FAN DRAW-THROUGH SYSTEM" FAN LOCATION | FAN TOTAL PRESSURE Pal2) Fan Motor not 100 in conditioned 200 ‘space or air 300 stream 400 $00 800 800 1000 1200 * 1480 1600 1800 2000 ‘Fan motor in 100 conditioned 200 ‘space or air 300 ‘stream (5) 400. 500 600 800 1000 1200 1800 1600 1800 2000 (11 Exclude trom heat gain, typical values for bearing lasses, etc. which ave dissipated io epgaratus room. 2) Fan total pressure = tan static pressure + velucity pressure at fan discharge. Below Gris the fan total ‘eessuee is approximately = to fan static. Above Gimis the total pressure should be calculated. (3) 70% fan efficiency assumed (4) 50% fan efficiency assumed (5) 80% motor and drive efficiency assumed (6) For Draw-through systems, this heat is ay addition to the supply air gain and is added to the Raom Sensible: ‘Heat. For Blow - through systems this fan heat is added to the Grand Total Heat, use the ASH times the eccentage listed nd add to the G TH. Soure:AIRAA Applicaton Manual DAB Aw Conditioning (nad Estmatan and Prychometncs Fry T GAIN TO SUPPLY DUCT « ss ~ = MOLIVINSNI SYE14 WYANT 40 “Og 40 INTTWA INOS AYN STSTSNIS WOON OL KOTATONY & oN oon TENFERATURE TEMPERATURE OF UNCONDITIONED SPACE AIR FLOW VS. AIR CHANGES / HOUR & CEILING HEIGHT 4167 5 7 4.03 wey 48.61 ae oidna ciesomr amie rmcanrar eerie whichis tote supled ‘with 10 air changes per haur af ai-conditioned air. From above table far 10 ar chanyes ané 2.8mceiing height, Air Flam = 7.22 Ls. Tata supply se = 7.22 Us? x 3m x dem = 88.5. AIR FLOW VS. CROSS SECTION AREA & - Example: Required to find aie velocity when 7500 Ls of air passes through an opening af 5.0m? cross-section area. “fram the above table, from the row for §.00 rm, the head of the column containing 700 Lis indicates a velocity af 1,50 mis. ECONOMIC LIFE OF EQUIPMENT ‘Air canditianing unit - Package {10 kW - 100 kw) ‘ir conditioning unit - Room type Air conditionng unit - Spit cassette (up to 10 kW) ‘Aie conditioning unit - Salt package (10 KWW - 100 KW) ‘Ai fiters Dry media disposable Air filters - HEPA 2- Air ftars- Metal washable type Air handling unit - Custom bullt central station Ait handling unit - Proprietary line central station single or multiple zone Automatic contiols and instrumentation Baers « Cast iron Boilers Finned capper tube hest exchanger Boilers - fire tube: Balers - water tube Boilers eecwode ~ Cols - Cooking and heating Cooling towers ‘Ductwork and fatings Electric storage heaters Electric strip heaters Electrical final circuits and outlets ‘Electrical mains cables 5 AS Besessearasessesaslaas Pipe work and values Radiators Hat water ‘Relrigeration chillers ~ Absorption Refrigeration chillers - Centrifugal Tanks: Variable ar volume Terminal units Wate: Robes harena peat remem na «plan tem ey vary depending 30 De (of the hours of operation and the sumbet uf starts pet day TT i te Sesslssealsdia cataleet.sesieic ts eee = i | Dt B]) es r a yet after connde ae ‘HROMETRIC FREQUENCY DATA folowing pages enable designers to study the frequency of occurrence of any ambient design condition for the ions provided. e within the psychrametric charts indicate hours per year on average that these conditions occur, For a of air contitians, add these eumbers ta find the tatal hours af occurrence (per year) for that range of anbient mumbets on the Ory Bulb Temperature axis are the cumulative hours af occurrence abnve the particular ifitis above 20°C. and below the particular temperature iit is below 20°C. slong the Saturation Curve show cumulative hours that Wet Bulb Temperature conditions are exceeded. example, for Brishane (24 hour periad), ‘Inthe 21 to 22°C Dry Sul Temperatwe band, “4051™ is the number af hours per year that 21.0°C Ory Bully _ Temperature is exceeded. mthe 20:10 21° Wet: Bulb Temperature band, "1887" is the number af hours per year that 20,0°C Wet Bult - Temperature is exceeded. Av the intersection of 21 ta 22°C OB vand and the 20 to 21°C WB band, “109° represents the number of hours that the condition of 21 ta 22°C 0B and 20 ta 21°C WB sccurs, ‘Sir, 204108 + 117 + 30+ 100)- 384 rerenents the suber of hours pe Yar tat te cinetent coninans of 20 to 23°C OB and 20 to 22°C WA occurs. “For Brishane (day time), 3.3 +17 + 29+ 1.8 +2374 represents the number of hours per year that the coincident _cendition of 20 to 23°C DB and 20 to 22°C WB occurs in the daytime. Thus for 384-74~310 hours per year this ‘range of conditions pccurs at night. in these charts have been prepared by CSIRO from original material supplied by the Australian Bureaw of and have been normalised ta an 8760 hour per year base where any data wes lacking, MOISTURE CONTENT 6 HATER | KG DRY AIA a fen. a7 x SL REELS EZ AAR EZ SY Ve ony MUG HEAPERATUNE gt RES gio, afi af Bite it on, pigs Bee i “iad ia Sah? Shel gabal | Stace aii: Hate ggeekl) sided Suited i Ya merstunt towrent GoentEN yee om aie Opr-muee TeNPeARTUNE - $. : al Fs ea) 3 fain b bell Hi: 1B iil ig a aft, ae g = BESEE 2 . mdtsTune CoxteRt 6 WATER ¢ RE : i be 2 fi ae fe o~ ¢ &- £Eree 2 cup a EF ier L Ste". tute Sia! “pig ‘ ce s® zi S ze Big 2 eee Fe BRU: tel a ae atele rill oiest i i ‘ 8 FRTER / KO DRY 1.480 ro 9) 42.08 aurea ‘824 HOUR DAY ee een . : ‘SMLILTANE OUS ORY FOR A780 OURS PER ToTm wungen oF neAaiNGss PEATDO OF DasERVATION | i 3 i 3 E ee i ‘SOURCE: Lisa esiSs sata ic e/a] s he (2/77 LA bet PS f= 7 NEL? _ Sot SATS EVAFETA VET bE, fA fNo NO CORRECTION WAS WEEN RPPLIED, THe DATA ow THIS. FACTOR 15. TERPENM TURE ony ouLe MOISTURE CONTENT 6 HATER V KO DRY AIA 2 auhusaaeas Wine-awe Oe ue a oo “a . ‘0 a sie giulmlace : = 4s giaimie Bil GoGRE BEBE BER beal a) “6 ae ee 5 “aswa wa 1 sunoW “ 0948 bh Gast uuMON 7 wat FAWN Luwe wi Simi MO MaMa HL inl Saar iad W330 suN woLaNs woii33uM0a OW UK ‘nKjune ere 2Mk 48 O9uMSMON Lua gH neat MOTuNINaS3ud StL NL oasn = auniuwadiat wind fae aM FLOW lap awn AovOWOILIH 40 NUAWNa NUITWHISMY —F39uNOs ‘Su GOH) “GOKF “OOZI “OOSO FSONIOUIY 40 aHIL 41 Fa@Wo230 pmTsat® he: 16ee1 FsNtouIN 40 WAR wioi KOEI NE OF aS I-1 untEwaNaSe0 40 OIWae AVONNOM 26 PMWIA Uae SNOW 0828 HOF (0 Wd StI MH HAVEL ETN LM 7 ARC STORY IIS oe auegsig - Sa9uaINI909 ainjesadwiay noUsTURE coNTENT wares ) a ont Ara SLT aes af td Pa TT App TT Lassi 7 i iv 3 = oS - yo: #8 a8 fot SEE if fh H LE ba ne * ‘ fort. 32 Bag: = ee : ae Es : Pig G5iE GG 7 ROISTURE COWTENT 5 WATER / RG ORY BIA uy wbtiuuiasass ene at wa9n etl] fa TunIWaWaL ate saa IMA TOR Asoroveri3H 40 qwaunH NUIWULSNY —139uNOs SoNI0v3N 40 wri NOTLUAMASBO 40 OUIWad “* AYO UNION 9 UVRA Bhd StINOH 0928 HOS EVA Hd SHON MISRINIVEEAINGL BING LAM WANA SROBNVE ARS PBUaQUeD - S99UGIND90O sunyesaduia | aie: eodtiNe W/aditen vine ie th y Bis asi aig f " shee; REAM RAAT TT a sii age EP NRO s , 1s irs: att BREE vig ai reli fi i ‘SOURCE: WOVSTURE CONTENT 6 HATER / RB ORY HI® ere AF 7 é ofa fe eet ete Po DLA I wa oy a7 Pere IF ie i & i & i : | 1 tit a, ae i? ia z 2 a3 oa Eetet é e.2ki § fig EA 5 i weet 7 2 Fi sai i Bree, it qi 5Es, F i siab! F 38 i ; - , aa mY -AULH eMPERATUME 5 5 = = & i i 3 $ i i a bi Fenitio OF Gaseavay ion TRIAL NUMBER oF HEROINE AIsGING = meconess | | 5 E i i ; : & i van aww pf SPI Pape p Tey ary ae ALES EN AA Te 20d. 2400 HAE z a i500, isan, v8 TINE OF RERDINGS2 Cann. o40n, n9ag. i200, TenPeMaT une BEEN APPLIED. On rare 10 B70 ano NO ConmeeT ION BEEN. Nas Have IN THIS PABSENTATION bate 1S THAT MEASURED GY THE useD buneAU. Factor He CHART MonnALtsea ‘NOTES THE SET mULA TEMPERATURE war auiLw WOISTURE CONTENT 5 WATER 1 RE Day AUN 7S ot Pa PF Pi Ta TATA MS eee Tifa 38. See Cy TALL Bee ¢ LPR Sea T Ti oS Sars te eh FT 3 £ = & SET EAS GF 2 3 a 5 ZY 7X a/ TT hi : 2 i a Ral aes (i 7e7 A 7 7 ae iy S(a/ule/s i * gt REIT T fT Tis we 2 F EAA Le ep 3 zk aera SM any Tr Pie eH Ey TRE =3 =@2 EEE a ee ‘a to: ete Sei l Meh a ss f bee. §,"2 Batt Gitta! bo 2552 3 F855 8.5; ‘ se Ee 5 aes! ald E HH re i 3 PSHE: 3 ; HOISTURE CONTENT 6 WATER / KG GRY AIR tts 2 «3, 54 = = @o6¢ ¢ 6 & ——7 + FA SO ae yp ee ft fe IIIT ATLLE | LTD EEE 2 ae fa VTS, Se ary £3/if%7 [e/e/a7ars ae mer, LET a7} ony auLe TeNPERATURE se Hii al ity te ad uapefll © bd 7 = ae eke a = ‘ gallo adel ailit bj : MOISTURE CONTENT § wATEN 1 RG gAY Aun i ¢ 6. ¢ 8 £ m ¢ 2 ¢@ 3 #4 ry Ap PPS T LI IALLTD Bahama LESH L Ad Ah dbp FZ AF ee a8 E : a i : Ba ed pis ' gudai H é Hig: ! Te PaRE LE © 5 $4.50 To 34.42.87 renin OF oUseAYATION TOTAL WUMBER OF READINGS) LSS ING 2a078 7 ‘RECORDS S| & zg : 5 i i . E THIB PRESENTATION useo tw fio: “hit 8 i r a eu 6 Hit Hii gle fs ei fo Hai! BUREAU OF WETEDROLOGY AUSTRALIAN ws Ezege iat : B = 2 F258 ial oa gz o* 43°F Stig. t wee 2 EEE wotdt cit EgsEE 258E : Tenmenn rune amr tue ROISTURE CONTENT G SRTER | KG DAY BIN " “at yl FFE auniMuadNaL HYnd-keo is] noe “1 a ‘ ° . a a sis cyrleig se 2,cle elnnslaya nase || 1 o a” ane * Pri o a ao? 35ue usaf sunow 0s 0351 wuvoH -" aan rune xo vivo 3HL 008 “O41 yay WA98 Sey voIIWE NoriaIMNO9 OM OMY tnd aeH tae 341 48 OduNgwRN pu, St Pe. NOLAMINaSoMd Bier mE OSH SUNLUIdWaL 81d Lae BK) FLOM doe az ADDTOVOTLIN 40 _MURUNe MHI WHASME —*39WN0S Sum gore “vote ‘nos! ‘Host *eog! *008@ *noeO ‘DOGO “a9MLOWIM 40 owt $12e ts0Mo2qy BNissTH (oor fsoNrevaN so waKKNN TIO Cea OL OS Ir nOavewa3e@ 40 ooTuaw AVG LINGH We # VA BU SHMOK OBE HOS v9.4 He SUNON NISSAN WEIUNISL ENE LIM # ANC SOSNV A TWNIS ROISTURE CONtEN? G HATER KG GAY ‘oa eos 2 > § La! Ha g hy eh apt & 38252: PUSTARLEAN GURERU OF NeTeonOLOGY SOURCE: SL SE ZL es La 7 x as “7S /7 exa7a/ IN THIS PRESENTATION NOTES THE WET GUL TENPERATURE usep WAV Ly 7 eg se) 7 7 Zh [aX aeas PAL é 5 TT 2 ae 7a 7 Blase KE/ B/ ey a/5/ VY 7 7 jue SASLUZ Raa fe 1S THAT HENSURED ur THE po NO CONMECTION FACTOR WAS BEEN APPLIED, aunenu. NOMMALISED 10 e750 HOURS J YERH GRSE, tase ro 2007s, WunBEM OF MENDING: reno OF ONscAyATION aan THME OF MERUINGS® G00. AESSING MECONOS» ‘OUNERU GF HETEDNOQOGT USTANLIAN, moUsTURE CONTENT Tenrenaruse PREsewrarion " i = i ores The wey 6 HATER / RG DAY mim s, ,2 eed LIers Assay Oy auLe TEMPERATURE 1 MOURNS / TEAR BABE. 5 z namin 1D conmy t faaatune eoereer & & z B ATER (KG DRY ALB ey 5 a i waif i zi as | gba bind Bite & EEE! SoUAcE: 251 gizds ' fee elit ‘ bite. Fog cae eis” Flas ty. ‘ Hi Hil i 5 ‘ Onr-wULe TENPERWTUNE HOTSTURE CONTENT WATER / kG ORY AIR my dltilntdien Dae I SE Saree eres eee 7 Ap ff? esi Ais v7 SESE AUSTARLIAN BUREAU OF nouns / YEAR Hnse HE DATA ON THIS. NORMALISED TO W780 -ANEOUS DRY & WET BULA TEMPERATURES IN HOURS PER YEAR CHART WAVE aeEN Wilsrboue nen wean te neue ae © beyswuLa TeneenAtunE SECTION 3 METRIC DATA SI METRIC SYSTEM FORCE (Newton N) Farce (Newton) = Mass (Kilogram) x Acceleration (mis) Weight is e special farce, namely gravitational force, therefore Weight (Newton) = Mass (kilagrami » Gravitational Accaleration(g) = mg Gravitational Acceleration can be taken as 9.61 m/s? PRESSURE AND STRESS (Pascal Pa) Pressure and siress are defined as force per unit area, Le., Newton per square metre (Nim. ‘This unit is termed the Pascal. | Pascal {Pal = 1 Nin, Pressure exerted by 2 column of liquid: » Pressure = hoight of the column x density of the lull » rovitational acceleration =h > @ Example |: Pressure exerted at the base of @ column of water 1 metre high @ 4°C = | mx 1000 kgim? + 9.84 mis? ~98100 Pa ~ 9.81 kPa Example 2; Pressure exerted at the base of a column of mercury | metre high = Tim 6 19 800 kyle 2 8.81 mis? 133.4 KP ENERGY, WORK, QUANTITY OF HEAT (Joule J) ‘The Joule (J) is the S | unit of energy, wark and quantity of heat, ‘Work = Forca x Distance = Newton metre (Joule) Tobheat 1 tlagram al water through 1 kelvin requires 4187 Joule Potential Energy egh ld) Kinetic Energy = rev? Uh POWER, RATE OF HEAT FLOW (Watt W = J/s) Power is the rate of doing work, the unit is Joule/second (J/s} named the Watt (\W). 1 Watt = 1 dis: 1 Kilowatt ~ 3.6 MJihow DYNAMIC (ABSOLUTE) VISCOSITY ‘VRentnsise = 10? Pas ‘ Gentistohe = 10° ms (absolute viscosity { density) 301 IC CONVERSION Tinch = 254mm Tm = 38.37 inch 1 rile = 1.609 km Tk = 0.6215 mile gain ~ 0.0848 gram Toran = 18.4 grains Tounce —~ 28.38 gram Tgrem ~ 0.03527 ounces 1 Troy ounce = 31.1 gram pound == 0.454 kg Vkg = 2.20 sounds Lt00 = 1.076 tonne J tonne = 0.984 tan Tin? = 645 mm? ‘Lm? = 0.00155 in? Vie = 0.0828 m? 1m? = 10.761? J acre = 0.405 he ha - 2.47 acre Vin? = 16987 mm? Im = 353 ff (solids) Ym? = 1.31 yards? ‘Valurme 1 fvid ounce = 28.4 mt Tmt = 0.0352 fluid ounce liquids and gases) 1 pint = 0.568 Litre 1 Litre = 61.02 in? 1 imperial gal. =4.55 Litre 1 Lite = 1.76 pints TUSgallon = 3.785 Litre 1 Live = 0.220 imperial gal, 1 imperial gal. ~ 1.20 US gal ‘1 Ure ~ 0.264 U S gal. Viscosity Vibesift® = 4788026 Nim? | 1 Nisin? = 0.020885 ibtsitt® Velocity: Vitiees = 0.3048 mis Tmis = 528 fis 1 fini = 1.00508 mis Imis = 198.8 fpm | = 1.81 ket ‘keh ~ 8.824 mpi ‘Pressure = 8.89 KPa ThPe = 0.145 psi r = 2g Pa kPa = 20.9 tbitt* = 981Pa ‘TkPa = 4.014 ing BBY KPa hPa = 0.338 (14,0 = 399 KPa ‘VkPa = 102 mmét,0- =) Tor, ‘TkPa ~ 0.295 in Hg =133.3 Pa TkPa = 7.502 mmHg = 10KPa VkPa = 0.07 bat = 101.3 Ps = 780 rim Hg Abs, and = 746 Watt Tk = 1.3¢HP Heat Flow Rate 98) KW Lew = 1415 8TUihe = 0.293 Watt 1 Watt =0.860 4 eal/hr = 1.163 Watt VAW ~ 0.289 ton reftig. = 2517 kW Tew = 8 Nur = 278 Watt ‘Conductivity td °F = 0.184 Wink | 1 Wim € - 6.938 TU in ior (t? °F ‘Conductance fc) = S88 Wink — | 1 Wit = 0.176 BTUIKe tt? *F 302 METRIC CONVERSION (cont.) Flow Rate fmass) Tihinin = O.0O7SSlgiset | Tkais = 13ZIuimin Vitihe = 0.00013 kgiser Tigs 7936 bir 1 - ‘Us Tus = 212 imp yom = 0.078 Us 1Us = 13.2imp oom 1USgom = 0.0691Lis 1Us = 158USexm Enthalpy Difference Teron = 2325 hha Tidiig = 0490 BTU ‘Specific Weat Capacity TEIUm@*F = S187 KGK | THJNGK = 0099 BTUIG Tntensity of Weat Flow Rate | 18TUhv i? — 9.155 Wine Vwia? = 0017 BTUs A Value = 233 Tklikg ~ 0.430 8TUIlb TATUM = 37.3 kul TiJim + 0.026 BTUI? [Meistire Content —+| ~~‘ ganb -O14Spamig | lgamig -70genib ‘Specific Volume Tie =0.0824mig | TwPky = 1602 fb [Density ——=«|~~=SC«*=«éi i PO | i OO [im -O0s7ebth TeTU ~ 282 Caore Ted - G00useaTw 1BTU = 1.06%) Thy = 0.948 8TU MJ = 0.00948 therm Finpiteh = 314 Fins / metre 10 Fins! inch = 2.54 mm Fin pitch ~ 394 Fins ( metre 12Finsl inch = 212m Finpiteh = 472 Fins | metre 44 Fins inch = 1.81 men Fin pitch = 551 Fins / metre Factor [Pratic | r PREFIXES ‘Note: To reduce error and in accordance with engineering canvention itis recommended that powers of 10 which ae rultpies of 3 be used. e.g. 10% 10, etc, TEMPERATURE CONVERSION F Temperature | °C [ + Temperature °c “0 “40 40 88.8 Rn ‘00 un 6 3nd 93.2 uM um oad 0 344 96.8 % 222 wn 2B a 1004 a 30 4 2 289 108.0 ol 444 5 Ab 26.1 1076 al 556 “4 0 2a mz a 887 a 4 “208 6 6 778 4 a “18.9 "6 a 89 320 0 AB 122 50 10.00 33.6 1 2 31 s 12.80 35.6 2 16.7 140 I 15.60 ae a 76:7 48 a 18.30 382 a 15.6 ‘154 8B 20.00 ano “s “15.0 138 70 20 428 6 a4 ‘167 1% 29 440 7 38 76 0 26.7 464 & “13.3 185 ‘5 234 48.2 a 128 187 68 30.0 50.0 a A22 198 80 ‘322 sta " mT 203 38 350 53.6 2 “Wt 212 100, 378 a4 3 108 221 105 406 $72 " “10.0 230 110 43 59.0 a a4 pe 5 46 608 18 889 248 12, 43 62.6 Ww 833 27 125 52 Gat 18 118 268 130, J 66.2 ww qa a5 135, a 680 2 667 184 140 oO a8 ri “61 293 5 63 Ne 2 558 2 180 66 34 2 500 at 155 cs 152 oo 444 320 160 nn ma a 2.90 38 170 W 78 2B 433 8 180 2 80.6 a 278 ‘M7 190 J vey 28 22 88 200 3 BAD 2 187 363 no 9 85.0 3 AM a4 22 100 C= TF Tae “F=Ce ie + a2 [ACUUM CONVERSION Vatuum Fietaare Bar imdsolute: | (Gaage) Tors25 a 4 “101192 vorzes 101218 “anzaz 10r26s 191258 yor27Z ore 101285 10122 101798 101208 SSssSssss vorge2 101924 101928 cove | 760.00 Tavel af Vacuu ig retrig. Upto 290 by vetrig 130 Limin Up te 280 bg vetrig, 900 Limin Volumes excluding receivers. ‘Source: pervanat contrinusvon fram C Lammers 1998 S!IUNITS DERIVED S$! UNITS WITH SPECIAL NAMES BASE SI L ELECTRIC CURRENT = SECTION 4 AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS 400 DUCT SIZING METHODS General ‘The objective isto site the ductwork so that the tatal pressure loss along each flow path provides the correct air ‘quantity through the network at each terminal without generating unacceptable nase. A number af methods ate used to size air conditioning ductwork and incluce;- 1), Velocity reduetion method. 2. Constant pressure gradient method. 1. Balanced pressure drap method. 4. Static regain method. Velocity reduction method Each duet sagment is sizad on a specified velocity, The velocity is selacted an the basis of experiance and is along the duct run. Constant pressure gradient method Each segment of the ductwork system is sized on the basis of @ selected fixed pressure gradient. The press ‘gradient is expressad in terms of unit length af straight duct, a value of 1.00 Palmis typical. This method is termed the equal friction method. Balanced pressure drop method ‘This is essentially a resizing method, Duct sizes intially sized dy same other methad or combination af methads adjusted such that there is an equal gressure drop along all a flow paths, from the fan to each terminal. This wi ‘minimise the armaunt of pressure required to be taken up by balancing devices in the netwark, From the initial ‘calculations the path with the greatest pressure loss (the index runl is determined, The size of the segments in tuther gaths are then adjusted such that all paths have the same aressure drop as the inex run. Static regain method This method is apolicable to supply air duct systems oniy. The static regain method sizes the ductwork system so that the pressure recovery due to decrease in velocity at branch or vetocity fitting just offsets the friction loss in the succeeding section of duct. The static pressure will then theory be the same at each terminal and at each branch thraughout the system. Nate: For ful and detailed information onthe design of duct systems including the calculation af system tata grassure fan selection, reference should be made ta:- [AIRAH Application Manual DA3 - Quctwork for Air Conditioning and ‘AIRAH Application Manual DA13 - Fans - Selection and Application, a0) CT SYSTEM PRESSURE LOSSES ‘total system resistance lass in a duct systemis a cambination of friction and dynartic losses. traight Ducte In straight parallel ducts, dynamic loss is insignificant sa the total lena is assumed as a Friction, This ‘may be obtained trom the following duct friction chert or # using tha Constant Pressure Gradient Method af a value tor friction oss is assumed, e.g. 1.00 Paim. Fittings - For duct fittings both dynarric and friction losses are significant, Data for fittings are given in the tables in terms af total loss, exprasted.as a Loss Coefficient K,. The total pressure loss for a duct fittings of pressure loss in terms of velocity pressure or velocity prassure difference mutiplied by the loss Values of velocity pressure may be obtained from the foltewing chart. " ‘pressure loss of a fitting is given by Pr= Key Py = tatal pressure lass through fitving (Pa) = toss coefficient V = velocity of the air stream (rnis} For a circular duct, ‘V+ 1273 + (Flow, Lish| (diameter, mam)? tenis) (p= density of aie legie?t of valocity pressure may be read fram the fallawing table, VELOCITY PRESSURE - AIR (P,) 05 pv! ~ 0.60 Paton ar at 20°C {Welecity ins) | Velecty preseure Pal | Velocity nis) | Velocity pressure Pal Tio 080 = | ss. 7 1B ose 730 4 130 136 195 8 1.05 188 8.00 3 2.00 240 8.25 a 2a a4 B80 43 250 395 875 8 Fay 458 8.00 43 3.00 540 a8 at 425 aaa a0 CI 350 135 a8 37 378 aaa 100 60 4.00 a8 126 4 48 108 150 135 4.50 122 178 188 475 35 200 240 5.00 130 28 304 525 185 25.0 a8 6.50 182 28 464 5:78 198 30.0 sad | 6.00 Us 6.0 738 | 625 wa 40.0 960 6.50 Ba 450 1218 675 ma 50.0 1500 | 7.00 ae PRESSURE LOSS - CIRCULAR METAL DUCT _ DRY AIR at 20°C and 101.325KPa & &_ & a3 Vail; AIR QUANTITY iL/s} 3 = t FRICTION LOSS (Pa/m! 404 CIRCULAR EQUIVALENT OF RECTANGULAR DUCTS FOR EQUAL PRESSUR ‘crn act ae om Refer: Eqn, 3:110e of AIRAH DAS [5070 Fa a wa] Ta aa] Tan Tra TT T9o——] “00 4 S056 6 SESRS50% pesseaseeg ageagaltsss222983| SEES ERzEGSEaR a2 28) ESESZESSRREEES ERE S| 3 BESSSESSS) BEREERTES ino 0 1258 1336 aoe 1777134 908 979 Tae oR eT 7 993.1055 1015 1072 495 017 ove a7 95 63 1051 0971150 28 190 1980 1116 1100 28 195 ee 4961300 1763 1012 aes 54 1200 «285 an ae 123 12001908 5 B58 ERag S8585 = rsa TF 850 —— SSSB2R8 33 335229232 jenesseel9 RaRRTESEES JERRSASESTS giss22s95| aseaa82#e SESEa E322 [RaRSSSHRES| PSSRES89 25) ESESESS jeeRSes JRRRES jaeee [S85 EnezEE feRaSSAsTS RERRRARE S| BESS en eees ERRRSSSERESRERSS JpHauenenit SSSSRSas5 8) goggeneay RESETS SE jRaewAS TSS SRSEERE /PFSREESR Es ES SERESEEEE + ia So “AL = etscsar 0 ran = (0k, y+ aptener H etivn = wel, “ey = apeced 9 rastun = ten, ot inde satarel o Yor PEER HCO Total Lose Coefficients for Ouct Fittings (hy based on V) 406 BENDS (cont.) | scege [st NE] = a i an BENDS AND TEES we Pascax pte] $4]sS2hezcea22 4 = ty Saeed oy iif bite nell “%, Total Lass Coefficients for Duct Fittings (k, based an V, except for expansions where K, based on V,) 408 EXPANSIONS & CONTRACTIONS e gv [er] | a [ile ‘Total Lass Coefficients far Quet Fittings (k, pels ieemiececkintn’) | DISCHARGES Total Loss Coefficients for Quct Fittings {k, based an V,) 410 DIVIDED FLOW FITTINGS Seat a tin Tava FR Total Loss Coefficients for Duct Fittings (Branch oath k, based on ¥,, straight through om V,) DED FLOW FITTINGS (cont. i Eseenenee | ta ses otal Less Coefficients far Duct Fittings (Branch path k, based on V,, straight through an V,) 412 j i 3339933533 73333 | 35: ao toe Ming moe $01 6 88) he fr rcing mee san 6 vay tm Total Loss Coefficients for Ouct Fittings (Branch path k, basad on V,,steaight though on Vy) DIVIDED FLOW FITTINGS (cont.) A 413 DIVIDED FLOW FITTINGS (cont.) neem P+ 1 4 ove couttactne far anegh aun woe seestey sac Yyty ngte San em tent Peaiualent ce stconege ty Bese 2 pgp sonnets |r MR ncmeeateler fcoe Mca eto ea] a Ae site ta aeomenter 850 9 se tn seman Ha Se pana y= Cy A Sane cnet ietane fee nt caesatton sth ome #86 yf ane bo ate ‘seultisant at sqtotbene et Tota Loe oan for uct Fittings (Branch path k; hased an V,, straight through en Ys) a4 COMBINED FLOW FITTINGS na [ls aa fsa ducks Sehase, saecees* Pitan Tpgsseesas2E deyraaest22 22 Total Loss Coefficients for Dues Fittings ik; based an for both paths) 418 ‘COMBINED FLOW FITTINGS (cont.) Tita a ieeaaye enzSggal=t8s, eeae2|_.2 e23sees|s3e287 pepe pape ayfis|z9s#583] 32828 atees|Monaselsioat ae pe par ‘Total Loss Cuefficiants for Quet Fittings (K, based ah V, for both paths) ate COMBINED FLOW FITTINGS (cont.) aa a ‘| ad eee ror mene = 40 mtorr re : FEE. ulelayel pet “ln” oe Ls [is [ee [os [oe Toe Te] oy Total Loss Coefficients for Ouct Fittings (K, based on V, tor Both paths) 1 an ta in| soastsses2: | 3 ay Lass Coetficients for Ouet Fittings K, based an Vy) ae INTAKES Tata Loss Coefficients for Duct Fitings (Kk; based an Vj) INTAKES (cont.) | Total Loss Coefficients for Duct Fittings {ky besed on Va) 420 WEIGHTS & AREAS OF RECTANGULAR GALVANISED STEEL DUCT 28 300 mw 30 m8 400 425 450 415 $09 825 550 a 600 650 7m 7 800 a5 900 980. ‘000 1050 00 150 1200 1260 1300 1380 490 1480, 1500 WEIGHTS & AREAS OF CIRCULAR GALVANISED STEEL DUCT Diameter ‘Metal Thickness (mm) ‘Area {m’} {mmm 05 | 08 | oe [io 7 12 [ie [20 | pertinm wo] 4a] tae] 230 | es | sea [ao [ere [ost 1B 180 | 228 | 288 | 361 | 456 | a75 | 7.22 O19 150 217 | 273 | 245 | 438 | 547 | 690 | 87 047 15 253°) 319 | 403 | 405 | 638 | #05 | 10.11 O55 200 | «289 | 385 | 460 | 677 | 728 | 920 | 158 | O89 2S | 326 | 410 | £18 | 643 | 820 | 1038 | 1300] O71 20 | 381 | 486 | £75 | 222 | 911 | 150] 4s | 079 25 «| 397 | 501 | 633 | 794 | 10.02 | 1265 | 15.89 | 0.96 300 433 | $47 | 690 | fee | 10.99 | 13.80 | 17.34 0.98 325 $69 | 592 | 748 | 838 | 11.84 | 1695 | 18.78 102 350 $05 | 638 | 805 | 10.30 | 12768 | 1811 | 20.23 110 ams | 641 | 684 | G63 | 1082 | 1387 | 1726 | ier | 1.18 am | 578 | 7.28 | 920 | 1156 | 1458 | 141 | 2312 | 1.28 4m | G14 | 7.78 | 878 | 1227 | 1548 | 1958 | 2886 | 1.99 450 | 650 | 820 | 1035 | 1289 | ta40 | 2071 | 2R01 | 140 4 686 | 866 | 10.92 | 13.71 | 17:31 | 21.88 | 27.45 149 50 | 722 | 911 | 1150 | 1449 | 1022] 201 | 290 | 157 ye] 758 | 997 | 12.08 | 1515 | 1819 | 2418 | 3034 | 1:85 ‘550 794 | 10.08 | 1265 | 18.87 | 2004 | 2531 | 31.79 173 $75 «| 830 | 10.48 | 13.28 | 1659 | 2nge | 2648 | 33.23) 1.20 600 | 868 | 1094 | 13.80 | 17.92 | 2187 | 2781 | 488 | 1.28 B25 902 | 1198 | 1438 | 18.04 | 2278 | 2078 | 3612 | 1.98 650 | 938 | 1185 | 1496 | ta76 | 2369 | 2091 | 3757 | 204 85 975 | 1230 | 1853 | 19.48 | 2860 | 31.06 | 39.01 | 212 moo | 108i | 1278 | 1811 | 2020 | 2551 | 3291 | 404s | 220 72 =| war | 1322 | 1688 | 2092 | 2642 | ange | 41.90 | 228 780 | 10.83 | 1387 | 17,26 | 21.65 | 27.39) sag1 | ang | 2.38 7s | 1489 | 14.19 | 17.89 | 22.97 | 2028 | 6.56 | 4470] 249 goo) | 11.86 | 14.68 | 18.41 | 23.00 | 2008 | seer | 4e28 | 251 825 ‘11.91 | 15.04 | 18:68 | 23.81 | 30.07 | 37.96 | 47.58 259 gs) «| 1227 | 1849 | 19.58 | 2469 | goge | 391) | 4ana | 267 875 | 1289 | 1595 | 20.19 | 25.28 | a1.as | au2e | sus? | 2.75 900 | 1299 | 1641 | 20,71 | 25.97 | 32.90 | 4141 | 520) | 289 925 18.98 | 1688 | 21.28 | 28.70 | 33.71 | 4256 | sa4e | 281 950 19.72 | 17.92 | 21.88 | 27.42 | 34.62 | 43.71 | S490 | 2.98 ot 1408 | 17.27 | 2249 | 28.14 | 3559 | 4405 | seas) 3.08 yooo | 14.44 | 18.29 | 2a.01 | 2a@8 | seas | apr | o779| 3.14 per linear mere Weights inciuda 20% allowance for bracing, hangers, waste and seams. a2 SECTION 5 PIPE SYSTEMS PUMPING SYSTEM CONFIGURATION 1, Location of Make-up Tank and its Effect on ‘System Pressures ‘When the make-up tank is cated near the pump ‘suction, purip suction and diacharge pressures will ‘be as shown in Fig 1 if the puryp system is not ‘ogerating, assuming gauge and inlet to ousies heights ae Pi = 9.8. (ePal always (nin metres! Pr = 8.8 (kPa) when the aump is at rest, or +H (kPa) when pump operating His ‘purnp head! in metres). Fig. 1A Makeup tank at pong suction When the mate-up tank is jocated near the pump séscharge the respective pressures will be as shown in Fig. 1B, again assuming gauge and inlet to autlet heights are neigh. Pr ~ 9.8 h [kPab always. Pr = 9.8 h (kPa) when the pump is at rast, er Pi = 9.8 h-H (kPa2i when pump operating Fig 18 Make op tank 0 pare discharge The make-up tank should be placed in this location ‘the pump is in a boiler return line. Hf this is not the ‘the following unsatistactory result may oocur (see 1h. Fm he Pump Hood amp opecateg, vent Fig. (C Etiect af pacing make-ep tank in hover reiura ine at ‘pug section hen wings vented boi. ‘2, Makeup Tank Circuitry 7 _[~Jlo- Fg 2A Combined vent and expansion ie, ‘The draw back of the system shown in Fig.2A ist for some reason the hat watet boiler overhears ‘Steam is vented in any quantity, make up restricted trom entering the Boiler. Also, water 81 ‘suction is the hottest water in the system ‘Eansequent greater passiilty ot cavitation, ‘Fig. 28 Senavate reat and expansion line. ration shown in Fig.2C assists in purging a system particularly in the use of OHW a separate boiler system. _ tion of Pump in Return or Flow Line ot olin es ten consider @ pump located in the return line as ‘in Fig. with make-up tank between gurhp Fig-IC Sytem with pum in return fine This results in system pressures around the system as ‘shown below in Fig.20. ae ‘NB. Shaded area below atmasgheric. Fig. 2.0 Pressure distribution in system with pup return tine Thus when locating gump, care must be taken toznsure that system pressure is. not-sub-atmaspheric especially in a system containing taps. If 2 tap was located in a System at 2 point where system pressure was sud atmospheric, ai woud be sucked in when 2 tap was Always plat a system prasture curve showing the ‘pressure at each noint araund the system. t wil often indicate the incorrect lacation of one or more af the automatic ar cock. P = he Purp Head - 2 may wall be less than -atmaspieric, thus automatic ei cock admits si. Always ensure that expansian tank is high enough to provantsub atmasaheric conditions becoming a prabiem ‘in the system. PIPE SYSTEM PRESSURE LOSSES. ‘The following inforrmation is based on data contained in AIRAH Application Manual OA16, Air Conditioning Piping. For more extensive and detailed information on this subject reference should be made to that ‘Once the pipe system flaws, sizes and layout have been designed, the pressure drop in the pipes and | ‘determined to enable o suitable pura selection to be made, ‘The total pressure loss in a pipe system is a cambination of friction and dynamic lasses. {In a straight horizontal pipe run with uniform flow dynamic tosses are insigificant and the tatal pressive ‘assumed ta be afl due to surfate friction between the fluid and the pine surface. This value is found by following pipe friction charts. Whenever the fluid flow separates irom the pipe wall a greater loss in total pressure takes place than with nonseparated flow, The amount of this loss in excess of straight pipe friction loss is termed Dynamic losses vary theoretically as the square of the characteristic velocity of the fluid and are function of velacity pressure, For pipefittings, dynamic losses are significant with published data expressed as a total pressure loss Tables of typical lass coetfients are given ia the net few pages. ‘The total pressure loss for a pipefitting is an expression of pressure loss in terms of velocity pressure (at ‘pressure difference) multiplied by the less coefficient, Total pressure lass of a fitting is given by Pr=hrPy where:- Pr = total pressure loss thraugh fitting (kPa) ‘iv = lass coefficient Pv = downstream velocity pressure (kPa) ‘Velocity pressure is given by:- Py= 05 pV‘) 1000 where: p= density of thuid gin’) V = velocity of flow irs} ‘Values of velocity pressure for water are given in the table following the lass coefficient tables. 'S COEFFICIENTS (Kz) - STEEL (cont.) ‘Steel Expansions - kr hased on velocity in smaller pipe Px = kr Py Correction factors to be applied when velocity in pipe is used in liew af velacity in the fitting dia. [" [|| 2] @] @ | & | wo] oye ‘Stee! AST074 Light 140 1.23] 126 | 122) a as | tae a2 ie T - Steet AS1074 Med. | 10a] 1.4 | tat] aan] ao] noe) 14a] 15 | tat | tg Stasi AS1074 Heavy | 0.79 | O81 | 0.87 | 082 | 0.94] 0.82 | 1.30 | 1.08 | 1.04) 10 “aso | 500 | 880 | G00 ANS! Schedule 40 asi | 051 ANSI Schedule 20 1.03 | 1.00 | 1.05 | 1.08 The above correction factors are tobe applied to the pipe velocity to convert to fitting velocity, Thus velocity is then in the calculation of velocity pressure Py foruse in the equation Pr ~ kr Pr. Alas Appication Manual DA 1. Ai Conditioning Ware Piping LOSS COEFFICIENTS (K;) - COPPER & PVC 8 SERRE ‘a BE Swing chk valve | 20 Surce: AIAN Aapkcation Manual QAUE, Ai Condmianng Wate Piping ‘S507 PRESSURE LOSS 20°C WATER IN LIGHT STEE PIPE TO AS 1074 en et eee a too 100 so a 0 20 Oo a 40 s 0 a A, Oe 2 n oO i ie 9 = 6 : — 6s & « * = eS 3 ae 2 [ Pa 1 1 oe oe 38 os a4 os 23 a3 oz a2 ot 9 2 8x2 Ses FRESE 898 88F Pressure Drop (Pa/m) Absolute Roughness ks = 0.045 ‘Medium Steel Pipe internal Diameters (mm) Nominal =] 15 | 20 [3 2 [im [so [es fee [io [1 |] 10 | ‘Actual 12 | 220 | a2 [ses [423 [541 | oer [are | tone 1300 | 1554 | ‘Source: AIRAH Aaplication Manual OA 16, Ar Conditioning Water Ping ESSURE LOSS 10°C WATER IN MEDIUM EEL PIPE TO AS 1074 Ca NA ee ee er 00 190 20 80 wo 60 4g “0 te x 20 - 20 PS a Ee 19 * 8 6 . eee ‘ 3 3 2 2 1 os os ae as = a2 2 Rae 883 anbGG) 2 EEEE Pressure Drop (Pa/m) Absolute Roughness ks = 0.046 Madiury Steel Pipe internal Diaretars min} [is | [a [at | [so [es [ao [too pis [wo [rer [ae 2a [aed |e [830 [ear | aor | 108.1] OO waa ARH Application Manual DA 18; At Conditioning Weter Piping 510 PRESSURE LOSS 20°C WATER IN MEDIUM STEEL PIPE TO AS 1074 Prorat by ACAD wang seme program PR use see Flow (Litres/sec) sue ows e 2829888 £88 £88 ate Pressure Drop (Pa/m) Absolute Roughness ks ~ 0.046 ‘Medium Steel Pipe Internal Diameters jm) Nonna [15 [20 [a [32 [ao [so [as [ao [too [ia | 10 a | [fewa [161 [21-8 [23 [so [49 | Sao | ea7 | a07 | 105.1] 1900] 155.5) Source AIRAH Apaication Manual OA 16, Ai Conéitioning Water png ant RRESSURE LOSS 82°C WATER IN MEDIUM TEEL PIPE TO AS 1074 pment or oe ore eer as 1080 100 80 ec #0 80 = — Oo 4 - 40 @ 3x so a So 2 a = ie 10 =e s ot: * > “- La = ¥ 3 i ¥ 2 uw ' os os os os oe ar — ae a 2 erase FAURE | EEE Pressure Drop (Pa/m) Absolute Roughness ks = 0.046 ‘Medum Steel Pipe Internal Giameters (mm) mat “TTS [20 MEGA CaO | SO a 2 Ge [a0 [aay |ao7 | vos [aon | 184) | | AIRAH Appiication Manual OM 18, ti Cantitianing Water Piaing a2 PRESSURE LOSS 175°C WATER IN MEDIUM STEEL PIPE TO AS 1074 400 80, 60 -_ Oo «0 OD »« n he 20 a 2 0 = 8 —J 66 ~ 7 = 3 2 2 a ' Oe os as : a rth a2 Sear Peres 5 on - EET NLT 2 8 ae 08s FRERRS BRE GEE Pressure Drop (Pa/m) Absolute Rouginess ik, ~ 0.046 Medium Stee! Pige Internal Diameters (mm) Nominal | 16 (20 Ts 2 0 | |% 80 tO | 125 i ‘Actual 18.1 [ae 2 MO ag 23) | 807 | 105.1] 1300 Source: AIRAM Application Matua! OA 16, tr Conditioning Wate: Prony 13 ESSURE LOSS 10°C WATER IN HEAVY STEEL ETO AS 1074 190 00 80 80 60 0 40 40 wo 30 20 20 19 ‘0 8 8 8 6 " ee ‘ 3 as 3 - He Si ‘ bah L HN 1 bot 1 OB ci os an od oe as Hee os os Rt os oz Breen as of 2 Tita 84S 88s £88 8 hg Pressure Drop (Pa/m) ‘Absalute Roughness ks = 0.046 { Vieavy Steel Pipe Internal Diameters tim) a | ic} {2 “le [a2 [so [so [os [= 100 | 1s | 150 ia | 149 | 204 [oar | oae [aD Peis | ero =] WIT] TH | ISAs A | a ARAM Appicatian Manual OA 16, ir Cenditionny Warer Pinng $14 PRESSURE LOSS 20°C WATER IN HEAVY STE! PIPE TO AS 1074 BSS B88 » Gs oad Flow (Litres/sec) oe oe os 03 we haa bay rer t LE EGE Pressure Drop (Pa/m) ‘Absolute Roughness bs = 0.085 ‘Heavy Steal Pipa internal Diameters (mm) coca baal hall Hd 2 [a [so [es [av [100 712s | Tso Actual [ae [Toa ST [Mae [aOT [S13 | B70 |e 1033/1288) 1543 ie ‘Source: ARAM Apphcaton Manual OA 16, Rit Candinoring Water Piping 516 ESSURE LOSS 82°C WATER IN HEAVY STEEL E TO AS 1074 10 a0 60 40 » 2» 10 a « + 3 2 ' rt ae See a tI f L os ae oS eae Pe eet. og Bari Hy PETE mee HP an 2 gS 82 Bag the ti gaa 882 Pressure Drop (Pa/m) Absolute Roughness ks ~ 0.046 i Heavy Steel Pipe Imernal Diameters Imm) fer fa 2% [a2 [ao [eo [es [sO [io [ts | i [ae [aoe | 57 [ee [aa [Sia [ew | PST | Tosa | reas | 1385 ARAH Appcaton Manusi DA 16, Ait Conditioning Water Pring Sit PRESSURE LOSS 175°C WATER IN HEAVY STEEL PIPE TO AS 1074 Flow (Litres/sec) Sater oe: (eres ee we | EEN TU P ane ees FRG SEE BEE ER Pressure Drop (Pa/m) Absolute Roughness ks ~ 0.088 f Heavy Steel Pige Internal Diameters (mmi Nominal [18 [20 [2 [a2 [40 |oo [es [ao [100 jis [iso Acwal | 48 [204 [2hy [Jaa [MOF [S19 [aro [7e1 | 1095 | 128s) 1343) ‘Source: AIRAH Appication Manual DA 16, Au Conditioning Water Piping 57 ‘L PIPE TO ANSI B33.10 8 es Bas sue ood os 08 oe a3 a2 or 10 Pressure Drop (Pa/m) ‘Absolute Roughness ks = 0.086 = ‘Standard Weight Stel Pipe intemal iametes fxm) Pree by ACN sg te er progam SURE LOSS 10°C WATER IN STD WEIGHT Ba 888 8 86 888 sus 98 Lee Tey, 2] @) «| a | pw AIRAA Appication Manual DA 18, Av Conditianng Water Ping 518 100 | “| 138 | we | mee | 351 [wag | ses | aor) 979 | gor | Wooo | ter ee ee eee ee a tsar [aa | ave | goes | 3066 [aaa | 7a | ea9 | come | s08 PRESSURE LOSS 20°C WATER IN STD WEIGH STEEL PIPE TO ANSI B33.10 rere oy ACA ng he saree preg Pa 1000 800 seeges BSS & senend £ #6 828 Flow (Litres/sec) eS Sas Sag RAS SER FRE EEE Pressure Drop (Pa/m) Abvolute Roughness ks = 0.046 coal Standard Weight Steel Pipe Internal Diameters (ram) Namunal 20. a 2 40 50 65 | a0 90 100 | [Actual 58 209 28 | 0 403 | S25 | 627 | 73 | 90.1 | 102.3) Nomina | 150 | 200 | 250 | 300 | a60 | apo | 450 | son | S80 | G00 Actual | 154.1 | 202.8 | 264.6 | 3088 | 3968 | Ja7.9 | 497.9 | 4089 | 599.9 | 390.9 Source: AIRAH Appication Manual DA ¥8, A Conditning Water Piping 519 2ESSURE LOSS 4°C WATER IN COPPER TUBE BTOAS 1432 Prevent by MCAS ing he mere prope PLO 8 88 888 sus oad 8 os ced os oz ry Be at 2 R89 88s EREEEE £98 998 Pressure Drop (Pa/m) ‘Absolute Roughness ks ~ 0.0015 Conper Tube Internal Diameters triml % [0 [2% [sm [4 [so [as [eo [100 [1s | 180 10.84 | 16.97 | 22.91 | 29.26 | 35.61 | 48.90 | 60.99 | 72.84 | 98.21 l 123.62 | 148.27 | ce: AJRAM Application Manual OA 18, Air Conditioning Water Pising $20 PRESSURE LOSS 10°C WATER IN COPPER TUBE TYPE B TO AS 1432 3 A ss ! | 8 88 888 Flow (Litres/sec) wus ood 2 aaeeee ERE ES EG ERY Pressure Drop (Pa/m) Absolute Roughness by ~ 0.0015 Copper Tube Internal Giameters (mm [Nevied [15 [ad [3 [se [ao ]s0 [es feo [wo [is | io | Acwal | i084 | V697) 2267 | 26-26 | 96.87 [4.50 | Bows | Tees | GaAT | TeNED | Waal Source: AAM Application Manual DA 18, hic Conditioning Water Piping 521 ESSURE LOSS 20°C WATER IN COPPER IUBE TYPE B TO AS 1432 eesses 8 sus ood Bee sé. 2 RR? Ses RAS EEE 8 EE Bag Pressure Drop (Pa/m) ‘Absolute Roughness ks = 0.0015 TF Copper Tube internal Oiameters (mii eo [ss | [e [0 [es [oo [roo [ws | iso toss | Ve97 2297 | 19.26 | IEBT | GHIO| GHGS | 72s | GAD | WIE | T4877 18H Apphation Manval DA 16; Ru Conditionng Water Piping $22 sesesa f us ood PRESSURE LOSS 35°C WATER IN COPPER TUBE TYPE B TO AS 1432 Propet oy ACA ing the ceeter pre Po 8 8 88 888 Flow (Litres/sec) s bs wos 2 AAS SEE THRESH FOE EEE Pressure Drop (Pa/m) Absolute Roughness ks ~ 0.0015 Copper Tube Internal Diameters (mm) i [Nominal TS [OO [2 [32 [40 [50 yes [ao | O | 12s [180 | Aciual | 7084] 76.97 | 20.97 | 2826 | 3867 | 8050 | 6099 | 72.88 | W821 | 120.62 | 148 ‘Sauce: AIRAM Application Msnval DA 18, Air Conditioning Water Pigirg 52a RESSURE LOSS 82°C WATER IN COPPER E TYPE B TO AS 1432 Armed hy HEAD ng he eer progr FSS | 2 RRP S88 ERE SEE BEE EGG Pressure Drop (Pa/m) Alscute Roughness ke «f.0018 Capper Tube Internal Diameters trent ct |e [= |e [s oS [a0 [i007] a] tae a4 ent | ey | a ¥a.a0 | b0.99 | 724) 98.2% | 123.82 | 140.27 dhe i AIRAH Aapication Manual DA 18, Sit Corditioning Water Pina 524 PRESSURE LOSS 20°C WATER IN PVC PIPE TO AS 1477 CLASS 12 i900 ‘B00 600 0 joo mee sos ge ee re 888 838 tod 80 60 io * es 228 Flow (Litres/sec) 1 os os oe as a2 on ererrerrr, PELE Pressure Drop (Pa/m) ‘Absolute Roughness &y = 3.001 PVC Pipe infernal Giameters ire) a = [Nominal na] ea eT me [oT of a ‘Actual 73.65 | 2975 | 374b | 3276 | S365 | BOs | eOT | TOI? | 1249 | h [Nowind | 178 | 200 | 200 | 225 | 250 [so [400 | 450 (Actual [78055 [203.1 | 295.75 | 2529 | Feaas | Gone | 381 | aoe | asia Sauce: AIRAH Appicetin Manual DA 16,8 Cardinaneg Water Ping 528 SSURE LOSS 35°C WATER IN PVC PIPE TO 77 CLASS 12 Rae 888 288 gee a ae Pressure Drop (Pa/m) Absolute Roughness ke ~ 0.0015 PVE Pipe internal Diameters lin) ae ee ee vars | 3745 | 42.75 | 50.85 | 6695 | 79.03 | 101.7 | 1245 | 142A 5 | 20 | 200 | 225 | 20 | 300 | 350 | 400 | 450 | 500 203.) [22875 | 7523 | 200.45 | 708 | ser | 4064 | 414 | S056 latin Mawel A 16, Air Condiinung Water Ping 528 PRESSURE LOSS 20°C WATER IN CLASS 6 AE PIPE HM i Ali Ce - se ae 2 oe a me ee es tose | Dischorge (9) litres ver second Source: EURAPIPE Australis Pry Lid (inter) 21 RESSURE LOSS 20°C WATER IN CLASS 9 ABS IPE Bigcharge (0) lites per second [pecs EURAPIPE Australia Pty Lid jntorn! 528 PRESSURE LOSS 20°C WATER IN CLASS 10 ABS PIPE s 88 a Mead ‘oss (H) metres of head pe: OD metres of pipe 74 £48 nu oo ele 20c nd 400 80 ET Gischarge (GQ) litres per second Soutce: EURAPIPE Australia Py L1d ater) 529 PRESSURE LOSS 20°C WATER IN CLASS 12 ABS PIPE luvee EUAMPIPE Australia Pry Ltd (interim) 530 NATURAL GAS IN COPPER PIPE TYPE B (SG 0.60) DISTANCE €) SOURCE AT 1:125kPa FOR 75Pe PRESSURE LOSS BBB aes BES EEE Nw Ome F086 attr He i " Mai a i gggeg— B88 s2eR een LENGTH OF PIPE (Metres) a NATURAL GAS IN STEEL PIPE (SG 0.60) DISTANCE FROM SOURCE AT 1125kPa FOR 75Pa PRESSURE LOSS. 130 7 te an ‘tee = 300 ert x0 100 30 60 40 / » 20 w§ og *; an a +2 2 & | = i Soe 08 att e t oO) : o7 Litt 04 g 8 sea 32 8 eee em 8 LENGTH OF PIPE (Metres 332 LPG IN COPPER PIPE ($G 1.5) STANCE Fi g229288 G88 92 R Bee ¥r ns LENGTH OF PIPE (Metres | 533 STEEL PIPE 1,5) Fi E AT 2-75kPa FOR 250Pa PRESSURE LOSS. B88 888 Ses 288 FLOW (Litres per second} o8 0-6 Oe O39 O2 sega 8 = LENGTH OF PIPE |Meires | 4 g STEAM PIPE SIZING as = g8e 8892808588 RSSSZER2 235885 BRSEZESSSRRSES i SESS 8822522588 i gSSe5SSSRR2 558 Eolgiavaesesseenanane sanetnaeneeze 3 suSexeonleSiaeReegen82e08ae88E892288 a] jaganeeaecyete Shee sn SSSR SS g8 Bn eag gag S| PRSERRT Rs ageaaseslssasa Satie e8eee seul 2} geil ilgili a ei ila | pie 2 ok ae ee ee EP figs © © # es 8 @ 8 &@ 8 6 & | ‘should be sized for steam velocity up to a maaimum of 40 mis. Small branch ines should be sized for stearn sant exceed 15 mis. ‘AU each selected line pressure capacities are stated for three steam velocities, vie, 15, 25 and 40 mis. Main ‘Note: Table based on Steel pige to AS1O74 ‘Source: Sprax Sarcu cata STEAM CONDENSATE PIPE SIZING 2. La we 7a w i 030 a0 & i aa 345 iy I 035 as @ 37 a7 1a pose aa va [ime a ff tae ae aa sat [Taio ms | Tim 7 jos) [oes | ui |aee fam | 70 | tina oy [oa jos | 10s )2as |aze [700 | isi 788 i o73 4.66 ‘Note: Pipe size selection should be based an starting load. Starting lnads are 2 to 3 times that of the turning loa, ‘The above tabla is based on Coppar Pipe Type 'B' ta. A$ 1432 Source: Seas Saree data LENGTH OF PIPE (Metres } a oe 82K a8 8 PIPE SIZING - INDUSTRIAL COMPRESSED IN MEDIUM STEEL PIPE TO AS 1074 alt TR NTN ISS Sh a, Es i (SSIS EN RS s 8 @ @ @ @ 8 8 8 {wu} VIO JOISNI Iedid PRE INITIAL (Pascails | PRESSURE DROP IN PIPE SIZING - VACUUM IN COPPER TUBE TYPE AS 1432 FROM SOURCE AT -60kPo {450mm Hg) VACUUM FOR imm Hg} PRI wes ag 888 888 noe oes FLOW [Litres per second) 1 08 O68 Oe O23 a2 8 ese 9k R coun i LENGTH OF PIPE | Metres) PIPE SIZING - MEDICAL GASES IN COPPER TUBE TYPE B TO AS 1432 Medical Gases comprise Oxygen and Nitrous Oxide DISTANCE FROM SOURCE AT 450kPa FOR 20kPu PRESSURE LOSS 388888 8 HB 288 FLOW | Litres per second) NP mes 1 08 os O4 o2 02 oF #28 §8 e289e8 Seems - LENGTH OF PIPE (Metres! 38 PIPE SIZING - MEDICAL AIR IN COPPER TUBE TYPE BTO AS 1432 DISTANCE FROM SOURCE AT 4S0kPa FOR 3SkPa PRESSURE LOSS B88 8 8 @ eS BBE FLOW (Litres per second ) wun ees S08 08 ot 03 oz eiLLI | Joa BAS FRE gee THR BRE ee LENGTH OF PIPE (Metres } $40 HEAT LOSS FROM BARE PIPES Horizontal Bare Steel Wom. Tir velocity 0.0 mis Riv velocity 2.0 wis ine Ambient air ‘Amibiant air | dia, Te et | ee | a ey ive | we ee tom) Wim Wim 6 85 a n ai 190 id 139 6 2 16 | 102 a8 6 zo | 198 168 140 a yz | 128 108 m | a ms 170 2 We 183 133 na 337 292 20g zor 40 195 172 143 mw | we | 26 me | 23 so 26 209 181 154 463 393 335, 29 ee 290 258 2 190 S81 478 a8. 340 0 sa | 75 | 25 | ie | ome | 345 965 | oe8 wo | ae | 368 | 32 wo} om | 6s st | 482 rs so) 443 387 926 ‘08 688 575 150 S73 513 488 333 1064 925 7g) 862 Vertical Pipe ia, (mm) 6 a & 2 40 0 6 80 100 18 150 Note: ‘Heat lass Wim length for ives in air with fluid temperature ot 80 *C, Surface Ervissivity 0.79 ‘Sosrce: AIRAH Aplicatin Manual D4 6, At Conditioning Wator Pipng. on HEAT LOSS FROM BARE PIPES (cont.) | Horizontal Bare Copper iam: Rirvelosity 0.0 mis Hirvelocty 20 mis pipe temperature Ambient air temperature din [we] toe | 20% | aoc | oe | toc | are t (oi) Wim length Wim 6 ca 40 a a 124 107 a 8 20 8 78 68 8 1% | 151 129 | 17 5 140 na 11 at mm | 234 199 | 158 2 182 M5 126 107 3M 272 732 193 40 m2 17 183 18 400 347 296 a a0 we | 2a | 18 | 1m | 409 | 420 | asa | 299 65 303, 268 234 200 564 430 alg 350 80 8 08 269 20 643 ‘589 478 330 100 ag | s4a | 30a | 260 | 221 627 | 536 | a8 125 4a} 425) a2 |) ge | a72 | sa | oso | see 150 564 501 438 a5 fora 887 760 67 2nd m | $e | 7 | 1309 | 95 | om | oe Vertical Bare Copper ‘Nom, Air velocity 0.0 mis Air velocity 2.0 m/s pipe Ambient air temperature Ambient air ature = wo | ioe [ 2c [ are | ot | we we _| ‘Wim length Wim 6 5 148 aT a 20 Bt 205 mw | 40 | 128 B Ba 26} 25 | 188 2 101 a5 | mz | om 182 a0 1g | 366 | a7 | 26m | 228 50 209 sa] 463 | 40g | aaa | 2a5: 85 254 187 56a 487, ais 345 80 339 29 200 656 ‘568 464 403 c) 388 342 263 m4) 47 552 460 90 | 433 386 285 72s | Bie | 51S 125 an 348 to10 276 my 623 150 554 an we | 23 | 87a 78 200, 718 533, wos | 107 | ir saa Nate: Heat loss Wim length far pipes in air with fluid temperature of 80°C, Suriace Emissivity 0.86. Source: AIRAH Application Manual DA18, Ae Conditioning Water Ping. Mz HEAT EMISSION OR GAIN FOR STEEL PIPES WITH 25MM INSULATION IN STILL AIR 2.0. Heat Loss (Watts/m run/deg C) > b o 2 in wa 8S a 28 2 3 Pipe Diameter (mm) HEAT EMISSION OR GAIN FOR STEEL PIPES WITH 38MM INSULATION IN STILL AIR nen ee agg 4.0 @ a 3S ° 25. 20 & Heat Loss (Watts/m run/deg C) . 6.5. 0.5 MESSE £ 2 aE OF % Pipe Diameter (mm) HEAT EMISSION OR GAIN FOR STEEL PIPES WITH 50MM INSULATION IN STILL AIR 45 4.0 33 3.0 28 Heat Loss (Watts/m run/deg C) MOSES FREE HES Pipe Diameter (mm) EAT EMISSION OR GAIN FOR STEEL PIPES TH 63MM INSULATION IN STILL AIR 4s 4.0 3.0 2.0 Os oe £ Se PG te PEE Pipe Diameter (mm) HEAT EMISSION OR GAIN FOR STEEL PIPES WITH 75MM INSULATION IN STILL AIR Heat Loss (Watts/m run/deg C) Pipe Diameter (mm) ‘AT EMISSION OR GAIN FOR STEEL PIPES E in 25MM INSULATION - AIR VELOCITY SM/S (9 Bep/una “ @ ° 2 a ai 2 2 Wf SHOM), S807 A28H, = 3 3 Pipe Diameter (mm) HEAT EMISSION OR GAIN FOR STEEL PIPES WITH 38MM INSULATION - AIR VELOCITY 5M/S 1.0 ne a ee ye 5.0 43 0.5 > 4.0 3.5 ° & a 20 Heat Loss (Watts/m run/deg C) - & & 3 ° a Pipe Diameter (mm) 59 Heat Loss eens § F 3 Pipe Diameter (mm) HEAT EMISSION OR GAIN FOR STEEL PIPES WITH 63MM INSULATION - AIR VELOCITY 5M/S i: feet er renin gg - in o Heat Loss (Watts/m run/deg C) meses § 4 i Pipe Diameter (mm) 1 EAT EMISSION OR GAIN FOR STEEL PIPES 1TH 75MM INSULATION - AIR VELOCITY 5M/S eee ny HEA ge me pr 5.0 4S 4.0 35 3.0 25 2.0. 20 Heat Loss 05. OS aigess § 8 $F 8-9 F 2 Pipe Diameter (mm) 58 TYPICAL THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF VARIOUS PIPE INSULATING MATERIALS This chert is ta.be used in conjunction with the preceding charts for Heat Emission or Gain for Insutsted Pipes. The therrnal conductivity of insulation varies with temperature. Typical values for arange of pipe insulation types are ‘given in the chert Below. Note however that the figures only apply if there is no condensation an the surface af the insulated pipe. Thermal Conductivity W/m.K) Mean Temperature °C A = Buty! Foam P « Extruéed Polystyrene € = Calcium Silicate R = Rockwool # = Fibreglass U ~ Polywethane & Palyisocyanate "9 COPPER PIPE - TO AS 1432 bore area empty mm? | @20°C | kgim ‘kPa [ Tyoe a a a0 | 0.994 142 6090 | 0.503 208 $900 | 0.704 385 ‘5070 1,089 a37 4010 1.280 959, a0 1.671 1775, 2460__| 2.250 Type B a ead | 0.220 93 $630 | 0.300 160 8020 | 0.426 ws 41a | 0.510 at v0 0.820 875, 2940 1,090 399 2430 1.260 1386 2080) | 1.483 ; 1837 1600 1,690 ih 2928 van | 2.120 2928 O19 | 0.182 4079 ve2o | 340 | 4.179 0.239 ) O29 S768 v390 | 3.980 5.763 0.279 | 0.269 7585 W2i0 | 4.580 7.595 0319 | 0309 nie 370 710 12.026 0399 | 0.389 STEEL PIPE TO AS1074 & AS1836 ‘BLACK MEDIUM STEEL PIPE to AS 1074 Wass empty | Contents Litre | Surfacsaream'] | kal (metre (ky waterim) 0.580 ass2 12 188 244 at IPE MASS OF PIPE SYSTEMS EMPTY AND CARRYING WATER AT 20°C. re run) ‘Steel Pipes to AS 1074 Medium Wom. dd for | dia. serew & ten) socket 15 oot a oor & 02 R ong 0 00a so oor 6 a2 80 a17 100 0.30 8 050 150 O60 Yom dia. | Steel ANSI Std. Wt Copper Type, AS 1432 |” PVE Class 12, AS 1877 (mm) [Pipe | Pipe + [Pine | Pipe» | Pine | Pie Water Water Water 16 a7 147 030 a9 - : 0 1.69 203 0.51 aya 017 ast % 2.50 308 0.82 I 0.32 102 2 3.39 436 1.08 172 0.43 1.3 40 4.05 5.36 1.25 224 os? 201 30 544 7.60 1.69 352 0.88 314 5 cy 11.73 an 5.04 1a 4.83 a0 11.28 16.08 2al 251 1.92 6.3 80 var 19.93 388 9.12 : : 100 16.07 24.27 4.58 1212 133 as 15 na 34.87 SN 149 478 171.38 130 76.26 96.86 ar 2587 6.33 2231 ‘200 4255 1498 mts 43.56 260 60.31 14 17.33 87.88 300 rag 148.7 mw 85.72 380 313 170.1 16 108.49 AIRAH pplicatien Merwal 04 16 Au Cardinoning Water Piping