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International Journal of Advanced Research in Technology, Engineering and Science (A Bimonthly Open

Access Online Journal) Volume2, Issue2, March-April, 2015 ISSN: 2349-7173(Online)

Power Generation from Speed Breaker Using


Crank Shaft
M.Prasath1*, R.Sankar2, T.Dharshan3, R.Nagaraja4, P.Dheenathayalan5
_______________________________________________
ABSTRACT: This paper attempts to show how energy can
tapped and used at a commonly used system the load speed
breaker. As the demand of electric power is increasing day-byday for the working of various appliances. Producing
electricity from various sources is needed like from a speed
breaker is a new concept that is an undergoing research. The
number of vehicles on road is increase rapidly and if we
convert some of the kinetic energy of this vehicle into
rotational motion of roller then we can produce considerable
amount of electricity. The demand of the hour is to have some
source of green energy which can be produce with less (or) no
harmful by-products. Our project is to develop an alternative
green source of energy by moving vehicles on the road ways.
________________________________________________
Keywords: power generation, energy conservation, speed
breaker, connecting rod, gear and Crankshaft.
______________________________________________
1. INTRODUCTION
A large amount of energy is wasted at the speed breakers
through the dissipation of heat and also through friction, every
time a vehicle passers over it. There is great possibility of
tapping this energy and generating by making the speed-breaker
as a power generation unit. The generated power can be used for
the lamps. Near speed breaker. We are developing a concept
design to generate electric power by the speed-breaker on the
road ways. With this we can generate green, pollution-free
alternative source of electricity, by the moving vehicles on the
road. The production of electricity by the conventional method
as thermal generation generates a lot of green-house gases and
other pollutant which harms the environment as well as the
human beings [1].
________________________________________________
Author Address: 1*Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Nadar Saraswathi College of Engineering and Technology,
Theni,India.

_____________________________________________

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In the present scenario power becomes the major need for


human life .The availability and its per capita consumptions are
regarded as the index of national standard of living in the
present day civilization. Energy is an important input in all the
sectors of any countries economy. Energy crisis is due to two
reasons, firstly the population of the world has been increased
rapidly and secondly standard of living of human beings has
increased. India is the country, which majorly suffers with lack
of sufficient power generation.
The availability of regular conventional fossil fuels will be the
main sources for power generation, but there is a fear that they
will get exhausted eventually by the next few decades.
Therefore, we have to investigate some approximate, alternative,
new sources for the power generation, which is not depleted by
the very few years. Another major problem, which is becoming
the exiting topic for today is the pollution. It suffers all the
living organisms of all kinds as on the land, in aqua and in air.
Power stations and automobiles are the major pollution
producing places. Therefore, we have to investigate other types
of renewable sources, which produce electricity without using
any commercial fossil fuels, which is not producing any harmful
products. There are already is existing such systems using
renewable energy such as solar wind), OTEC (ocean thermal
energy conversions) etcfor power generation. The latest
technology which is used to generate the power by such
renewable energy POWER HUMP.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Power generation is the process of creating electricity from
other forms of energy.
Michael Faraday: The fundamental principles of electricity
generation were discovered during the 1820's and early 1830's
by the British scientist Michael Faraday. His basic method is
still used today: electricity is generated by the movement of a
loop of wire, or disc of copper between the poles of a magnet.
Electricity is most often generated at a power station by
electromechanical generators, primarily driven by heat engines
fueled by chemical combustion or nuclear fission but also by
other means such as the kinetic energy of flowing water and
wind. There are many other technologies that can be and are
used to generate electricity such as solar photovoltaics and
geothermal power [2].

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Technology, Engineering and Science (A Bimonthly Open
Access Online Journal) Volume2, Issue2, March-April, 2015 ISSN: 2349-7173(Online)
Watts: The energy crisis is any great bottleneck in the supply of
energy resources to an economy. The studies to sort out
the energy crisis led to the idea of generating power using speed
breaker. Firstly, South African electrical crisis has
made them implemented this method to light up small villages
of the highway. The idea is basic physics, to convert
the kinetic energy into electrical energy that gone wasted when
the vehicle runs over speed-breaker. Since then,
a lot has been done in this field. An amateur innovator, Kanak
Gogoi
in
Guwahati
has
developed
a
similar
contraption to generate power, when a vehicle passes over
speed-breaker. The idea has caught the eye of
IIT-Guwahati, which funded the pilot project related to generate
electricity
from
speed-breakers.
They
has
evaluated the machine and recommended to the Assam
government. Their work has provided the need to think on
this alternative to generate electricity on the large scale, as it
proves to be a boon to the economy of the country [3].
Peter Hughes: The ramp was invented by Peter Hughes, in the
year 2002 an electrical and mechanical engineer who is
employed by Highway Energy Systems Ltd. The company says
that
under
normal
traffic
conditions,
the
apparatus will produce 30 kW of electricity.[4] Other proposed
applications for the road ramps heating roads in the
winter to prevent ice forming and ventilating tunnels to reduce
pollution. "The full potential of this is absolutely
enormous." Hughes claims that 10 ramps could generate the
same power as one wind turbine [5].
3. METHODOLOGY
3.1 Dynamo
Dynamo is an electrical generator. This dynamo produces direct
current with the use of a commentator. Dynamo was the first
generator capable of the power industries. The dynamo uses
rotating coils of wire and magnetic fields to convert mechanical
rotation into a pulsing direct electric current. A dynamo machine
consists of a stationary structure, called the stator, which
provides a constant magnetic field, and a set of rotating
windings called the armature which turn within that field. On
small machines the constant magnetic field may be provided by
one or more permanent magnets; larger machines have the
constant magnetic field provided by one or more
electromagnets, which are usually called field coils.

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Fig.1 Dynamo
3.2 Spur gear
A gear is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs,
which mesh with another toothed part in order to transmit
torque. Two or more gears working in tandem are called a
transmission and can produce a mechanical advantage through a
gear ratio and thus may be considered a simple machine. Geared
devices can change the speed, torque, and direction of a power
source. The most common situation is for a gear to mesh with
another gear; however a gear can also mesh a non-rotating
toothed part, called a rack, thereby producing translation instead
of rotation.
The gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in a
pulley. An advantage of gears is that the teeth of a gear prevent
slipping. When two gears of unequal number of teeth are
combined a mechanical advantage is produced, with both the
rotational speeds and the torques of the two gears differing in a
simple relationship.
In transmissions which offer multiple gear ratios, such as
bicycles and cars, the term gear, as in first gear, refers to a gear
ratio rather than an actual physical gear. The term is used to
describe similar devices even when gear ratio is continuous
rather than discrete, or when the device does not actually
contain any gears, as in a continuously variable transmission.
The earliest known reference to gears was circa A.D. 50 by
Hero of Alexandria, but they can be traced back to the Greek
mechanics of the Alexandrian school in the 3rd century B.C. and
were greatly developed by the Greek polymath Archimedes
(287212 B.C.). The Antikythera mechanism is an example of a
very early and intricate geared device, designed to calculate
astronomical positions. Its time of construction is now estimated
between 150 and 100 BC.
The definite velocity ratio which results from having teeth gives
gears an advantage over other drives (such as traction drives and
V-belts) in precision machines such as watches that depend
upon an exact velocity ratio. In cases where driver and follower
are in close proximity gears also have an advantage over other
drives in the reduced number of parts required; the downside is

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Technology, Engineering and Science (A Bimonthly Open
Access Online Journal) Volume2, Issue2, March-April, 2015 ISSN: 2349-7173(Online)
that gears are more expensive to manufacture and their
lubrication requirements may impose a higher operating cost.
The automobile transmission allows selection between gears to
give various mechanical advantages.
An external gear is one with the teeth formed on the outer
surface of a cylinder or cone. Conversely, an internal gear is one
with the teeth formed on the inner surface of a cylinder or cone.
For bevel gears, an internal gear is one with the pitch angle
exceeding 90 degrees. Internal gears do not cause direction
reversal.
Spur gears or straight-cut gears are the simplest type of gear.
They consist of a cylinder or disk with the teeth projecting
radically, and although they are not straight-sided in form, the
edge of each tooth is straight and aligned parallel to the axis of
rotation. These gears can be meshed together correctly only if
they are fitted to parallel shafts.

Fig.3 Crank mechanism

Fig.2 Spur gear

3.4 Spring
Spring is a device made of an elastic material that undergoes a
significant change in shape, or deformation, under an applied
load. Springs are used in spring balances for weighing and for
the storage of mechanical energy, as in watch and clock springs
or door-closing springs. Springs are also used to absorb impact,
as in coil or leaf springs used for automobile suspensions, and to
reduce vibration by the use of rubber blocks. The specific form
of a spring depends on its use. A weighing spring, for example,
is normally wound as a helix, and its elongation is proportional
to the applied force, so that the spring can be calibrated to
measure this force. Watch springs are wound as spiral coils, and
sets of flat bars or leaves, superimposed on one another to form
laminations, are used as leaf springs in automobile suspensions.

3.3 Crank mechanism


A crank is an arm attached at right angles to a rotating shaft by
which reciprocating motion is imparted to or received from the
shaft. It is used to convert circular motion into reciprocating
motion, or vice-versa. The arm may be a bent portion of the
shaft, or a separate arm or disk attached to it. Attached to the
end of the crank by a pivot is a rod, usually called a connecting
rod. The end of the rod attached to the crank moves in a circular
motion, while the other end is usually constrained to move in a
linear sliding motion.
The term often refers to a human-powered crank which is used
to manually turn an axle, as in a bicycle crank set or a brace and
bit drill. In this case a person's arm or leg serves as the
connecting rod, applying reciprocating force to the crank. There
is usually a bar perpendicular to the other end of the arm, often
with a freely rotatable handle or pedal.

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3.4.1 Return spring


A spring is a flexible elastic object used to store mechanical
energy. Springs are usually made out of hardened steel. Small
springs can be wound from pre-hardened stock, while larger
ones. A spring is a mechanical device, which is typically used to
store energy and subsequently release it, to absorb shock, or to
maintain a force between contacting surfaces. They are made of
an elastic material formed into the shape of a helix which
returns to its natural length when unloaded this is called return
spring. Springs are placed between the road wheels and the
vehicle body. When the wheel comes across a bump on the road,
it rises and deflects the spring, thereby storing energy therein.
On releasing, due to the elasticity of the spring, material, it
rebounds thereby expending the stored energy. In this way the
spring starts vibrating, with amplitude decreasing gradually on
internal friction of the spring material and friction of the
suspension joints till vibrations die down.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Technology, Engineering and Science (A Bimonthly Open
Access Online Journal) Volume2, Issue2, March-April,
March
2015 ISSN: 2349--7173(Online)
voltage across the load depends on the ratio of the battery's
internal resistance to the resistance of the load.
3.6 Control unit
In this project control unit deals the important thing the control
unit converts the alternator current (AC) into direct current
(DC).
DC). The converted DC power is stored to the battery by the
help of the control unit.

Fig.4 Spring
3.5 Experimental setup diagram

When the battery is fresh, its


ts internal resistance is low, so the
voltage across the load is almost equal to that of the battery's
internal voltage source. As the battery runs down and its internal
resistance increases, the voltage drop across its internal
resistance increases, so thee voltage at its terminals decreases,
and the battery's ability to deliver power to the load decreases.
3.7 Block diagram

Fig.5 Structural Diagram


In our project we are using secondary type battery. It is
rechargeable Type. A battery is one or more electrochemical
cells, which store chemical energy and make it available as
electric current. There are two types of batteries, primary
(disposable) and secondary (rechargeable), both of which
convert chemical energy to electrical energy. Primary batteries
can only be usedd once because they use up their chemicals in an
irreversible reaction. Secondary batteries can be recharged
because the chemical reactions they use are reversible; they are
recharged by running a charging current through the battery, but
in the opposite direction
irection of the discharge current. Secondary,
also called rechargeable batteries can be charged and discharged
many times before wearing out. After wearing out some
batteries can be recycled.
Batteries have gained popularity as they became portable and
useful
eful for many purposes. The use of batteries has created many
environmental concerns, such as toxic metal pollution. A battery
is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical
energy it consists of one or more voltaic cells. Each voltaic cell
ce
consists of two half cells connected in series by a conductive
electrolyte.
One half-cell
cell is the positive electrode, and the other is the
negative electrode. The electrodes do not touch each other but
are electrically connected by the electrolyte, which
whic can be either
solid or liquid. A battery can be simply modeled as a perfect
voltage source which has its own resistance, the resulting

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Fig.6 Block diagram


4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Table 1 Mean Power for the vehicle with constant weight
S.NO

Voltage

Current

Power

(Volts)
4.2

(Amps)
0.18

(Watts)
0.66

210

2.5

0.02

0.02

210

0.8

0.05

0.035

210

6.5

0.61

3.75

210

7.3

0.52

3.64

210

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Vehicle
weight

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Technology, Engineering and Science (A Bimonthly Open
Access Online Journal) Volume2, Issue2, March-April,
March
2015 ISSN: 2349--7173(Online)
4.4

0.36

1.30

210

1.5

0.12

0.15

210

3.5

0.39

1.19

210

Mean
Power

1.343125

load Vs Voltage
Voltage(Volts)

10
8
6
4
2
0
140 210 275 305 445 605

8
6

load

voltage

current

0
1 2 3
4 5 6
7

Load(kg)

Fig.2 load Vs Voltage

power

load
8

Fig.1 Comparing the Process Parameters


arameters

Current(Amps)

Load Vs current
0.8
0.6
0.4

Load
(Kgs)
140

Voltage(Volts)

current(Amps)

2.5

0.2

210

3.4

0.23

140 210 275 305 445 605

275

4.1

0.32

Load(kgs)

305

0.42

445

7.4

0.64

605

8.9

0.75

0.2
0

Fig.3 Load Vs current


5. CALCULATIONS FOR THE POWER

Table 2 Vehicle load corresponding voltage and current

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The mass of a vehicle moving


oving over the speed breaker=250Kg
breaker=250
(Approximately)
Height of speed brake =5cm
Work done=Force x Distance
Force=Weight of the Body
Force=250 Kg x 9.81(gravity)
Force=1962.N
Distance travelled by the body = Height of the speed
brake=10cm
Output power=Work done/Sec= (1962x
(
0.05)/60=1.63 Watts

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Technology, Engineering and Science (A Bimonthly Open
Access Online Journal) Volume2, Issue2, March-April, 2015 ISSN: 2349-7173(Online)
(For One pushing force)
Power developed for 1 vehicle passing over the speed
Breaker arrangement for one minute= 1.63 watts
Power developed for 60 minutes (1 hr) =98.1 watts
Power developed for 24 hours=2.35 KW
This power is sufficient to burn four street lights in the roads in
the night time.
6. CONCLUSION
Electricity plays a very important role in our life. Due to
population explosion, the current power generation has
become insufficient to fulfill our requirements. In this project
we discover technology to generate electricity from speed
breakers in which the system used is reliable and this technique
will help conserve our natural resources. In coming days, this
will prove a great boon to the world, since it will save a lot of
electricity of power plants that gets wasted in illuminating the
street lights. As the conventional sources are depleting very fast,
its high time to think of alternative resources. We got to save

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the power gained from the conventional sources for efficient


use. So this idea not only provides alternative but also adds to
the economy of the country.
7. REFERENCES
[1] Mukherjee Chakrabarti, 2005, Fundamentals of renewable
energy systems, New Age international limited publishers, New
Delhi.
[2] Selvaraj, R.S., Sivamadhavi, V., Magnitude of Green
House Effect and the contribution of Carbon dioxide,Recent
Advances in Space Technology Services and Climate Change
(RSTSCC), 13-15 Nov. 2010, no. 41 44, Chennai.
[3] Watts,G., Effects of speed distribution on the Hormonoise
model predictions, Inter-noise Conference, Prague,2004.
[4] Power System Dynamics and Control, K.R.Padiyar,
Interline Publishers Bangalore.
[5] Sharma.P.C, 2003, Non-conventional power plants, Public
printing service, New Delhi.
[6] www. Google.com
[7] www. Wikipedia.com

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