Behaviour of Fixed Head Single Pile in Cohesionless Soil under Lateral Loads
V. S. Phanikanth
Ph.D. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai – 400 076, India and Scientific Officer – F, Architecture and Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai – 400 085, India; email: vphanikanth@yahoo.com,vphanikanth@gmail.com
Deepankar Choudhury
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai – 400 076, India; dc@civil.iitb.ac.in
G. Rami Reddy
Professor of Homi Bhabha National Institute, Scientific Officer – H, Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai – 400 085, India
ABSTRACT
Pile foundations are often subjected to lateral loads due to earth pressure, earthquake loading, wave force and wind forces etc. The pile design shall ensure estimation of ultimate pile load carrying capacity and allowable pile deflection and thus both strength and serviceability aspects are considered. In the present study, lateral load behavior of single pile in cohesionless soils is attempted for various soil types viz., loose sand, medium sand and dense sand. The subgrade modulus of each soil type is assumed based on approximate values available in the literature. The pile soil behavior is observed for both dry and submerged conditions. The analysis is carried out considering fixed head pile and floating tip at the base. Parametric studies have been carried out to evaluate the influence of pile and soil properties on the flexural response of piles. The significance of soil type in altering the pile deflection and flexural response is discussed. Also deflection and moment coefficients are evaluated for a typical pile length for various soil types. Various methods available in pilesoil interaction analysis are discussed. A computer program is developed using MATLAB by considering modulus of subgrade reaction approach. Finite difference technique is chosen for the above analysis. The output of computer program is validated with the available benchmark solutions in literature.
Laterally loaded piles; Fixed head pile; Flexural response; Characteristic
length; Deflection coefficient; Moment coefficient.
KEYWORDS:
INTRODUCTION
Pile foundations are widely used in civil engineering constructions due to nonavailability of bearing capacity at the required depth and/or due to heavy super structure loads. Such foundation systems are
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required to be designed for lateral loading in addition to the vertical loads. Some of the examples which require lateral load analysis of pile foundations are: (a) High rise buildings and tall chimneys subjected to wind and/or earthquake loads, (b) quay and harbor structures subjected to horizontal forces due to the impact of ships during berthing and wave action, (c) offshore structures with wind and wave loads etc. Both the ultimate load and deflection are required to compute for design of single pile to maintain safety and serviceability conditions intact. For short piles, based on earth pressure theory, Hansen (1961) had developed the method to estimate the ultimate lateral resistance of rigid piles. Zhang et al. (2005) proposed a simplified method for calculating the ultimate resistance exerted by the cohesionless soils against laterally loaded piles. Using two forms of varying modulus with depth, Matlock and Reese (1960) had given a generalized iterative solution for rigid and flexible piles subjected to lateral loads. For layered soil system, using different constant moduli of subgrade reaction, Davisson and Gill (1963) studied the case of a laterally loaded pile. Generalized solutions for laterally loaded pile in elastoplastic soil have been proposed by Reddy and Valsangkar (1970). An elastoplatic model was used by Madhav et al. (1971) for obtaining the response of laterally loaded piles. Using earth pressure theory, Broms (1964a, b) proposed the solutions for pile deflections for both short and long piles. Broms’ (1964a, b) method for computing ground surface deflections of rigid and flexible, with fixed and free head piles was based on Terzaghi’s (1955) modulus of subgrade reaction approach. A stateoftheart discussion on soil modulus and ultimate soil resistance for laterally loaded piles were given by Jamilokowski and Garassino (1977). Algebraic expressions for pile head displacement and rotation for flexible piles subjected to lateral loads was given by Randolph (1981). Influence of vertical load on the lateral response of piles in sand was investigated by Karthigeyan et al. (2006). Very recently, response of single pile with free headed top and floating tip under lateral loads in cohesionless soils is analyzed by Phanikanth et al. (2010). However the similar study for fixed head single pile is still scarce.
Considering kinematic and inertial interactions, seismic lateral response of piles in liquefying soil was proposed by Liyanapathirana and Poulos (2005a). A pseudostatic approach was proposed by Liyanapathirana and Poulos (2005b) which can be more frequently used by the designers. Tabesh and Poulos (2007), developed design charts for seismic analysis of single piles in clay based on range of earthquakes recorded in northern America and Australia. In the present study, behavior of fixed head piles with floating tip considering various soil types under lateral loading is attempted. Subgrade modulus suggested by Terzhagi (1955) is used for the present analysis. Varied length and radius of pile in both dry and submerged soils are considered to obtain the response of single fixed head pile in the present analysis.
RESPONSE OF FIXED HEAD PILE UNDER LATERAL LOADS
In the design of pile foundations, it is usually necessary to evaluate the pile deflections, in addition to estimating the ultimate pile load capacities to satisfy the serviceability aspects. Permissible deflection of pile must not be exceeded by the actual deflection of pile even though the working load estimated using factor of safety to the ultimate load is well below the permissible limit. The following methods are most widely accepted methods, in estimating the pile deflections under lateral loads:
i) Continuous nature of soil medium is ignored while using the concept of modulus of subgrade
reaction (Reese and Matlock, 1956) and the pile reaction at a point is related to the deflection at that
point.
ii) Soil is idealized as an elastic medium using the elastic approach (Poulos, 1971a and b).
Because of its simplicity, the modulus of subgrade reaction approach is widely used. This method can also consider the additional factors like nonlinearity, variation of subgrade reaction with depth and can account for various soil layers.
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MODULUS OF SUBGRADE REACTION APPROACH
This approach treats the laterally loaded pile as a beam on elastic foundation. It is assumed that the beam is supported by a Winkler (1867) soil model according to which the elastic continuum is replaced by a series of infinitely closed independent and elastic soil springs. The pile is usually assumed to act as a thin strip whose behavior is governed by the beam equation which was originally proposed by Hetenyi (1946) for beamonelasticfoundation and is as given below:
where
^{}
_{}_{} ^{} + _{} =0
Ep = Young’s modulus of pile material
Ip = Moment of Inertia of Pile material
kh= Modulus of subgrade reaction
y = pile deflection at a depth ‘x’ below GL
(1)
Palmer and Thompson (1948) employed the following form to express the modulus of horizontal subgrade reaction:
where
k _{x} = k _{h} (x/L) ^{n}
kh = value of kx at x=L (tip of pile)
n= a coefficient equal to or greater than zero.
(2)
The most commonly used value of ‘n’ for sand and normally consolidated clays is zero. According to Davisson and Prakash (1963), a more appropriate value of ‘n’ be 1.5 for sands, 0.15 for clays under un drained conditions. For the value of n=1, the variation of kh with depth is expressed by the following relationship:
k _{h} = ηh _{x}
where η _{h} is the constant modulus of subgrade reaction.
(3)
Solutions to the above equations may be obtained analytically or numerically. Analytical solutions are available only for uniform kh along pile depth. The scope of the present study is for cohesionless soils and hence Eq.(3) is applicable. For linear variation of kh (= ηh x) with depth numerical solutions like finite difference method are usually employed. In the present study Finite difference technique is employed for analyzing the pile response. The pile top is assumed to be fixed head and pile tip as floating tip and their boundary conditions are also described.
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Using the central difference method at point ‘i’ as given by Poulos and Davis (1980) and applying boundary conditions for fixed head and floating tip single pile, one can get,
At the top of pile (at point ‘1’):
Shear = E _{} I _{}
d ^{} y
dx ^{} ^{=} ^{H}
Using Finite Difference Method at point 1: −y _{}_{} + 2 y _{}_{} − 2y _{} + y _{} = HL ^{} /(E _{} I _{} n ^{} )
and Rotation =dy/dx=0
Using Finite Difference Method at point 1:
−y _{}_{} + 2 y _{} + y _{} = 0
At the pile tip (at point ‘n+1’):
Shear = E _{} I _{}
d ^{} y
dx ^{} ^{=} ^{0}
Using Finite Difference Method at point n+1:
−y _{}_{}_{} + 2 y _{} − 2y _{}_{}_{} + y _{}_{}_{} = 0
and
Moment = E _{} I _{}
d ^{} y
dx ^{} ^{=} ^{0}
Using Finite Difference Method at point n+1:
−y _{} + 2 y _{}_{}_{} + y _{}_{}_{} = 0
The equilibrium equations ΣV=0 and ΣM=0 will results in the following additional equations:
For load equilibrium
∑
R
Taking moments about ‘1’ : ∑
= H
and
_{R} _{} (n−i)h = M
This approach is similar to that used by Phanikanth et al. (2010) for free head piles but with different boundary conditions.
The solution requires the pressure distribution to be assumed and generally assumed and accepted pressure distributions are stepped function, linear or parabolic variations. Based on the pressure distribution the soil deflections and subsequently the soil reactions are evaluated (Bowles, 1968). Stepped distribution was assumed in the present study.
Matrix equations may be developed using the above set of equations available at each node and with the boundary conditions described. A computer program is developed using MATLAB to compute the deflections, shear forces, bending moments and soil reactions.
STIFFNESS FACTOR AND SUBGRADE MODULUS
The short rigid, long flexible or semi rigid behavior of the piles is evaluated by stiffness factors R and T (also known as Characteristic length). These factors depend on the flexural rigidity EI of the pile and
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subgrade modulus. The subgrade modulus depends on the type of soil, width of pile, and depth of influence of area and is related to Terzaghi’s (1955) modulus of subgrade reaction. For stiff over consolidated clay the stiffness factor is given by,
R=
Where k=k1/1.5 and k1 is Terzaghi’s (1955) subgrade modulus in kN/m3.
For soft normally consolidated clays and for granular soils, the soil modulus is assumed to increase
linearly with depth. The stiffness factor (Characteristic length)
T=
for this case is given by
The pile behavior is dependent on the Characteristic length ‘T’ of the pile. When the length of the pile exceeds 5T, the pile is considered as long pile and when the pile length is < 2T, the pile is considered as short rigid pile (Das, 2004). Failure of a short rigid pile occurs when the lateral resistance of the soil has been exceeded. The failure mechanisms of short rigid pile for free headed and fixed headed condition are shown in Fig.1. In case of long flexible pile, the failure is associated when the moment at one or more points exceeds the moment of resistance and the failure takes place by formation of one or two plastic hinges along the pile length. The failure modes for long flexible pile are given in Fig. 2.
Plastic hinge
(a) Free headed pile
(b) Fixed headed pile
Figure 1: Typical failure modes for rigid pile [Phanikanth et al. (2010)]
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(a) Free headed pile
(b) Fixed headed pile
Figure 2: Typical failure modes for flexible pile [Phanikanth et al. (2010)]
SOIL REACTION
For a vertical pile at a depth ‘x’ below the ground surface the pressure exerted by the soil on the pile before and after the lateral movement of the pile is shown in Fig. 3a. It may be seen that the net force exerted by the soil per unit length of the pile is zero before pile deflects. When the pile deflects the pressure diagram on the pile is again shown in Fig. 3a.It may be seen that the net force exerted by the soil per unit length of the pile is ‘p’. At any given depth ‘x’, soil reaction ‘p’ will depend on the lateral deflection ‘y’. A typical py relationship is shown in Fig. 3b. The py curve is usually nonlinear. However, reasonably good accuracy may be achieved by assuming py curve to be linear.
(i)
(ii)
Lateral deflection (y)
Figure 3a: Soil pressure distribution (i) before and (ii) after pile deflection
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Figure 3b: Pressure versus deflection (py) relationship
VERIFICATION OF RESULTS
The finite difference method (FDM) Program developed using MATLAB, is validated using available solutions in the literature. The computer program is validated with Reese and Matlock (1956) with the following input:
Length of the pile=15 m;
Horizontal load =100 kN; (Applied at the top of pile)
Constant modulus of subgrade (ηh) = 2600.0 kN/m3;
Radius of the pile =0.25m;
Modulus of elasticity of pile material=2.74x107 kN/m2;
Grade of concrete=M30;
The above input is considered for pile soil analysis and bending moments and deflections are evaluated considering fixed head and floating tip. The pile cap is assumed to be at the ground level. Results obtained are plotted in Fig. 4a and Fig. 4b showing variation of deflections, and bending moments in the pile, along the soil depth based on FDM technique. These results are compared with that of solution given by Reese and Matlock (1956) which are also shown in Fig. 4a and Fig. 4b. Clearly it can be seen that the results are in excellent agreement with that of solutions available in literature.
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defelction(mm)
Figure 4a: Pile deflections along soil depth Present study vs. Reese and Matlock (1956)
Moment(kNm)
Figure 4b: Pile bending moments along soil depth Present study vs. Reese and Matlock (1956)
INFLUENCE OF PILE LENGTH ON THE FLEXURAL RESPONSE
A Parametric study is carried out by varying the pile length and the pile response is obtained for various pile lengths. Length of the pile is varied from 5.0 m to 20.0 m such that, the short pile behavior and also long flexible pile behavior. Also the pile radius is varied to study the pile response for lateral loading for various pile length to radius ratio’s. The pile radius is varied from 0.25m to 1.0m.Pile head is assumed to be fixed and pile tip is considered as floating for the present analysis.
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The following input parameters are considered in the present analysis:
Length of the pile= 5.0m; Young’s modulus of the pile material = 2.74x107 kN/m ^{2} Pile radius= 0.25 m Horizontal load = 100.0 kN and is applied at the top of the pile.
The constant subgrade moduli in dry state for different soil types (ηh):
Loose sand =2600.0 kN/m ^{3} Medium sand=7700.0 kN/m ^{3} Dense sand=20000.0 kN/m ^{3}
The constant subgrade moduli in submerged state for different soil types (ηh):
Loose sand =1500.0 kN/m ^{3} Medium sand=5200.0 kN/m ^{3} Dense sand=12500.0 kN/m ^{3}
The relative stiffness factors [T = (EI/ηh)0.20] (dry state):
Loose sand =2.004 Medium sand=1.61 Dense sand=1.33
Nondimensional depth coefficient Zmax (dry state):
Loose sand=2.49 Medium sand=3.09 Dense sand=3.75
The pile cap is assumed to be at the ground level. When the pile length is considered as 5.0 m, the response for a range of soil types viz., loose sand, medium sand, and dense sand is analyzed and the results are presented in Fig.5a for pile deflections. For non dimensional depth coefficient Zmax <=2 the pile behaviour is short rigid. In the present problem Zmax considering loose sand is about 2.49 and hence semi rigid behavior is observed as can be seen Fig. 5a. However under medium and dense sand condition the flexible type behavior was observed and also here it can be seen that Zmax exceeds 2.0. Also it is observed that pile deflections in loose sand are higher compared to medium sand and dense sand.
The variation of bending moment is also obtained and is presented in Fig. 5b. It is also observed that the bending moments, are influenced by soil type and pile bending moments in loose sand is higher compared to that of medium and dense sand, as can be seen in Fig. 5b.
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deflectionmm
Figure 5a: Pile deflection along depth (L = 5.0m)
MomentkNm
Figure 5b: Variation of bending moment along depth (L = 5.0m)
The pile response is also evaluated considering submerged soil condition. The pile deflections under submerged conditions are also presented in Fig.5a. Also bending moments, are presented in Fig.5b. It was
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observed that the pile undergoes higher deflections under submerged condition compared to dry state and also semi rigid behaviour of the pile in case of loose sand was observed.
When the pile length is increased to 10.0m, it can be seen from Table 1a that Zmax varies from 5.0 to 7.5 and hence it is reasonable to predict flexible pile behaviour. The same is observed from the analysis results and the pile deflections are presented in Fig.6a. Also it can be seen from this figure that the stiffness of the surrounding soil has significant influence on the pile response.
Fig.6b shows the bending moment variation along depth of pile. The analysis is performed for submerged condition and the pile deflections are again presented in Fig.6a. The bending moment variation along the depth of the pile under submerged condition is presented in Fig.6b.
The analysis is also performed for pile length of 15.0 m and 20.0 m considering both dry and submerged conditions and it is observed that the pile response is not affected by the increase in length any more and is also consistent with Reese and Matlock (1956) theory which also says that the pile response is not affected in the case of flexible piles where nondimensional depth coefficient Zmax > 5.0.
deflectionmm
Figure 6a: Pile deflection along depth (L = 10.0m)
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Table 1a: Input data considered for the present study as was reported by Phanikanth et
al.(2010)
Pile 
Young's modulus of pile 'E' (kN/m ^{2} ) 
Moment of 
Unit subgrade modulus η _{h} 
Relative Stiffness factor 
Pile 
Depth coefficient Z _{m}_{a}_{x} = L/T 

Soil 
radius  
Inertia I 
length 

condition 
r (m) 
^{4} ) (m 
(kN/m ^{3} ) 
T: T=(EI/η _{h} ) ^{0}^{.}^{2} 
L (m) 

0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
2.60E+03 
2.004133 
5.0 
2.494844 

Dry 
0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
7.70E+03 
1.612958 
5.0 
3.099895 
0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
2.00E+04 
1.332647 
5.0 
3.751931 

0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
1.50E+03 
2.23719 
5.0 
2.234947 

Submerged 
0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
5.20E+03 
1.744699 
5.0 
2.865824 
0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
1.25E+04 
1.463994 
5.0 
3.415315 

0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
2.60E+03 
2.004133 
10.0 
4.989689 

Dry 
0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
7.70E+03 
1.612958 
10.0 
6.199789 
0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
2.00E+04 
1.332647 
10.0 
7.503863 

0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
1.50E+03 
2.23719 
10.0 
4.469893 

Submerged 
0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
5.20E+03 
1.744699 
10.0 
5.731648 
0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
1.25E+04 
1.463994 
10.0 
6.830629 

0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
2.60E+03 
2.004133 
15.0 
7.484533 

Dry 
0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
7.70E+03 
1.612958 
15.0 
9.299684 
0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
2.00E+04 
1.332647 
15.0 
11.25579 

0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
1.50E+03 
2.23719 
15.0 
6.70484 

Submerged 
0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
5.20E+03 
1.744699 
15.0 
8.597472 
0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
1.25E+04 
1.463994 
15.0 
10.24594 

0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
2.60E+03 
2.004133 
20.0 
9.979378 

Dry 
0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
7.70E+03 
1.612958 
20.0 
12.39958 
0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
2.00E+04 
1.332647 
20.0 
15.00773 

0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
1.50E+03 
2.23719 
20.0 
8.939786 

Submerged 
0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
5.20E+03 
1.744699 
20.0 
11.4633 
0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.068E03 
1.25E+04 
1.463994 
20.0 
13.66126 
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MomentkNm
Figure 6b: Variation of bending moment along depth (L = 10.0m)
EFFECT OF SOIL TYPE ON THE PILE RESPONSE
The response of single piles in cohesionless soils is evaluated for a given horizontal load and moment. The constant subgrade modulus for loose sand, medium sand and dense sand based on Terzaghi (1955) are considered both in dry condition as well as in submerged condition for the present analysis. The young’s modulus is considered as 2.74x107 kN/m2 and the pile radius is taken as 0.25m. The pile head deflection is observed by varying the subgrade modulus, for various pile length to radius ratio’s and the results are presented in Fig. 7. Clearly it can be seen that the deflections are reduced as the soil stiffness increases. It was observed that in case of 5.0m pile under loose sand the deflection is increased by about 49% under submerged condition with respect to the dry state. The increase in medium sand and dense sand in submerged condition was about 30% and 33% respectively for the same pile length. However when the pile length is considered as 10.0m, the pile deflections under submerged conditions are increased by 37%, 25% and 29% respectively for loose sand, medium sand and dense sand.
The pile response is observed under dry condition for 5m and 10m pile lengths. It was observed that for short rigid pile (L=5m), response is increased by about 3.87 times in loose sand compared to dense sand under dry condition, where as in submerged condition the pile response is amplified by about 4.36 times in loose sand compared to dense sand. For flexible piles (L=10.0m) the response in loose sand is amplified by about 3.13 times from the dense state considering dry state and the amplification is about 3.33 times in submerged condition for loose sands with respect to dense sands.
Also it can be seen that the deflections are higher in case of 5 m pile length compared to 10m and higher length piles. This is due to short rigid behaviour of the pile resulting in pile rotations. Also it is
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observed that pile response is not affected by increasing the length of the pile beyond 10m. This is due to the fact that, the depth coefficient Zmax (= L/T) exceeds 5.0 and hence the pile behaves as flexible beyond 10.0 m length.
Subgrade modulus×1.0e03 kN/m ^{3}
Figure 7: Effect of soil type on pile head deflection
Deflection and Moment Coefficients
Before generating these coefficients validation is performed from the analysis results obtained from the present study with the coefficients proposed by Reese and Matlock (1956). The pile length is considered as 15.0m with pile radius as 0.25m.Young’s modulus is considered as 2.74x107 kN/m2.Considering loose sand the nondimensional factor Zmax works out to 7.85. With this input the deflection coefficients Cy are obtained and compared with Reese and Matlock (1956) solutions and is presented in Fig.8a.It can be seen from these figures that good agreement in results was observed. Also moment coefficients are evaluated in the present study and the results again are compared with Reese and Matlock (1956).The results are presented in Fig.8b. Again excellent matching was observed from the present study with the solutions from the literature.
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Figure 8a: Validation of Deflection Coefficient (C _{y} ) with Reese and Matlock (1956)
Figure 8b: Validation of Moment Coefficient (C _{m} ) with Reese and Matlock (1956)
The deflection and moment coefficients have been generated for the chosen pile length and considering various soil types. Using these coefficients pile responses i.e., deflection, and bending moment can be evaluated which are very useful for the designers. The coefficients generated are applicable for loose sand, medium sand and dense sand with the constant subgrade modulus presented in Table 1 under dry condition. For generating these coefficients, the length of the pile is considered as 15.0 m. The radius of the pile is varied from 0.25 m to 1.0 m. The Young’s modulus is considered as 2.74x107 kN/m2.The input data considered is also shown in Table 1b.
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Table 1b: Input data for computing deflection and moment coefficients [Phanikanth et al.(2010)]
Pile 
Young's modulus of pile 'E' (kN/m ^{2} ) 
Moment of 
Unit subgrade modulus η _{h} 
Relative Stiffness factor 
Pile 
Depth coefficient Z _{m}_{a}_{x} = L/T 

Soil 
radius  
Inertia I 
length 

condition 
r (m) 
^{4} ) (m 
(kN/m ^{3} ) 
T: T=(EI/η _{h} ) ^{0}^{.}^{2} 
L (m) 

0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.07E03 
2.60E+03 
2.00439 
15 
7.48356 

0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.07E03 
7.70E+03 
1.61317 
15 
9.29847 

Dry 
0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.07E03 
2.00E+04 
1.33282 
15 
11.2543 
0.5 
2.74E+07 
4.91E02 
2.60E+03 
3.48957 
15 
4.29853 

0.5 
2.74E+07 
4.91E02 
7.70E+03 
2.80846 
15 
5.34101 

Dry 
0.5 
2.74E+07 
4.91E02 
2.00E+04 
2.32039 
15 
6.46444 
0.75 
2.74E+07 
2.49E01 
2.60E+03 
4.82831 
15 
3.10668 

0.75 
2.74E+07 
2.49E01 
7.70E+03 
3.8859 
15 
3.86011 

Dry 
0.75 
2.74E+07 
2.49E01 
2.00E+04 
3.21058 
15 
4.67205 
1 2.74E+07 
7.85E01 
2.60E+03 
6.07476 
15 
2.46923 

1 2.74E+07 
7.85E01 
7.70E+03 
4.88907 
15 
3.06807 

Dry 
1 2.74E+07 
7.85E01 
2.00E+04 
4.03941 
15 
3.71341 

0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.07E03 
2.60E+03 
2.00439 
20 
9.97808 

0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.07E03 
7.70E+03 
1.61317 
20 
12.398 

Dry 
0.25 
2.74E+07 
3.07E03 
2.00E+04 
1.33282 
20 
15.0058 
0.5 
2.74E+07 
4.91E02 
2.60E+03 
3.48957 
20 
5.73137 

0.5 
2.74E+07 
4.91E02 
7.70E+03 
2.80846 
20 
7.12134 

Dry 
0.5 
2.74E+07 
4.91E02 
2.00E+04 
2.32039 
20 
8.61925 
0.75 
2.74E+07 
2.49E01 
2.60E+03 
4.82831 
20 
4.14223 

0.75 
2.74E+07 
2.49E01 
7.70E+03 
3.8859 
20 
5.14681 

Dry 
0.75 
2.74E+07 
2.49E01 
2.00E+04 
3.21058 
20 
6.2294 
1 
2.74E+07 
7.85E01 
2.60E+03 
6.07476 
20 
3.29231 

1 
2.74E+07 
7.85E01 
7.70E+03 
4.88907 
20 
4.09076 

Dry 
1 
2.74E+07 
7.85E01 
2.00E+04 
4.03941 
20 
4.95122 
Fig. 9a shows the deflection coefficients Cy for loose sand for a pile length of 15.0m.Coefficients have been derived for pile radii of 0.25m, 0.50m, 0.75m and 1.0m respectively. Fig 9b shows moment coefficient Cm for various pile radii. For medium sand and considering a pile length of 15.0m, the deflection coefficients Cy and moment coefficients Cm are again evaluated and are also presented in Fig. 9a and Fig. 9b respectively. Also the coefficients for dense sands are evaluated and are again presented in Fig. 9a and Fig. 9b respectively for deflections and bending moments. Once the coefficients are known, the deflections and bending moments can be evaluated by using the following expressions (Reese and Matlock, 1956):
yx =yA+yB =Ay (HT3/EPIP)+ By ( MT2/ EPIP)
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Mx =MA+MB =Am HT+ Bm M
where T =Characteristic length of pile= ^{E} ^{} ^{I} ^{}
When L>= 5T, the pile is considered as a long pile. For L<=2T, the pile is considered to be short rigid pile (Das, 2004).
deflection Coefficient (Cy)
Figure 9a: Deflection Coefficients (C _{y} )
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Moment Coefficient (Cm)
Figure 9b: Moment Coefficients (C _{m} )
CONCLUSIONS
The behaviour of single pile in cohesionless soils under lateral loads considering fixed head and floating tip type piles are presented. Parametric studies have been carried out to evaluate the influence of pile and soil properties on the flexural response of piles. Pile responses under dry and submerged conditions are studied. The present study also takes into account the short pile and long pile behaviour. Deflection and bending moment coefficients are evaluated for a chosen pile length. Solutions are obtained for pile response with various cohesionless soils.
The parametric study carried out shows that for short rigid piles, about 49% increase in deflections was observed for loose sands from dry state to submerged condition. The increase in deflections for medium sand and dense sand in submerged condition with respect to dry state are about 30% and 33% respectively. However for flexible piles, the pile deflections under submerged conditions are increased by 37%, 25% and 29% respectively for loose sand, medium sand and dense sand from that of dry soil condition. It was also observed that the pile response is increased by about 3.87 times in loose sand compared to dense sand under dry condition, where as in submerged condition the pile response is amplified by about 4.36 times in loose sand compared to dense sand for short rigid piles. For flexible piles the response in loose sand is amplified by about 3.13 times from the dense state considering dry state and the amplification is about 3.33 times in submerged condition for loose sands with respect to dense sands.
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