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HYDROLOGY

(BFC 3092)
Prepared by:-

MR WAN AFNIZAN BIN WAN MOHAMED


DEPT. OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
FAC. OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
e-mail: afnizan@uthm.edu.my

CHAPTER 2

PRECIPITATION

Learning Objectives
Define precipitation, its form and types.
Illustrate techniques for estimating point
and areal precipitation.

CONTENT
 INTRODUCTION
 FORMATION OF PRECIPITATON
 CLASSIFICATION OF PRECIPITATION
 PRECIPITATION TYPES

.... Cont

CONTENT

 MEASUREMENT OF PRECIPITATION
NON RECORDING GAUGES
RECORDING GAUGES
(PLUVIOGRAPH)
Weighing gauge
Tipping bucket
Float type

.... Cont

CONTENT

 LOCATION OF INSTALLATION RAIN


GAUGE
 GAUGE CONSISTENCY
 MISSING DATA
POINT PRECIPITATION
 MEAN AREAL PRECIPITATION

MISSING DATA

What
is
Point Precipitation

MISSING DATA
POINT PRECIPITATION


Precipitation measured at rain gauge.

Three method used to estimate missing point precipitation :-

Arithmatic Mean Method

Normal Ratio Method

Quadrant Method

GAUGE CONSISTENCY


When the catch at rain gauges is inconsistent.

Adjustment is necessary provide consistent record.

What method is employed ??? Use DOUBLE MASS


CURVE.

DMC technique to detect changes in data-collection


procedures / condition at location.

Changes because : Instrumentation


Observation procedures
Surrounding condition

.... Cont

GAUGE CONSISTENCY

How
DOUBLE MASS
CURVE is constructed

.... Cont

GAUGE CONSISTENCY
DOUBLE MASS CURVE

Plot Accumulation of total precipitation over time at TEST


STATION VS Accumulation of total precipitation over time at
BASE SATIONS

.... Cont

GAUGE CONSISTENCY
DOUBLE MASS CURVE

DMC approximately a straight line if both test & base stations


consistent.

However if not will be break point (suggest possible change at test


station).

So, if that the case the early or later record needs to be adjusted.

Procedures :1. Add the annual precipitation of base stations


2. Cummulate the sums of Step 1 (Value at x-axis).
3. Cummulate the annual precipitation for test station (changed
station) (Value at y-axis)
4. Plot GRAPH value from STEP 3 VS. STEP 2.
5. Compute slope of ADJUSTED (Ma) & ORIGINAL (Mo)

.... Cont

GAUGE CONSISTENCY
DOUBLE MASS CURVE

Formula to calculate Mo & Ma :-

Y3 Y2
Mo =
X3 X2
Ma =

Y2 Y1
X 2 X1

Note:Mo = Original Slope


Ma = Adjusted Slope

6. Calculate the adjusted precipitation at changed station (either


early or later using the following formula ;Note: Ma
Po = Original precipitation
Pa = Po

(Station X)
Mo
Pa = Adjusted precipitation
(Station X)

EXAMPLE 2.5
Measured annual precipitation gauge for five
stations (A, B, C, D and E) from 1926 until
1942 are given below. After 5 years, gauge
A was relocated at a new location due to
changes in land use that make it impractical
to maintain the gauge at the old location.
You are required to adjust the record for
the period from 1926 to 1930 using the
records at gauges B, C, D and E .

SOLUTION
Step !!
1.

Based on the data given, ADD the annual


precipitation of base stations .

2.

Cummulate the sums of Step 1 (Value at xaxis).

3.

Cummulate the annual precipitation for test


station (changed station) (Value at y-axis)

SOLUTION .... Cont

Value at Y- axis

Value at X- axis

SOLUTION .... Cont

4.

Plot GRAPH value from STEP 3 VS. STEP 2

Mo

Ma

SOLUTION .... Cont

4.

From Graph compute slope of ADJUSTED (Ma)


& ORIGINAL (Mo)
Y3 Y2
Mo =
X3 X2

Mo =

679 148
= 0.19
2785 774

Y2 Y1
X 2 X1

Ma =

148 33
= 0.26
774 154

Ma =

SOLUTION .... Cont

4.

Calculate the adjusted precipitation at changed


station (5 years early)
Ma
Pa = Po

M
o
0.26
P1926 = 32.9
= 45.02 mm

0.19

0.26
P1928 = 33.5
= 45.90 mm

0
.
19

0.26
P1927 = 28.1
= 38.5 mm

0.19

0.26
P1929 = 29.6
= 40.55 mm
0
.
19

MEAN AREAL PRECIPITATION




Why??? for engineering application (represent precipitation


over a defined area).

THREE method used to estimate MEAN AREAL precipitation :-

Arithmatic Mean Method

Thiessen Polygon Method

Isohyetal Method

MEAN AREAL PRECIPITATION


.... Cont

1st APPROACH

ARITHMATIC MEAN METHOD





Only stations within the topographic basin


are considered.
Formula used :-

Pi
P =
n
Which :P = Average precipitation depth (mm)
Pi = Precipitation depth at each station within the
basin (mm)
n = Total station within the basin

MEAN AREAL PRECIPITATION


.... Cont

2nd APPROACH

THIESSEN POLYGON METHOD





Advantage quick if multiple storm (uses fixed


sub-areas)
PROCEDURES :1. CONNECT each precipitation STATION with
STRAIGHT lines

MEAN AREAL PRECIPITATION


.... Cont

2nd APPROACH

THIESSEN POLYGON METHOD


2. CONSTRUCT PERPENDICULAR bisectors of
the connecting lines and forming POLYGONS
with these bisectors.

MEAN AREAL PRECIPITATION


.... Cont

2nd APPROACH

THIESSEN POLYGON METHOD


3. Determine the AREA of the POLYGON
4. Calculate AVERAGE PRECIPITATION using
this formula :

A i Pi
P =
A
Which :P = Average precipitation depth (mm)
Pi = Precipitation depth at each station (mm)
Ai = Sub area at each station (Polygon area)
A = Total area

EXAMPLE 2.6

Using data given below, estimate the


average precipitation using Thiessen
method .

SOLUTION
Step !!
1.

Based the data given, compute AVERAGE


PRECIPITATION using Theissen formula :-

A i Pi
P =
A
2.

For easy calculation construct table :-

SOLUTION .... Cont

SOLUTION .... Cont


3.

Form the calculated table : A i Pi


P =
A

69210
P=
= 121 .8 mm
568

MEAN AREAL PRECIPITATION


.... Cont

3rd APPROACH

ISOHYETAL METHOD




Based on interpolation between gauges.


Resembles the calculation of contours in
surveying and mapping.
PROCEDURES :1. PLOT the rain gauge LOCATIONS on map & record
RAINFALL AMOUNTS.
2. PERFORM INTERPOLATION between gauges
Select suitable increments.

MEAN AREAL PRECIPITATION


.... Cont

3rd APPROACH

ISOHYETAL METHOD
3. CONNECT identical depth from EACH interpolation
ISOHYETS LINES.

MEAN AREAL PRECIPITATION


.... Cont

3rd APPROACH

ISOHYETAL METHOD
4. COMPUTE the MEAN AREAL PRECIPITATION
using the following formula :-.

A i Pi
P=
A
Which :P = Average precipitation depth (mm)
Pi = Average precipitation between 2 isohyets
lines (mm)
Ai = Sub area between 2 isohyets lines
A = Total area

EXAMPLE 2.7
Use the isohyetal method to determine
the average precipitation depth within the
basin for the storm .

SOLUTION
Step !!
1.

Based the data given, compute AVERAGE


PRECIPITATION using the following formula :-

A i Pi
P =
A
2.

For easy calculation construct table :-

SOLUTION .... Cont

SOLUTION .... Cont


3.

Form the calculated table : A i Pi


P =
A

16830
P=
= 39.3 cm
428

TIME
TIMES UP

THANK YOU