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UC Denver

Power Electronics Systems


Assignment 1
Carlos A Soriano Rangel
September 5, 2013

Problem 1
A mobile telephone uses a Lithium ion battery operating at a nominal voltage of 3V. Draw a power converter
topology incorporating ideal switches, to charge the battery from an automobile power system operating at a
nominal voltage of 12 V. Populate the ideal switch(es) with MOSFETs and diodes.

12 V
Auto
Pow
Sys

iP

S
C

3V Battery

vT
L
D

Figure 1: Proposed Topology


We can see from Figure 1 that when the MOSFET S is ON it conducts the POSITVE CURRENT iP which
is the pole current and the diode D blocks NEGATIVE voltage.
We can also see that when S is OFF it blocks POSITIVE voltage. The diode D conducts iP which is a
POSITIVE current.

Problem 2
The DC power system of a communication satellite operates at a nominal voltage of 48 V. It is primarily powered
using three photovoltaic solar power panels rated at a nominal voltage of 17 V each. The DC power system is
backed up using a battery pack rated at a nominal voltage of 42 V. Develop an architecture with appropriate power
converter topologies, incorporating ideal switches to describe the interconnection of the DC power system, solar
panels and the battery pack. Populate the ideal switch(es) with IGBTs and diodes.
Converter 1

51 V

17 V

P V1

17 V

P V2

C1

Converter 2

S1

iP 1

vT 1

iP 2
D2

L1
17 V

P V3

42 V

vT 2

DC
Pow

48 V

Sys

L2

Battery

D1

C2

S2

Figure 2: Proposed Topology


The proposed topology consists of a Buck Converter (Converter 1) connected in cascade with a Boost Converter
(Converter 2).
1. The three photovoltaic solar power panels are connected in series providing 51 V DC. This voltage is stiffed
using C1 .
2. L1 is used to stiff the current iP 1
3. S1 and D1 were selected to populate the Single Pole Double Throw switch for this converter. Using the voltage
and current conventions discussed in class, when S1 is ON it conducts the POSITIVE current iP 1 and D1
blocks NEGATIVE voltage (vT 1 ). When S1 is OFF it blocks POSITIVE voltage (vT 1 ) and D1 conducts the
positive current iP 1 .
4. The 51 V DC provided from the three photovoltaic solar power panels is lowered or bucked to 42 V to supply
the Battery.
5. For Converter 2, current iP 2 is negative (entering the pole) and the throw voltage vT 2 is positive, so S2 and
D2 were chosen appropriate as shown in Figure 2. Also, L2 is used to stiff the current iP 2 and C2 is used to
stiff vT 2 .
6. When S2 is ON it conducts the POSITIVE current iP 2 and D2 blocks NEGATIVE voltage (vT 2 ). When S2
is OFF it blocks POSITIVE voltage (vT 2 ) and D2 conducts the positive current iP 2 .
7. The 42 V DC from the Battery are now elevated or boosted to the 48 V DC that the satellites DC Power
System requires.
8. In the absence of the 51 V DC provided by the three solar panels, the 42 V with Converter 2 should be able
to the required load voltage of 48 V for a fixed amount of time, depending on the Batterys specifications.

Problem 3
An electric wheelchair with a maximum speed of 5 mph is powered using a 12 V lead-acid battery. Propulsion
is provided using a 12 V permanent magnet DC motor whose speed is proportional to voltage and torque is
proportional to current in both magnitude and direction. Develop a power converter topology, incorporating ideal
switches to drive the motor from the battery to control the motor in forward and reverse directions while providing
both driving and braking torques. Populate the ideal switch(es) with MOSFETs and diodes.

S1

D1
iP

Lead
Acid
Battery

DC Motor

S2

D2

Figure 3: Proposed Topology


In this topology proposed in Figure 3 we should be able to provide positive and negative current to the DC
Motor as follows.
1. When iP is positive and S1 is closed S2 blocks positive voltage and D2 blocks negative voltage. No voltage
difference is applied to D1 since S1 is closed.
2. When iP is positive and S1 is open, now D2 conducts the current iP and no Voltage difference is applied to
S2 so it blocks zero voltage. D1 blocks negative voltage and S1 blocks positive voltage.
3. These two cases repeat for a negative iP , but S2 is the switch that goes on and off and in consequence D1 . S1
remains open on both cases, in one it blocks positive voltage and on the other, since D1 would be conducting
the current, no voltage difference would be applied to its terminals.
These conditions combined with voltage reducing would provide speed control as well as driving and breaking
torques. Giving an output voltage with an average of 0 (zero), breaking torque is applied. Positive current would
give torque in one direction and negative on the other direction (forward and reverse). The magnitude of the current
can be controlled with the magnitude of the output voltage that can from 0 to 12 V.
Another well known topology will be shown where its more evident the polarity change that is applied to the
DC Motor. Its known as a Bridge Converter.

S1

D1

DC Motor

S3

D3

S4

D4

DS
Lead
Acid
Battery
DS
S2

D2

Figure 4: Bridge Converter


It is the same converter seen in class but now with its SPDT switches populated with MOSFETs and Diodes.
1. S1 and S4 must close at the same time to allow positive current to flow through the DC Motor. At the same
time S2 and S3 must be open to avoid short circuits.
3

2. In a similar fashion S2 and S3 must close at the same time to allow negative current to flow through the DC
Motor. S1 and S4 must remain open in this period to avoid short circuits.
3. If S1 and S3 are closed and S2 and S4 are open, no voltage is applied to the DC Motor causing it to break.
Snubber diodes DS will allow discharge of the DC Motor while this happens.
4. A similar case would happen if S2 and S4 were closed and S1 and S3 were open.
5. Its important to keep in mind that S3 and S4 must never close at the same time because it would cause a
short circuit. The same applies to S1 and S2 .

Problem 4
Develop a problem of your own for each of the following categories of converters:
1. One quadrant switch converter
2. Two quadrant switch converter
3. Four quadrant switch converter

4.1 One quadrant switch converter


A USB memory stick requires 5V DC and a 100 mA current to operate. Design a topology assuming that the laptop
is powered by a 11.1V rechargeable Li-ion Battery.

4.2 Two quadrant switch converter


The power supply from a laptop must give an output of 19.5V and 4.62 A of direct current. Design a topology to
provide this voltage assuming the input voltage is 127V AC @ 60 Hz.

4.3 Four quadrant switch converter


A High Voltage network that operates at 230 kV @ 60 Hz plans to connect and interchange power with another
network with the same voltage but with a frequency of 50 Hz. Design a converter that can handle AC on the input
and provide also AC in the output but with different frequency.