You are on page 1of 26

Air Conditioning System

Air conditioning for people is the control of temperature, humidity, air movement and air
cleanliness, heat radiation sometimes [e.g. by chilled ceiling ], normally with mechanical means,
to achieve human thermal comfort

Air Conditioning System Design involve

1. Selecting a proper system
2. Sizing the system

These are done in the following steps

1. Calculate cooling load

a) Sensible heat load due to

1. heat gain through walls, etc

2. solar radiation
3. heat emission of occupants
4. infiltration of outside air
5. heat emission of lights and machinery

b) Latent heat load due to

1. moisture given off by occupants

2. infiltration of outside air
3. moisture from process machinery

2. Select air treatment process

3. Determinate air quantities

4. Layout and sizing of ducts

5. Determinate capacity of air treating units

6. Determinate refrigerator and boiler duties

7. Determinate pump and fan duties

Air conditioning systems can be categorized according to the means by which the controllable
cooling is accomplished in the conditioned space. They are further segregated to accomplish
specific purposes by special equipment arrangement.

In selecting a suitable air conditioning system for a particular application, consideration should
also given to the following:-

- System constraints : Cooling load, Zoning requirements, Heating and ventilation
- Architectural Constraints : Size and appearance of terminal devices, acceptable noise
level, Space available to house equipment and its location relative to the conditioned
space, acceptability of components obtruding into the conditioned space
- Financial Constraints : Capital cost, Operating cost, Maintenance cost

There are four basic system categories:

1 Central chilled water air conditioning systems - All Air Systems

1.1 Single zone
1.2 Reheat
1.3 Variable Air Volume
1.4 Dual Duct
1.5 Multizone

2 Central chilled water air conditioning systems - Air-and Water Systems

2.1 Induction
2.2 Fan Coil
2.3 Two-pipe
2.4 Three-pipe

3 Central chilled water air conditioning systems - All Water Systems, including cooling
towers which can also be applied to systems 1, 2 above

3.1 Fan-coil units

3.2 Central chilled water air conditioning system with fan coils and other devices
3.3 Water cooling tower

4 Direct expansion Systems [i.e. direct expansion of refrigerant, without the chilled water
cooling medium ]
4.1 Window air conditioners
4.2 Unitary and Rooftop Air Conditioners
4.3 Split type and package air conditioning systems
4.4 Heat pumps

1. Central chilled water air conditioning systems - All Air Systems

An all-air system provides complete sensible and latent cooling capacity in the cold air
supplied by the system. Heating can be accomplished by the same air stream, either in
the central system or at a particular zone. All-air systems can be classified into 2

-Single duct systems

-Dual duct systems

System Advantages

1. The central plant is located in unoccupied areas, hence facilitating operating and
maintenance, noise control and choice of suitable equipment.

2. No piping, electrical wiring and filters are located inside the conditioned space.

3. Allows the use of the greatest numbers of potential cooling seasons house with
outside air in place of mechanical refrigeration.

4. Seasonal changeover is simple and readily adaptable to climatic control.

5. Gives a wide choice of zonability, flexibility, and humidity control under all
operating conditions.

6. Heat recovery system may be readily incorporated.

7. Allows good design flexibility for optimum air distribution, draft control, and
local requirements.

8. Well suited to applications requiring unusual exhaust makeup.

9. Infringes least on perimeter floor space.

10. Adapts to winter humidification.

System Disadvantages

1. Requires additional duct clearance which can reduce the usable floor space.

2. Air-balancing is difficult and requires great care.

3. Accessibility to terminals demands close cooperation between architectural,

mechanical and structural engineers.

Distribution systems have a number of important components:
1. The Air Handling Unit is a cabinet that includes or houses the central furnace, air
conditioner, or heat pump and the plenum and blower assembly that forces air through
the ductwork.
2. The Supply Ductwork carries air from the air handler to the rooms in a house. Typically
each room has at least one supply duct and larger rooms may have several.
3. The Return Ductwork carries air from the conditioned space back to the air handler.
Most houses have only one or two main return ducts located in a central area.
4. Supply and Return Plenums are boxes made of duct board, metal, drywall or wood that
distribute air to individual ducts or registers.
5. The Ductwork is a branching network of round or rectangular tubes generally
constructed of sheet metal, fiberglass board, or a flexible plastic and wire composite
material located within the walls, floors, and ceilings. The three most common types of
duct material used in home construction are metal, fiberglass duct board, and flex-duct.
6. Flex-duct is installed between the register and plenum box, or plenum box and air
handler, usually in a single, continuous piece. While flex-duct has fewer seams, the inner
lining and outer insulated covering can tear or be pinched closed. Also longer flex-duct
runs can restrict the flow of air; proper design and installation is very important.
7. Both metal and fiberglass duct board are rigid and installed in pieces. Fiberglass duct
board, like flex-duct, is made of an insulation material. Ducts are built of sections of the
duct board. The seams in the duct board should be carefully sealed with mastic or high
quality duct tape.
8. Rectangular metal duct, especially the kind used for plenums and larger trunk runs, is
often insulated on the inside with fiberglass duct liner. If it is not insulated on the inside,
metal ducts should be insulated on the outside using a fiberglass batt with an attached
metal foil vapor retarder. The insulation should be at least two inches thick, and the vapor
barrier installed on the outside of the insulation facing away from the duct.
The seams in the insulation are usually stapled together around the duct and then taped.
All of the seams should be sealed before insulation is installed. All return and supply
ducts located outside the conditioned space, in attics, crawlspaces, or basements, for
example, should be sealed and insulated.
9. Ductwork Joints join pieces of ductwork.
10. Elbows are manufactured pieces of duct used for turns.
11. Boots connect ductwork to registers.
12. Registers and Grilles are the coverings for duct openings into the conditioned

Fig 1b. shows the control of chilled cooling coil and fan

These are components will bring about:-

-Heat balance: The amount of heat extracted out of the air conditioned room (by the cooling
system, exhaust air systems, building leakage, must be equal to the amount of heat generated
inside the room (by human being, electrical appliances, etc.) and transferred into the room (by
conduction through the building envelope, radiation via the glass, hot air leakage into the
room through gaps in windows, doors, fresh air introduced into the room, etc.) i.e. Total kW
going into room = Total kW going out of the room.
-Air balance: The mass flow rate of the air going into the room = The mass flow rate of air
going out of the room. Fresh air coming into the room : 2.5 l/s per person, non-smoking, 5 l/s
per person for smoking accommodation, good indoor air quality (IAQ) is important.

1.1 Single Zone System

The all-air single-zone air conditioning system is the basic central system which can
supply a constant air volume or a variable air volume at low, medium or high pressure.
Normally, the equipment is located outside the conditioned space but can also be installed
within the conditioned are if conditions permit. Typical applications include:-

-Space with uniform loads

-Small spaces requiring precision control
-Multiple systems for large areas

Fig 1.1

1.2 Reheat System

The reheat system is a modification of the single-zone system. It provides:-

-Zone or space control for areas of unequal loading.

-Heating or cooling of perimeter areas with different exposures.
-Close control for process or comfort applications. In the reheat system, heat is added as
a secondary process to either preconditioned primary air or recirculated room air. The
heating medium can be hot water, steam or electricity.

Advantages : Closely controls space conditions

Disadvantages : Expensive to operate

Fig 1.2

1.3 Variable Air Volume System

The variable air volume system compensates for varying cooling loads by regulating the
volume of cooling air supplied through a single duct.

(a) Simple Variable Air Volume (VAV)

Simple VAV systems typically cools only and have no requirement for
simultaneous heating and cooling in various zones.

Fig 1.3a

(b) Variable Air Volume – Reheat

It integrates heating at or near the terminal units. It is applied to systems
requiring full heating and cooling flexibility in interior and exterior zones.
Heating is turned on when the air flow reaches a predetermined minimum.

Fig 1.3b


a) When combined with a perimeter heating system, it offers inexpensive

temperature control for multiple zoning and a high degree of simultaneous
heating-cooling flexibility.

b) Capital cost is lower since diversities of loads from lights, occupancy, solar and
equipment of as much as 30% are permitted.

c) Virtually self-balancing.

d) It is easy and inexpensive to subdivide into new zones and to handle increased
loads with new tenancy or usage if load does not exceed the original design
simultaneous peak.

e) No zoning is required in central equipment.

f) Lower operating cost because

(i) Fans run long hours at reduced volume
(ii) Refrigeration, heating and pumping matches diversity of loads
(iii) Unoccupied areas may be fully cut-off

g) Reduced noise level when the system is running at off-peak loads.

h) Allows simultaneous heating and cooling without seasonal changeover.

1.4 Dual Duct System

The dual-duct system employs two air ducts to supply cold air and warm air to a mixing
terminal unit which proportions the cold and warm air in response to a thermostat located
in the conditioned space. The system is well suited to provide temperature control for
individual spaces or zones.

Fig 1.4

Advantages (in addition to those common to all air systems)

1. Systems with terminal volume regulation are self-balancing.

2. Zoning of central equipment is not required.

3. Instant temperature response is achieved because of simultaneous availability of

cold and warm air at each terminal unit.

4. No seasonal changeover is necessary.


1. Initial cost is usually higher than other VAV systems.

2. Does not operate as economically as other VAV systems.

1.5 Multi-zone System

The multi-zone system applies to a relatively small number of zones served by a single,
central air-handling unit. Different zone requirements are met by mixing cold and warm
air through zone dampers at the central air handler in response to zone thermostats.

Fig. 1.5

Advantages (in addition to those common to all-air systems)

1. Easy to balance.

2. Air transmission and distribution is simplified.

2. Central chilled water A/C systems - Air-and-Water Systems

An air-and-water system is one in which both air and water (cooled or heated in central
plant room) are distributed to room terminals to perform cooling or heating function. The
air side is comprised of central air conditioning equipment, a duct distribution system,
and a room terminal. The supply air, called primary air, usually has a constant volume
which is determined by:

1. The ventilation requirement.

2. The required sensible cooling capacity at maximum cooling load.

3. The maximum sensible cooling capacity following changeover to the winter

cycle when chilled water is no longer circulated to the room terminal.

The water side consists of a pump and piping to convey water to heat transfer surfaces
within each conditioned space. The water is commonly cooled by the introduction of
chilled water from the primary cooling system and is refereed to as the secondary water
loop. Individual room temperature control is by regulation of either the water flow
through it or the air flow over it.

2.1 Induction System

The inducting system is designed for use in perimeter rooms of multi-storey, multi-room
building that may have reversing sensible heat characteristics. It is especially adapted to
handle the loads of skyscrapers with minimum space requirements for mechanical

In the induction system, ducted primary air is fed into a small plenum chamber where its
pressure is reduced by means of a suitable damper to the level required at the nozzles.
The plenum is acoustically treated to attenuate part of the noise generated in the duct
system and in the unit. The primary air is then delivered through nozzles as high velocity
jets which induce secondary air from the room and over the secondary coil.

Induction units are usually installed at a perimeter wall under a window. Some hotel
rooms are provide with induction coils.

Fig. 2.1

The induction system employs air ducts to convey treated air with higher pressure levels
and of the right adjustable quantities to various cooling/heating coil units. These coil
units are built in with induction nozzles such that when high pressure air goes through
them, air room the room is inducted across the fin surface of the water-circulated coils.
This inducted air stream is either cooled or heated after passing through the coil, and then
mixed with the air coming out of the nozzle. The right quantity of high pressure air is

adjusted automatically in response to a thermostat located in the conditioned space. The
system is well suited to provide temperature control for individual spaces or zones.


1. Individual room temperature control.

2. Separate sources of heating and cooling for each space available as needed to
satisfy a wide range of load variations.

3. Low distribution system space required as a result of reducing the air supply by
use of secondary water for cooling and high velocity air design.

4. Reduced size of central air handling equipment.

5. Dehumidification & filtration performed in a central plant room remote from

conditioned space.

6. Outdoor air supply is positive.

7. Minimal maintenance required for individual induction units which have no

moving parts, i.e. no fans

8. Air duct dimensions are smaller than VAV systems or CAV systems

9. Zoning of central equipment is not required.

10. No fan comes together with the coil, making the conditioned space quiet.


1. Limited to perimeter space.

2. The primary air supply is usually constant with no provision for shutoff.

3. Not applicable to spaces with high exhaust requirement.

4. Higher energy consumption due to increased power required by the primary

pressure drop in the terminal units.

5. Controls tend to be more complex than for all-air systems.

6. A low chilled water temperature is needed to control space humidity adequately.

7. Seasonal changeover is necessary.

8. Initial cost is usually higher than fan coil systems.

2.2 Fan-Coil System

The fan-coil system is similar to the inducting system, with the induction unit replaced by
the fan-coil unit. The basic elements of the fan-coil units are a finned-tube coil and a fan
section. The fan section recirculates air continuously from within the perimeter space
through the coil which is supplied with either hot or chilled water. Auxiliary air may be
delivered to the conditioned space for dehumidification and ventilation purposes.

Fig 2.2a

Fig 2.2b

Advantages (in addition to those for induction units)

1. System can be operated with the primary air turned off.

2. The air velocity is fairly constant regardless of the primary air quantity.

3. Primary air can either connect directly to fan-coil unit or supply the room

2.3` Two-pipe Systems

In two-pipe systems for induction coil, fan-coil or radiant panel systems, the water
distribution circuit consists of one supply and one return pipe. The secondary water is
cold in summer and intermediate seasons and warm in winter. The primary air quantity is
fixed and the primary air temperature is varied in reverse proportion to outside
temperature to provide the necessary amount of heating during summer and intermediate
seasons. During winter cycle operation, the primary air is preheated and supplied at
about 10°C to provide a source of cooling.

Fig 2.3


1. Usually less expensive to install than four pipe systems.


1. Less capable of handling widely varying loads or providing widely varying

choice of room temperature than four-pipe systems.

2. Cumbersome to change over.

3. More costly to operate than four-pipe systems.

2.4 ` Three-pipe Systems

Three-pipe systems for induction coil, fan-coil and radiant panel systems have three pipes
to each terminal unit, a cold water pipe, a warm water pipe and a common return. These
systems are rarely used today because they consume excess energy.

Fig 2.4

2.5` Four pipe Systems

Four-pipe systems have a cold water supply, cold water return, warm water supply and
warm water return. The terminal unit usually has two independent secondary water coils,
one served by hot water, the other by cold water. The primary air is cold and remains at
the same temperature year-round.

Fig 2.5a

Fig 2.5b

Advantages (as compared with two-pipe systems)

1. More flexible and adaptable to widely varying loads.

2. Simpler to operate (No summer-winter changeover and primary air reheat


3. Higher efficiency due to lower operating costs.


1. Higher initial cost.

3. Central chilled water air conditioning systems - All-water Systems

All-water systems are those with fan-coil, unit ventilator, or valance type room terminals
with unconditioned ventilation air supplied by an opening through the wall or by
infiltration. Cooling and dehumidification is provided by circulating chilled water
through a finned coil in the unit. Heating is provided by supplying hot water through the
same or a separate coil.

System Advantages

1. Flexible and readily adaptable to many building module requirements.

2. Provides individual room control.

System Disadvantages

1. No positive ventilation is provided unless wall openings are used.

2. No humidification is provided.

3. Seasonal change over is required.

4. Maintenance and service work has to be done in the occupied areas.

3.1 Fan-coil units

A fan-coil unit basically consists of a finned tube coil, a filter and a fan section. The fan
recirculates air continuously from the space through the coil, which contains either hot or
chilled water.

Fig 3.1a

Fig 3.1b

3.2 Central chilled water air conditioning system with fan coils and other devices

In this system, the following circuits do not mix with each other, and heat exchange is
performed via various metal surfaces:-

-the chilled water circuit – nominally 12 deg .C entering water chiller, 7 deg. C leaving
chiller, i.e. nominally 7 deg .C entering fan coil units [FCU] /air handling unit[AHU]
/primary handling unit[PAU]- for treating fresh air, 12 deg. C leaving these devices –
chilled water pumps move water through this circuit – CH. W. F- chilled water flow ;
- CH. W. R- chilled water flow return.

-refrigerant circuit – refrigerant compressors move the refrigerant through this circuit
-cooling water circuit - nominally 35 deg .C entering water cooling tower , 30 deg. C
leaving cooling tower, i.e. nominally 30 deg .C entering condenser of chiller assembly,
35 deg. C leaving condenser of chiller assembly – Condenser water pumps move
condenser water through this circuit

3.2 Water cooling tower

A water cooling tower cools the water entering it from 35 deg. C to 30 deg. C nominally.
The warmer water is sprayed inside the cooling tower admidst the stream of an upward
air flow produced by the fan at the top of the tower. The air stream going out carries
water particles. These water particles should not be taken into buildings, to avoid
Legionnaire disease to occur. Condenser water pumps move condenser water through this
circuit. Water in this circuit has to be treated. There is water loss to atmosphere in using
cooling towers

4. Direct expansion Systems

[i.e. direct expansion of refrigerant, without the chilled water cooling medium ]

4.1 Direct expansion Systems [i.e. direct expansion of refrigerant , without the chilled
water cooling medium ] -Window Air Conditioners

A window unit is an encased assembly designed primarily for mounting in a window,

through a wall, or as a console. These units are designed for comfort cooling and to
provide delivery of conditioned air to a room either without ducts or with very short
ducts. They include a prime source of refrigeration, dehumidification, means for
circulating and cleaning air, and may also include means for ventilating, and/or
exhausting and heating.

Fig 4.1a

Fig 4.1b

Fig 4.1c

Fig 4.1d

In a window air conditioner, the indoor unit and outdoor unit of the split system is put
into one single unit. The refrigerant compressor now is part of the machine locating at the
window area. Since this compressor gives out most noise, among other components, the

window unit will make the room acoustically inferior to other air conditioning systems.
Fresh air exchange for the room can be provided by :-
-(1) setting the “ventilator” switch of the window air conditioner to “open” position
-(2) installing a ventilating extract fan in the room to extract room air to outside –
caution- not to oversize the fan
-(3) naturally leaking of air in and out of the room

4.2 Direct expansion Systems [i.e. direct expansion of refrigerant , without the chilled water
cooling medium ] -Unitary and Rooftop Air Conditioners

Fig 4.2

• These are commonly air-cooled units.

• The units are the floor – standing type designed for installation outdoors or on the

• A supply air duct and a return air duct are to be connected to the cooling unit.

• Application: For general air conditioning of stores, residences, schools, offices,

etc. particularly suitable for single flat building with extensive floor areas.

• A remote controller should be installed on an easily accessible wall,

incorporating a temperature selection switch & thermostat.

4.3 Direct expansion Systems [i.e. direct expansion of refrigerant , without the chilled water
cooling medium ] - Split type and package air conditioning systems

• package air conditioning systems - Factory assembled (floor mounting) package,

placed indoor, containing direct expansion coil, controls, fan and compressor,
with the condenser remotely placed outdoor ; commonly used in Malaysia for
restaurants, café shops, factories, etc


• Fig 4.3a

• Fig 4.3b

split air conditioning systems - Factory assembled (ceiling mounting) indoor unit of fan
and direct expansion coil, controls, with the condensing unit [i.e. compressor and
condensing coil ] remotely placed outdoor

4.3.1. The basic concepts of a split air conditioning system [ Small system]

a. A split air conditioning system consists of an indoor unit and an outdoor unit
connected together by refrigerant pipes. The refrigerant circulates between these 2 units
[i.e. 2 parts of the system] to take heat from indoor to outdoor, by firstly having heat of
the room air absorbed into the refrigerant via an air-refrigerant heat exchanger which is
the indoor unit, then conveying the heat to the outdoor unit for disposal.

b. The indoor unit comprises a finned coil and a fan which is driven by an electric
motor. Refrigerant is circulated inside the finned coil to the outside unit and then back to
the indoor unit. The fan pulls or pushes air around the outer surfaces of the coil inside the
indoor unit, taking warm air from the room and injecting cooled air into the room in
summer. The refrigerant has no direct contact with air. So the heat of the room air is
transferred into the refrigerant in the indoor unit. Inside the coil, refrigerant evaporates,
and the indoor unit is therefore commonly called an evaporator by the engineers. The
indoor unit is wall-mount or ceiling mount unit.

c. The outdoor unit

The refrigerant then takes the heat from the indoor unit to the outdoor unit, which is
commonly called a condensing unit. [ i.e. a unit for refrigerant to condense] In an air-
cooled outdoor unit, heat exchange occurs in the same way as the indoor unit. However,
the outdoor unit contains a refrigerant compressor, in addition to having a finned coil and
motor-driven fan. The refrigerant does not have direct contact with air. Refrigerant going
through this outdoor coil is losing its energy across the metal surface of the coil to the
atmosphere, as outside air is drawn pass the surface of the finned coil by the fan. By
passing through this finned coil, the outside air is heated up, by normally about 5 deg.
rise in temperature. The outside air passing through the outdoor unit is an open circuit.
That is, air path is not recirculated.

The refrigerant compressor, which usually is installed inside the outdoor unit, is
pumping the refrigerant through the indoor unit and the outdoor unit. [ In the split
system therefore the compressor – generating noise when pumping refrigerant- is
located outdoor, inside the outdoor unit] The refrigerant takes up energy as it goes
through the indoor unit, and rejects energy to the outside atmosphere as it goes
through the outdoor unit. Energy rejected is the sum of the energy taken indoor
plus the energy consumed by the compressor in pumping the refrigerant through
the refrigerant circuit. This refrigerant circuit is a closed circuit, and if pipe joints
are well installed , no leakage of refrigerant should occur.

d. Air circuits for the indoor environment. The air passing through the indoor unit is
cooled, say to 15 deg. C, before recirculated back to the room. A large part of air heated
up in the room, say to 25 deg. [ Note : Design room temperature is 23 deg C in general
for human comfort ] then goes back to the indoor unit for cooling. A small part of room
air is extracted to outside by an exhaust fan, with an amount of fresh outside air coming

in to replenish this amount exhausted. Now this make up air can be supplied by
connecting a small air duct from an external opening to the indoor unit. See diagram

e. Single splits and multiple splits

-single split – one indoor unit is connected to one outdoor unit by insulated copper
refrigerant pipes
-multiple splits– several indoor units are connected to one outdoor unit by insulated
copper refrigerant pipes

f. Energy saving options

If heat rejection in the outdoor unit is taken care by cooling water , there would be a
saving of 30% of energy. In urban areas,. cooling water can be provided by fresh water
cooling towers. The water cooling tower can be placed at the top of a building, with a
pump drawing water from it to circulate the condensing water to the outdoor units of the
split system. After taking up heat from the outdoor unit, with an increase of unusually 5
deg. C, condensing water is circulated back to the cooling tower for cooling again. Of
course the finned coil f the outdoor unit has to be replaced by a water –cooled condenser.

g. A variant of split air conditioning system - A packaged system

If the refrigerant compressor of the outdoor unit of the split air conditioning system is
installed together with the indoor unit, it is called a packaged system. The compressor
now is put indoor, making the machine less quite than the split system. However this
will allow a larger cooling capacity for the indoor unit, which then will be floor-mount
usually. A packaged system is needed if the outdoor unit, now called a condenser, is put
on the roof top, with the indoor unit a few floors below.

h. Direct expansion air conditioning equipments consist of factory-matched refrigeration

cycle components for inclusion is air-conditioning systems which are field designed to
meet the needs of the user. The following list of variations is indicative of the vast
number of types of unitary air conditioners presently available.

1. Arrangement: single or split.

2. Heat rejection: air-cooled, evaporative condenser, water-cooled.
3. Unit exterior: decorative for in-space applications, functional for equipment
room and ducts, weatherproofed for outdoors.
4. Placement: floor standing, wall-mounted, ceiling suspended, roof-mounted.
5. Indoor air: vertical upflow, counterflow, horizontal, 90° and 180° degree
turns, with fan, or for use with forced air furnace.
6. Locations: Indoor - Exposed with plenums or furred in ductwork; concealed
in closets, attic, crawl spaces, basements, garages or equipment
Wall - Built-in, window, transom.

Outdoor -Rooftop, wall-mounted or on ground.

4.4 Heat Pumps

The term ‘heat pump’, as applied to a year-round air conditioning system, commonly
denotes a system in which refrigeration equipment is used in such a manner that heat is
taken from a heat source and given up to the conditioned space when heating service is
wanted, and is removed from the space and discharged to a heat sink when cooling and
dehumidification are desired.

Heat pumps for air conditioning service may be classified according to

a) type of heat source and sink.

b) Heating and cooling distribution fluid.

c) Type of thermodynamic cycle.

d) Type of building structure.

e) Size and configuration.

4.3.1 Air-to-Air Heat Pumps

The air-to-air heat pump is the most common type of heat pumps. It is particularly
suitable for factory-built unitary heat pumps, and has been widely used for residential and
commercial application. Air is used as the heat source and heat sink. Extended surface,
forced convection heat transfer coils are normally employed to transfer the heat between
the air and the refrigerant. When selecting or designing an air-source heat pup, two
factors in particular must be taken into consideration:

1) the variation in temperature experienced in a given locality.

2) the formation of frost.

4.3.2 Water-source Heat Pumps

The water-source heat pump uses water and air as the heat source or heat sink depending
on the mode of operation. When cooling, water is used as the heat sink, and the heat
pump operates as a water-cooled air conditioner. When heating, water is used as the heat
source and the equipment operates as a water chiller.

The water-source heat pump is suitable for many types of multi-room buildings,
including office buildings, hotels, schools, apartment buildings, manufacturing facilities
and hospitals.


1. Affords opportunity for energy conservation by recovering heat from interior

zones and/or waste heat and by storing excess heat from daytime cooling for
night time heating.

2. No wall openings required.

3. Longer expected life than air-cooled heat pumps.

4. Lower noise level because condenser fans are eliminated.

5. Energy for the heat pumps can be metered directly to each tenant.

6. Total life cycle cost frequently compares favourably to central systems when
considering relative installed cost, operating costs, and system life.


1. Space required for boiler, heat exchanger, pumps and heat rejector.

2. Higher initial cost than for most other multiple-packaged unit systems.

3. Reduced air flow can cause the heat pump to cycle cutout. Good filter
maintenance is imperative.