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Aim:

1. To measure dimensions of a given regular body (metal block with a pit


hole) using a pair of Vernier Calipers
2. Find its volume and verify the results by water displacement method.
3. determine the density of given metal block
Apparatus
A pair of Vernier Calliprs, given regular body rectangular metallic block,
with cylindrical pit hole in it.

Vernier Callipers

.
M

= Main scale.

= Vernier scale

= Positon fixing screw

P, Q

= Upper ends jaws used to measure the internal dimensions of


the hollow objects

C, D

= lower ends are used to measure the lengths or diameters of


objects that are gripped between them.
The jaw PC lies along the zero end of the main scale and is
fixed at right angles to the scale.
Q D moves alongwith the vernier scale, called a movable jaw.

= Tail strip, used to measure the depths of hollow objects

Theory
Vernier Callipers: It is a device used to measure accurately up to 1/10th of a
millimetre. It was designed by a French Mathematician Pierre Vernier, and
hence the instrument is named Vernier after the name of its inventor.
Vernier Campers comprises of two scales, viz., the vernier scale V and
main scale S. The main scale S is fixed but the vernier scale, which is also
called auxiliary scale, is movable. The vernier scale slides along the main
scale as shown.
The divisions of auxiliary scale V are usually a little smaller in size than the
smallest division on the main scale S.
Principle of a Vernier and Least Count
Suppose
S = the size of one main scale division and
V = the size of one vernier scale division units.
m = the length interval of m vernier divisions
Let the length interval of m vernier divisions is equal to the length interval of
(m 1) main scale divisions. In other words, in vernier divisions coincide
with (in 1) main scale divisions.
Symbolically,
(ml)S
=
mV
or
mSS
=
mV
or
m(SV)
=
S
or
(SV)
=
S/m
or

(S V) =

the size of the smallest main scale division


the total number of divisions on the vernier scale

The quantity within the bracket, i:e., (S-V) represents the difference
between the size of the smallest division on the main scale and the size of
one vernier division.
This quantity (S-V) is called vernier constant, abbreviated as V.C. The V.C.
of an instrument always remains constant and tells us about the smallest
length that can be accurately measured with the instrument. The smallest
value of a physical quantity which can be measured (accurately) with an
instrument is called the least count (LC.) of the measuring instrument.

Principle of Vernier

Reading a vernier.
4th division of vernier scale coincides with a division on main scale.
Total reading (TR)

= Main scale reading(MR) + vernier reading(VR)


= 3.3 cm + 4 x 0.01 cm
= 3.34 cm

Example.
Let vernier scale contains 10 equal divisions. These 10 divisions (each of
length V units) coincide with 9 equal divisions (each of the length S units) of
the main scale. The length of one small division on the main scale is 1 mm,
i:e S = 1mm
.

Reading a Vernier
Suppose, the
positions of the main scale and vernier scale as shown. First of all, we read
the position of the zero of the vernier on the main scale. As is quite clear,
the zero position of the vernier lies between 3.3 cm and 3.4 cm. We can
see that x cannot be directly read on the main scale as this length is smaller
than the smallest division on the main scale.

Thus in order to obtain the vernier reading, V.R = VSD x V.C.


and Total reading (T.R.)

T.R. = M.R. + V.R.


T.R. = M.R. + VSD x V.C.
.

Zero error of the Vernier Callipers

Determination of Zero Error


Due to wear and tear of the jaws and due to some manufacturing defect,
the zero marks of the main scale and vernier scale may not be in the same
straight line when the jaws are made to touch each other. It gives rise to an
error called zero error. Zero error can be positive or negative.
The zero error is positive when the zero mark of the vernier scale lies
towards the right side of the zero of the main scale when jaws C and D are
made to touch each other.
When the zero mark of the vernier scale lies towards the left side of the
zero of the main scale, when jaws C and D are in contact with each other,
Corrected reading = observed reading zero error with its proper sign.

Next find out which division on the vernier scale exactly coincides with
some division of the main scale. As shown 4th division of the vernier scale
coincides with some division of the main scale. Therefore, the value of
length of x will be given by the relation.

Vernier Callipers. used for measuring dimensions of a metallic block.


Observations
Constants of apparatus
i. Length of the smallest division on the main scale, S = 1 mm.
ii. V.C. = 1/10 mm = 0.1 mm = 0.01 cm
iii. Zero error = ______ cm
I

Observation table for the dimensions of object

Length (l)
Serial
No.

Main scale
reading
(M)
(in cm)

1
2
3
4
5

1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8

No. of the
Vernier
division
coinciding
(n)
9
4
2
7
4

V Scale
reading
y=n*
(VC)
(in cm)
0.09
0.04
0.02
0.07
0.04

Observed
length (I)
(M + y)

Corrected
reading
+ (-e)

(in cm)

(in cm)

1.89
1.84
1.82
1.87
1.84

1.85

Determination of the Length of an Object


1. Bring the movable jaw QD in close contact with the fixed jaw PC
and determine the zero error. Record the zero error. In case there is
no zero error, this too should be recorded as nil.
2. The object whose length is to be measured is placed between the
jaws C and D.
3. The jaws are made to grip the object gently without any undue
pressure between the jaws.
4. Lock the vernier scale to the main scale with the help of screw S.
5. Note the position of the zero mark of the vernier scale V on the main
scale. Record the main scale reading just before the zero mark of
the vernier scale.
6. Note that number of vernier division which coincides with some
division of the main scale. However, the coinciding number is to be
counted from the zero end of the vernier.
7. It gives the observed reading. To obtain the correct reading, the
zero error with its proper sign is subtracted from the observed
reading.

II Observation table for the dimensions of object (contd..)


Breadth (b)
Serial
No.

Main scale
reading
(M)

1
2
3
4
5
Height (h)
1
2
3
4
5

(in cm)

No. of the
Vernier
division
coinciding
(n)

1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8

2
8
5
3
3

Observed
length (I)
(M + y)

Corrected
reading
+ (-e)

(in cm)

(in cm)

(in cm)
0.02
0.08
0.05
0.03
0.03

1.82
1.88
1.85
1.83
1.83

8
7
7
6
6

0.08
0.07
0.07
0.06
0.06

1.88
1.87
1.87
1.86
1.86

2
8
9
4
6

0.02
0.08
0.09
0.04
0.06

0.72
0.58
0.79
0.64
0.76

1.84

1.85 cm

Mean corrected Breadth (b)

1.84 cm

Mean corrected Height (h)

1.86 cm

Mean corrected Internal


diameter (D)

0.75 cm

Mean corrected Depth (d)

1..10 cm

Volume of Cuboid (V1)

L * B * H = 8.16 cm3

Volume of cylindrical pit (V2)

D2 h/ 4 = 0.25 cm3

Total Volume (V)

V1 - V2

= 7.91 cm3

Maximum Permissible Error


1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8

Internal diameter (D)


1
0.7
2
0.5
3
0.7
4
0.6
5
0.7
Depth (d)
1
2
3
4
5

V Scale
reading
y=n*
(VC)

Mean corrected Length (l)

Volume (V) = L * B * H

1.86

V
V

L + B + H
L
B
H

V
V

0.01 + 0.01 + 0.01


L
B
H

= V*

0.01 + 0.01 + 0.01


L
B
H

0.75
=

1.1
1.0
1.1
1.0
1.0

1
5
8
8
9

0.01
0.05
0.08
0.08
0.09

1.11
1.05
1.18
1.08
1.09

1.10
III Verification of volume by water displacement method

Calculations

Final level
of water
Initial level
of water

Dimensions

in cm

1
2
3
4
5

Length (l)
Breadth (b)
Height (h)
Internal diameter (D)
Depth (d)

1.85
1.84
1.86
0.75
1.10

2. Hence the effective volume of metal block calculated to 5.83 0.1 cm3
The volume is verified on the basis of water displacement method using
measuring jar is observed to be 8 1 cm3
3. Density of given metal block (aluminum) comes out to be .......gm/cm3,
against standard value from table of constants = 2.74 gm/cm3

Measuring
jar

Verification of volume of given metal block by means of water displacement


method
Range of measuring cylinder =
10cc - 100cc
Least count of cylinder
=
1cc
Serial
No.
1
2
3
4

Serial No.

Initial level
(in CC)
90
78
46
26

Mean value of volume displaced

Final level
(in CC)
99
86
53
35

Change in level
(in CC)
9
8
7
9

9+8+7+9
4

=
=

8.25 cc
8cc

Result
1. Dimension of the given metal block as observed by vernier caliper,
comes out to be, as tabulated below

Precautions
1. The vernier constant and zero error should be carefully calculated
and recorded.
2. The object should be gripped firmly between the jaws. However,
undue pressure on jaws must be avoided.
3. While measuring the depth, the edge of the main scale, i.e., end of
strip of callipers should not get out of contact from the peripheral
edge of the calorimeter when the end of the strip N touches the
bottom.
4. While measuring the depth, the strip should be perpendicular to the
bottom surface.
Source of error
1. The jaws may not be exactly at right angles to the main scale.
2. Some error due to parallax is always bound to creep in.
3. The vernier scale may be loosely fitted with the movable jaw.
4. The graduations on the scales may not be evenly marked.
5. The number of vernier division coinciding with the main scale
division may not be properly read.

0
3