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FM Global

Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

3-26
January 2005
Page 1 of 13

FIRE PROTECTION WATER DEMAND


FOR NONSTORAGE SPRINKLERED PROPERTIES

Table of Contents
Page
1.0 SCOPE ................................................................................................................................................... 2
1.1 Changes ............................................................................................................................................ 2
2.0 LOSS PREVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................................................................... 2
2.1 Protection ......................................................................................................................................... 2
2.1.1 System Design ...................................................................................................................... 2
2.1.2 Automatic Sprinklers .............................................................................................................. 2
2.1.3 Automatic Sprinkler System Demand ................................................................................... 3
2.1.4 Hose Stream Demand and Duration ..................................................................................... 3
3.0 SUPPORT FOR RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................................................................. 11
3.1 Loss History ................................................................................................................................... 11
4.0 REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................................... 11
4.1 FM Global ...................................................................................................................................... 11
APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ..................................................................................................... 12
APPENDIX B DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY ..................................................................................... 12

List of Tables
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table

1. Temperature Ratings of Sprinklers ................................................................................................. 2


2. Fire Protection Water Demand for Nonstorage Sprinklered Properties ......................................... 4
2. Fire Protection Water Demand for Nonstorage Sprinklered Properties (Contd.) ............. 5, 6, 7, 8
3. Various Occupancies ...................................................................................................................... 9
4. Various Occupancies ...................................................................................................................... 9
5. Various Occupancies ...................................................................................................................... 9
6. Mobile Homes ................................. .............................................................................................. 9
7. Shielded Areas, Flat Panels ........................................................................................................... 9
8. Plastics .......................................................................................................................................... 10
9. Electronic-Electrical Manufacturing and Assembly ....................................................................... 10
10. Miscellaneous Nonmanufacturing ............................................................................................... 10
11. Minimum Protection Criteria for Non-Storage Areas with High Floor to Ceiling Clearance ........ 10

2005 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in whole or in part, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission of Factory Mutual Insurance Company.

3-26

Fire Protection Water Demand

Page 2

FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

1.0 SCOPE
This FM Global data sheet provides water demand recommendations for automatic sprinklers and hose
streams for buildings with manufacturing, nonmanufacturing and nonstorage occupancies, as described.
A loss prevention data sheet reference section, Section 4.0, is provided for specific occupancies that
require additional recommendations and protection guidelines not specifically outlined in this data sheet.
1.1 Changes
January 2005. Protection criteria has been provided for light, moderately and heavily loaded non-storage
areas with floor to ceiling clearances up to 60 ft (18.3 m). Storage type, storage and building height and
corresponding protection criteria are provided in Table 11.
2.0 LOSS PREVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS
2.1 Protection
2.1.1 System Design
Data Sheet 2-8N, Installation of Sprinkler Systems (NFPA), describes the requirements for the design and
installation of automatic sprinkler systems.
2.1.2 Automatic Sprinklers
2.1.2.1 Type of Automatic Sprinklers
Water demand specifications (density and area) in this data sheet are intended for use with standard 12 in.
(15 mm nominal) or 1732 in. (20 mm nominal) sprinklers. Control Mode Specific Application sprinklers (Data
Sheet 2-7) or Suppression Mode sprinklers (Data Sheet 2-2) may also be suitable for some occupancies
described in this data sheet. Sprinkler systems using control mode specific application and suppression
mode sprinklers are intended for high challenge (typically storage) occupancies. Therefore, the use of
sprinkler systems using control mode specific application or suppression mode sprinklers may not be
economically practical for occupancies addressed in this data sheet.
2.1.2.2 Sprinkler Temperature Rating
The sprinkler temperature ratings in Tables 3 through 10 are described as ordinary, intermediate and high.
Table 1 lists the corresponding temperature ranges for each rating.
Table 1. Temperature Ratings of Sprinklers
Rating
Ordinary
Intermediate
High

Rated Temperature of Sprinkler


135 through 170F (57 through 77C)
175 through 225F (79 through 107C)
250 through 300F (121 through 149C)

2.1.2.3 Quick Response Automatic Sprinklers (QRAS)


2.1.2.3.1 Test data comparing standard response and quick (fast) response control mode 12 in. (15 mm
nominal) or 1732 in. (20 mm nominal) automatic sprinklers indicate that there is no significant difference in
performance for the scenarios for which they were compared and tested. The Approval Guide, a publication
of FM Approvals, lists quick response sprinklers (QRAS) under a section titled Automatic Sprinklers, Quick
Response. Based on the fire test results, FM Approved (see Appendix A) quick response automatic
sprinklers may be used for the occupancies indicated in Table 2 of this data sheet.
2.1.2.3.2 The use of quick response automatic sprinklers is limited to wet systems.
2.1.2.3.3 Do not use QRAS where rapidly spreading fires may occur. Such fires may occur where there are
accumulations of oil, dust, lint or other combustible residue on ceilings, structural members, sprinkler piping,
large machines or hoods.

2005 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

Fire Protection Water Demand


FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

3-26
Page 3

2.1.3 Automatic Sprinkler System Demand


2.1.3.1 General
2..1.3.1.1 Table 2 presents: 1) occupancy descriptions, 2) requirements for water demand, 3) acceptability
of quick response automatic sprinklers, and 4) exceptions to the general occupancy category.
Tables 3 to 10 of this data sheet express fire protection water demand in terms of density and area of demand
and hose stream demand and duration. Sprinkler systems and fire protection water supplies should meet
these water demands.
2.1.3.1.2 The sprinkler demands do not apply to storage except for scattered, limited, low-pile and in-process
storage which may be normal to the occupancy. Storage data sheets should be applied if there is more than
200 ft2 (19 m2) of storage.
2.1.3.2 Modifications to Densities and Areas
2.1.3.2.1 Water Demand Requirements
2.1.3.2.1.1 If fire detectors for an automatic deluge system are located within the area of demand, the total
sprinkler demand should include water for all sprinklers supplied by the deluge system.
2.1.3.2.2 Occupancy Deficiencies
2.1.3.2.2.1 General
2.1.3.2.2.1.1 Protection in Tables 3 to 10 is based on complete sprinkler protection where needed, with no
serious occupancy or protection deficiencies. Major deficiencies in occupancy or protection that could
increase sprinkler demand should be corrected. These deficiencies include poor housekeeping,
accumulations of lint or other combustible dusts, obstructed sprinklers, and dry-pipe systems in certain
hazardous areas. A strong water supply is no substitute for correction of these deficiencies.
2.1.3.2.2.1.2 The area of demand may be increased up to 50% for any occupancy condition of greater than
normal hazard based on field evaluation, but not having major deficiencies. One such condition may be minor
deficiencies in housekeeping.
2.1.3.2.2.2 Flammable Liquids
Flammable liquids found in various nonstorage occupancies, such as fuel in lift trucks, gas/fuel oil in piping,
small quantities of uncartoned flammable liquids in display shelves, or moderate amounts of lubricating oils
usually do not affect the density and area of demand.
2.1.3.2.2.2.1 In locations where the quantity of flammable liquids is less than 70 gal (250 l) protection
requirements for the surrounding occupancy should be applied. Loss prevention data sheets relative to
flammable liquids should be referred to when flammable liquids are encountered. Section 4.0 provides a
reference to data sheets.
2.1.3.2.2.2.2 Lack of confinement and drainage could result in an uncontrolled fire. Refer to Data Sheet 7-83,
Drainage Systems for Flammable Liquids, for flammable liquid drainage recommendations.
2.1.4 Hose Stream Demand and Duration
Water demand duration and hose stream demand estimates are based on analysis of loss experience of
fully sprinklered occupancies.
2.1.4.1 Water demand duration and water demand for hose streams may be increased up to 50%, based
on local occupancy or construction conditions. Examples of such conditions include:
1. Increased water demand duration
a) For areas relatively inaccessible for manual fire fighting.
b) For potentially persistent fires.
c) For lack of drainage in low flash point flammable liquid occupancy. If fuel cannot be flushed out or
extinguished by sprinklers, it may be necessary to wait until it is consumed.

2005 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

3-26

Fire Protection Water Demand

Page 4

FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

2. Increased hose stream demand


a) For areas with shielded fire potential. These could include combustible, concealed spaces in walls,
floor, or ceiling, ducts, etc., and wide shelves or enclosures. In hollow joisted or wood frame construction,
hose stream demand should be increased by 250 gpm (950 l/min).
Table 2. Fire Protection Water Demand for Nonstorage Sprinklered Properties
Occupancy

General Occupancy
Water Demand QRAS*

Exception to the General Occupancy


Description
Water Demand QRAS*

A. Metalworking
occupancies
Occupancies in which a
metal is the basic material
involved in the basic
manufacturing process,
except as noted. No
significant quantities of
plastics present.

Table 4

Yes*

Examples: Machine shops,


foundries, sheet metal
working or metal stamping
or forming, hot or cold
rolling mills, galvanizing
production, cutting and
welding, assembly and
repair of metal products and
auto parking garages.

1. Storage in excess of normal


low-piled, in-process storage.

Applicable
storage data
sheets

2. Painting, oil quenching, rolling


mills with oil flooding systems and
other operations involving large
quantities of flammable liquids.
(This does not include lubricating
and cutting oils normal to most
metal working operations.)

Applicable
flammable liquid
data sheets

3. Operations involving flammable


or combustible hydraulic fluids.

Data Sheet 7-98

4. Vehicle repair garages and


assembly operations where
vehicles are being repaired, tested
or assembled with fuel in tanks.

Table 3

No

5. Highway trailers, trucks,


boxcars, some mobile homes or
similar metal vehicles with
combustible interior with potential
for shielded interior fire. Assembly,
loading or parking.

Table 3

No

6. Engine testing.

Table 3

No

7. Aircraft hangars.

Data Sheet
7-93, 7-93N

8. Aluminum Rolling Mills.

Data Sheet 7-64/


13-28

No

B. Mineral processing
excluding metals
Occupancies in which a
mineral other than metal is
the basic material involved
in the manufacturing
process except as noted.
Examples: glass, pottery,
cement or abrasive
manufacturing, ore treating,
gypsum processing, vitreous
enameling.

Table 4

Yes*

1. Storage in excess of normal low Applicable


pile, in-process storage.
storage data
sheets
2. Operations involving large
quantities of flammable liquids.

Applicable
flammable liquid
data sheets

3. Operations involving flammable


or combustible hydraulic fluids.

Data Sheet 7-98

* Do not use QRAS in areas having accumulations of oil, dust, lint or other combustible residue.

2005 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

No

Fire Protection Water Demand

3-26

FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

Page 5

Table 2. Fire Protection Water Demand for Nonstorage Sprinklered Properties (Contd.)
Occupancy

General Occupancy
Water Demand QRAS*

Exception to the General Occupancy


Description
Water Demand QRAS*

C. Paper processing
including fiberboard
Occupancies in which paper Table 4
or fiberboard is the basic
material involved in the
manufacturing process,
except as noted.

Yes*

1. Storage in excess of normal,


low piled in-process storage.
2. Paper coating and other
operations where large quantities
of flammable liquids are involved.

Examples: Paper mills


(including wood rooms),
paper carton manufacturing,
printing and publishing,
fiberboard manufacturing
and other paper working
operations.

Applicable
storage data
sheets
Applicable
flammable liquid
data sheets

No

3. Operations involving flammable


or combustible hydraulic fluids.

Data Sheet 7-98

4. Paper machine areas.

Table 5

No

5. Printing operations involving inks Table 5


with flashpoints below 110F
(42C) (Flexograph and
rotogravure printing).

No

D. Rubber processing/
manufacturing
Occupancies in which
rubber is the basic material
involved in the
manufacturing process
except as noted.

Table 5

Yes*

Examples: rubber
reclaiming, rubber
compounding, drying,
milling, vulcanizing,
manufacture of tires and
other rubber products.
E. Leather tanning and
leather working
Occupancies in which
leather is the basic material
involved in the
manufacturing process
except as noted.
Examples: leather tanning,
manufacture of leather
shoes and other leather
products.

Table 4

Yes*

1. Storage in excess of normal low Applicable


piled, in-process storage.
storage data
sheet
2. Rubber cementing or other
operations where large quantities
of flammable liquids are involved.

Table 3 or
applicable
flammable liquid
data sheets

3. Operations involving flammable


or combustible hydraulic fluids.

Data Sheet 7-98

No

1. Storage in excess of normal low Applicable


piled, in-process storage.
storage data
sheets
2. Operations where large
quantities of flammable liquids are
involved.

Applicable
flammable liquid
data sheets

3. Operations involving flammable


or combustible hydraulic fluids.

Data Sheet 7-98

4. Operations involving plastic shoe Section G of this


components.
table
* Do not use QRAS in areas having accumulations of oil, dust, lint or other combustible residue.

2005 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

No

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Fire Protection Water Demand

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FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

Table 2. Fire Protection Water Demand for Nonstorage Sprinklered Properties (Contd.)
Occupancy

General Occupancy
Water Demand QRAS*

Exception to the General Occupancy


Description
Water Demand QRAS*

F. Food processing
operations
Occupancies in which food Table 4
for consumption by humans
or animals is manufactured
or processed. It also
includes tobacco processing
and low hazard chemical
operations where no
flammable liquids or gases
are involved, such as ice,
soap making and sugar
refining, except as noted.

Yes*

Examples: Dairy processes,


breweries, wineries, soft
drink packing; grain, cereal
and malt processing;
cornstarch making; coffee,
cocoa and nut grinding and
roasting; bakery and
confectionery making; tea
blending; meat packing; fruit
and vegetable cooking,
canning, freezing, drying
and packing; sugar
processing; gelatin
manufacturing; water
treating.
G. Plastics processing
and molding
Occupancies in which
plastics are the basic
material involved in the
operation except as noted.
Examples: Plastic molding,
cutting and forming;
manufacture of plastic
foams, sheets, rods and
filaments, from resins,
plastics curing and drying;
upholstering with foams.
Manufacturing using plastic
parts.

Table 8

Yes*

1. Storage in excess of normal low Applicable


piled, in-process storage.
storage data
sheets

2. Oil cookers, distilling and other


operations where large quantities
of flammable liquids are involved.

Applicable
flammable liquid
data sheets

3. Operations involving flammable


and combustible hydraulic fluids.

Data Sheet 7-98

No

1. Storage in excess of normal low Applicable


piled, in-process storage.
storage data
sheets
2. Catalytic spraying and other
operations where large quantities
of flammable liquids are involved.

Data Sheet 7-27 No


or applicable
flammable liquid
data sheets

3. Operations involving flammable


or combustible hydraulic fluids.

Data Sheet 7-98

4. Processing where in-process


plastic storage is scant.

Table 5

Yes*

5. Large plastic boat or other


structures obstructing sprinklers.

Table 6

No

* Do not use QRAS in areas having accumulations of oil, dust, lint or other combustible residue.

2005 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

Fire Protection Water Demand

3-26

FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

Page 7

Table 2. Fire Protection Water Demand for Nonstorage Sprinklered Properties (Contd.)
Occupancy

General Occupancy
Water Demand QRAS*

Exception to the General Occupancy


Description
Water Demand QRAS*

H. Mercantile areas
Retail stores and similar
Table 4
ordinary hazard buildings
open to the public except as
noted.

Yes*

Examples: Grocery,
department, clothing,
hardware, drug and similar
retail stores; bowling alleys,
theaters, auditoriums and
display areas.

1. Warehouse stores or
Applicable
wholesale mercantile buildings
storage data
where merchandise is displayed on sheets
racks or shelves typical of those
found in warehouses. Stock rooms
and warehouse areas in retail
stores.
2. Non-storage areas with high
floor to ceiling clearance such as
school and university gymnasiums,
atria in a high rise building, movie
or TV studio

Table 11

No

1. Boiler rooms. [If there is an


exposed fuel tank in the room,
increase the density to 0.25 gpm/
ft2 (10 mm/min) over Table 7 area.]

Table 4

Yes

2. No oil-filled electrical equipment Table 4


or other flammable liquids or gases
such as oil lubrication or cooling
systems.

Yes

I. Power houses, utility


and equipment rooms
Occupancies relating to
Table 5
utilities, such as heat, light
and power generation or
transmission, refrigeration or
compressor rooms, except
as noted.

Yes*

Examples: Engine rooms,


refrigeration and air
compressor rooms, power
and switch gear rooms, air
conditioning equipment
rooms.

3. Telephone switchgear rooms.

Data Sheet 5-14

4. Operations involving flammable


hydraulic oils.

Data Sheet 7-98

5. Generator rooms.

Data Sheet 5-12

1. Operations involving large


quantities of flammable liquids.

Applicable
flammable liquid
data sheets

2. Operations involving flammable


hydraulic oils.

Data Sheet 7-98 No

J. Electronic-electrical
manufacturing and
assembly
Table 9

Yes*

* Do not use QRAS in areas having accumulations of oil, dust, lint or other combustible residue.

2005 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

No

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Fire Protection Water Demand

Page 8

FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

Table 2. Fire Protection Water Demand for Nonstorage Sprinklered Properties (Contd.)
Occupancy

General Occupancy
Water Demand QRAS*

Exception to the General Occupancy


Description
Water Demand QRAS*

K. Miscellaneous
occupancies
Mobile home or modular
building sub-assembly
where finished enclosure is
present and has a
combustible interior.

Table 6

No

Mobile home or modular


Table 7
building sub-assembly
where flat wood wall or floor
panels are present with no
storage beneath.

No

Unsprinklered tables, such


as textile cutting tables
4-6 ft (1.2-1.8 m) wide with
storage beneath.

Table 7

No

Unsprinklered tables, such


as textile cutting tables
greater than 6 ft (1.8 m)
wide with storage beneath.

Table 6

No

Auto parking garages.


L. Miscellaneous
Nonmanufacturing

Table 4

No

Table 10

Yes*

None

Occupancies not involving


storage or manufacturing.
Examples: Apartments, club
rooms, data processing,
drafting, hospitals,
institutional, kitchens,
libraries, offices,
photographic processing
areas, restaurants, schools.

1. Libraries with large


stack rooms.

* Do not use QRAS in areas having accumulations of oil, dust, lint or other combustible residue.

2005 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

Data Sheet 2-8N

Fire Protection Water Demand

3-26

FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

Page 9

Table 3. Various Occupancies


Type of Sprinkler
System

Sprinkler
Temperature Rating
High
Wet
Intermediate
Ordinary
High
Dry
Intermediate
Ordinary
Hose stream demand: 250 gpm (950 l/min). Duration: 60 min.

Density1,
gpm/ft2 (mm/min)

0.25 (10)

Area1 of Demand,
ft2 (m2)
3000 (280)
3500 (330)
4000 (370)
5000 (460)
5500 (510)
6000 (560)

1. See Section 2.1.3.2, Modifications to Densities and Areas.

Table 4. Various Occupancies


Type of Sprinkler
Sprinkler
System
Temperature Rating
Wet
High, intermediate or ordinary
Dry
Hose stream demand: 250 gpm (950 l/min). Duration: 60 min.

Density1,
gpm/ft2 (mm/min)
0.15 (6)

Area1 of Demand,
ft2 (m2)
2500 (230)
3500 (330)

1. See Section 2.1.3.2, Modifications to Densities and Areas.

Table 5. Various Occupancies


Area1 of Demand,
Sprinkler
Density1,
Temperature Rating
gpm/ft2 (mm/min)
ft2 (m2)
High
3000 (280)
Wet
Intermediate
3500 (330)
Ordinary
4000 (370)
0.20 (8)
High
4000 (370)
Dry
Intermediate
4500 (420)
Ordinary
5000 (460)
Where the accumulation of combustible oil, resin, lint or dust deposits is sufficient to produce rapid spreading fire near
ceiling level, the demand area should include the full extent of the deposits.
Hose stream demand: 500 gpm (1900 l/min). Duration: 60 min.
Type of Sprinkler
System

1. See Section 2.1.3.2, Modifications to Densities and Areas.

Table 6. Mobile Homes


Type of Sprinkler
Sprinkler
System
Temperature Rating
Wet
High
Dry
Hose stream demand: 500 gpm (1900 l/min). Duration: 120 min.

Density1,
gpm/ft2 (mm/min)
0.30 (12)

Area1 of Demand,
ft2 (m2)
5000 (460)
8000 (740)

1. See Section 2.1.3.2, Modifications to Densities and Areas.

Table 7. Shielded Areas, Flat Panels


Type of Sprinkler
System

Sprinkler
Temperature Rating
High
Wet
Intermediate
Ordinary
High
Dry
Intermediate
Ordinary
Hose stream demand: 500 gpm (1900 l/min). Duration: 120 min.

Density1,
gpm/ft2 (mm/min)

0.20 (8)

1. See Section 2.1.3.2, Modifications to Densities and Areas.

2005 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

Area1 of Demand,
ft2 (m2)
4000 (370)
5000 (460)
6000 (560)
6000 (560)
7000 (650)
8000 (740)

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FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

Table 8. Plastics
Area1 of Demand,
Type of Sprinkler
Sprinkler
Density1
gpm/ft2 (mm/min)
System
Temperature Rating
ft2 (m2)
Wet
2500 (230)
High, intermediate or ordinary
0.30 (12)
Dry
3500 (330)
Hose stream demand: 500 gpm (1900 l/min). Duration: 60 min.
Where the accumulation of combustible oil, resin, lint or dust deposits is sufficient to produce a rapidly spreading fire
near the ceiling, the area of demand should include the full extent of the deposits.
1. See Section 2.1.3.2, Modifications to Densities and Areas.

Table 9. Electronic-Electrical Manufacturing and Assembly


Type of Sprinkler
Sprinkler
System
Temperature Rating
Wet
High, intermediate or ordinary
Dry
Hose stream demand: 500 gpm (1900 l/min). Duration: 60 min.

Density1
gpm/ft2 (mm/min)
0.20 (8)2

Area1 of Demand,
ft2 (m2)
2500 (230)
3500 (330)

1. See Section 2.1.3.2, Modifications to Densities and Areas.


2. If the amount of plastics used in the process is between 50 ft2 (4.6 m2) and 200 ft2 (19 m2), the density may be increased to as much
as 0.30 gpm/ft2 (12 mm/min).

Table 10. Miscellaneous Nonmanufacturing


Type of Sprinkler
Sprinkler
System
Temperature Rating
Wet or Dry
High, intermediate or ordinary
Hose stream demand: 250 gpm (950 l/min). Duration: 60 min.

Density1,
gpm/ft2 (mm/min)
0.10 (4)

Area1 of Demand,
ft2 (m2)
1500 (140)

1. See Section 2.1.3.2, Modifications to Densities and Areas.

Table 11. Minimum Protection Criteria for Non-Storage Areas with High Floor to Ceiling Clearance
Building
Protection Criteria
Hazard
Height ft (m)
gpm/ft2 (mm/min/m2)
Lightly or Moderately Loaded Areas Up to 35
Wet Pipe Systems
With Ordinary Combustibles
(10.7)
0.15/2500 (6/230)
Dry Pipe Systems
Non-storage Occupancies with fire
0.15/3500 (6/330)
hazards equivalent to in-process
Class 3 commodity no more than 8 ft 35 to 60
Wet Pipe Systems
(2.4m) high or lesser hazard, i.e.,
(10.7 18.3) 0.15/3000 (6/280)
mostly wood, cardboard products and
Dry Pipe Systems
small amounts of plastics.
0.15/4000 (6/370)

Type of Sprinkler to Use and Hose


Demand
Control Mode Density Area Automatic
Sprinklers

Heavily Loaded Areas With or


Without Plastics.

Spacing of K-8.0 (115) sprinklers:


- Not to exceed 130 ft2 (12.1 m2)
- Minimum spacing of 10 ft (3 m)
between sprinklers on a branch line
or between branch lines.

Non-storage occupancies with higher


concentration of combustibles or
shielding of combustibles, where the
fire hazard could approach the
equivalent of 6 ft (1.8 m) high
in-process storage of unexpanded
plastic commodities. Similar to the
first hazard but with the presence of
plastics in upholstery, furnishings,
packaging, stage settings, etc.

Up to 35
(10.7)

Wet Pipe Systems


0.3/2500 (12/230)
Dry Pipe Systems
0.3/3500 (12/330)

Over 35 to
60
(10.7- 18.3)

Wet Pipe Systems


0.45/2500 (18/230)
Dry Pipe Systems
0.45/3500 (18/330)

Quick response ordinary temperature


rated
K-8.0 (115) (non-extended coverage
for densities of
0.3 gpm/ft2 (12 mm/min) or less

Quick response ordinary temperature


rated
K-11.0 (162) (non-extended coverage
with densities greater than 0.3 gpm/ft2
(12 mm/min)
Spacing: 10 ft x 10 ft
(3 m x 3 m)

Note: Non-storage occupancies include, but are not limited to the following. Seating areas in theaters, auditoriums and sports arenas; school
and university gymnasiums. Atria in high-rise buildings: meeting rooms in convention centers and hotels (including those used for exhibits);
movie and TV studios; casinos; large exhibit and concert halls; back-stage of theaters and auditoriums; large (non-aquatic) sports arenas.
Small amounts of plastic could include foam plastic found in the seat cushion of a chair or plastic trim in an exhibit display booth.

2005 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

Fire Protection Water Demand

3-26

FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

Page 11

3.0 SUPPORT FOR RECOMMENDATIONS


3.1 Loss History
The present specifications resulted from detailed studies of loss experience from 1956 to 1965, loss
experience in selected occupancies from 1966 to 1977 and from 1981-1990, and fire test data.
Sprinklered nonmanufacturing occupancy loss data generated between 1956 to 1965 and 1980 to 1989
indicated that 97% of the losses had ten or less sprinklers operate. Of the loss data between 1980-1989,
39% of the losses were office occupancy losses, 94% of which had 5 or less sprinklers operate. In addition
to the loss data, a series of office fire tests were conducted at FM Global Research. These tests indicate
that a density of 0.10 gpm/ft2 (4 mm/min) controlled the fire and prevented flashover.
The loss experience from each time period shows that the most severe fires in certain occupancies or
equipment are flash fires spreading over accumulations of oil, dust, lint, or other combustible residue on
ceilings, structural members, sprinkler piping, large machines, or hoods. A high sprinkler density has little
effect in reducing the area of sprinkler operation in such rapidly spreading fire conditions. Therefore, a density
in a low range, adequate to control the fire as it burns following the initial flash, and a relatively large area
of demand, which should encompass the full extent of the initial flash, are specified. Such occupancies and
equipment and processes could include:
Metalworking: Core ovens, rolling mills, grinding or buffing.
Glass Manufacturing: Forming machines.
Paper Processing: Paper machines, fiberboard dryers, corrugating machines, printing presses.
Rubber Processing: Rubber grinding, buffing, drying, reclaiming.
Leather Processing: Buffing, drying.
Food Processing: Grain, cereal, and sugar processing; cornstarch manufacturing; confectionery making;
bakeries.
Plastic Processing: Grinding or buffing, molding.
4.0 REFERENCES
4.1 FM Global
The following list contains FM Global data sheets that may be helpful in determining specific or additional
protection requirements for situations in certain occupancies listed.
Occupancy:
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data

Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet

1-3, High-Rise Buildings.


1-56, Cleanrooms.
5-14, Telecommunications.
7-1, Fire Protection for Textile Mills.
7-7/17-12, Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities.
7-10, Wood Processing and Woodworking Facilities.
7-11, Belt Conveyors.
7-47, Physical Operations in Chemical Plants.
7-64/13-28, Aluminum Industry.
7-89, Ammonium Nitrate and Mixed Fertilizers Containing Ammonium Nitrate.
7-93, Aircraft Hangars.
7-93N, Aircraft Hangars (NFPA).
7-101, Fire Protection for Steam Turbines and Electric Generators.

Flammable Liquids:
Data Sheet 4-7N, Low Expansion Foam Systems.
Data Sheet 7-14, Fire and Explosion Protection for Flammable Liquid, Flammable Gas,
and Liquefied Flammable Gas Processing Equipment and Supporting Structures.
Data Sheet 7-27, Spray Application of Flammable and Combustible Materials.
Data Sheet 7-32, Flammable Liquid Operations.
Data Sheet 7-41, Heat Treating of Materials Using Oil Quenching and Molten Salt Baths.
Data Sheet 7-80, Organic Peroxides.
Data Sheet 7-83, Drainage Systems for Flammable Liquids.
Data Sheet 7-91, Hydrogen.
2005 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

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FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

Data Sheet 7-98, Hydraulic Fluids.


Data Sheet 7-99/12-19, Heat Transfer By Organic and Synthetic Fluids.
Storage:
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data

Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet

8-3, Rubber Tire Storage.


8-7, Baled Fiber Storage.
8-8, Distilled Spirits Storage.
8-9, Storage of Class 1, 2, 3, 4 and Plastic Commodities.
8-10, Coal and Charcoal Storage.
8-18, Storage of Hanging Garments.
8-21, Roll Paper Storage.
8-22, Storage of Baled Waste Paper.
8-23, Rolled Nonwoven Fabric Storage.
8-24, Idle Pallet Storage.
8-27, Storage of Wood Chips.
8-29, Refrigerated Storage.
8-30, Storage of Carpets.

Sprinklers:
Data Sheet 2-2, Installation Rules for Suppression Mode Automatic Sprinklers.
Data Sheet 2-7, Installation Rules for Sprinkler Systems Using Control Mode Specific Application (CMSA)
Sprinklers.
Data Sheet 2-8N, Installation of Sprinkler Systems (NFPA).
APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS
FM Approved: references to FM Approved in this data sheet means the product and services have satisfied
the criteria for FM Approval. Refer to the Approval Guide, a publication of FM Approvals, for a complete listing
of products and services that are FM Approved.
Density: the amount of water applied by sprinklers over a unit area in a unit time. In English units, it is
expressed in gpm/ft2; in metric units, mm/min (1 gpm/ft2 = 40.74 mm/min).
Area of demand: is a specified area for which a specified sprinkler density is intended to be applied. In English
units it is expressed in ft2; in metric units, m2 (1 ft2 = 0.093 m2).
Sprinkler demand: the amount of water flow required for sprinkler protection. In English units it is expressed
in gpm; in metric units, l/min (1 gpm = 3.79 l/min).
Hose stream demand: the water flow required for hoses (common sizes are 212 in. [60 mm nominal] and
112 in. [40 mm nominal]). In English units it is expressed in gpm; in metric units, l/min.
Total water demand: the water flow required for sprinklers and hose streams. Total water demand is equal
to sprinkler demand plus hose stream demand. In English units it is expressed in gpm; in metric units, l/min.
Duration: the period of time (in minutes) during which the total water demand is required.
APPENDIX B DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY
January 2005. Protection criteria has been provided for light, moderately and heavily loaded non-storage
areas with floor to ceiling clearances up to 60 ft (18.3m). Storage type, storage and building height and
corresponding protection criteria are provided in Table 11.
January 2001. The protection requirements for the spray application of flammable liquids, including catalytic
spraying have been removed from this data sheet and are included in Data Sheet 7-27, Spray Application
of Flammable and Combustible Materials.
The protection requirements for hydraulic equipment using hydraulic fluids have been removed from this
data sheet. The protection requirements are in Data Sheet 7-98, Hydraulic Fluids.
September 2000. This revision of the document was reorganized to provide a consistent format.

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Fire Protection Water Demand

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FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

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October 1992. The following changes were made for this revision:
1. Flammable Liquids
Water demand criteria for flammable liquids in open and closed tanks are not contained in this revision of
Data Sheet 3-26. In the previous revision of this data sheet, the occupancies were titled Flammable Liquids
In Open Tanks and Containers and Flooding Systems and Flammable Liquids in Closed Containers, Except
Drum Storage. Water demand criteria for these occupancies are incorporated with the flammable liquid data
sheets.
2. Woodworking Occupancy
Water demand criteria for the general occupancy, Woodworking, are not in this revision of Data Sheet 3-26.
Data Sheet 7-10, Wood Processing and Woodworking Facilities, has been revised (June 1991). Water
demand information is now included in Data Sheet 7-10.
3. Textile Occupancy
Water demand criteria for the textile occupancy are not in this revision of Data Sheet 3-26. Data Sheet 7-1,
Fire Protection for Textile Mills has been revised. Water demand information is now included in Data
Sheet 7-1.
4. Miscellaneous Occupancies
The section titled Miscellaneous Occupancies is included to provide guidelines for occupancies that are
not found within the specific occupancies.
5. Miscellaneous Nonmanufacturing
The title Miscellaneous Nonmanufacturing is used in place of Light Hazard Occupancy. The new title
better defines the various occupancies involved.
6. Office Occupancies
Guidelines in Data Sheet 3-26 for office occupancy are in Table 2, within the section titled Miscellaneous
Nonmanufacturing. Loss data (see Support for Recommendations) and fire test data indicate that a water
supply capable of providing a density of 0.10 gpm/ft2 (4 mm/min) over an area of 1500 ft2 (140 m2) will provide
adequate protection for an office occupancy.
7. Electronic-Electrical Manufacturing and Assembly
A separate occupancy category for electronic and electrical manufacturing and assembly occupancies has
been added.
8. Plastics Processing
Recent fire tests indicate that ordinary, intermediate or high temperature rated sprinklers over 2500 ft2
(230 m2) (dry system: 3500 ft2 [330 m2]) will provide adequate protection over this occupancy.
9. Quick Response Automatic Sprinklers (QRAS)
This data sheet includes guidance on the use of QRAS. The recommendations are based on the results of
fire tests comparing QRAS and conventional response automatic sprinklers.
10. Title Change
The title change to include Nonstorage better describes the occupancies included within this data sheet.

2005 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.