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European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect European

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ejmflu

B/Fluids journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ejmflu Sound of fluids at low Mach numbers Young J. Moon ∗

Sound of fluids at low Mach numbers

Young J. Moon

Computational Fluid Dynamics and Acoustics Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701, Republic of Korea

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Available online 9 February 2013

Keywords:

Low subsonic flow Turbulent flow noise LES/LPCE hybrid method

a b s t r a c t

The sound of fluid at low Mach number is a special research area that poses diverse applications not only in aerodynamics but also in bio-medical or biological fluids. The related Mach numbers are in the order of O (10 2 ) or even less and therefore the compressibility effects are substantially low but still play an important role in many aspects. A hybrid method of splitting the hydrodynamic field and the acoustic field is of our present interest and attention is given to the linearized perturbed compressible equations (LPCE). In this paper, the linearized perturbed compressible equations are reviewed with some discussion on the acoustic source term, DP /Dt. A few selected applications of aerodynamic noise and bio-fluid sound are demonstrated by the present hybrid method. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The sound of fluids at low Mach numbers is often encountered in many practical aerodynamic applications such as ground trans- portation vehicles, ventilation ducts and jets, etc. A typical flow speed of automobiles, for example, is in the range of 50–100 km / h (or M = 0.04–0.08) and flows are mostly turbulent and at mod- erately high Reynolds numbers. The computation of low-subsonic turbulent flow noise is, however, a difficult task because the noise sources are highly localized in the turbulent boundary layer near the wall or in the wake, while the acoustic wavelengths far exceed the hydrodynamic length scales. In this case, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) employing the full compressible Navier–Stokes equations becomes very difficult and expensive, coping with the fact that a long-time computation is often required to represent the turbulence statistics, i.e. the noise sources. The sound in bio-medical or biological fluids is also in the range of very low Mach numbers. For example, the vocal fold of the hu- man larynx [1], or an insect flapping wings [2] produces the sound by periodically disturbing the flow with body oscillating at the fre- quency range of 50–200 Hz. The associated Mach number can be figured as M = U b /c o = ( L c f )/ c o , where U b is the moving speed of the body, L c the distance of travel, f the oscillating frequency of the body, and c o the speed of sound. For a biological body with length scale of 1–2 cm, the associated Mach numbers are in the range of M = 0.0015–0 .012. For computing sound of fluids at such low Mach numbers, numerical difficulties lie not only in scale disparity between the

Correspondence to: Korea University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 136-701 Seoul, Republic of Korea. E-mail address: yjmoon@korea.ac.kr.

hydrodynamic field and the acoustic field but also in stiffness of the system of the governing equations. In regard to this, a hybrid approach has been sought as an alternative. This hybrid method is based on a hydrodynamic/acoustic splitting technique proposed by Hardin and Pope [3]. The hydrodynamic flow field is solved by the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations, while the acoustic field is computed by the perturbed Euler equations with acoustic source obtained from the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. The idea of splitting the hydrodynamic part and the acoustically perturbed part from the full compressible flow field is, however, not a straightforward task because of the physics coupled between these two fields. It has been found [4,5] that an unstable vortical mode can easily be excited by the non-linear terms in the perturbed momentum equations when the source terms are improperly treated; for example, either lack of physical diffusion or lack of grid resolution of the perturbed vorticity (ω = ∇× u ). Here the prime denotes an instantaneously perturbed quantity from the incompressible state. To avoid such vortical instability, the linearized perturbed compressible equations (LPCE) [5] are formulated by eliminating the terms related to the generation of the perturbed vorticity. The details of the linearized perturbed compressible equations (LPCE) are reviewed in Section 2. In present formulation, a material derivative of the hydrodynamic pressure (DP /Dt) is derived as an acoustic source in the linearized perturbed compressible equations. At low Mach numbers, the material derivative of the hydrodynamic pressure (scaled by itself) in the near field of the incompressible flow is found very closely related to the dilatation rate of the compressible counterpart, because the flow speed relative to the speed of sound is substantially low that any thermal effect during processes is nearly negligible. The near field of the compressible flow computed by the direct numerical simulation and that by the present hybrid method with acoustic source are

0997-7546/$ – see front matter Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Y.J. Moon / European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63

51

examined in Section 3 with discussion on the process of sound generation. In Sections 4 and 5, a few selected applications of aerodynamic noise and bio-fluid sound are demonstrated by the present hybrid method.

2. Computational methodology

2.1. LES/LPCE hybrid formulation

The present LES/LPCE hybrid method is based on a hydro- dynamic/acoustic splitting method [3], in which the total flow variables are decomposed into the incompressible and perturbed compressible variables as,

ρ(x , t ) =

ρ 0 + ρ (x , t )

u(x , t ) =

U (x , t ) + u (x , t )

(1)

p(x , t ) = P (x , t ) + p (x , t ).

The incompressible variables represent hydrodynamic flow field, while acoustic fluctuations and other compressibility effects are resolved by perturbed quantities denoted by ( ). The hydrodynamic turbulent flow field is first solved by incom- pressible LES. The filtered incompressible Navier–Stokes equations are written as,

˜

U j

x j

= 0

ρ 0

˜

U i

t

˜ ˜

x j

( U j )

U i

+ µ 0

x j

˜

U

i

x j

+ ρ 0

˜

P

= −

x i

˜

+

U

j

x i

ρ 0

x j M ij ,

(2)

(3)

where the grid-resolved quantities are denoted by (˜) and the un- known sub-grid tensor M ij is modeled as

M ij =

(4)

Here, is the mean radius of the grid cell (computed as cubic root of its volume), S ij is the strain-rate tensor. After a quasi-periodic stage of hydrodynamic field is attained, the perturbed quantities are computed by the linearized perturbed compressible equations (LPCE) [5]. A set of the linearized perturbed compressible equations is written as,

U i U j

˜ U ˜ j = −2( C s ) 2 | S ˜ | ˜

U

i

S ij .

˜

∂ρ

t

u

t

p

t

+ ( U · ∇ + ρ 0 ( ∇ · u ) =

0

+ ∇ ( u · U ) +

1

ρ

0

p = 0

+ ( U · ∇ )p + γ P (∇ · u ) + (u · ∇ )P = −

DP

Dt .

(5)

(6)

(7)

The left hand side of LPCE represents effects of acoustic wave propagation and refraction in an unsteady, inhomogeneous flow, while the right hand side only contains an acoustic source term, which is projected from the incompressible LES flow solution. It is interesting to note that for low Mach number flows, the total change of the hydrodynamic pressure, DP /Dt is only considered as the explicit noise source term. The filtered incompressible Navier–Stokes equations are solved by an iterative fractional-step method (Poisson equation for pres- sure), whereas the linearized perturbed compressible equations are solved in a time-marching fashion. To avoid excessive numeri- cal dissipations and dispersions errors, the governing equations are

spatially discretized with a sixth-order compact finite difference scheme [6] and integrated in time by a four-stage Runge–Kutta method. For example, the first and second derivatives with respect to x are implicitly calculated with a five-point stencil, i.e.

α

α

1 f

i 1 + f

i

′′

i 1 + f i

2 f

′′

+ α 1 f

i+ 1

+

′′

α 2 f

i + 1

f i+ 1 f i1

= a 1

2 x

+ b 1

f i+ 2 f i2

4 x

f i+ 1 2f i + f i1

= a 2

+ b 2

x 2

f i+ 2 2f i + f i2

4 x 2

,

(8)

(9)

where α 1 = 1 /3, α 2 = 2 /11, a 1 = 14 /9, b 1 = 1/9 , a 2 = 12/11, and b 2 = 3 /11. Practically, when using a high order scheme to the stretched meshes, numerical instability is encountered due to numerical truncations or failure of capturing high wave-number phenomena. Thus, a tenth-order spatial filtering (cut-off wave number, k x 2.9) proposed by Gaitonde et al. [7] is applied every iteration to suppress the high frequency errors that might be caused by grid non-uniformity. For the far-field boundary condition, an energy transfer and annihilation (ETA) boundary condition [8] with buffer zone is used for eliminating any reflection of the out-going waves. The ETA boundary condition is easily facilitated with a rapid grid stretching in a buffer-zone and the spatial filtering which is damping out waves shorter than grid spacing. So, if a buffer-zone has grid spacing larger than out-going acoustic wave length, the wave can be successfully absorbed by the ETA boundary condition.

2.2. Linearized perturbed compressible equations (LPCE)

The compressibly perturbed field was originally calculated by

the perturbed compressible equations (PCE), obtained by subtract- ing the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations from the full com- pressible Navier–Stokes equations. The perturbed compressible equations [4] are written as

∂ρ

t

u

t

p

t

+ (u⃗ · ∇ + ρ( ∇ ·

u

) = 0

+ (u⃗ · ∇ ) u + ( u · ∇ ) U + ρ p + ρ

1

ρ

D

U

1

f vis

Dt

ρ

=

+ ( u⃗ · ∇ ) p + γ p (∇ · u ) + (u · ∇ )P

(10)

(11)

DP

= − Dt

+ 1) Φ − ∇ · q

(12)

is the perturbed viscous force

vector, Φ and qrepresent thermal viscous dissipation and heat flux vector, respectively. At low Mach numbers, the perturbed viscous forces can be approximated as

f

where D /Dt = ∂/∂ t + (

U

· ∇ ),

vis

f

vis, i

= µ 0

x j u

x j

u

j

2

u

k

i

x i

3

x

k

+

δ

ij

(13)

by assuming viscosity µ

pressed as

= µ 0 (= constant) , and Φ and qare ex-

Φ

= µ

u j + u k

x k

x j

2

u l

3

x l

x j γ p q j = −k

ρ

.

δ jk u x k k

,

(14)

(15)

Since perturbed variables are residuals of the total variables with incompressible components subtracted, they represent not only the acoustic fluctuations but also the other compressibility

52

Y.J. Moon / European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63

effects such as coupling effects between the hydrodynamic flow and the perturbed field. One particular component of the perturbed variables related to the consistency of the acoustic solution is perturbed vorticity (ω = ∇ × u ), a ‘non-radiating’ vortical component generated in the PCE system. This fluctuating quantity becomes unstable for various reasons and generates unwanted errors in acoustic calculations [4]. Here, attention is given to identify the terms associated with production and diffusion of the perturbed vorticity in its transport processes. The perturbed vorticity transport equations, derived by taking a curl on Eq. (11) with mathematical identities and the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations employed, are written as

 ∂ t  ω⃗ ′  + ( u⃗ · ∇ )  ω⃗
t  ω⃗ ′
 + ( u⃗ · ∇ )  ω⃗ ′
ρ
ρ
1
1
[ ( Ω · ∇ )u⃗ +
=
(ω⃗ ′ · ∇ ) u⃗ ] − ρ [ (u⃗ ′ · ∇ )
+
Ω ( ∇ · u⃗ ′ ) ]
ρ
 


I-a
I-b
II-a
II-b


I
II
1
1

+

ρ 3 (ρ × ∇ p ) + ρ ∇ ×

F

vis





,

III IV

(16)

where

In Eq. (16), one can clearly see that perturbed vorticity is generated and diffused by source terms on the right hand side through: (i) coupling effects between the hydrodynamic vorticity and the perturbed velocities (terms I and II), (ii) entropy field (term III), and (iii) viscous force (term IV). Term I is related to the three-dimensional effect of vortex stretching: stretching of hydrodynamic vorticity by perturbed velocities (term I-a) and

stretching of perturbed vorticity by total velocities (term I-b). Term

II represents a more direct coupling between the hydrodynamic

vorticity and the perturbed velocities. The convective effect of hydrodynamic vorticity by perturbed velocity is represented by term II-a, whereas term II-b is related to the dilatation rate effect. Term III is not so important for low Mach number, non thermally- driven flows and term IV only provides physical diffusion to the perturbed vorticity. In the previous study [5], it was shown that term II-a is the most dominant source term that generates perturbed vorticity and term II-b is considered less important at low Mach numbers.

It is interesting to note that perturbed vorticity is not a ‘radi- ating’ acoustic quantity but a ‘convecting’ hydrodynamic vortical. Its physical meaning represents modification of the hydrodynamic vorticity through interactions between the hydrodynamic vortic-

ity and the velocity fluctuations. At low Mach numbers, the mag- nitude of the perturbed vorticity is small but, if falsely resolved,

it becomes self-excited and grows to affect the acoustic solution.

Since term II-a is related to the gradient of hydrodynamic vorticity , perturbed vorticity usually appears at the edge of the hydro- dynamic vorticity and its length scale is similar to (or sometimes smaller than) the hydrodynamic vortical scale. Therefore, acoustic grid resolution must carefully be handled in calculation.

By neglecting the second-order, non-linear terms such as ( u · ∇ )u , the original PCE, Eqs. (10)–(12) can be re-written as

F vis

= (

vis ρ ν 0 2

f

U )/ρ .

∂ρ

+ ( U · ∇ + ρ 0 (∇ · u ) = 0

t

u

+ ∇ (u · U ) + 1 p
t

ρ

0

= −( × u ) × U ) ρ

ρ

0

D

U

Dt

+ 1

ρ

f vis

0

(17)

(18)

p

t

+ ( U · ∇ ) p + γ P (∇ · u ) + ( u · ∇ )P

DP

= − Dt

+ 1) Φ − ∇ · q

(19)

with mathematical identity, (

U · ∇ )u + (u · ∇ ) U = ∇ (u · U ) +

( × u ) + ( ω ×

U ). Since the left hand side of Eq. (18) does not

generate any vortical component, only the right hand side terms are responsible for the generation of perturbed vorticity. The first

two terms,

terms (terms I and II) in the perturbed vorticity transport equations and the last two terms are associated with the entropy and viscous effects (terms III and IV). To show the Mach number dependence of each term, the per- turbed momentum and energy equations, Eqs. (18)(19) are com-

U correspond to the dominant source

× u and ω × ⃗

bined into a convective wave equation, neglecting the viscous and

thermal effect terms and then a Mach number scaling is conducted.

The hydrodynamic variables are scaled by their free stream values:

ρ 0 ρ , U U , and P ρ U . For the perturbed variables,

a Mach number expansion approach [9,10] is employed; for exam-

ple, u = U + Mu (1) + M 2 u (2) + M 3 u (3) + · · · . So, the perturbed velocity, u Mu (1 ) and from the linear acoustics, p c )u

and ρ / c )u . The time is also scaled by l /c , where l is a

reference length scale and c is the speed of sound. The resulting convective wave equation is written as

2

 

p

2 p

U

t 2

+ ( U · ∇ ) p +

t

t

·

  

 
 



O( M )

 

O( M 2 )

γ P

 

ρ 0 2 p + u t

· ∇ P + (u · ∇ ) P t

+ γ P ( ∇ · u ) ∂ t



O(M 3 )

γ P ∇ · { ( ω × U ) + ∇ · ( × u ) } +

ρ

ρ

0

D

U

Dt

+ ∇ (u · U )



O(M 4 )

= −

t

DP

Dt



O(M )

.

(20)

Each term has the order of ρ c u (1 ) /l 2 (or ρ c U /l 2 ) multi- plied by a Mach number to the power denoted in Eq. (20). It is clearly shown that the terms responsible for the generation of per- turbed vorticity (i.e. the right hand side in Eq. (18)) have a Mach number dependency O(M 4 ) , whereas the leading-order terms are O(M ). It is also interesting to note that the only explicit acoustic source term, DP / Dt on the right hand side of Eq. (20) has the same order as the first term in the convective wave equation,

2 p /∂ t 2 . Now, it is evident that the first two terms on the right hand side of Eq. (18) are not so responsible for sound generation at low Mach numbers and thereby one can exclude these to suppress the generation of perturbed vorticity. The third term related to a momentum correction to the perturbed mass can also be neglected at low Mach numbers. The last term (perturbed viscous force) is not necessary any more because there is no generation and diffusion of perturbed vorticity. With the thermal terms neglected in the perturbed energy equation, a set of linearized perturbed compressible equations (LPCE) now read Eqs. (5)–(7). Because a curl of the linearized perturbed momentum equa- tions, Eq. (6) yields

3

3

∂ ω

t

= 0,

(21)

Y.J. Moon / European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63

53

European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63 53 Fig. 1. Instantaneous 1 ρ D ρ

Fig. 1.

Instantaneous 1

ρ

Dρ

Dt

contours (compressible N–S eqs., Re D = 150, M = 0.2).

(compressible N–S eqs., Re D = 150 , M = 0 . 2). Fig. 2. Instantaneous

Fig. 2.

Instantaneous

1

P

DP

Dt

contours (incompressible N–S eqs., Re D = 150).

the LPCE prevents any further changes (generation, convection, and decaying) of perturbed vorticity in time. In fact, the perturbed vorticity could generate self-excited errors, if ω is not properly resolved with the acoustic grid. Hence, the evolution of the perturbed vorticity is pre-suppressed in LPCE, deliberating the fact that the perturbed vorticity has little effects on noise generation, particularly at low Mach numbers. For hybrid methods [5,11], this is an important property that ensures consistent, grid-independent acoustic solutions. The derivation of LPCE with detailed discussion on the characteristics of the perturbed vorticity can be found in Ref. [5].

3. Acoustic source

The aerodynamic noise at low Mach numbers is often domi- nated by vortex interactions with solid walls. When a vortex in- teracts with the solid body, its strength changes in time and as a consequence, the circulation in the neighboring fluids is altered and so are the local streamlines. The time-varying streamlines are directly connected to the pressure change in time and space and therefore a so-called vortex sound is produced. A generation of dipole tone from a circular cylinder is, for ex- ample, due to an alternating formation of vortex behind the cylin- der and therefore circulation around the cylinder oscillates in time. When vortex is formed at the upper side, a negative circulation around the cylinder lowers the stagnation point at the frontal face of the cylinder with creation of positive lift force. At a certain spe-

cific time interval, the flow field and lift force are at the opposite phase when the vortex is formed at the lower side.

) contours in the near

field during one period of dipole sound generated from the cylinder at Re D = 150 and M = 0.2 is shown in Fig. 1. This is computed by solving the full compressible Navier–Stokes equations. The upper and lower four figures represent respectively the processes of expansion and compression over the upper surface of the cylinder. It is clearly noticeable that the rate of change of the dilatation rate acts as a sound source in the near field, and Fig. 3 shows the generation and propagation of the sound wave generated in the near field by the snapshots of the two-level contours of the dilatation rate, positive (red) and negative (blue). The same physics of sound generation can also be represented by the rate of change of the hydrodynamic pressure experienced

by a material element of the fluid (i.e.

by solving the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations for the

same flow condition (Re D = 150). The instantaneous

), which is computed

The instantaneous dilatation rate (

1

D

ρ

ρ Dt

1

P

DP

Dt

1

P

DP

Dt

contours

in the near field during one period of dipole sound generation are shown in Fig. 2. One can note a good resemblance between these two total derivatives of the density and the hydrodynamic pressure, both scaled by itself and plotted with the same contour

levels. It is also clearly noticeable in Fig. 4 that the rate of change

of

acts as a sound source in the near field. The propagation of

the sound produced by the rate of change of

is well shown by

the instantaneous pressure fluctuation contours, computed by the linearized perturbed compressible equations with acoustic source,

DP /Dt.

1

P

DP

Dt

1

P

DP

Dt

54

Y.J. Moon / European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63

/ European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63 Fig. 3. figure legend, the reader is

Fig. 3.

figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

Instantaneous 1

ρ

Dρ

Dt

contours; positive (red) and negative (blue) (compressible N–S eqs., Re D = 150, M = 0 .2). (For interpretation of the references to colour in this

2). (For interpretation of the references to colour in this Fig. 4. Re D = 150

Fig. 4.

Re D = 150, M = 0.2).

Instantaneous pressure fluctuation p contours (linearized perturbed compressible eqs. (LPCE) with acoustic source DP /Dt from the incompressible N–S eqs.,

If one is asked where and when the sound is originated, it can be estimated at an instant by a point where the dilatation rate and both the linear strain rates in x and y directions are null. During the repeated process of expansion and compression, the rate of change of the linear strain rates are coupled with that of the dilatation rate, via conservation of mass. The condition of null for the dilatation rate and the linear strain rates represents an inflection point, i.e. a material point (or line in 3D) that takes only translation in flow motions and therefore, pressure or density changes most rapidly during a transient development of the flow field.

The locations satisfying the null condition (i.e.

1

ρ

D

ρ

Dt

=

0,

= 0, and v y = 0) are marked in circles on the snapshots of

the dilatation rate contours in Fig. 3. In the top four figures, one can note a process of expansion along the trace of the marked circles on the right, whereas the emission of the compression wave can be traced along those on the left. The bottom four figures also show the formation and emission of the sound wave at opposite phase along the traces of the marked circles. The same process of sound generation can also be traced in Fig. 4, which shows the instantaneous pressure fluctuations p perturbed from the incompressible hydrodynamic pressure P, computed by the linearized perturbed compressible equations with acoustic source, DP /Dt acquired from the incompressible Navier–Stokes solutions. The marked circles found in compressible flow solutions can be found in the incompressible flow solutions with condition

satisfying

the sound generation process of expansion and compression as well as their emissions can also be well traced in the figures.

u

x

1

P

DP

Dt

=

0, U

x

=

0, and V

y

= 0. Along the marked circles,

4. Applications on aerodynamic noise

4.1. Trailing-edge noise

This case considers a flow (U o = 20 m/s) over the flat plate at zero angle of attack (experiment described in Ref. [12]). The plate has a chord length of c = 10 cm with thickness h = 0.03c and span L = 3c. The Reynolds number of the flow based on the chord length, Re c is 1.3 × 10 5 and the Mach number, M is 0.06. This free stream Mach number is considerably low, as far as capturing the

compressibility effects are concerned.

For incompressible large eddy simulation, an o-type grid is em- ployed to treat four rounded-corners of the leading and trailing edges. The computational domain is set to r = 10c and a spanwise extension is chosen as 3% of the plate chord with flow periodicity assumed at the side boundaries. The computational domain con-

sists of 657 × 201 × 21 (about 2.8 millions) points in x , y, and z and is divided into 32 blocks for parallel computations. A minimal grid

size for x and y is 0.0005c (or x

grid spacing of 0.0015c (or z + 15) is used in the spanwise di- rection. The computation is conducted with t = 1 × 10 6 s for 400,000 iterations (or 0.4 s). The boundary layer is triggered approximately at x = 0.2c by the leading-edge separation bubble and becomes turbulent down- stream towards the trailing-edge of the plate. It was found that the thickness of the boundary layer, δ is 1.12h at x = −0.2c from the trailing-edge and the turbulent Reynolds number, Re τ is approxi- mately 230. The iso-surfaces of the second invariant property of the velocity gradients (Q = 200) clearly show the noise sources near

min + 3), while a uniform

+ min = y

Y.J. Moon / European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63

55

European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63 55 Fig. 5. Instantaneous Q iso-surfaces around the

Fig. 5.

Instantaneous Q iso-surfaces around the trailing-edge (left); wall pressure fluctuations along the plate (right).

(left); wall pressure fluctuations along the plate (right). Fig. 6. Instantaneous DP / Dt contours on

Fig. 6.

Instantaneous DP /Dt contours on the acoustic (top) and hydrodynamic (bottom) grids (left); instantaneous pressure fluctuation field (right).

the trailing-edge (see Fig. 5(left)), i.e. convecting turbulent eddies within the boundary layer and the vortex shedding at the trailing- edge. Fig. 5(right) also shows the wall pressure fluctuations moni- tored along the plate from A to I (A: x = 0.2c, I: the rear face of the trailing-edge). One can notice the leading-edge separation, convec- tion of turbulent eddies, and the vortex shedding at the trailing- edge in the time history of the wall pressure fluctuations. The flat plate self-noise is now computed by the linearized perturbed compressible equations. Fig. 6(left) shows the noise sources near the trailing-edge, i.e. the acoustic source, DP /Dt computed by LES interpolated onto the acoustic grid using bilinear interpolation. The acoustic grid (347 × 247) with minimal normal spacing at the wall five times larger than that of the hydrodynamic grid allows the same time step used in LES (i.e. t = 1 × 10 6 s) for the LPCE computation. An instantaneous pressure fluctuation field ( p = (P + p )

(P + p )) around the plate in Fig. 6(right) clearly shows the ra- diation of the dipole tone generated by the vortex shedding at the trailing-edge. The acoustic wavelength of the tone is close to λ/c = 2.5, corresponding to the frequency St = 0.2 at M = 0 .06. Besides, the figure shows other high frequency waves being em- anated from the trailing-edge as well as from the shear-layer reat- tachment point. There will also be the waves diffracted at the leading and trailing-edge of the plate, and all of these will con- tribute in part to the far-field noise measured at the microphone location. In order to predict the far-field SPL spectrum, a computational procedure described in Ref. [13] is followed. Since the microphone is located at 20c from the plate, the 2D acoustic field computed by the LPCE for the domain of 10c needs to be extrapolated to 20c and also to be corrected for 3D spectral pressure. Finally, the 3D spectral pressure radiated by the simulated span h needs to be corrected for the total span 100h (or 3c) employed in the experiment. This procedure requires information on the spanwise

This procedure requires information on the spanwise Fig. 7. Sound pressure level spectrum at r =

Fig. 7. Sound pressure level spectrum at r = 20c vertically away from the mid- chord of the plate; computation (blue), experiment (black). (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

coherence function of the surface pressure, γ (z ) in the most dominant noise source region, i.e. the trailing-edge of the plate. The spanwise coherence length of the surface pressure, L c (ω) is then calculated by a Gaussian law, γ (z ) = exp{− (z /L c (ω)) 2 } . The largest value of L c (ω) is approximately estimated as 7h at St = 0.2 but in most cases, L c (ω) is below h [13]. The far-field SPL spectrum for the actual span 3c is now compared in Fig. 7 with the measured data of the Ecole Centrale de Lyon [14]. The numerical results are signal-processed by applying a hanning window function with the sampling frequency of 50 kHz,

56

Y.J. Moon / European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63

/ European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63 Fig. 8. ′ Directivity patterns of p

Fig. 8.

Directivity patterns of p rms

the block length of 0.04 s, and the number of averages of 10. The agreement is found excellent, especially for the match of the tonal peak (peak level deviation is 2.7 dB), its spectral broadening, as well as the other broadband part. This comparison indicates that not only the noise sources but also their turbulence statistics are well captured by the incompressible LES, while the propagation, scattering, and diffraction of the acoustic waves around the plate are accurately computed by the LPCE. The directivity patterns at r = 20c are also presented in Fig. 8 for various Strouhal numbers (or ratios of the plate chord length to the acoustic wavelength). At vortex shedding frequency (St = 0.2 or c = 0.4), it represents a clear dipole. As the Strouhal number increases or the acoustic wavelength becomes shorter than the chord length, the waves diffracted at the leading and trailing-edge of the plate are well captured; the directivity pattern changes to a finger-like shape. It is worth noting that the first two plots of St = 0.2 and 0.4 are consistent with what is expected from analytical modeling based on zero-thickness assumption, as shown for instance in the study of Roger and Moreau [15]. At higher Strouhal numbers, the directivity pattern departs from the analytical results, essentially by showing a secondary beaming around 45° and 30° at St = 1 and 2, respectively. This could be attributed to the plate thickness.

4.2. Porous trailing-edge

A porous treatment to the same flat plate for reduction of trailing-edge noise is demonstrated, imposing a porous surface

at r = 20c for different Strouhal numbers.

with porosity of ϵ = 0.25 to a small, selected area of the trailing- edge (2h upstream from the edge, with a plenum inside, see Fig. 9), where the vortex shedding and eddy scattering produce a dipole sound. The porous surface has a thickness of δ = 0 .001c and is characterized by non-dimensionalized permeability, K = KU 0 /ϵν c = 1 × 10 3 for case 1, 1 × 10 2 for case 2, and 1 × 10 1 for case 3. The porous flow is often modeled by employing the Er- gun equation,

− ∇ ⟨ P s = µ U s + ρ 0

K

C E

K

U s U s

(22)

where C E denotes a dimensionless Ergun coefficient or Forch- heimer constant, which is dependent on porosity and pore struc- ture. The Forchheimer constant is, however, set to zero in the present computation because the pore-level Reynolds number based on the permeability and the transpiration velocity averaged in time and space, Re K = U t K 1/ 2 turns out to be less than unity. First, an xt plot of the wall pressure fluctuations is examined along the plate and in the wake region. As shown in Fig. 10(left), the solid trailing-edge exhibits distinct, regularly-spaced pressure marks ( tU o /h 5) near the trailing-edge which corresponds to the vortex shedding frequency at St 0 .2. This is obviously the noise source for producing the tone. With the porous surface (K = 1 × 10 2 ), however, the strips of pressure marks are broken into pieces (see Fig. 10(right)) by local blowing and suction of the flow in the plenum. The influence of the porous surface is more clearly explained in Fig. 11 that the correlation length of the pressure fluctuations

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57

European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63 57 Fig. 9. Depiction of porous surface (left);

Fig. 9.

Depiction of porous surface (left); schematic of turbulent flow over a flat plate with porous trailing-edge (plenum inside) (right).

plate with porous trailing-edge (plenum inside) (right). Fig. 10. Comparison of x – t plot of

Fig. 10.

Comparison of xt plot of wall pressure fluctuation at the mid-span near the trailing-edge; solid (left) and porous (right).

near the trailing-edge; solid (left) and porous (right). Fig. 11. Spatial correlation R p p contours

Fig. 11.

Spatial correlation R pp contours of wall pressure fluctuations (left); R pp along the mid-span (right).

is substantially reduced in the streamwise direction, i.e. a signif- icant reduction in the size of the dipole noise source. The spatial correlation of the wall pressure fluctuations, R pp along the mid- span of the plate clearly indicates that the streamwise correla- tion length does not exceed 0 .01c, i.e. 1% of the chord length with K = 1 × 10 2 . The uncorrelated pressure field is resulted from the transpiration velocity along the porous surface, non-uniformly distributed in both the streamwise and the spanwise directions. As discussed before, the far-field acoustics for the actual span is directly related to the spanwise coherence length of the noise source. Fig. 12 shows the spectrally-decomposed spanwise coher- ence lengths L c at x = −0.02c. The most prominent reduction of

the spanwise coherence length is observed at St = 0.21, while at other frequencies no noticeable difference or even slightly in- creased coherence lengths are found with the porous treatment. Thereby, the tonal noise at St = 0 .21 is expected to be much re- duced compared to that of the solid case. Finally, the PSD spectra of the far-field noise are compared in Fig. 13 for different permeabilities. It is found that for K = 1 × 10 2 , the dipole peak at St = 0.21 is significantly reduced by 13 dB, while there is no significant noise reduction with others. This is due to the fact that with large permeability (e.g. K = 1 × 10 1 ), the fluid flow in porous medium encounters almost negligible resistance and therefore the plate with porous trailing-edge is

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Y.J. Moon / European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63

/ European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63 Fig. 12. porous trailing-edges. Spanwise coherence length

Fig. 12.

porous trailing-edges.

Spanwise coherence length of wall pressure fluctuations for solid and

coherence length of wall pressure fluctuations for solid and Fig. 13. different permeabilities. Comparison of PSD

Fig. 13.

different permeabilities.

Comparison of PSD spectra at r

= 20c for porous trailing-edges with

regarded as a plate with a shortened chord. In contrast, with small permeability (e.g. K = 1 × 10 3 ), the porous surface behaves like a solid surface so that the wall pressure fluctuations as well as the PSD of the far-field acoustics are almost identical to those for the solid case. Only within a certain range of permeability (e.g. K = 1 × 10 2 ), however, the porous surface provides a mechanism of non-uniformly distributed transpiration velocity along the lower, upper, and back-end surfaces and subsequently allows pressure fluctuations to be modified along the porous surface.

5. Applications on bio-fluid sound

5.1. Human larynx

brass calibration cube on the left side of the plate, glass prism, and high-speed camera on the right. The surface grid evolution of the human hemilarynx measured during one period of mo- tion is monotonically interpolated in time and space: raw geom-

etry(left); first interpolation(middle); second interpolation(right) (see Fig. 15).

A 2D computational domain of flow and sound is configured

to include the hemilarynx vibrating at a fundamental frequency of 140 Hz within a vocal track, 28 times of the vocal fold length (L = 12 mm). Fig. 16 shows the moving grids at four different time intervals in one period of the vocal fold motion at the mid-plane. The first two figures are at the closure phase of the vocal fold, whereas the last two are at the opening. The case considered here corresponds to a flow rate of 0.0004 m 3 / s with pressure difference of 2.88 kPa, and in terms of non-dimensional quantities, the corresponding flow condition is at Re L = 840 and M = 3.1 × 10 3 . Fig. 17 shows the instantaneous vorticity contours of the flow within the vocal track at the same time intervals as the moving grids. A periodic disturbance introduced by the mucosal wave mo- tion of the hemilarynx continuously makes the gap flow pulsating at 140 Hz and as a result, the vortices are shed downstream the vo- cal track with a specific scale. The corresponding acoustic field is computed with the same moving grids by the linearized perturbed compressible equations with acoustic source acquired from the INS solutions. As shown in Fig. 18, the top five figures are the instan- taneous acoustic fields at closure of the vocal fold, whereas the re- maining figures are at the opening phase. One can clearly note that the sound waves generated in the human hemilarynx are very sub- tle to the vocal fold motion at each stage. The computed 2D acoustics monitord at 11L upstream the hemilarynx are compared in Fig. 19(left) with the experimental data measured at the University Hospital Erlangen. Considering the fact that the computed sound wave is a 2D solution, it depicts well the basic characteristics of the sound produced by the human hemilarynx. The main vocal sound at fundamental frequency of 140 Hz is well resolved by the present 2D model, whereas the high frequency waves observed in the experiment is substantially simplified as a discrete tone with frequency corresponding to the scale shown in the vorticity pattern. From the present result, it is worth to note that there exits an interesting correlation among the hemilarynx motion, the vortical flow structure within the vocal track, and the corresponding acoustic field. A similar correlation can also be noted in Fig. 18 (right) on the computed sound wave from the larynx vibrating with the same fundamental frequency. The difference of the sound wave profile between the hemilarynx

and the larynx is attributed by the Coanda effect of the pulsating jet in the gap, which was clearly depicted in the computed flow field of the larynx.

A computation of the sound wave at this low Mach number

(i.e. M < O (10 3 ) ) can hardly be accessible with the compressible Navier–Stokes equations and for this reason, the present hybrid formulation may be considered as a viable tool for computing diverse bio-medical fluid and sound applications at such low Mach numbers. The full 3D surface geometry of the human larynx is now undertaken by the present LES/LPCE hybrid method, and one can expect more complex vortical structures produced by the three-dimensional surface motions of the human larynx and their associated sound waves in wider range of frequency scales, as observed in the experiment.

An experimental study has been conducted at the department of Phoniatrics and Pediatric Audiology of the University hospital Erlangen, Germany, to measure the vibrating surface of the hu- man hemilarynx. Fig. 14 shows the human hemilarynx with a tube inserted to blow air from the compressor and the optical mea- surement system: glass plate at the glottal midline, vocal fold and

5.2. Bumblebee

The unsteady flow and acoustic characteristics of the flapping wing are numerically investigated for a two-dimensional model of bumblebee at hovering and forward flight conditions. In this study, the time-dependent flow and acoustic fields are computed

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59

European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63 59 Fig. 14. Measurement of 3D surface of

Fig. 14.

Measurement of 3D surface of the human hemilarynx vibrating at the fundamental frequency (left); schematic of optical measurement system (right).

(left); schematic of optical measurement system (right). Fig. 15. Monotonic interpolation of the hemilarynx surface

Fig. 15.

Monotonic interpolation of the hemilarynx surface grid.

15. Monotonic interpolation of the hemilarynx surface grid. Fig. 16. Moving grids at four different time

Fig. 16.

Moving grids at four different time intervals in one period of the vocal fold motion at the mid-plane.

in one period of the vocal fold motion at the mid-plane. Fig. 17. Instantaneous vorticity contours

Fig. 17. Instantaneous vorticity contours at four different time intervals in one period of the vocal fold motion; top two at closure, bottom two at opening.

for a prescribed flapping wing motion which mimics the real wing kinematics employed by superposition of the pitching and heaving motions, sometimes referred to as a figure-eight motion [16].

Fig. 20(left) illustrates the flapping motion of a two-dimensional elliptic wing (chord length c and thickness d = 0.1c). The unsteady motion is replicated by a wing motion of two strokes (down and up), and each stroke consists of three stages (transverse, tangential, and rotational motions). Here, all the specific parameters of the flapping wing are based on Bombus terrestris, bumblebee [17,18]; chord length ( c ) is 0.8 cm, wing span ( R) which is the distance from base of the wing to tip is 1.7 cm, beat frequency (f ) is 170 Hz, and stroke amplitude ( Φ ) is 150°, defined as the angle swept out by the leading edge from dorsal reversal (start of downstroke) to ventral reversal (start of upstroke) in the mean stroke plane. For a computational domain of circle (extended to r = 500c), the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations are solved with mov- ing hydrodynamic grid (401 × 181, see Fig. 20(right)), to compute

grid (401 × 181, see Fig. 20 (right)), to compute Fig. 18. Instantaneous pressure fluctuation contours

Fig. 18.

Instantaneous pressure fluctuation contours at ten different time intervals in one period of the vocal fold motion; top five at closure, bottom five at opening.

60

Y.J. Moon / European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63

/ European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63 Fig. 19. Sound wave profiles at 11

Fig. 19. Sound wave profiles at 11L upstream the vocal fold; red (hemilarynx/compt.), blue (larynx/compt.), black (hemilarynx/exp.), L: vocal fold base length. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) Fig. 20. Flapping motion of

Fig. 20.

Flapping motion of an elliptic wing (downstroke by hollow, upstroke by filled) (left); moving grids at transverse and tangential motions (right).

the flow of a wing flapping at a non-dimensional beat frequency, St = fc /c 0 = 0.004. The sound field is then computed by LPCE on the moving acoustic grid (251 × 91) , with minimum grid spacing five times that of the hydrodynamic grid. Note that all the variables investigated here are non-dimensionalized by the speed of sound c 0 , chord length c, and air density ρ 0 . For hovering case, the flapping angle α is set to 0 and the ad- vance ratio defined by the ratio of the flight speed to the mean flapping velocity of the wing J = U /(2 Φ fR) [18] is also set to 0. The Reynolds number based on the maximum translational velocity, Re c = U max c air is 8800 and Mach number M = U max /c 0 is 0.0485, where c 0 is the speed of sound. Fig. 21 shows the time variations of the drag and lift coefficients of the flapping wing. It is indicated that the mean drag coefficient (averaged over 10 peri- ods) is nearly 0, while the mean lift coefficient is about 0.66. From the definition of C L = F L /0.5 ρ 0 U max cR, one can calculate the lift force on a three-dimensional wing, employing the properties of the bumblebee [17]. In this study, the maximum translational velocity U max of the bumblebee is 17 m/s so that the lift force generated by a pair of 3D wing is about 3.11 × 10 2 N. This value is large enough to support the weight of bumblebee, 8. 63 × 10 3 N, although the three-dimensional effects neglected in this study could partially reduce the lift force. Now the computed sound fields of the flapping wing in hover- ing motion are presented in Fig. 22. The result indicates that the flapping wing sound is generated by two different basic mecha- nisms. First, a dipole sound is generated by a transverse motion of the wing (two on the left). Due to the fact that the dipole axis changes its direction from downstroke to upstroke, a drag dipole is generated at wing beat frequency (St = fc /c 0 = 0.004), while the lift dipole is produced at 2f (i.e. St = 0.008), similar to the drag and lift coefficients. Hence, the flapping wing sound is direc- tional, as shown in Fig. 23. The sound pressure level (SPL) peak

as shown in Fig. 23 . The sound pressure level (SPL) peak Fig. 21. Time history

Fig. 21.

Time history of drag and lift coefficients (hovering).

corresponding to the lift dipole (St = 0.008) is not present or weak at 0° and 180°, while the wing beat frequency (drag dipole) is also not present at 90° and 270°. At other angles, both the drag and lift dipoles clearly exhibit their peaks. This result is similar to the pre- vious observation by Sueur et al. [19], indicating that the wing beat frequency is most dominant in front, whereas the second harmonic is most appreciable at sides. Another sound source is associated with the vortex edge- scattering during tangential motion of the wing. In Fig. 22(two on the right), one can identify the sound waves (bracketed) at

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61

European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63 61 Fig. 22. loading by transverse motion and

Fig. 22.

loading by transverse motion and (third and fourth) vortex edge-scattering during tangential motion.

Instantaneous pressure fluctuation contours around the wing in hovering motion; flow fields representing the associated sound sources: (first and second) wing

the associated sound sources: (first and second) wing Fig. 23. Sound pressure level spectra around a

Fig. 23.

Sound pressure level spectra around a hovering insect (α = 0° and Ψ = 0; U = 0 m/s) at r = 100c and every 45° position.

150c–175c from the center with wavelengths (λ ) observed as 41c and 48c at t /T = 0.5 and 1, respectively. Considering the wave speed c 0 ( = 340 m /s = 250c /T ) , the travel time of the waves is estimated as 0.6–0.7 (i.e. t /T = 150 /250–175 /250). So, it is figured that these waves were generated during t /T = 8/10–9/10 and 3 /10–4/10 at each stroke. Now, one can note that the flow fields at t /T = 9/10 and 4/ 10 clearly exhibit the vortical structures that are responsible for producing the dipole sound during tangential motion of the wing. The vortices in the shear layer emanated from the leading-edge scatter at the trailing- edge of the wing and generate waves radiating perpendicularly to the wing. It is also found that the frequencies of these waves are close to St ( = fc /c 0 = c /λ) = 1/48 0.02 and 1/41 0. 024. These frequencies of dipole tones generated at the trailing-edge agree fairly well with the theory of shear layer instability [20]: the frequency of the shear layer breaking-off is calculated as 0.021 with St = 0.017M L , where M L = 0 .044 is a local free stream Mach number and θ = 0.035 is the momentum thickness normalized

by the chord length at t /T = 9/10, for example. Finally, one can note in the spectrum that the SPL peaks are multiples of the wing beat frequency with comparable amplitudes (see Fig. 23). This frequency composition closely resembles the buzz sound of fly measured by Sueur et al. [19]. In order to mimic the forward flight of bumblebee, all the properties are kept constant, except the advance ratio J = U /

(2 Φ fR) and stroke plane angle α . The advance ratio is generally

used to determine the free stream velocity U . It ranges from 0

(hovering) to 0.6 (fast flight) [21,22], and an intermediate value of

J = 0. 3 corresponding to U = 4.5 m/s is considered in this study. The stroke plane angle is then determined by the force balance

condition [21]; the mean thrust must be equal to mean drag for a flight at constant speed. In the presence of free stream velocity

(J = 0 .3), it is found that the mean drag coefficient is nearly 0 at

α = 40°. At this angle, the thrust force generated by the flapping wing is almost the same as the drag force caused by the forward flight of bumblebee. So, the stroke plane angle is determined as

62

Y.J. Moon / European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63

/ European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids 40 (2013) 50–63 Fig. 24. Sound pressure level spectra around

Fig. 24. Sound pressure level spectra around a hovering insect (α = 40° and Ψ = 0. 3; U = 4 .5 m/s) at r = 100c and every 45° position.

α = 40°, which is very similar to the real bumblebee [18] for the flight speed at U = 4. 5 m/s. Due to the free stream effect, the vortices shed from the lead- ing and trailing-edge of the wing during transverse motion are not developed as symmetric as for the hovering case and so are the in- duced velocity fields. Therefore, these vortices cannot self-propel away from the wing but rather remain in the stroke paths. Besides, the ratio between the free stream velocity and the maximum trans- lational velocity of the wing is close to 0.26 and so the convection effect is quite weak. As a result, the vortices drifting around the flapping wing encounter complex wing-vortex interactions. When compared with the hovering case, this clear distinction in vortical flow structure is expected to change the aerodynamic sound char- acteristics for the forward flight case. The sound fields for the flapping wing in forward flight are in- vestigated by comparing the sound spectra in Fig. 24. Similar to the hovering case, the transverse motion of the dipolar axis results in drag (St = 0.004 ) and lift dipoles (St = 0 .008) . It is, however, important to note that the directivity change is not as clear as that at hovering. The dominant frequency does not vary significantly and both the drag and lift dipoles exhibit their peaks with compa- rable amplitudes, regardless of directions. One may also note that the dipole tones generated at the trailing-edge (St = 0.02 and 0.024) are not as distinct as for the hovering case (Fig. 23). These are largely due to the prominent interactions between the wing and the vortices, being considered as a discernible difference in acous- tic feature between hovering and forward flight. This indicates that the radiation pattern and frequency composition can change with flight conditions and it is expected that these could be used as some biological functions such as communication, territory defense, and echolocation.

6. Conclusions

The present LES/LPCE hybrid method has efficiently predicted the low-subsonic, turbulent flow noise, with accuracy confirmed

by comparison of the far-field sound pressure level with the ex- periment. The present method with modeling of flow in porous medium has been extended for reduction of the trailing-edge noise via porous material at the same low-subsonic, turbulent flow condition. For applications of bio-medical and biological-fluid sound, capacity and future potential of the method has been well demonstrated by the present study. The flow and sound in bio- medical and biological applications is a unique research field which requires a very sophisticated analysis tool to emulate very weak compressibility effects; for example, sound of blood flows in the circulatory system or sound of airway flows in the respiratory sys- tem. It is also shown that at low Mach number, the acoustic source represented by a material derivative of the hydrodynamic pressure

(i.e. DP /Dt) scaled by itself in the incompressible Navier–Stokes so- lution is very closely related to the dilatation rate of the compress-

ible counterpart, at any instant, and so is the rate of change of to that of the dilatation rate.

1

P

DP

Dt

Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank Prof. Roger, M. at the Ecole Centrale de Lyon and Prof. Doellinger, M. at the University Hospital Erlangen for providing experimental data for the flat plate and the human larynx, respectively, and students, Dr. Seo, J.H., Dr. Bae Y.M., Mr. Jo, Y.W. for their contributions during graduate study at Korea University.

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