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Organizational behavior (OB) is "the study of human behavior in organizational settings, the
interface between human behavior and the organization, and the organization itself." OB can be
divided into three levels: the study of (a) individuals in organizations (micro-level), (b) work
groups (meso-level), and (c) how organizations behave (macro-level).
Chester Barnard recognized that individuals behave differently when acting in their
organizational role than when acting separately from the organization. OB researchers study the
behavior of individuals primarily in their organizational roles. One of the main goals of
organizational theorists in OB is "to revitalize organizational theory and develop a better
conceptualization of organizational life"
Relation to industrial and organizational psychology
Miner (2006) pointed out that "there is a certain arbitrariness" in identifying "a point at which
organizational behavior became established as a distinct discipline", suggesting that it could have
emerged in the 1940s or 1950s. He also underlined the fact that the industrial psychology
division of the American Psychological Association did not add "organizational" to its name until
1970, "long after organizational behavior had clearly come into existence", noting that a similar
situation arose in sociology. Although there are similarities and differences between the two
disciplines, there is still much confusion as to the nature of differences between organizational
behavior and organizational psychology.
The Hawthorne studies stimulated OB researchers to study the impact of psychological factors
on organizations. In his 1931 book, Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization, Elton Mayo
advised managers to deal with emotional needs of employees. The human relations movement,
an outgrowth of the Hawthorne studies, influenced OB researchers to focus on teams,
motivation, and the actualization of individuals' goals within organizations.
The Second World War prompted a shift the field, as it turned its attention to large-scale logistics
and operations research. There was a renewed interest in rationalist approaches to the study of
organizations. Herbert Simon, James G. March, and the so-called "Carnegie School" conducted
influential OB research. Other prominent OB researchers include Chester Barnard, Henri Fayol,
Frederick Herzberg, Abraham Maslow, David McClelland, and Victor Vroom, Douglas
McGregor, Karl Weick and Mary Parker Follett.
In the 1960s and 1970s, the field became more quantitative and produced such ideas as bounded
rationality, the informal organization, and resource dependence. Contingency theory, institutional
theory, and organizational ecology also emerged.


Organizational behavior studies the impact individuals, groups, and structures have on human
behavior within organizations. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes sociology, psychology,
communication, and management. Organizational behavior complements organizational theory,
which focuses on organizational and intra-organizational topics, and complements human
resource studies, which is more focused on everyday business practices .
Organizational studies encompass the study of organizations from multiple perspectives,
methods, and levels of analysis. "Micro" organizational behavior refers to individual and group
dynamics in organizations. "Macro" strategic management and organizational theory studies
whole organizations and industries, especially how they adapt, and the strategies, structures, and
contingencies that guide them. Along with those two levels of analysis, some scholars add
categories of "Meso" scale structures, involving power, culture, and the networks of individuals
in organizations, and "Field" level analysis which studies how entire populations of organizations
Many factors come into play whenever people interact in organizations. Modern organizational
studies attempt to understand and model these factors. Organizational studies seek to control,
predict, and explain. Organizational behavior can play a major role in organizational
development, enhancing overall organizational performance, as well as also enhancing individual
and group performance, satisfaction, and commitment.
Organizational behavior
Organizational behavior is a term that may carry several different definitions, though the classic
one is the study of individuals in an organizational context. All organizations have some type of
corporate behavior it exists everywhere, even as organizational behavior in education. Here,
the term defines the structure of a school, the process by which the school gauges performance,
and how an educational institution responds to change. Each school is different, with the
organizational behavior in education depending on school size, type, importance of structure, and
other factors. Individuals are the common driving force behind organizational behavior.
An educational institution is just like any other organization full of people that drive the
activities within the group. Organizational behavior in education often has a fairly standard
structure, such as a principal, vice principal, curriculum coordinator, and other administrative
figures. All of these individuals are responsible for setting the tone in the institution. A lack of
leadership or ethics may come from the very top, which can create fractures in the institution. A
strong administrative group is necessary to create and enforce the proper tone in the organization
in order to meet its goals.

One common and sometimes controversial aspect of educational institutions is how
teachers and educators meet certain performance measurements. Properly gauging performance
for all teachers and educators is necessary to ensure that students receive the best education
possible. Organizational behavior in education helps the administration create a fair and
equitable process by which they measure each workers performance. The process can be wide
ranging and quite intense, measuring different aspects such as classroom performance, service to
the school, and outside activities performed above regular teaching duties. Periodic reviews are
often the norm in educational institutions.
Change is an internal or external force that no institution can escape, even those in the
educational sector. A portion of the activities that exist in organizational behavior in education is
to define the factors that drive change. In education, this may include curriculum changes,
adjustments to state requirements, finding new teachers for those retiring, and handling increases
in student enrollment. All these factors and others such as changes to school districts or new
educational institutions opening are also part of this process. School administrators and upperlevel teachers need to be in position to handle these changes without sacrificing the quality of
education given to students at the school.
Computer Modeling
Computer simulation is prominent in organizational studies and strategic management.
Organizational behavior scholars use computer simulation to understand how organizations and
firms operate. Researchers have also applied computer simulation to understanding
organizational behavior at the Micro level, focusing on individual and interpersonal cognition
and behavior, such as how people think and act when working together in teams. The strategy
researchers tend to use involves testing normative theories of organizational performance, but
many organizational theorists focus on descriptive theories. Both those schools of thought use
computational models to verify and extend theories. Research using computer simulation has
been inspired by methods from biological modeling, ecology, theoretical physics and
thermodynamics, chaos theory, and complexity theory, since similar techniques have been
fruitful in those subjects.
Systems Framework
The systems framework is also fundamental to organizational theory because organizations are
complex, dynamic, goal-oriented processes. A systemic view on organizations is
interdisciplinary: transcending the perspectives of individual disciplines and integrating them
based on the ideological framework of systems theory. The systems approach gives primacy to
the interrelationships, not the elements, of a system. New properties of the system emerge from
these dynamic interrelationships. In recent years, systems thinking has been developed to provide
holistic techniques for studying systems to supplement the traditional, yet more reductive,

Importance of Organizational Behavior
The importance of organizational behavior rests in understanding how individuals, groups, and
organizational structures interact and affect one another. Organizational studies examine
communication patterns between individuals and groups, as well as the structure and culture of
organizations. A detailed look at workplace behavior, business culture, and organizational
practices generates greater insights about communication patterns and conflicts. Such findings
sometimes spark solution-oriented policies and organizational change, causing leaders to
implement rewards systems, new communication methods, or innovative management
Studying the ways that individuals and groups interact is often critical for explaining challenges
within an organization. Due to fear of change, employees may be reluctant to embrace a new
piece of technology, thereby interfering with an organization's advancement efforts. The
importance of organizational behavior in such a situation is highlighted by an effort to
understand and effectively manage fear of change across the organization. In this case, fine
tuning of leadership strategies may be necessary for the organization to meet and exceed its
goals. As a solution, managers might hold one-on-one meetings with employees, establish
incentives, and/or implement training sessions to help employees adapt to new systems.
The analysis of communication behaviors across an organization also can generate useful
insights about its successes or weaknesses. Communications challenges may arise due to rapid
organizational expansion, causing weekly meetings around a conference room table to be
replaced by written correspondence and quarterly conferences. Disagreements between sales and
technical teams may create obstacles in product development or jeopardize client satisfaction.
Acknowledging the importance of organizational behavior in such situations often causes
effective leaders to make a concerted effort to improve communication methods and processes.
Mandatory weekly phone check-ins, in-person meetings, and Web conferencing tools may be
implemented to increase the frequency and quality of communications between individuals,
groups, and organizational partners.
When leaders are tuned in to the importance of organizational behavior, they may invite
organizational coaches to analyze difficult dynamics and deliver seminars. If members of the
organization are displaying low morale, for example, an investigation into the individuals'
characteristics, interests, and values may lend important insights. New methods and processes
may arise from pinpointing the specific goals and activities that motivate individuals and groups.
It may be determined, for example, that employees feel disconnected from the organization's
overall vision and goals, disagree with the company's direction, or feel ignored or unappreciated.
Instituting recognition awards, performance-based bonuses, and team-building activities may
boost employee morale.

International organizational behavior
International organizational behavior refers to the manner in which the principles of
organizational behavior are applied across the board in corporations with international
subsidiaries and affiliations. This is important due to the fact that companies that operate in other
countries but originate elsewhere usually have previously established corporate cultures that may
not take into consideration the unique factors presented by the new culture in other countries.
The relevance of international organizational behavior systems here is the fact that it will allow
the company to study the organizational behavior of the employees in the new culture in relation
to their previous studies and understanding regarding the behavior in the organization. Such a
knowledge will allow the management of the company to make better decisions and concessions
that will help structure it for greater employee output and general organizational excellence.
An example of the application of international organizational ethics can be seen in the case of an
advertising firm from the United States that opens a branch in Spain. Such a company would
have to study the peculiar attributes of the Spanish culture in relation to the way it affects the
behavior of the employees. Cultural diversity is a reality that cannot be overlooked by the
management of the company if it desires to use such a diversity as a means for achieving some
form of corporate advantage. In this sense, the company would have to make adjustments to the
expectations regarding the relationship between the various employees something that may
differ from the expectations of the manner in which employees from the United States interact
with each other. Another example of an issue that may come up in the study of international
organizational behavior is the delegation of roles within societies where the roles are divided
according to the sex of the employees. Some cultures may not allow their women to have the
kind of independence that the women in the United States enjoy. In such a situation, this type of
attitude may be carried over into the work place and may reflect in the manner in which
employees relate. Where this is the case, the company will also have to make an adjustment of its
expectations regarding the different sexes in order not to create any unnecessary tension that will
detract from the ability of the employees to fully perform their duties. The main issue in
international organizational behavior is an understanding of the fact that there is no one set of
rules that can be applied internationally without making some sort of concession.
Organizational behavior refers to the way individuals and groups interact within and toward an
organization. The combined behaviors create a company climate that can bolster or undermine an
organization's success. Operating from within a company's system, both management and staff
might have difficulty recognizing patterns of behavior and also how profoundly those patterns
can influence a company's performance. To make sure that influence is positive, leaders must
help others grasp the importance of organizational behaviors so that everyone involved in a
company's future can better understand and shape the internal conditions of an organization.

Step 1
Define organizational behavior to make sure everyone has a clear idea of what the phrase refers
Step 2
Describe how certain behaviors generated by individuals can hurt or help an organization.
Prosocial behavior, for instance, refers to altruistic actions that benefit other individuals and
thereby the organization as a whole. Prosocial behavior, or, "organizational citizenship behavior,"
is inspired by factors such as a worker's trust for and attitude toward management and the
company. Individuals also may identify heavily with a particular group at the expense of the
whole, as could be seen when workers and management no longer trust one another.
Step 3
Define company culture -- the shared values, experiences, rules, and behavioral expectations of
an organization -- and discuss how the culture can positively or negatively influence the behavior
of those within it. Reveal how culture is transmitted to employees in many ways, including
customs, consequences and rewards, mission and actions. Becoming socialized to an
organization, an employee learns how to behave.
Step 4
Point out that understanding the motives behind problematic organizational behaviors is a step
toward shaping those behaviors for the better. Encouraging new behaviors can involve a
purposeful shift in the characteristics of the company culture.
Step 5
Point out that divining the driving force behind constructive organizational behaviors allows
managers to foster more of the same through incentive plans and rewards, such as promotions.
Step 6
Describe how an understanding of organizational behaviors helps management predict the
reaction to and effects of potential changes in policy and procedure before implementation and
possibly mitigate resistance to change.


Challenges in Organizational behavior

Organizational behavior is the culture of the organization, which includes how the employees
interact with one another. It also involves how the employees feel about the company itself. The
challenges of organizational behavior that most companies face include overcoming cultural and
ethnic differences, improving productivity, hiring employees that fit into the organizational
culture or who can improve it, and helping employees to find proper level of a work-life balance.
One of the primary challenges of organizational behavior is overcoming ethnic and cultural
diversity among employees. Because different employees have different beliefs, opinions and
ways of working, it can be challenging for employees to work together because of these
differences. Some organizations choose to offer diversity training courses or workshops to help
overcome these issues. The point is to illuminate how the diversity of an organization actually
makes it better for the different benefits that each of the employees bring to the table.
Another challenge related to organizational behavior is finding ways to motivate employees as a
way to improve activity. Some of the ways organizations improve productivity within the
organization is to empower the employees. When organizations and businesses empower its
employees, it gives them a sense of loyalty to the company because they feel like they are part of
the success of the business.
A third of the challenges of organizational behavior is hiring the right employees for the
company. Hiring the right employees for the organization is not only about finding the people
with the skills and knowledge that the position requires, but also employees that fit into the
organizational culture or can help to improve employee relations.
For example, it can be de-motivating to employees if upper management is not open to
progressive thoughts and actions that can move the business forward. Hiring a progressive and
forward thinking executive manager who also has the experience and knowledge can help to give
the employees a new outlook on the company.
Another of the main challenges of organizational behavior is how to run a productive company,
but also show its employees that it cares about them as well. In other words, it is about helping
employees find the right work-life balance. For example, a company that provides an on-site
daycare center as an employee benefit or at a reduced cost is one way for the company to show
that it cares about its employees both professionally and personally. This can lead to the
employees contributing to organizational behavior and culture in a positive manner.


Goals of Organizational Behavior

Many companies strive to understand the behavior of their employees, so they often study the
turnover rate, productivity and employee attitudes before making any changes. One of the main
goals of organizational behavior (OB) is to explain the behavior of employees to determine why
they act the way they do. Another objective is to predict how they will act before they do
anything, which often makes it easier for managers to plan their next step. Additionally, those
who use this business theory may seek to control the behavior of their employees to fix any
Those who apply organizational behavior to their business usually start by simply studying
employees. They may look at their overall attitudes and habits to determine what may need to
change. Some concrete details they may gather include facts about productivity, turnover rates
and absenteeism, all of which can tell a lot about employee attitudes. Once they collect some
observations, they can satisfy one of the goals of organizational behavior, which is to explain the
attitude of employees.
Once an explanation is obtained through observation, those in charge of studying workplace
behavior may try to predict how employees will react to a change. This may be useful when
deciding whether to introduce a new concept to the workplace. If a manager is not sure how
employees may react to a major change, then he might make a few smaller modifications to
gauge employee reaction. Then, based on his findings, he can usually predict how workers will
react to a bigger change within the company. This may help prevent employee resistance to
modifications at work, because the manager may be able to present the change to workers in a
different way or avoid it altogether.
Another of the goals of organizational behavior is the ability to control how employees act. This
usually only comes after observing them and successfully predicting their behavior, and it often
controversial, because many believe it is not ethical to use observation to control people. One
example is a manager noticing that, based on the explanation and prediction steps, certain
employees may work harder when particular rewards are offered. This may lead the manager to
begin offering the rewards in question for as long as he desires increased productivity from
employees. The more noticeable the results are, the more likely he is to continue attempting to
control employee actions through one of the most controversial goals of organizational behavior.
Relationship Between Leadership And Organizational Behavior
The relationship between leadership and organizational behavior refers to the manner in which
the type of leadership in an organization affects the behavior of the individuals working there.
There are several leadership styles, and the particular one in place in an organization may affect
the way employees in that organization behave. Examples of the various types of leadership
include autocratic leadership, collaborative leadership, negotiative leadership and delegative

Leadership and organizational behavior are intertwined because the type of leadership in place in
an organization may mean the difference between the success of the organization and the
inability of the organization to make an impact on its environment. An analogy of a captain
steering a ship is often used to describe corporate leaders, and the competence with which the
leader handles the helm will determine whether the vessel will successfully reach its appointed
destination on time. One example of the link between leadership and organizational behavior can
be seen in the autocratic style of leadership and its effect on organizational behavior.
This style of leadership is typically a one-way street with the chain of command flowing from
the top, down the hierarchy in the organization. Employees in a company where this type of
leadership is the norm may only be expected to obey directives instead of trying to display
individual assertiveness.
Collaborative leadership is the opposite of an autocratic leadership, and the relationship between
this type of leadership and organizational behavior is apparent in the response of the employees.
Employees in an organization where a collaborative style of leadership is the norm are
encouraged to contribute to the running of the organization. The employees may be given
challenges they are expected to solve by using their initiative, rather than relying on directives
from management. A collaborative style of leadership is connected to organizational behavior by
the level of individualism that is exhibited in the organizational behavior of the employees.
An organizational leadership that is based on negotiation is one where the employees are
motivated by the leaders to strive for ever-increasing levels of excellence though a combination
of bargaining and motivational approach. For instance, the employees may be encouraged to be
productive by the offer of certain benefits that will only accrue to the workers at the successful
execution of stated assignments. Such a leadership strategy also shows how leadership and
organizational leadership are related. The leader who uses the method of delegation may assign
work to employees based on an assessment of their individual human capital.

The Role of Communication in organizational behavior

The role of communication in organizational behavior is a vital one, as miscommunication
typically reduces productivity and increases error and waste. Accurate communication
transmitted in a supportive manner often results in increased morale and may also lead to a
greater sense of camaraderie among staff. Within organizations, having a more open
communication policy may provide a safety valve to vent problems before these issues impact
productivity. Another role communication plays in organizational behavior includes equipping
stakeholders to clearly communicate the organization's mission. Maintaining an accurate record
of the organization's activities and encouraging civil and positive engagement with customers
and stakeholders are two other important roles played by communication in organizational

Failure to transmit accurate instructions may negatively impact communication. This may result
in an increased error rate, and diminished productivity in the workplace. If a supervisor's
instructions are misunderstood, serious consequences may result. These may include injury to
employees or offending a highly valued client.
Clear, consistent communication, on the other hand, often encourages more productive
workplace behavior and increases morale. The role of this type of communication in
organizational behavior results in workers feeling more in control of their environment.
Encouraging productive communication between staff and clients has been demonstrated, in
many cases, to increase customer satisfaction as well.
Equipping stakeholders to accurately communicate an organization's values and mission is
another important aspect of communication in organizational behavior. Sometimes companies
take new employees or board members through an orientation session in order to give them a
historical and current picture of the organization. This helps ensure that all of those associated
with the organization communicate similar messages about its mission and goals.
Instituting an open-door policy for employees may also be a part of facilitating accurate
communication about the organization to those outside it. This often supports public relations
initiatives, as disgruntled employees or those who have unresolved issues may disseminate
hostile reports, thus causing a public relations problem for the organization. from a proactive
standpoint, equipping stakeholders with accurate information about the organization often
facilities positive public relations.
Maintaining an accurate record of corporate events is generally deemed critically important. In
almost every case, there are laws in place that require organizations to adhere to various
reporting requirements. Transmitting inaccurate information may incur criminal penalties as
well. For example, if the organization is a corporation, certain internal communications, such as
minutes of corporate meetings, are required to be kept for a certain period of time.



Leadership has been described as "a process of social influence in which one person can enlist
the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task". For example, some
understand a leader simply as somebody whom people follow, or as somebody who guides or
directs others, while others define leadership as "organizing a group of people to achieve a
common goal".
Studies of leadership have produced theories involving traits, situational interaction, function,
behavior, power, vision and values, charisma, and intelligence, among others.
The search for the characteristics or traits of leaders has continued for centuries. Philosophical
writings from Plato's Republic to Plutarch's Lives have explored the question "What qualities
distinguish an individual as a leader?" Underlying this search was the early recognition of the
importance of leadership and the assumption that leadership is rooted in the characteristics that
certain individuals possess. This idea that leadership is based on individual attributes is known as
the "trait theory of leadership".
A number of works in the 19th century - when the traditional authority of monarchs, lords and
bishops had begun to wane - explored the trait theory at length: note especially the writings of
Thomas Carlyle and of Francis Galton, whose works have prompted decades of research. In
Heroes and Hero Worship (1841), Carlyle identified the talents, skills, and physical
characteristics of men who rose to power. Galton's Hereditary Genius (1869) examined
leadership qualities in the families of powerful men. After showing that the numbers of eminent
relatives dropped off when his focus moved from first-degree to second-degree relatives, Galton
concluded that leadership was inherited. In other words, leaders were born, not developed. Both
of these notable works lent great initial support for the notion that leadership is rooted in
characteristics of a leader.
Focus on a small set of individual attributes such as Big Five personality traits, to the neglect of
cognitive abilities, motives, values, social skills, expertise, and problem-solving skills.
Fail to consider patterns or integrations of multiple attributes.
Do not distinguish between those leader attributes that are generally not malleable over time and
those that are shaped by, and bound to, situational influences.
Do not consider how stable leader attributes account for the behavioral diversity necessary for
effective leadership.
Leadership can be perceived as a particularly emotion-laden process, with emotions entwined
with the social influence process. In an organization, the leader's mood has some effects on
his/her group. These effects can be described in three levels:

The mood of individual group members. Group members with leaders in a positive mood
experience more positive mood than do group members with leaders in a negative mood. The
leaders transmit their moods to other group members through the mechanism of emotional
contagion. Mood contagion may be one of the psychological mechanisms by which charismatic
leaders influence followers.
The affective tone of the group. Group affective tone represents the consistent or homogeneous
affective reactions within a group. Group affective tone is an aggregate of the moods of the
individual members of the group and refers to mood at the group level of analysis. Groups with
leaders in a positive mood have a more positive affective tone than do groups with leaders in a
negative mood.
Group processes like coordination, effort expenditure, and task strategy. Public expressions of
mood impact how group members think and act. When people experience and express mood,
they send signals to others. Leaders signal their goals, intentions, and attitudes through their
expressions of moods. For example, expressions of positive moods by leaders signal that leaders
deem progress toward goals to be good. The group members respond to those signals cognitively
and behaviorally in ways that are reflected in the group processes.
In research about client service, it was found that expressions of positive mood by the leader
improve the performance of the group, although in other sectors there were other findings.
Beyond the leader's mood, her/his behavior is a source for employee positive and negative
emotions at work. The leader creates situations and events that lead to emotional response.
Certain leader behaviors displayed during interactions with their employees are the sources of
these affective events. Leaders shape workplace affective events. Examples feedback giving,
allocating tasks, resource distribution. Since employee behavior and productivity are directly
affected by their emotional states, it is imperative to consider employee emotional responses to
organizational leaders. Emotional intelligence, the ability to understand and manage moods and
emotions in the self and others, contributes to effective leadership within organizations.
A leadership style is a leader's style of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating
people. It is the result of the philosophy, personality, and experience of the leader. Rhetoric
specialists have also developed models for understanding leadership (Robert Hariman, Political
Style,Philippe-Joseph Salazar, L'Hyperpolitique. Technologies politiques De La Domination.
Different situations call for different leadership styles. In an emergency when there is little time
to converge on an agreement and where a designated authority has significantly more experience
or expertise than the rest of the team, an autocratic leadership style may be most effective;
however, in a highly motivated and aligned team with a homogeneous level of expertise, a more
democratic or laissez-faire style may be more effective. The style adopted should be the one that

most effectively achieves the objectives of the group while balancing the interests of its
individual members.
Autocratic or authoritarian
Under the autocratic leadership style, all decision-making powers are centralized in the leader, as
with dictators.
Leaders do not entertain any suggestions or initiatives from subordinates. The autocratic
management has been successful as it provides strong motivation to the manager. It permits
quick decision-making, as only one person decides for the whole group and keeps each decision
to him/herself until he/she feels it needs to be shared with the rest of the group.
Participative or democratic
The democratic leadership style consists of the leader sharing the decision-making abilities with
group members by promoting the interests of the group members and by practicing social
equality. This has also been called shared leadership.
Laissez-faire or free-rein
A person may be in a leadership position without providing leadership, leaving the group to fend
for itself. Subordinates are given a free hand in deciding their own policies and methods. The
subordinates are motivated to be creative and innovative.
Narcissistic leadership is a leadership style in which the leader is only interested in him/herself.
Their priority is themselves - at the expense of their people/group members. This leader exhibits
the characteristics of a narcissist: arrogance, dominance and hostility. It is a common leadership
style. The narcissism may range from anywhere between healthy and destructive. To critics,
"narcissistic leadership (preferably destructive) is driven by unyielding arrogance, selfabsorption, and a personal egotistic need for power and admiration."
A toxic leader is someone who has responsibility over a group of people or an organization, and
who abuses the leaderfollower relationship by leaving the group or organization in a worse-off
condition than when he/she joined it.
In the past, some researchers have argued that the actual influence of leaders on organizational
outcomes is overrated and romanticized as a result of biased attributions about leaders (Meindl &
Ehrlich, 1987). Despite these assertions, however, it is largely recognized and accepted by

practitioners and researchers that leadership is important, and research supports the notion that
leaders do contribute to key organizational outcomes (Day & Lord, 1988; Kaiser, Hogan, &
Craig, 2008). To facilitate successful performance it is important to understand and accurately
measure leadership performance.
Job performance generally refers to behavior that is expected to contribute to organizational
success (Campbell, 1990). Campbell identified a number of specific types of performance
dimensions; leadership was one of the dimensions that he identified. There is no consistent,
overall definition of leadership performance (Yukl, 2006). Many distinct conceptualizations are
often lumped together under the umbrella of leadership performance, including outcomes such as
leader effectiveness, leader advancement, and leader emergence (Kaiser et al., 2008). For
instance, leadership performance may be used to refer to the career success of the individual
leader, performance of the group or organization, or even leader emergence. Each of these
measures can be considered conceptually distinct. While these aspects may be related, they are
different outcomes and their inclusion should depend on the applied or research focus.

Most theories in the 20th century argued that great leaders were born, not made. Current studies
have indicated that leadership is much more complex and cannot be boiled down to a few key
traits of an individual. Years of observation and study have indicated that one such trait or a set
of traits does not make an extraordinary leader. What scholars have been able to arrive at is that
leadership traits of an individual do not change from situation to situation; such traits include
intelligence, assertiveness, or physical attractiveness.[64] However, each key trait may be
applied to situations differently, depending on the circumstances. The following summarizes the
main leadership traits found in research by Jon P. Howell, business professor at New Mexico
State University and author of the book Snapshots of Great Leadership.
Determination and drive include traits such as initiative, energy, assertiveness, perseverance,
masculinity, and sometimes dominance. People with these traits often tend to wholeheartedly
pursue their goals, work long hours, are ambitious, and often are very competitive with others.
Cognitive capacity includes intelligence, analytical and verbal ability, behavioral flexibility, and
good judgment. Individuals with these traits are able to formulate solutions to difficult problems,
work well under stress or deadlines, adapt to changing situations, and create well-thought-out
plans for the future. Howell provides examples of Steve Jobs and Abraham Lincoln as
encompassing the traits of determination and drive as well as possessing cognitive capacity,
demonstrated by their ability to adapt to their continuously changing environments.
Self-confidence encompasses the traits of high self-esteem, assertiveness, emotional stability,
and self-assurance. Individuals that are self-confident do not doubt themselves or their abilities
and decisions; they also have the ability to project this self-confidence onto others, building their
trust and commitment. Integrity is demonstrated in individuals who are truthful, trustworthy,

principled, consistent, dependable, loyal, and not deceptive. Leaders with integrity often share
these values with their followers, as this trait is mainly an ethics issue.
It is often said that these leaders keep their word and are honest and open with their cohorts.
Sociability describes individuals who are friendly, extroverted, tactful, flexible, and
interpersonally competent. Such a trait enables leaders to be accepted well by the public, use
diplomatic measures to solve issues, as well as hold the ability to adapt their social persona to the
situation at hand. According to Howell, Mother Teresa is an exceptional example that embodies
integrity, assertiveness, and social abilities in her diplomatic dealings with the leaders of the
Few great leaders encompass all of the traits listed above, but many have the ability to apply a
number of them to succeed as front-runners of their organization or situation.
Leaders possess a number of common qualities.
Self-awareness: Knowledge of your own values, passions, skills, strengths and weaknesses, an
ability to admit and learn from mistakes and to seek information to fill knowledge gaps.
Integrity: A strong sense of "what is right" and a demonstration of ethical practices that sets the
tone for others. A commitment to teaching by example.
Courage: The strength to act in accordance with your own values and the greater good despite
pressures pushing you in other directions. The ability to put the cause before the desire to be
Confidence: A belief in your ability to meet most challenges that come your way.
Vision: A strong sense of where you are going as a person and where you think society, your
community and your organization should be going and how it might get there.
Enthusiasm: A lively interest in the people, issues and events around you, a feeling of
excitement about the possibilities, and the energy to guide them towards fruition.
Innovation: The ability to "think outside the box; take risks and develop new and effective
solutions to old and emerging problems.
Wisdom: Intelligence coupled with insight and empathy, as opposed to raw intelligence.
Adaptability: A willingness to be flexible and to respond quickly and effectively to changing
circumstances, along with a commitment to continual learning formal and informal and the
ability to put that learning into practice.
Strong inter-personal skills: An ability to interact and work harmoniously with others, while
being prepared to take on individual responsibilities.

Effective communication: A willingness and ability to listen to and understand the thoughts,
ideas and concerns of others and to clearly communicate your own. A vision is nothing if it can't
be sold to others.
Belief in others: The desire to build the capabilities of others, praise them where appropriate, go
into bat for them when appropriate, provide them with helpful feedback and motivate them to do
their best.
Peer respect: An ability to inspire respect, allowing a person to capably lead discussions,
maintain discipline and encourage the contribution of others.
Insight: The ability to see the big picture, a strong sense the stage attained by followers and
intuits problems before they arise or before they become insurmountable.
Sense of humour: The ability to laugh at yourself and relieve tense or stressful situations with
Competence: Others are unlikely to follow the lead of a person who does not appear to know
what she is doing.
Delegation skills: A willingness to trust others and cede some responsibility.
Spiritual sensitivity: Is the key to a better communication with others, but primarily towards a
better understanding of privacy. It marks your positive attitude in life, determines you to seek
and to focus on what it is right and not on what it is wrong. Also, it indicates that you are a
wonderful person with a rich spiritual life.
The four fundamental factors of production are land, labor, capital and entrepreneurship. The
final factor belies the vital importance of leadership in business settings. Leadership acts as the
catalyst that makes all other elements work together; without leadership, all other business
resources lie dormant. Savvy business leaders are in tune with the needs and issues of their
subordinates, and keep up to date on new developments in leadership theory and methodology to
maximize their effectiveness.
A leaderless organization is like an army without generals. Work forces need the leadership of
skilled and experienced individuals to provide guidance and a single direction for all employees
to follow. Leaders are invaluable when it comes to formulating and communicating new strategic
directions, as well as communicating with and motivating employees to increase dedication to
organizational goals.


Business leaders serve a range of important functions in their organizations. Leaders are
responsible for training employees to perform their tasks effectively, as well as supervising the
actual completion of those tasks on a regular basis. Leaders must inspire employees to get
excited about the company and their work, pushing them to excel and helping them along the
way. Leaders are also tasked with protecting the employees under their supervision from internal
and external threats, including everything from political backstabbing to physical security.

Different leaders employ different leadership styles. Leaders with a command and control style
formulate ideas on their own and dictate actions to their employees. Collaborative leaders come
up with ideas with the assistance of employees from all levels of the organization, leveraging
employees' creativity to boost company performance. Facilitative leaders delegate almost all
productive tasks to subordinates, and focus on providing their employees with everything they
need to excel in their jobs. Business owners' leadership styles are extremely important in crafting
company culture.
Delegation, the act of assigning productive tasks to subordinates, is vital to success as a business
leader. More important than delegating individual tasks, however, is the ability to delegate
authority and develop leaders for the future. Assigning tasks is a basic management activity;
assigning responsibility for figuring out how to accomplish objectives takes management to the
next level. It is important to develop leaders to partner with you in the future as your business
grows; this can greatly increase employee satisfaction and loyalty as well.
Leaders and leadership styles may need to be changed to suit specific situations. A new CEO in
an established company, for example, may benefit from altering his leadership style to be more
in line with the culture of his new company. Top executives themselves may need to be switched
out from time to time if a company's performance establishes a pattern of decline.
Leadership is an important function of management which helps to maximize efficiency and to
achieve organizational goals. The following points justify the importance of leadership in a
Initiates action- Leader is a person who starts the work by communicating the policies and plans
to the subordinates from where the work actually starts.


Motivation- A leader proves to be playing an incentive role in the concerns working. He
motivates the employees with economic and non-economic rewards and thereby gets the work
from the subordinates.
Providing guidance- A leader has to not only supervise but also play a guiding role for the
subordinates. Guidance here means instructing the subordinates the way they have to perform
their work effectively and efficiently.
Creating confidence- Confidence is an important factor which can be achieved through
expressing the work efforts to the subordinates, explaining them clearly their role and giving
them guidelines to achieve the goals effectively. It is also important to hear the employees with
regards to their complaints and problems.
Building morale- Morale denotes willing co-operation of the employees towards their work and
getting them into confidence and winning their trust. A leader can be a morale booster by
achieving full co-operation so that they perform with best of their abilities as they work to
achieve goals.
Builds work environment- Management is getting things done from people. An efficient work
environment helps in sound and stable growth. Therefore, human relations should be kept into
mind by a leader. He should have personal contacts with employees and should listen to their
problems and solve them. He should treat employees on humanitarian terms.
Co-ordination- Co-ordination can be achieved through reconciling personal interests with
organizational goals. This synchronization can be achieved through proper and effective coordination which should be primary motive of a leader.
Leadership is an important function of management which helps to maximize efficiency and to
achieve organizational goals. The following points justify the importance of leadership in a
Initiates action- Leader is a person who starts the work by communicating the policies and plans
to the subordinates from where the work actually starts.
Motivation- A leader proves to be playing an incentive role in the concerns working. He
motivates the employees with economic and non-economic rewards and thereby gets the work
from the subordinates.
Providing guidance- A leader has to not only supervise but also play a guiding role for the
subordinates. Guidance here means instructing the subordinates the way they have to perform
their work effectively and efficiently.


Creating confidence- Confidence is an important factor which can be achieved through
expressing the work efforts to the subordinates, explaining them clearly their role and giving
them guidelines to achieve the goals effectively. It is also important to hear the employees with
regards to their complaints and problems.
Building morale- Morale denotes willing co-operation of the employees towards their work and
getting them into confidence and winning their trust. A leader can be a morale booster by
achieving full co-operation so that they perform with best of their abilities as they work to
achieve goals.
Builds work environment- Management is getting things done from people. An efficient work
environment helps in sound and stable growth. Therefore, human relations should be kept into
mind by a leader. He should have personal contacts with employees and should listen to their
problems and solve them. He should treat employees on humanitarian terms.
Co-ordination- Co-ordination can be achieved through reconciling personal interests with
organizational goals. This synchronization can be achieved through proper and effective coordination which should be primary motive of a leader.
Qualities of a Leader
A leader has got multidimensional traits in him which makes him appealing and effective in
behavior. The following are the requisites to be present in a good leader:
Physical appearance- A leader must have a pleasing appearance. Physique and health are very
important for a good leader.
Vision and foresight- A leader cannot maintain influence unless he exhibits that he is forward
looking. He has to visualize situations and thereby has to frame logical programmes.
Intelligence- A leader should be intelligent enough to examine problems and difficult situations.
He should be analytical who weighs pros and cons and then summarizes the situation. Therefore,
a positive bent of mind and mature outlook is very important.
Communicative skills- A leader must be able to communicate the policies and procedures clearly,
precisely and effectively. This can be helpful in persuasion and stimulation.
Objective- A leader has to be having a fair outlook which is free from bias and which does not
reflects his willingness towards a particular individual. He should develop his own opinion and
should base his judgement on facts and logic.
Knowledge of work- A leader should be very precisely knowing the nature of work of his
subordinates because it is then he can win the trust and confidence of his subordinates.


Sense of responsibility- Responsibility and accountability towards an individuals work is very
important to bring a sense of influence. A leader must have a sense of responsibility towards
organizational goals because only then he can get maximum of capabilities exploited in a real
sense. For this, he has to motivate himself and arouse and urge to give best of his abilities. Only
then he can motivate the subordinates to the best.
Self-confidence and will-power- Confidence in himself is important to earn the confidence of the
subordinates. He should be trustworthy and should handle the situations with full will power.
(You can read more about Self-Confidence at : Self Confidence - Tips to be Confident and
Eliminate Your Apprehensions).
Humanist-This trait to be present in a leader is essential because he deals with human beings and
is in personal contact with them. He has to handle the personal problems of his subordinates with
great care and attention. Therefore, treating the human beings on humanitarian grounds is
essential for building a congenial environment.
Empathy- It is an old adage Stepping into the shoes of others. This is very important because
fair judgement and objectivity comes only then. A leader should understand the problems and
complaints of employees and should also have a complete view of the needs and aspirations of
the employees. This helps in improving human relations and personal contacts with the
Motivation is a goal-oriented characteristic that helps a person achieve his objectives. It pushes
an individual to work hard at achieving his or her goals. An executive must have the right
leadership traits to influence motivation. However, there is no specific blueprint for motivation.
As a leader, one should keep an open perspective on human nature. Knowing different needs of
subordinates will certainly make the decision-making process easier.
Both an employee as well as manager must possess leadership and motivational traits. An
effective leader must have a thorough knowledge of motivational factors for others. He must
understand the basic needs of employees, peers and his superiors. Leadership is used as a means
of motivating others.
Given below are important guidelines that outline the basic view of motivation:
Harmonize and match the subordinate needs with the organizational needs. As a leader, the
executive must ensure that the business has the same morals and ethics that he seeks in his
employees. He should make sure that his subordinates are encouraged and trained in a manner
that meets the needs of the business.


Appreciation and rewards are key motivators that influence a person to achieve a desired goal.
Rewarding good/ exceptional behavior with a small token of appreciation, certificate or letter can
be a great motivator. If a certificate is awarded to a person, it should mention the particular act or
the quality for which the individual is being rewarded.
Being a role model is also a key motivator that influences people in reaching their goals. A leader
should set a good example to ensure his people to grow and achieve their goals effectively.
Encouraging individuals to get involved in planning and important issues resolution procedure
not only motivates them, but also teaches the intricacies of these key decision-making factors.
Moreover, it will help everyone to get better understanding of their role in the organization. The
communication will be unambiguous and will certainly attract acknowledgement and
appreciation from the leader.
Developing moral and team spirit certainly has a key impact on the well-being of an
organization. The metal or emotional state of a person constitutes his or her moral fabric. A
leaders actions and decisions affect the morale of his subordinates. Hence, he should always be
aware of his decisions and activities. Team spirit is the soul of the organization. The leader
should always make sure his subordinates enjoy performing their duties as a team and make
themselves a part of the organizations plans.
A leader should step into the shoes of the subordinates and view things from subordinates angle.
He should empathize with them during difficult times. Empathizing with their personal problems
makes them stronger-mentally and emotionally.
A meaningful and challenging job accomplished inculcates a sense of achievement among
employees. The executive must make their employees feel they are performing an important
work that is necessary for the organizations well-being and success. This motivational aspect
drives them to fulfill goals.
Remember, To become an efficient leader, you must be self-motivated. You must know your
identity, your needs and you must have a strong urge to do anything to achieve your goals. Once
you are self-motivated, only then you can motivate others to achieve their goals and to
harmonize their personal goals with the common goals of the organization.
Organizations need strong leadership for optimum effectiveness. Leadership, as we know, is a
trait which is both inbuilt and can be acquired also. Organizational leadership deals with both
human psychology as well as expert tactics. Organizational leadership emphasizes on developing
leadership skills and abilities that are relevant across the organizations. It means the potential of
the individuals to face the hard times in the industry and still grow during those times. It clearly
identifies and distinguishes the leaders from the managers. The leader should have potential to
control the group of individuals.


An ideal organizational leader should not dominate over others. He should guide the individuals
under him, give them a sense of direction to achieve organizational goals successfully and should
act responsibly. He should be optimistic for sure. He should be empathetic and should understand
the need of the group members. An organizational leader should not only lead others individually
but also manage the actions of the group.
Individuals who are highly ambitious, have high energy level, an urge to lead, self-confidence,
intelligence, have thorough knowledge of job, are honest and flexible are more likely to succeed
as organizational leaders. Individuals who learn the organizational leadership develop abilities
and skills of teamwork, effective communication, conflict resolution, and group problem solving
techniques. Organizational leaders clearly communicate organizational mission, vision and
policies; build employees morale, ensure efficient business operations; help employees grow
professionally and contribute positively towards organizations mission.
Tips for Effective Organizational Leadership
A leader must lead himself, only then he can lead others. He must be committed on personal and
professional front, and must be responsible. He must be a role model for others and set an
example for them.
A leader must boost up the morale of the employees. He should motivate them well so that they
are committed to the organization. He should be well acquainted with them, have concern for
them and encourage them to take initiatives. This will result in more efficient and effective
employees and ensure organizational success.
A leader must work as a team. He should always support his team and respect them. He should
not hurt any employee. A true leader should not be too bossy and should not consider him as the
supreme authority. He should realize that he is part of the organization as a whole.
Organizational leadership involves all the processes and possible results that lead to development
and achievement of organizational goals. It includes employees involvement, genuineness,
effective listening and strategic communication.



Business Leader
Anil Manibhai Naik
Anil Manibhai Naik(born June 9, 1942) is the Group Executive Chairman of Larsen & Toubro
Limited, an Indian engineering conglomerate.
He was awarded the Padma Bhushan, India's 3rd highest civilian award, on January 26, 2009.
Naik was also the recipient of the 'Economic Times Awards-Business Leader of the Year' award,
for the year 2008.

Early life and Career

Naik comes from Endhal, a village in South Gujarat, and belongs to a family of teachers. He
graduated with a bachelors degree in mechanical engineering from Birla Vishvakarma
Mahavidyalaya Engineering college inVallabh Vidyanagar in Gujarat.[3]
After graduation, he went to Bombay with a note from his father introducing him to Viren J.
Shah working inMukand Iron & Steel Works Limited to apply for its engineering programme.
Due to his lack of proficiency in English, the personnel manager had asked him to improve his
English. So Mr. Naik started working on his English skills. In the meantime, he joined Nestler
Boilers, which was a Parsi-owned firm.
His career growth in Nestor Boilers was arrested by changes in ownership and management style
and hence, once again, he was job hunting in 1965.
On March 15, 1965, Naik joined L&T, as a junior engineer. He was promoted as general
manager in 1986. In 1999, he became the chief executive officer and managing director. And in
2003, he was appointed as chairman of Larsen & Toubro Ltd.
He is currently developing the educational institution set up by his father in a region called
Kharel, Gujarat.2009.
He is currently the chairman of Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad.
Y.M. Deosthalee, former Chief Financial Officer of L&T, who is now Chairman of L&T Finance,
says the foundation was Naik's idea. "His business acumen is really high," he says. He has been
with Naik on the L&T board for over a decade, and has known him for more than two. He says
Naik's greatest strengths are his long-term vision and networking chops. "He works very hard,
and expects the same from others. He does not accept mediocre work," says Deosthalee.
What does Naik consider his biggest move at L&T? He goes back to the 1970s, when an Indian
management took over L&T and promotions became driven by seniority instead of merit. On the
fast track until 1974, he now found himself among the slowest movers: it took him 12 years to
rise from deputy general manager to general manager. His sluggish progress prompted other

companies to offer him jobs. "A very unfortunate degeneration of merit began," he says. He
sought to make merit an important part of his blueprint for L&T's success. In the past 10 years,
the company has changed its remuneration structure four times to achieve this goal. It has tried to
be in tune with a restless and ambitious generation that believes one cannot get to the top without
changing jobs.
Naik explains that in a seniority-driven atmosphere, people are compared to others of their age
and with their experience, and it is difficult for an efficient worker to break through the ranks.
Things have changed, he adds. "An L&T man is sought after by other companies, especially
multinational companies coming to India."
Asked whether he ever thought of quitting L&T, especially during the tough days in the 1970s
and 1980s, Naik says he has applied for a job only twice, and never after joining L&T. "Just four
months after I became CEO in 1999, I got a call from a head-hunter seeking an Asia head for a
multinational company," says Naik. He said he was not interested, and asked the head-hunter if
he was interested in helping L&T hire people. "That was the last call I got," he says. "People
realised it is impossible to dissociate Naik from L&T."
If anything defines him more than his sense of achievement and his 18-hour workdays, it is
loyalty to the company. Like his father, an educator who returned to his village from Mumbai
after retirement, Naik plans to devote himself to education. However, he does not plan to leave
the city. His retirement home is across from L&T's campus in Powai. He has often said he wants
to die with the factory in sight.
Naik's love for L&T began even before the company hired him. He had to choose between an
interview in Pune with electronics manufacturer Philips and one with L&T in Mumbai, as both
were on the same day. In the second round of interviews, he was deemed "over-confident".
L&T reduced its offer by Rs 90 to Rs 670 a month, and offered a lower designation. His
employer at the time, Nestler Boilers, was planning to send him to England for training, and had
promised a salary of Rs 850 a month after he returned. In spite of everything, Naik chose L&T.
What happened then, we know.


Awards and Honors

Senior member of the Confederation of Indian Industry.

Member of the Board of Trade, Ministry of Commerce, Government of India.

Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineers.

Member of the Board of Governors of the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad.

Received the Special Award for Business Leader of the Year Building India from the
TV channel, NDTV Profit.

Recipient of Gujarat Garima Award 2009. Awarded on 22 January 2009

Recipient of Lakshya Business Visionary Award. Awarded by National Institute of

Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Mumbai.

Received Asia Business Leader Award for 2010 by CNBC Asia.

Received CNBC Asia - Outstanding Business Leader Award for 2010.

Conferred Doctor of Letters (Honoris Causa) by the Sardar Patel University on 15

December 2011

He is nominated as the Chairman of the IIMA (IIM Ahmedabad) Society and the Board
of Governors, for a period of three years starting March 28, 2012

Honorary doctorate from Gujarat Technological University on 19 January 2013.

Qualities of leader
How often have you heard the comment, He or she is a born leader? There are certain
characteristics found in some people that seem to naturally put them in a position where theyre
looked up to as a leader.
Whether in fact a person is born a leader or develops skills and abilities to become a leader is
open for debate. There are some clear characteristics that are found in good leaders. These
qualities can be developed or may be naturally part of their personality. Let us explore them


Eight Personal Qualities Found In A Good Leader:
1. A good leader has an exemplary character. It is of utmost importance that a leader is
trustworthy to lead others. A leader needs to be trusted and be known to live their life with
honestly and integrity. A good leader walks the talk and in doing so earns the right to have
responsibility for others. True authority is born from respect for the good character and
trustworthiness of the person who leads.
2. A good leader is enthusiastic about their work or cause and also about their role as leader.
People will respond more openly to a person of passion and dedication. Leaders need to be able
to be a source of inspiration, and be a motivator towards the required action or cause. Although
the responsibilities and roles of a leader may be different, the leader needs to be seen to be part
of the team working towards the goal. This kind of leader will not be afraid to roll up their
sleeves and get dirty.
3. A good leader is confident. In order to lead and set direction a leader needs to appear confident
as a person and in the leadership role. Such a person inspires confidence in others and draws out
the trust and best efforts of the team to complete the task well. A leader who conveys confidence
towards the proposed objective inspires the best effort from team members.
4 . A leader also needs to function in an orderly and purposeful manner in situations of
uncertainty. People look to the leader during times of uncertainty and unfamiliarity and find
reassurance and security when the leader portrays confidence and a positive demeanor.
5. Good leaders are tolerant of ambiguity and remain calm, composed and steadfast to the main
purpose. Storms, emotions, and crises come and go and a good leader takes these as part of the
journey and keeps a cool head.
6. A good leader as well as keeping the main goal in focus is able to think analytically. Not only
does a good leader view a situation as a whole, but is able to break it down into sub parts for
closer inspection. Not only is the goal in view but a good leader can break it down into
manageable steps and make progress towards it.
7. A good leader is committed to excellence. Second best does not lead to success. The good
leader not only maintains high standards, but also is proactive in raising the bar in order to
achieve excellence in all areas.


8. Communication
Knowing what you want accomplished may seem clear in your head, but if you try to explain it
to someone else and are met with a blank expression, you know there is a problem. If this has
been your experience, then you may want to focus on honing your communication skills. Being
able to clearly and succinctly describe what you want done is extremely important. If you cant
relate your vision to your team, you wont all be working towards the same goal.
Training new members and creating a productive work environment all depend on healthy lines
of communication. Whether that stems from an open door policy to your office, or making it a
point to talk to your staff on a daily basis, making yourself available to discuss interoffice issues
is vital. Your team will learn to trust and depend on you, and will be less hesitant to work harder.
These seven personal characteristics are foundational to good leadership. Some characteristics
may be more naturally present in the personality of a leader. However, each of these
characteristics can also be developed and strengthened. A good leader whether they naturally
possess these qualities or not, will be diligent to consistently develop and strengthen them in
their leadership role.



Leadership skills can play a large role in career development. Often, your technical skills can
only take you so far. To help you move forward in your career, you need soft skills such as the
ability to be a good leader. Therefore, leadership skills are considered to be important traits
which can help you get to the top of your career field. You're more likely to be hired or get a
promotion if you've been successful in leadership roles in your professional or personal life.
Few people are born to be leaders. Most of us need to practice being a good leader, and that's
why leadership development is so important. There are many different types of leadership, and
there are many skillsets that can help you become a successful leader.
Most bosses will assign their employees tasks that the employees have proven to be adept at.
Therefore, don't wait to take on more responsibilities. Go above and beyond at your current
position. A good way to develop your skills is to take on extra projects outside of your job
description. Remember, the more work you do, the more you are learning. Learning more and
Taking on more responsibility can help move you into a leadership role in your workplace.
To be hired for a high-profile job, you will need to be a critical thinker. Good leaders are able to
foresee potential problems before they happen. They can then develop ways to prevent the
problems from happening. Good leaders are also aware of potential opportunities and take
advantage of them to benefit the company and employees.
One of the most important skills for a leader is listening. Without listening skills, you are not
able to get feedback from others and get a sense of what team members like about the projects
they work on. Feedback is key. To listen effectively, you need to maintain eye contact, avoid
distractions and respond appropriately. Keep in mind, communication is not only about verbal
communication. Be aware of body language and gestures to determine what people are really