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Apocalypse

This article is about the general concept of Apocalypse.


For specic Apocalypses, see Apocalypse (disambiguation).
An apocalypse (Ancient Greek: apoc-

St. John at Patmos: the receiving of an apocalyptic vision


Apocalypse depicted in Christian Orthodox traditional fresco
scenes in Osogovo Monastery, Republic of Macedonia

1.1 Dreams
The revelation of a meaningful future may be made
through a dream, as was the experience of the Hebrew
prophet Daniel,[2] which is recorded in the book with his
name, or through a vision, as was granted in the Christian
Book of Revelation.

lypsis, from and meaning uncovering),


translated literally from Greek, is a disclosure of knowledge, i.e., a lifting of the veil or revelation. In religious
contexts it is usually a disclosure of something hidden. In
the Book of Revelation (Greek: ,
Apocalypsis Ioannou), the last book of the New Testament, the revelation which John receives is that of the ultimate victory of good over evil and the end of the present
age, and that is the primary meaning of the term, one that
dates to 1175.[1] Today, it is commonly used in reference
to any prophetic revelation or so-called End Time scenario, or to the end of the world in general.

In Biblical accounts of revelations the manner of the revelation and its reception is generally described. According
to the Book of Daniel, after a long period of fasting,[3]
Daniel is standing by a river when a heavenly being appears to him, and the revelation follows (Daniel 10:2).
John, in the New Testament Book of Revelation (1:9),
has a similar experience, told in similar words. Compare
also the rst chapter of the Greek Apocalypse of Baruch;
and the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch, vi.1, xiii.1, lv.1
3. Or, as the prophet lies upon his bed, distressed for the
future of his people, he falls into a sort of trance, and in
the visions of his head is shown the future. This is the

Biblical ideas
1

1 BIBLICAL IDEAS

case in Daniel 7:1; 2 Esdras 3:13; and in the Book of


Enoch, i.2 and following. As to the description of the effect of the vision upon the seer, see Daniel 8:27; Enoch,
lx.3; 2 Esdras 5:14.

1.2

Angels

Typically, the messengers of the apocalyptic revelation


are described as angels. In the Bible, God may give a
revelation or instructions through the medium of these
heavenly messengers; they act as the seers guide. God
may himself give a revelation, as is shown in the Book
of Revelation through the person of Jesus Christ. The
book of Genesis speaks of the angel bringing forth the
revelation.

1.3

Future

to about 167 BCE, when Antiochus Epiphanes sacked


Jerusalem and desecrated the Holy Places.) This serves
as the introduction to the eschatological predictions in the
twelfth chapter.
Similarly, in the dream recounted in 2 Esdras 11 and 12,
the eagle, seemingly representing the Roman Empire, is
followed by the lion, representing the promised Messiah,
who is to deliver the chosen people and establish an everlasting kingdom. A transition from history to prediction may be seen in xii.28, where the expected end of
Domitian's reign and with it the end of the world
seems foretold. Another example of the same kind is
Sibyllines verses, iii.60823. Compare also Assumptio
Mosis, viiix. But in nearly all religious writings classed
as apocalypses or revelations the eschatological element
is prominent. Speculation regarding the age to come and
the hope for the chosen people more than anything else
occasioned the rise and inuenced the development of
apocalyptic literature.

The Biblical prophets revelations show Gods justice as


taking place in the future or as imminent now. The genre
of revelation aims to show Gods way of dealing with hu- 1.4
mankind and His ultimate purposes, and its writers often
reveal the meaning of present events in connection with
the ending of the present age. In the book of Daniel the
revelation is described as that which shall come to pass
in the later days (Daniel 2:28;[4] compare verse 29); similarly Daniel 10:14, to make thee understand what shall
befall thy people in the later days";[5] compare Enoch, i.1,
2; x.2. So too in Revelation 1:1 (compare the Septuagint
translation of Daniel 2:28), Revelation... that which
must shortly come to pass.

Symbolism

Viktor Vasnetsov, the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse

Detailed future history seems not to be the main focus of


Biblical revelation, but may form a setting for the revelation of Gods meaning, in which a panorama of successive
events passes from the known to the unknown. Thus in
the eleventh chapter of Daniel it appears that detailed history of the Greek empire in the East from the conquest
of Alexander to the latter part of the reign of Antiochus
Epiphanes (verses 339), all presented in the form of a
prediction, continues with a description (verses 4045)
of events which had not yet taken place but were expected
by the writer: the wars which should result in the death
of Antiochus and the fall of his kingdom (some modern scholars therefore date the composition of the book

The Seven trumpets.

Symbolism is a frequent characteristic of apocalyptic


writing. One instance of this occurs where gematria is
employed, either for obscuring the writers meaning or
enhancing it; as a number of ancient cultures used letters also as numbers (i.e., the Romans with their use of
"Roman numerals"). Thus the symbolic name "Taxo,
"Assumptio Mosis", ix. 1; the Number of the Beast"
(616/666), in the Book of Revelation 13:18;[6] the number 888 ('I), Sibyllines, i.32630.

3
Similar is the frequent prophecy of the length of time
through which the events predicted must be fullled.
Thus, the time, times, and a half, Daniel 12:7[7] which
has been taken to be 3 years in length by Dispensationalists; the "fty-eight times" of Enoch, xc.5, "Assumptio Mosis", x.11; the announcement of a certain number of weeks or days, which starting point in Daniel
9:24, 25 is the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince
shall be seven weeks,[8] a mention of 1290 days after the covenant/sacrice is broken (Daniel 12:11),[9] 12;
Enoch xciii.310; 2 Esdras 14:11, 12; Apocalypse of
Baruch xxviviii; Revelation 11:3, which mentions two
witnesses with supernatural power,[10] 12:6;[11] compare
Assumptio Mosis, vii.1. Symbolic language is also used to
describe persons, things or events; thus, the horns of
Daniel 7 and 8;[12] Revelation 17[13] and following; the
heads and wings of 2 Esdras xi and following; the
seven seals of Revelation 6;[14] trumpets, Revelation 8;[15]
vials of the wrath of God or bowl... judgments, Revelation 16;[16] the dragon, Revelation 12:317,[17] Revelation 20:1-3;[18] the eagle, Assumptio Mosis, x.8; and so
on.
Russian Orthodox icon Apocalypse
As examples of more elaborate prophecies and allegories,
aside from those in Daniel Chapters 7 and 8; and 2 Esdras Chapters 11 and 12, already referred to, may be
mentioned: the vision of the bulls and the sheep, Enoch
lxxxv and following; the forest, the vine, the fountain, and
the cedar, Apocalypse of Baruch xxxvi and following; the
bright and the black waters, ibid. liii and following; the
willow and its branches, Hermas, Similitudines, viii.

End of the age

In the Book of Revelation, the author writes about the


revelation of Jesus Christ as Messiah, and about present
tribulations leading to the ending of this age and the coming of Gods Kingdom. Hence the term 'apocalypse' has
come to be used, very loosely, for the end of the world.
In the Hebrew Old Testament some pictures of the end of
the age were images of the judgment of the wicked and
the glorication of those who were given righteousness
before God. In the Book of Job and in some Psalms the
dead are described as being in Sheol, awaiting the nal
judgment. The wicked will then be consigned to eternal suering in the res of Gehinnom, or the lake of re
mentioned in the Book of Revelation.[16][19][20][21][22]

Apocalyptic I by contemporary Mexican painter Mauricio Garca Vega.

cation of the righteous, from the time when they emerged


from Judaism and spread out into the world in the rst
century. The poetic and prophetic literature of the
Hebrew Bible, particularly in Isaiah, were rich in millennial imagery, and New Testament writers after Pentecost
carried on with this theme. During his imprisonment by
the Romans on the Island of Patmos, John in the Book of
Revelation, chapter 20, receives a vision of a thousandyear reign of Christ/Messiah upon the earth.
Some Christian movements in the 18th and 19th centuries
were characterized by a rise of Millennialism. All Christian apocalyptic eschatology has been concerned with the
two themes referred to through the Bible as this age
and the age coming. Evangelical Christians have been
in the forefront popularizing the biblical prophecy of a
major confrontation between good and evil at the end of
this age, a coming Millennium to follow, and a nal confrontation whereby the wicked are judged, the righteous
are rewarded and the beginning of Eternity is viewed.

In his New Testament letters the Apostle Paul also has


written about the judgment of the wicked and the glorication of those who belong to Christ or Messiah. In letters
to the Corinthians and the Thessalonians Paul expounds
further the destiny of the righteous. He speaks of the simultaneous resurrection and transformation of those who
are in Christ (or Messiah).
Some evangelical Christians have taught a form of milSome Christians had a Millennial expectation of glori- lennialism known as Dispensationalism, which arose in

the 19th century. Dispensationalists see separate destinies for the Christian Church and Israel. Their concept of a pre-Tribulation Rapture of the Church has become better known, thanks in part to the Left Behind series of books and lms. Dispensationalists nd in Biblical prophecy predictions of future events: periods of
the Church, for example, shown through the letters to
the seven churches in the Revelation of John; the throne
of God in heaven and his glory; specic judgments that
will occur on the earth; the nal form of Gentile power;
God' re-dealing with Israel[23] based upon covenants mentioned in the Hebrew Old Testament; the second coming
proper; a one-thousand year reign of Messiah; a last test
of mankinds sinful nature under ideal conditions by the
loosing of Satan, with a judgment of re coming down
from Heaven that follows; the Great White Throne judgment, and the re-creation of the current heavens and the
earth as a New Heaven and New Earth[24][25][26] ushering in the beginning of Eternity. A diering interpretation is found in the Post Tribulation Rapture.

REFERENCES

[2] Daniel 1 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway.


Archived from the original on 29 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-15.
[3] Daniel 10:14 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway.
Archived from the original on 9 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-15.
[4] Daniel 2:28 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway.
Archived from the original on 9 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-15.
[5] Daniel 10:14 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway.
Archived from the original on 9 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-15.
[6] Revelation 13:1618 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. 2012. Archived from the original on 5 November
2007. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
[7] Daniel 12:7 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway.
Archived from the original on 9 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-21.

One of the most extensive works covering the sym[8] Daniel 9:2425 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway.
bolic meanings in the Book of Revelation was written
Archived from the original on 9 December 2007. Reby Emanuel Swedenborg called the Apocalypse Revealed,
trieved 2007-11-21.
rst published in two volumes in Amsterdam in 1766, a
condensed version of his unpublished work Apocalypse [9] Daniel 12:11 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway.
Archived from the original on 5 November 2007. ReExplained. Unlike literal interpretations which seek to
trieved 2007-11-21.
interpret the Book of Revelation in terms of historical
events or some future visible event, the end of the age
[10] Revelation 11:3 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway.
is described as the end of the old Christian Protestant
Archived from the original on 9 December 2007. Reand Catholic churches, to be superseded in a new age by
trieved 2007-11-21.
the establishment of the New Church, symbolized by the
[11] Revelation 12:6 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway.
New Jerusalem descending from heaven.
Archived from the original on 9 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-21.

See also
Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic ction
Apocalypse Series (Kanso)
Christian eschatology
Hindu eschatology
Human extinction
Islamic eschatology
Messianic Age
Ragnark
Ultimate fate of the universe

References

[1] Oxford English Dictionary A, Oxford University Press, p.


386.

[12] Daniel 7; Daniel 8 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 9 December 2007.
Retrieved 2007-11-21.
[13] Revelation 17 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway.
Archived from the original on 9 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
[14] Revelation 6 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway.
Archived from the original on 15 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
[15] Revelation 8 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway.
Archived from the original on 9 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
[16] Revelation 16 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway.
Archived from the original on 8 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
[17] Revelation 12:317 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 9 December 2007.
Retrieved 2007-11-21.
[18] Revelation 20:13 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 17 November 2007.
Retrieved 2007-11-21.

[19] Revelation 19:20 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 7 November 2007.
Retrieved 2007-11-21.
[20] Revelation 20:10 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 9 December 2007.
Retrieved 2007-11-21.
[21] Revelation 20:14-15 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 9 December 2007.
Retrieved 2007-11-21.
[22] Revelation 21:8 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway.
Archived from the original on 24 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
[23] Isaiah 66:22 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway.
Archived from the original on 9 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-15.
[24] Isaiah 65:17 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway.
Archived from the original on 9 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-15.
[25] 2 Peter 3:13 (King James Version )". Bible Gateway.
Archived from the original on 9 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-15.
[26] Revelation 21:1 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway.
Archived from the original on 9 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-15.

Further reading
Morris, Henry M (1985) [1983]. The Revelation
Record. Tyndale House and Creation Life.

External links

The Apocalypse on In Our Time at the BBC. (listen


now)
Its the End of the World: 8 Potential Armageddons,
Fox, Sep 29, 2010.
Bible. N.T. Revelation. Latin. Selections. 1470.
Apocalypsis Sancti Johannis. Germany, ca. 1470
48 leaves. illus. 31 cm. From the Rare Book
and Special Collections Division at the Library of
Congress

7 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

7.1

Text

Apocalypse Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apocalypse?oldid=648995939 Contributors: Slrubenstein, Sjc, RK, KF, Hephaestos,


Olivier, Michael Hardy, Llywrch, Arpingstone, Paul A, Pde, Ellywa, Ahoerstemeier, Docu, Emperor, DropDeadGorgias, Charles Matthews,
Dcoetzee, Jallan, Andrevan, Fuzheado, Furrykef, Cleduc, Zero0000, RanchoRosco, Fvw, Wetman, Michael Rawdon, Drernie, Mezaco,
RadicalBender, Robbot, PBS, Mirv, Rursus, Ojigiri, Auric, Andrew Levine, Hadal, Spellbinder, Dominick, DocWatson42, Wolfkeeper,
Tom harrison, Bensaccount, Jdavidb, Dsmdgold, Mboverload, Ojl, Chameleon, SWAdair, Manuel Anastcio, Andycjp, Popefauvexxiii,
SarekOfVulcan, Antandrus, Kusunose, Cberlet, Mukerjee, Rdsmith4, One Salient Oversight, Biot, Raylu, Zeeshanhasan, Mike Rosoft,
Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough, Pjacobi, Ivan Bajlo, Xezbeth, Paul August, Stbalbach, CamLewis, Andrejj, Evice, Yasis, El C, Lycurgus,
Marcok, Shanes, Jpgordon, Bill Thayer, Bobo192, AdamAtlas, Mathieu, Kx1186, Pearle, Pv000, Nsaa, Eruantalon, GK, Jumbuck, Storm
Rider, Alansohn, JYolkowski, Arthena, AzaToth, Cdc, Caesura, DreamGuy, Wtmitchell, Bsadowski1, Versageek, Pwqn, Bookandcoffee, Smichae, Mahanga, Richard Arthur Norton (1958- ), Simetrical, Woohookitty, TigerShark, Masterjamie, Etacar11, Camw, JHolman,
Jleon, Optichan, Wayward, Shanedidona, Vossanova, KHM03, Dynamax, SqueakBox, Magister Mathematicae, Demonuk, RadioActive,
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RexNL, Gurch, Str1977, Jeremygbyrne, SpectrumDT, Dragons Light, Benanhalt, Vonkje, Mastorrent, Essaregee, DVdm, NSR, Tone,
EamonnPKeane, YurikBot, Darsie, RussBot, WritersCramp, RadioFan, Gaius Cornelius, Alex Bakharev, Pseudomonas, Cryptic, NawlinWiki, Nirvana2013, Grafen, Bloodofox, Dake, UDScott, Endurance, Smartyhall, Hyperqube, Mmmbeer, Sampse 1, Rwalker, DeadEyeArrow, T-rex, FestivalOfSouls, 21655, Lt-wiki-bot, Imaninjapirate, Theda, Closedmouth, Dark Lord Revan, Dr.alf, GraemeL, JoanneB, LeonardoRob0t, Teryx, Auroranorth, Bill, DVD R W, SmackBot, Mattarata, Xnyxx, AdamDobay, McGeddon, Stephensuleeman,
WookieInHeat, Arcan, Rojomoke, PeeJay2K3, Mslimix, Portillo, Ohnoitsjamie, Betacommand, Carl.bunderson, Rmosler2100, Jero77,
Endroit, Keegan, Geneb1955, Kisholi, DMS, SchftyThree, Locriani, Gracenotes, CaveatLector, Mladilozof, Can't sleep, clown will eat
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Van helsing, Alex Usoltsev, Kylu, ShelfSkewed, Richard Keatinge, Gregbard, Funnyfarmofdoom, Cydebot, Ntsimp, Fluence, Lesqual,
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G, DerHexer, Anya sm, Hintswen, DarthOverkill, Ztobor, Riccardobot, FisherQueen, Donmanguno, MartinBot, Donrad, Liam Patrick,
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said Zebedee, Rmckay630, Blanchardb, Ciphermind, Lyonspen, Excirial, Alexbot, Jusdafax, Goodone121, Eeekster, Another berean,
AlexCCCP, Ice Cold Beer, Arjayay, Silena 101, Haylioliver, Tnxman307, Morel, EmotionsInProgress, Anfortas, Sprby5, La Pianista,
Mcbitchin, Versus22, Thughes56, Egmontaz, Editor2020, Buckethand, XLinkBot, Sexiifarrii, Bradv, Motorious, Wikifan87, Nick scooterdog, DaL33T, Danjres, PhilSchabus, Colliric, Thatguyint, CalumH93, Gramy, Addbot, Anisette17, C6541, Some jerk on the Internet,
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Favonian, Kyle1278, Mabeleira2, Illwish, Genius1995, LinkFA-Bot, West.andrew.g, 5 albert square, AgadaUrbanit, Tassedethe, Tide
rolls, Kiril Simeonovski, Don-kun, Devinriley, Strageworld, Math Champion, Yobot, Granpu, Jezza starwars, Rakiramo, Bakersdozen77,
CinchBug, Paulsmitht, Ningauble, IW.HG, Againme, Kookyunii, AnomieBOT, Mauro Lanari, Dark chunk, Striaterminalis, Ulric1313,
Bluerasberry, Tonypage, Materialscientist, Slobking, Ring Cinema, 9s, Dhatman, Felyza, Bob Burkhardt, LilHelpa, Luis Hernndez Garca,
Gsmgm, Ebu Katada, Teadegui, Ga13be, JimVC3, Capricorn42, GoldCorrie, Tyrol5, Hollowtyler, AVBOT, Omnipaedista, Mvaldemar,
Mt3277, Seeleschneider, Zane5Fletcher, Doulos Christos, Shadowjams, iedas, Roypereira, Friend of a friend of a friend, HRIN, FrescoBot, Roschnowski, Java94, HJ Mitchell, Drew R. Smith, Allstrak, Pinethicket, I dream of horses, PrincessofLlyr, 666anonymous666,
Hellknowz, Calmer Waters, Navaliron777, A8UDI, Gmasterman, Jujutacular, Rak-Tai, Shanmugamp7, White Shadows, SkyMachine,
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Bobby122, CuboneKing, Hornlitz, Topcahmp2000, Sun Of The Jaguire, Mean as custard, Pi zza314159, Amyleaman, Tom the rockin
chicken, Afrs, Edman1959, Thedillonattor, Rotok, Doug Webber, DASHBot, Softaildeluxe08, EmausBot, John of Reading, Dolescum,
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KellyLy21, Tlwichow, Michael.Ojugbeli, Swansnic, MerlIwBot, Lotzafun01, Billionari, Senimazarine, Calabe1992, Dusk Orchestra, Lowercase sigmabot, Disastermaster16, Walrus068, Jack73706, PTJoshua, Blake Burba, Pastaguy12, Wiki13, MusikAnimal, AvocatoBot,
Bumblezellio, Mark Arsten, Legaciesgeg, Wikieditrr45, AstolfoJ, Van Gulik, Christinejacks, AdyValdez, Yorrix, BattyBot, Ozarka12134,
Sincerelysally, Lamilo1562, DaisyHarvell, DoctorKubla, Ninjababyy, Reathough45, Cowiejr, Connexx, Skyapocolypse, FirstSonOfKrypton, Tetraterra, XUXA2beAssassin, Reluctant Corrector, Whatisntonre, Kevin12xd, Carys k, Telfordbuck, Destinetoexplode, Greatuser,
Moony22, RadioactivePat, Madreterra, Mishapocalypse1, Israelshekinah, Ginsuloft, JaconaFrere, Eventhorizon51, Sirjon85, Kierdurrant24, Ephemeratta, Seanhughes12, Governmenthater, WastingAway, Striker0614 and Anonymous: 976

7.2

7.2

Images

Images

File:016Apocalptico_I.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7/016Apocal%C3%ADptico_I.jpg License:


CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Mauricio Garca Vega Original artist: Mauricio Garca Vega
File:Ambox_important.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/Ambox_important.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work, based o of Image:Ambox scales.svg Original artist: Dsmurat (talk contribs)
File:Apocalypse_vasnetsov.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e1/Apocalypse_vasnetsov.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://lj.rossia.org/users/john_petrov/166993.html Original artist: Viktor M. Vasnetsov
File:Apokalipsis_XVI.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ab/Apokalipsis_XVI.jpg License: Public domain
Contributors: http://lj.rossia.org/users/john_petrov/1025764.html Original artist: Unknown
File:BambergApocalypseFolio019v7AngelsWith7TrumpetsAnd1WithCenser.JPG Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/7/79/BambergApocalypseFolio019v7AngelsWith7TrumpetsAnd1WithCenser.JPG License: Public domain Contributors:
Bamberger Apokalypse Folio 19 verso, Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek, MS A. II. 42 Original artist: Auftraggeber: Otto III. oder Heinrich
II.
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