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This article is about the sport. For the ball used in

the sport, see Basketball (ball). For other uses, see
Basketball (disambiguation).
Basketball is a sport played by two teams of ve players on a rectangular court. The objective is to shoot a
ball through a hoop 18 inches (46 cm) in diameter and
10 feet (3.048 m) high mounted to a backboard at each
end. Basketball is one of the worlds most popular and
widely viewed sports.[1]
A team can score a eld goal by shooting the ball through
the basket during regular play. A eld goal scores three
points for the shooting team if the player shoots from behind the three-point line, and two points if shot from in
front of the line. A team can also score via free throws,
which are worth one point, after the other team was assessed with certain fouls. The team with the most points
at the end of the game wins, but additional time (overtime) is issued when the game ends in a draw. The ball
can be advanced on the court by bouncing it while walking or running or throwing it to a team mate. It is a violation to lift or drag ones pivot foot without dribbling the
ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands then
resume dribbling.
As well as many techniques for shooting, passing,
dribbling and rebounding, basketball teams generally
have player positions and oensive and defensive structures (player positioning). Traditionally, the tallest and
strongest members of a team are called a center or power
forward, while slightly shorter and more agile players are
called small forward, and the shortest players or those
who possess the best ball handling skills are called a point
guard or shooting guard.

The rst basketball court: Springeld College

door game to keep his students occupied and at proper

levels of tness during the long New England winters.
After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly
suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules
and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot (3.05 m) elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this
peach basket retained its bottom, and balls had to be retrieved manually after each basket or point scored; this
proved inecient, however, so the bottom of the basket
was removed,[4] allowing the balls to be poked out with a
long dowel each time.


Main article: History of basketball


Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball. The

rst balls made specically for basketball were brown,
and it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and
spectators alike, introduced the orange ball that is now in
common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game
except for the bounce pass to teammates. Passing the
ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling
was eventually introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a major


In early December 1891, Canadian Dr. James Naismith,[2] a physical education professor and instructor
at the International Young Mens Christian Association
Training School[3] (YMCA) (today, Springeld College)
in Springeld, Massachusetts was trying to keep his gym
class active on a rainy day. He sought a vigorous in1


part of the game around the 1950s, as manufacturing im- tion of the United States (forerunner of the NCAA) vied
proved the ball shape.
for control over the rules for the game. The rst pro
The peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were league, the National Basketball League, was formed in
nally replaced by metal hoops with backboards. A fur- 1898 to protect players from exploitation and to promote
ther change was soon made, so the ball merely passed a less rough game. This league only lasted ve years.
through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his
team would gain a point. Whichever team got the most
points won the game.[5] The baskets were originally nailed
to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this
proved impractical when spectators on the balcony began
to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to
prevent this interference; it had the additional eect of allowing rebound shots.[6] Naismiths handwritten diaries,
discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate
that he was nervous about the new game he had invented,
which incorporated rules from a childrens game called
"Duck on a Rock", as many had failed before it. Naismith called the new game Basket Ball.[7] The rst ofcial game was played in the YMCA gymnasium in Albany, New York, on January 20, 1892, with nine players. The game ended at 10; the shot was made from 25
feet (7.6 m), on a court just half the size of a presentday Streetball or National Basketball Association (NBA)
court. By 18971898 teams of ve became standard.

Dr. James Naismith was instrumental in establishing

college basketball. His colleague C.O. Beamis elded
the rst college basketball team just a year after the
Springeld YMCA game at the suburban Pittsburgh
Geneva College.[8] Naismith himself later coached at the
University of Kansas for six years, before handing the
reins to renowned coach Forrest Phog Allen. Naismiths disciple Amos Alonzo Stagg brought basketball
to the University of Chicago, while Adolph Rupp, a student of Naismiths at Kansas, enjoyed great success as
coach at the University of Kentucky. On February 9,
1895, the rst intercollegiate 5-on-5 game was played at
Hamline University between Hamline and the School of
Agriculture, which was aliated with the University of
Minnesota.[9][10] The School of Agriculture won in a 93

In 1901, colleges, including the University of Chicago,

Columbia University, Dartmouth College, the University
of Minnesota, the U.S. Naval Academy, the University
of Colorado and Yale University began sponsoring mens
games. In 1905, frequent injuries on the football eld
1.2 College basketball
prompted President Theodore Roosevelt to suggest that
colleges form a governing body, resulting in the creSee also: College basketball
ation of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the
Basketballs early adherents were dispatched to YMUnited States (IAAUS). In 1910, that body would change
its name to the National Collegiate Athletic Association
(NCAA). The rst Canadian interuniversity basketball
game was played at the YMCA in Kingston, Ontario
on February 6, 1904, when McGill University visited
Queens University. McGill won 97 in overtime; the
score was 77 at the end of regulation play, and a tenminute overtime period settled the outcome. A good
turnout of spectators watched the game.[11]

The 1899 University of Kansas basketball team, with James Naismith at the back, right.

The rst mens national championship tournament, the

National Association of Intercollegiate Basketball tournament, which still exists as the National Association
of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) tournament, was organized in 1937. The rst national championship for
NCAA teams, the National Invitation Tournament (NIT)
in New York, was organized in 1938; the NCAA national
tournament would begin one year later. College basketball was rocked by gambling scandals from 1948 to 1951,
when dozens of players from top teams were implicated
in match xing and point shaving. Partially spurred by
an association with cheating, the NIT lost support to the
NCAA tournament.

CAs throughout the United States, and it quickly spread

through the USA and Canada. By 1895, it was well established at several womens high schools. While the YMCA
was responsible for initially developing and spreading
the game, within a decade it discouraged the new sport,
as rough play and rowdy crowds began to detract from
the YMCAs primary mission. However, other amateur 1.3 High school basketball
sports clubs, colleges, and professional clubs quickly lled
the void. In the years before World War I, the Amateur See also: List of U.S. high school basketball national
Athletic Union and the Intercollegiate Athletic Associa- player of the year awards


Professional basketball

national high school champion. The most serious eort
was the National Interscholastic Basketball Tournament
at the University of Chicago from 1917 to 1930. The
event was organized by Amos Alonzo Stagg and sent invitations to state champion teams. The tournament started
out as a mostly Midwest aair but grew. In 1929 it
had 29 state champions. Faced with opposition from the
National Federation of State High School Associations
and North Central Association of Colleges and Schools
that bore a threat of the schools losing their accreditation
the last tournament was in 1930. The organizations said
they were concerned that the tournament was being used
to recruit professional players from the prep ranks.[13]
The tournament did not invite minority schools or private/parochial schools.

The National Catholic Interscholastic Basketball Tournament ran from 1924 to 1941 at Loyola University.[14]
The National Catholic Invitational Basketball Tournament from 1954 to 1978 played at a series of venues,
including Catholic University, Georgetown and George
Mason.[15] The National Interscholastic Basketball Tournament for Black High Schools was held from 1929
to 1942 at Hampton Institute.[16] The National InvitaA basketball game between the Heart Mountain and Powell High tional Interscholastic Basketball Tournament was held
School girls teams, Wyoming, March 1944
from 1941 to 1967 starting out at Tuskegee Institute.
Following a pause during World War II it resumed at
Tennessee State College in Nashville. The basis for the
champion dwindled after 1954 when Brown v. Board of
Before widespread school district consolidation, most Education began an integration of schools. The last tourwere held at Alabama State College from 1964
American high schools were far smaller than their naments[17]
present-day counterparts. During the rst decades of the
20th century, basketball quickly became the ideal interscholastic sport due to its modest equipment and person1.4 Professional basketball
nel requirements. In the days before widespread television coverage of professional and college sports, the pop- Teams abounded throughout the 1920s. There were hunularity of high school basketball was unrivaled in many dreds of mens professional basketball teams in towns and
parts of America. Perhaps the most legendary of high
cities all over the United States, and little organization
school teams was Indianas Franklin Wonder Five, which of the professional game. Players jumped from team
took the nation by storm during the 1920s, dominating
to team and teams played in armories and smoky dance
Indiana basketball and earning national recognition.
halls. Leagues came and went. Barnstorming squads
Today virtually every high school in the United States
elds a basketball team in varsity competition.[12] Basketballs popularity remains high, both in rural areas where
they carry the identication of the entire community, as
well as at some larger schools known for their basketball
teams where many players go on to participate at higher
levels of competition after graduation. In the 200304
season, 1,002,797 boys and girls represented their schools
in interscholastic basketball competition, according to the
National Federation of State High School Associations.
The states of Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky are particularly well known for their residents devotion to high
school basketball, commonly called Hoosier Hysteria in
Indiana; the critically acclaimed lm Hoosiers shows high
school basketballs depth of meaning to these communities.

such as the Original Celtics and two all-African American teams, the New York Renaissance Five (Rens) and
the (still existing) Harlem Globetrotters played up to two
hundred games a year on their national tours.

In 1946, the Basketball Association of America (BAA)

was formed. The rst game was played in Toronto, Ontario, Canada between the Toronto Huskies and New
York Knickerbockers on November 1, 1946. Three seasons later, in 1949, the BAA merged with the National
Basketball League to form the National Basketball Association (NBA). By the 1950s, basketball had become a
major college sport, thus paving the way for a growth of
interest in professional basketball. In 1959, a basketball
hall of fame was founded in Springeld, Massachusetts,
site of the rst game. Its rosters include the names of
great players, coaches, referees and people who have conThere is currently no national tournament to determine a tributed signicantly to the development of the game.


USA vs Mexico at the 2014 FIBA World Cup

Ad from The Liberator magazine promoting an exhibition in

Harlem, March 1922. Drawing by Hugo Gellert.

The hall of fame has people who have accomplished many

goals in their career in basketball. An upstart organization, the American Basketball Association, emerged in
1967 and briey threatened the NBAs dominance until
the ABA-NBA merger in 1976. Today the NBA is the
top professional basketball league in the world in terms
of popularity, salaries, talent, and level of competition.
The NBA has featured many famous players, including George Mikan, the rst dominating big man"; ballhandling wizard Bob Cousy and defensive genius Bill
Russell of the Boston Celtics; Wilt Chamberlain, who
originally played for the barnstorming Harlem Globetrotters; all-around stars Oscar Robertson and Jerry West;
more recent big men Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Shaquille
O'Neal and Karl Malone; playmaker John Stockton;
crowd-pleasing forward Julius Erving; European stars
Dirk Nowitzki and Draen Petrovi; more recent stars
LeBron James, Kevin Durant, & Kobe Bryant and the
three players who many credit with ushering the professional game to its highest level of popularity: Larry Bird,
Earvin Magic Johnson, and Michael Jordan. In 2001,
the NBA formed a developmental league, the NBDL. As
of 2014, the league has 18 teams.


International basketball

The International Basketball Federation was formed

in 1932 by eight founding nations:
Czechoslovakia, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Portugal,
Romania and Switzerland. At this time, the organization

only oversaw amateur players. Its acronym, derived

from the French Fdration Internationale de Basketball
Amateur, was thus "FIBA". Mens Basketball was rst
included at the Berlin 1936 Summer Olympics, although
a demonstration tournament was held in 1904. The
United States defeated Canada in the rst nal, played
outdoors. This competition has usually been dominated
by the United States, whose team has won all but three
titles. The rst of these came in a controversial nal
game in Munich in 1972 against the Soviet Union, in
which the ending of the game was replayed three times
until the Soviet Union nally came out on top.[18] In 1950
the rst FIBA World Championship for men was held
in Argentina. Three years later, the rst FIBA World
Championship for Women was held in Chile. Womens
basketball was added to the Olympics in 1976, which
were held in Montreal, Canada with teams such as the
Soviet Union, Brazil and Australia rivaling the American
FIBA dropped the distinction between amateur and professional players in 1989, and in 1992, professional players played for the rst time in the Olympic Games. The
United States dominance continued with the introduction of their Dream Team. However, with developing
programs elsewhere, other national teams started to beat
the United States. A team made entirely of NBA players nished sixth in the 2002 World Championships in
Indianapolis, behind Yugoslavia, Argentina, Germany,
New Zealand and Spain. In the 2004 Athens Olympics,
the United States suered its rst Olympic loss while
using professional players, falling to Puerto Rico (in a
19-point loss) and Lithuania in group games, and being
eliminated in the seminals by Argentina. It eventually
won the bronze medal defeating Lithuania, nishing behind Argentina and Italy. In 2006, in the World Championship of Japan, the United States advanced to the seminals but were defeated by Greece by 10195. In the
bronze medal game it beat team Argentina and nished
3rd behind Greece and Spain. After the disappointments
of 2002 through 2006, the U.S. regrouped, reestablishing
themselves as the dominant international team behind the


Womens basketball

"Redeem Team", which won gold at the 2008 Olympics, nationally, becoming poster gures for the sport in Ausand the so-called B-Team, which won gold at the 2010 tralia. The Womens National Basketball League began
FIBA World Championship in Turkey despite featuring in 1981.
no players from the 2008 squad.
The all-tournament teams at the 2002 and 2006 FIBA
World Championships, respectively held in Indianapolis and Japan, demonstrate the globalization of the game
equally dramatically. Only one member of either team
was American, namely Carmelo Anthony in 2006. The
2002 team featured Nowitzki, Ginobili, Yao, Peja Stojakovic of Yugoslavia (now of Serbia), and Pero Cameron
of New Zealand. Ginobili also made the 2006 team;
the other members were Anthony, Gasol, his Spanish
teammate Jorge Garbajosa and Theodoros Papaloukas of
Greece. The only players on either team to never have
joined the NBA are Cameron and Papaloukas. The alltournament team from the 2010 edition in Turkey featured four NBA playersMVP Kevin Durant of Team
USA and the Oklahoma City Thunder, Linas Kleiza of
Lithuania and the Toronto Raptors, Luis Scola of Argentina and the Houston Rockets, and Hedo Trkolu of
Turkey and the Phoenix Suns. The only non-NBA player
was Serbias Milo Teodosi. The strength of international Basketball is evident in the fact that Team USA
won none of the three world championships held between
1998 and 2006, with Serbia (then known as Yugoslavia)
winning in 1998 and 2002 and Spain in 2006.
Worldwide, basketball tournaments are held for boys and
girls of all age levels. The global popularity of the sport
is reected in the nationalities represented in the NBA.
Players from all six inhabited continents currently play
in the NBA. Top international players began coming into
the NBA in the mid-1990s, including Croatians Draen
Petrovi and Toni Kuko, Serbian Vlade Divac, Lithuanians Arvydas Sabonis and arnas Mariulionis and German Detlef Schrempf.
In the Philippines, the Philippine Basketball Association's rst game was played on April 9, 1975 at the
Araneta Coliseum in Cubao, Quezon City. Philippines.
It was founded as a rebellion of several teams from
the now-defunct Manila Industrial and Commercial Athletic Association, which was tightly controlled by the Basketball Association of the Philippines (now defunct), the
then-FIBA recognized national association. Nine teams
from the MICAA participated in the leagues rst season
that opened on April 9, 1975. The NBL is Australias preeminent mens professional basketball league. The league
commenced in 1979, playing a winter season (April
September) and did so until the completion of the 20th
season in 1998. The 199899 season, which commenced
only months later, was the rst season after the shift
to the current summer season format (OctoberApril).
This shift was an attempt to avoid competing directly
against Australias various football codes. It features 8
teams from around Australia and one in New Zealand. A
few players including Luc Longley, Andrew Gaze, Shane
Heal, Chris Anstey and Andrew Bogut made it big inter-

1.6 Womens basketball

See also: Womens basketball
Womens basketball began in 1892 at Smith College

Women of Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Mexico City playing a game at the campus gymnasium

when Senda Berenson, a physical education teacher,

modied Naismiths rules for women. Shortly after she
was hired at Smith, she went to Naismith to learn more
about the game.[19] Fascinated by the new sport and the
values it could teach, she organized the rst womens
collegiate basketball game on March 21, 1893, when
her Smith freshmen and sophomores played against one
another.[20] However, the rst womens interinstitutional
game was played in 1892 between the University of California and Miss Heads School.[21] Berensons rules were
rst published in 1899, and two years later she became
the editor of A. G. Spalding's rst Womens Basketball
Guide.[20] Berensons freshmen played the sophomore
class in the rst womens intercollegiate basketball game
at Smith College, March 21, 1893.[22] The same year,
Mount Holyoke and Sophie Newcomb College (coached
by Clara Gregory Baer) women began playing basketball.
By 1895, the game had spread to colleges across the country, including Wellesley, Vassar, and Bryn Mawr. The
rst intercollegiate womens game was on April 4, 1896.
Stanford women played Berkeley, 9-on-9, ending in a 21
Stanford victory.
Womens basketball development was more structured
than that for men in the early years. In 1905, the Executive Committee on Basket Ball Rules (National Womens
Basketball Committee) was created by the American
Physical Education Association.[23] These rules called
for six to nine players per team and 11 ocials. The
International Womens Sports Federation (1924) included a womens basketball competition. 37 womens
high school varsity basketball or state tournaments were
held by 1925. And in 1926, the Amateur Athletic Union
backed the rst national womens basketball champi-


onship, complete with mens rules.[23] The Edmonton

Grads, a touring Canadian womens team based in
Edmonton, Alberta, operated between 1915 and 1940.
The Grads toured all over North America, and were exceptionally successful. They posted a record of 522 wins
and only 20 losses over that span, as they met any team
that wanted to challenge them, funding their tours from
gate receipts.[24] The Grads also shone on several exhibition trips to Europe, and won four consecutive exhibition Olympics tournaments, in 1924, 1928, 1932, and
1936; however, womens basketball was not an ocial
Olympic sport until 1976. The Grads players were unpaid, and had to remain single. The Grads style focused
on team play, without overly emphasizing skills of individual players. The rst womens AAU All-America
team was chosen in 1929.[23] Womens industrial leagues
sprang up throughout the United States, producing famous athletes, including Babe Didrikson of the Golden
Cyclones, and the All American Red Heads Team, which
competed against mens teams, using mens rules. By
1938, the womens national championship changed from
a three-court game to two-court game with six players per

and millions of dollars will be dispersed to the leagues

teams. The WNBA gets more viewers on national television broadcasts (413,000) than both Major League Soccer (253,000)[25] and the NHL (310,732).[26] In a March
12, 2009 article, NBA commissioner David Stern said
that in the bad economy, the NBA is far less protable
than the WNBA. We're losing a lot of money among a
large number of teams. We're budgeting the WNBA to
break even this year.[27]

Brittney Griner accepting an award.

End of a match.

The NBA-backed Womens National Basketball Association (WNBA) began in 1997. Though it had shaky attendance gures, several marquee players (Lisa Leslie,
Diana Taurasi, and Candace Parker among others) have
helped the leagues popularity and level of competition.
Other professional womens basketball leagues in the
United States, such as the American Basketball League
(199698), have folded in part because of the popularity
of the WNBA. The WNBA has been looked at by many
as a niche league. However, the league has recently taken
steps forward. In June 2007, the WNBA signed a contract
extension with ESPN. The new television deal runs from
2009 to 2016. Along with this deal, came the rst ever
rights fees to be paid to a womens professional sports
league. Over the eight years of the contract, millions

Main article: Rules of basketball

2 Rules and regulations

Measurements and time limits discussed in this section

often vary among tournaments and organizations; international and NBA rules are used in this section.
The object of the game is to outscore ones opponents
by throwing the ball through the opponents basket from
above while preventing the opponents from doing so on
their own. An attempt to score in this way is called a shot.
A successful shot is worth two points, or three points if it
is taken from beyond the three-point arc 6.75 metres (22
ft 2 in) from the basket in international games and 23 feet
9 inches (7.24 m) in NBA games. A one-point shot can
be earned when shooting from the foul line after a foul is





Playing regulations

Games are played in four quarters of 10 (FIBA)[28]

or 12 minutes (NBA).[29] College games use two 20minute halves,[30] while United States high school varsity games use 8 minute quarters.[31] 15 minutes are
allowed for a half-time break under FIBA, NBA, and
NCAA rules[30][32][33] and 10 minutes in United States
high schools.[31] Overtime periods are ve minutes in
length[30][34][35] except for high school, which is four minutes in length.[31] Teams exchange baskets for the second
half. The time allowed is actual playing time; the clock
is stopped while the play is not active. Therefore, games
generally take much longer to complete than the allotted
game time, typically about two hours.
Five players from each team may be on the court at Traditional eight-panel basketball
one time.[36][37][38][39] Substitutions are unlimited but can
only be done when play is stopped. Teams also have
a coach, who oversees the development and strategies
of the team, and other team personnel such as assistant
coaches, managers, statisticians, doctors and trainers.
For both mens and womens teams, a standard uniform
consists of a pair of shorts and a jersey with a clearly visible number, unique within the team, printed on both the
front and back. Players wear high-top sneakers that provide extra ankle support. Typically, team names, players names and, outside of North America, sponsors are
printed on the uniforms.
A limited number of time-outs, clock stoppages requested by a coach (or sometimes mandated in the NBA)
for a short meeting with the players, are allowed. They
generally last no longer than one minute (100 seconds An outdoor basketball net.
in the NBA) unless, for televised games, a commercial
break is needed.
A regulation basketball court in international games is
The game is controlled by the ocials consisting of the 91.9 feet long and 49.2 feet wide. In the NBA and NCAA
referee (referred to as crew chief in the NBA), one or two the court is 94 feet by 50 feet. Most courts have wood
umpires (referred to as referees in the NBA) and the table ooring, usually constructed from maple planks running
ocials. For college, the NBA, and many high schools, in the same direction as the longer court dimension.[40]
there are a total of three referees on the court. The table The name and logo of the home team is usually painted
ocials are responsible for keeping track of each teams on or around the center circle.
scoring, timekeeping, individual and team fouls, player
The basket is a steel rim 18 inches diameter with an atsubstitutions, team possession arrow, and the shot clock.
tached net axed to a backboard that measures 6 feet by
3.5 feet and one basket is at each end of the court. The
white outlined box on the backboard is 18 inches high
2.2 Equipment
and 2 feet wide. At almost all levels of competition, the
Main articles: Basketball (ball), Basketball court and top of the rim is exactly 10 feet above the court and 4
feet inside the baseline. While variation is possible in the
Backboard (basketball)
The only essential equipment in a basketball game is dimensions of the court and backboard, it is considered
the ball and the court: a at, rectangular surface with important for the basket to be of the correct height a
baskets at opposite ends. Competitive levels require the rim that is o by just a few inches can have an adverse
use of more equipment such as clocks, score sheets, eect on shooting.
scoreboard(s), alternating possession arrows, and whistle- The size of the basketball is also regulated. For men, the
operated stop-clock systems.
ocial ball is 29.5 inches in circumference (size 7, or


a 295 ball) and weighs 22 oz. If women are playing, 2.4

the ocial basketball size is 28.5 inches in circumference
(size 6, or a 285 ball) with a weight of 20 oz.




The ball may be advanced toward the basket by being

shot, passed between players, thrown, tapped, rolled or
dribbled (bouncing the ball while running).
The ball must stay within the court; the last team to touch
the ball before it travels out of bounds forfeits possession.
The ball is out of bounds if it touches a boundary line, or
touches any player or object that is out of bounds.
There are limits placed on the steps a player may take
without dribbling, which commonly results in an infraction known as traveling. Nor may a player stop his dribble
and then resume dribbling. A dribble that touches both
hands is considered stopping the dribble, giving this infraction the name double dribble. Within a dribble, the
player cannot carry the ball by placing his hand on the
The referee signals that a foul has been committed.
bottom of the ball; doing so is known as carrying the ball.
A team, once having established ball control in the front
half of their court, may not return the ball to the back- Main articles: Personal foul (basketball) and Technical
court and be the rst to touch it. A violation of these
rules results in loss of possession.
The ball may not be kicked, nor be struck with the st. An attempt to unfairly disadvantage an opponent through
For the oense, a violation of these rules results in loss certain types physical contact is illegal and is called a perof possession; for the defense, most leagues reset the shot sonal foul. These are most commonly committed by declock and the oensive team is given possession of the fensive players; however, they can be committed by offensive players as well. Players who are fouled either reball out of bounds.
ceive the ball to pass inbounds again, or receive one or
There are limits imposed on the time taken before pro- more free throws if they are fouled in the act of shooting,
gressing the ball past halfway (8 seconds in FIBA and the depending on whether the shot was successful. One point
NBA; 10 seconds in NCAA mens play and high school is awarded for making a free throw, which is attempted
for both sexes), before attempting a shot (24 seconds in from a line 15 feet (4.6 m) from the basket.
FIBA and the NBA, 30 seconds in NCAA womens and
Canadian Interuniversity Sport play for both sexes, and The referee is responsible for judging whether contact is
illegal, sometimes resulting in controversy. The calling of
35 seconds in NCAA mens play), holding the ball while
closely guarded (5 seconds), and remaining in the re- fouls can vary between games, leagues and referees.
stricted area known as the free-throw lane, (or the "key") There is a second category of fouls called technical fouls,
(3 seconds). These rules are designed to promote more which may be charged for various rules violations includoense.
ing failure to properly record a player in the scorebook,
Basket interference, or goaltending is a violation or for unsportsmanlike conduct. These infractions result
charged when a player illegally interferes with a shot. This in one or two free throws, which may be taken by any
violation is incurred when a player touches the ball on its of the ve players on the court at the time. Repeated
downward trajectory to the basket, unless it is obvious incidents can result in disqualication. A blatant foul inthat the ball has no chance of entering the basket, if a volving physical contact that is either excessive or unnecplayer touches the ball while it is in the rim, or in the area essary is called an intentional foul (agrant foul in the
extended upwards from the basket, or if a player reaches NBA). In FIBA, a foul resulting in ejection is called a
through the basket to interfere with the shot. When a de- disqualifying foul, while in leagues other than the NBA,
fensive player is charged with goaltending, the basket is such a foul is referred to as agrant.
awarded. If an oensive player commits the infraction, If a team exceeds a certain limit of team fouls in a given
the basket is cancelled. In either case possession of the period (quarter or half) four for NBA and international
games the opposing team is awarded one or two free
ball is turned over to the defensive team.



throws on all subsequent non-shooting fouls for that period, the number depending on the league. In the US college and high school games, if a team reaches 7 fouls in a
half, the opposing team is awarded one free throw, along
with a second shot if the rst is made. This is called shooting one-and-one. If a team exceeds 10 fouls in the half,
the opposing team is awarded two free throws on all subsequent fouls for the half.
When a team shoots foul shots, the opponents may not
interfere with the shooter, nor may they try to regain possession until the last or potentially last free throw is in the


After a team has committed a specied number of fouls,

the other team said to be in the bonus. On scoreboards,
this is usually signied with an indicator light reading
Bonus or Penalty with an illuminated directional arrow or dot indicating that team is to receive free throws
when fouled by the opposing team. (Some scoreboards Basketball positions in the oensive zone
also indicate the number of fouls committed.)

If a team misses the rst shot of a two-shot situation, the

opposing team must wait for the completion of the second Point guard (often called the "1") : usually the fastest
shot before attempting to reclaim possession of the ball player on the team, organizes the teams oense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right
and continuing play.
player at the right time.
If a player is fouled while attempting a shot and the shot
is unsuccessful, the player is awarded a number of free Shooting guard (the "2") : creates a high volume of shots
throws equal to the value of the attempted shot. A player on oense, mainly long-ranged; and guards the oppofouled while attempting a regular two-point shot, then, nents best perimeter player on defense.
receives two shots. A player fouled while attempting a Small forward (the "3") : often primarily responsible for
three-point shot, on the other hand, receives three shots. scoring points via cuts to the basket and dribble penetraIf a player is fouled while attempting a shot and the shot tion; on defense seeks rebounds and steals, but sometimes
is successful, typically the player will be awarded one ad- plays more actively.
ditional free throw for one point. In combination with a
regular shot, this is called a three-point play or fourpoint play (or more colloquially, an and one) because
of the basket made at the time of the foul (2 or 3 points)
and the additional free throw (1 point).


Common techniques and practices


Main article: Basketball position

Although the rules do not specify any positions whatsoever, they have evolved as part of basketball. During the
early years of basketballs evolution,two guards, two forwards, and one center were used. In more recent times
specic positions evolved, but the current trend, advocated by many top coaches including Mike Krzyzewski is
towards positionless basketball, where big guys are free to
shoot from outside and dribble if their skill allows it.[41]
Popular descriptions of positions include:

Power forward (the "4"): plays oensively often with their

back to the basket; on defense, plays under the basket (in
a zone defense) or against the opposing power forward (in
man-to-man defense).
Center (the "5"): uses height and size to score (on offense), to protect the basket closely (on defense), or to
The above descriptions are exible. For most teams today, the shooting guard and small forward have very similar responsibilities and are often called the wings, as
do the power forward and center, who are often called
post players. While most teams describe two players as
guards, two as forwards, and one as a center, on some
occasions teams choose to call them by dierent designations.

3.2 Strategy
Main article: Basketball playbook
There are two main defensive strategies: zone defense and
man-to-man defense. In a zone defense, each player is
assigned to guard a specic area of the court. Zone de-



fenses often allow the defense to double team the ball, a the basket. A player will rest the ball on the ngertips
manoeuver known as a trap. In a man-to-man defense, of the dominant hand (the shooting arm) slightly above
each defensive player guards a specic opponent.
the head, with the other hand supporting the side of the
Oensive plays are more varied, normally involving ball. The ball is usually shot by jumping (though not alplanned passes and movement by players without the ball. ways) and extending the shooting arm. The shooting arm,
A quick movement by an oensive player without the ball fully extended with the wrist fully bent, is held stationary
to gain an advantageous position is known as a cut. A le- for a moment following the release of the ball, known as a
gal attempt by an oensive player to stop an opponent follow-through. Players often try to put a steady backspin
on the ball to absorb its impact with the rim. The ideal
from guarding a teammate, by standing in the defenders
way such that the teammate cuts next to him, is a screen trajectory of the shot is somewhat controversial, but generally a proper arc is recommended. Players may shoot
or pick. The two plays are combined in the pick and
roll, in which a player sets a pick and then rolls away directly into the basket or may use the backboard to redirect the ball into the basket.
from the pick towards the basket. Screens and cuts are
very important in oensive plays; these allow the quick
passes and teamwork, which can lead to a successful basket. Teams almost always have several oensive plays
planned to ensure their movement is not predictable. On
court, the point guard is usually responsible for indicating
which play will occur.



Basketball falling through hoop

The two most common shots that use the above described
setup are the set-shot and the jump-shot. The set-shot is
taken from a standing position, with neither foot leaving the oor, typically used for free throws, and in other
circumstances while the jump-shot is taken in mid-air,
the ball released near the top of the jump. This provides much greater power and range, and it also allows
the player to elevate over the defender. Failure to release
the ball before the feet return to the oor is considered a
traveling violation.
Another common shot is called the lay-up. This shot requires the player to be in motion toward the basket, and
to lay the ball up and into the basket, typically o
the backboard (the backboard-free, underhand version is
called a nger roll). The most crowd-pleasing and typically highest-percentage accuracy shot is the slam dunk,
in which the player jumps very high and throws the ball
downward, through the basket while touching it.
Another shot that is becoming common is the circus
shot. The circus shot is a low-percentage shot that is
ipped, heaved, scooped, or ung toward the hoop while
the shooter is o-balance, airborne, falling down, and/or
Shooting is the act of attempting to score points by throw- facing away from the basket. A back-shot is a shot taken
ing the ball through the basket, methods varying with when the player is facing away from the basket, and may
players and situations.
be shot with the dominant hand, or both; but there is a
Typically, a player faces the basket with both feet facing very low chance that the shot will be successful.
Player releases a short jump shot, while her defender is either
knocked down, or trying to take a charge.



A shot that misses both the rim and the backboard completely is referred to as an air-ball. A particularly bad
shot, or one that only hits the backboard, is jocularly
called a brick.

A staple pass is the chest pass. The ball is passed directly
from the passers chest to the receivers chest. A proper
chest pass involves an outward snap of the thumbs to add
velocity and leaves the defence little time to react.

Another type of pass is the bounce pass. Here, the passer

bounces the ball crisply about two-thirds of the way from
3.4 Rebounding
his own chest to the receiver. The ball strikes the court
and bounces up toward the receiver. The bounce pass
Main article: Rebound (basketball)
takes longer to complete than the chest pass, but it is also
The objective of rebounding is to successfully gain pos- harder for the opposing team to intercept (kicking the ball
deliberately is a violation). Thus, players often use the
bounce pass in crowded moments, or to pass around a
The overhead pass is used to pass the ball over a defender.
The ball is released while over the passers head.
The outlet pass occurs after a team gets a defensive rebound. The next pass after the rebound is the outlet pass.
The crucial aspect of any good pass is it being dicult
to intercept. Good passers can pass the ball with great
accuracy and they know exactly where each of their other
teammates prefers to receive the ball. A special way of
doing this is passing the ball without looking at the receiving teammate. This is called a no-look pass.
Another advanced style of passing is the behind-the-back
pass, which, as the description implies, involves throwing
the ball behind the passers back to a teammate. Although
some players can perform such a pass eectively, many
coaches discourage no-look or behind-the-back passes,
believing them to be dicult to control and more likely
to result in turnovers or violations.

3.6 Dribbling
A player making an oensive rebound

session of the basketball after a missed eld goal or free

throw, as it rebounds from the hoop or backboard. This
plays a major role in the game, as most possessions end
when a team misses a shot. There are two categories of
rebounds: oensive rebounds, in which the ball is recovered by the oensive side and does not change possession, and defensive rebounds, in which the defending
team gains possession of the loose ball. The majority of
rebounds are defensive, as the team on defense tends to
be in better position to recover missed shots.
A demonstration of the basic types of dribbling in basketball.



See also: Assist (basketball)

Main article: Dribble

Dribbling is the act of bouncing the ball continuously with

one hand, and is a requirement for a player to take steps
A pass is a method of moving the ball between players. with the ball. To dribble, a player pushes the ball down
Most passes are accompanied by a step forward to in- towards the ground with the ngertips rather than patting
crease power and are followed through with the hands to it; this ensures greater control.
ensure accuracy.
When dribbling past an opponent, the dribbler should



is known as goaltending. It is also illegal under NBA

and Mens NCAA basketball to block a shot after it has
touched the backboard, or when any part of the ball is directly above the rim. Under international rules it is illegal
to block a shot that is in the downward path of its arc or
one that has touched the backboard until the ball has hit
the rim. After the ball hits the rim, it is again legal to
touch it even though it is no longer considered as a block
To block a shot, a player has to be able to reach a point
higher than where the shot is released. Thus, height can
be an advantage in blocking. Players who are taller and
playing the power forward or center positions generally
record more blocks than players who are shorter and playing the guard positions. However, with good timing and
a suciently high vertical leap, even shorter players can
be eective shot blockers.

4 Height

A U.S. Naval Academy (Navy) player, left, posts up a U.S. Military Academy (Army) defender.

dribble with the hand farthest from the opponent, making

it more dicult for the defensive player to get to the ball.
It is therefore important for a player to be able to dribble
competently with both hands.

At the professional level, most male players are above 6

feet 3 inches (1.91 m) and most women above 5 feet 7
inches (1.70 m). Guards, for whom physical coordination and ball-handling skills are crucial, tend to be the
smallest players. Almost all forwards in the top mens pro
leagues are 6 feet 6 inches (1.98 m) or taller. Most centers are over 6 feet 10 inches (2.08 m) tall. According to
a survey given to all NBA teams, the average height of all
NBA players is just under 6 feet 7 inches (2.01 m), with
the average weight being close to 222 pounds (101 kg).
The tallest players ever in the NBA were Manute Bol and
Gheorghe Murean, who were both 7 feet 7 inches (2.31
m) tall. The tallest current NBA player is Sim Bhullar,
who stands at 7 feet 5 inches (2.26 m). At 7 feet 2 inches
(2.18 m), Margo Dydek was the tallest player in the history of the WNBA.

Good dribblers (or ball handlers) tend to bounce the

ball low to the ground, reducing the distance of travel of
the ball from the oor to the hand, making it more dicult
for the defender to steal the ball. Good ball handlers
frequently dribble behind their backs, between their legs,
and switch directions suddenly, making a less predictable
dribbling pattern that is more dicult to defend against. The shortest player ever to play in the NBA is Muggsy
This is called a crossover, which is the most eective way Bogues at 5 feet 3 inches (1.60 m). Other short players have thrived at the pro level. Anthony Spud Webb
to move past defenders while dribbling.
was just 5 feet 7 inches (1.70 m) tall, but had a 42-inch
A skilled player can dribble without watching the ball, us- (1.07 m) vertical leap, giving him signicant height when
ing the dribbling motion or peripheral vision to keep track jumping. While shorter players are often at a disadvanof the balls location. By not having to focus on the ball, tage in certain aspect of the game, their ability to navigate
a player can look for teammates or scoring opportunities, quickly through crowded areas of the court and steal the
as well as avoid the danger of having someone steal the ball by reaching low are strengths.
ball away from him/her.



Main article: Block (basketball)

A block is performed when, after a shot is attempted,
a defender succeeds in altering the shot by touching the
ball. In almost all variants of play, it is illegal to touch
the ball after it is in the downward path of its arc; this

5 Variations and similar games

Main article: Variations of basketball
Variations of basketball are activities based on the
game of basketball, using common basketball skills and
equipment (primarily the ball and basket). Some variations are only supercial rules changes, while others are
distinct games with varying degrees of basketball inu-


Schoolgirls shooting
Dharamsala, India.







back and forth a full court. Half-court raises the

number of players that can use a court or, conversely, can be played if there is an insucient number to form full 5-on-5 teams.

A basketball training course at the Phan nh Phng High

School, Hanoi, Vietnam.

ences. Other variations include childrens games, contests

or activities meant to help players reinforce skills.

Half-court basketball is usually played 1-on-1,

2-on-2 or 3-on-3. The latter variation is gradually gaining ocial recognition as 3x3, originally known as FIBA 33. It was rst tested at
the 2007 Asian Indoor Games in Macau and
the rst ocial tournaments were held at the
2009 Asian Youth Games and the 2010 Youth
Olympics, both in Singapore. The rst FIBA
3x3 Youth World Championships[43] were held
in Rimini, Italy in 2011, with the rst FIBA
3x3 World Championships for senior teams
following a year later in Athens. The sport is
highly tipped to become an Olympic sport as
early as 2016.[44]

There are principal basketball sports with variations There are also other basketball sports, such as:
on basketball including Wheelchair basketball, Water
basketball, Beach basketball, Slamball, Streetball and
21 (also known as American, cutthroat and roughUnicycle basketball. An earlier version of basketball was
Six-on-six basketball played until the end of the 1950s.
Horseball is a game played on horseback where a ball is
handled and points are scored by shooting it through a
Around the world
high net (approximately 1.5m1.5m). The sport is like a
combination of polo, rugby, and basketball. There is even
a form played on donkeys known as Donkey basketball,
but that version has come under attack from animal rights
Firing Squad
Half-court Perhaps the single most common variation
of basketball is the half-court game, played in informal settings without referees or strict rules. Only
one basket is used, and the ball must be cleared
passed or dribbled outside the three-point line
each time possession of the ball changes from one
team to the other. Half-court games require less
cardiovascular stamina, since players need not run

One-shot conquer
Steal The Bacon

The One
Basketball War.


across the world. Often only one half of the court
is used, but otherwise the rules of the game are very
similar to those of basketball. The number of participants in a game, or a run, may range from one
defender and one person on oense (known as one
on one) to two full teams of ve each. Streetball
is a very popular game worldwide, and some cities
in the United States have organized streetball programs, such as midnight basketball. Many cities also
host their own weekend-long streetball tournaments.

One-on-One, a variation in which two players will

use only a small section of the court (often no more
than a half of a court) and compete to play the ball
into a single hoop. Such games tend to emphasize individual dribbling and ball stealing skills over shootUnicycle Basketball Unicycle basketball is played using
ing and team play.
a regulation basketball on a regular basketball court
with the same rules, for example, one must dribble
Wheelchair basketball Wheelchair basketball, created
the ball while riding. There are a number of rules
by disabled World War II veterans,[46] is played on
that are particular to unicycle basketball as well, for
specially designed wheelchairs for the physically imexample, a player must have at least one foot on a
paired. The world governing body of wheelchair
pedal when in-bounding the ball. Unicycle basketbasketball is the International Wheelchair Basketball is usually played using 24 or smaller unicycles,
ball Federation[47] (IWBF), and is a full medal sport
and using plastic pedals, both to preserve the court
in the Summer Paralympic Games.
and the players shins. In North America, popular
unicycle basketball games are organized.[50]
Water basketball Water basketball, played in a swimming pool, merges basketball and water polo rules. Spin-os from basketball that are now separate sports include:
Beach basketball A modied version of basketball, played on beaches, was invented by Philip
Korfball (Dutch: Korfbal, korf meaning 'basket')
Bryant.[48] Beach basketball is played in a circular
started in the Netherlands and is now played worldcourt with no backboard on the goal, no out-ofwide as a mixed gender team ball game, similar to
bounds rule with the ball movement to be done
mixed netball and basketball
via passes or 2 steps, as dribbling is next to
Netball (formerly known as Women basketball but
impossible on a soft surface.[49]
now played by both males and females), a limitedcontact team sport in which two teams of seven try
Beach basketball has grown to a very popular, widespread
to score points against one another by placing a ball
competitive sport. 15 Annual World Championships have
through a high hoop.
been organized.
Dunk Hoops Dunk Hoops (a.k.a. Dunk Ball) is a variation of the game of basketball, played on basketball
hoops with lowered (under basketball regulation 10
feet) rims. It originated when the popularity of the
slam dunk grew and was developed to create better
chances for dunks with lowered rims and using altered goaltending rules.

6 Social forms of basketball

Slamball Slamball is full-contact basketball, with

trampolines. Points are scored by playing the ball
through the net, as in basketball, though the pointscoring rules are modied. The main dierences
from the parent sport is the court; below the padded
basketball rim and backboard are four trampolines
set into the oor, which serve to propel players to
great heights for slam dunks. The rules also permit
some physical contact between the members of the
four-player teams.
Typical privately owned basketball hoop
Streetball Streetball is a less formal variant of bas- Basketball has been adopted by various social groups,
ketball, played on playgrounds and in gymnasiums which have established their own environments and

sometimes their own rules. Such socialized forms of basketball include the following.
Recreational basketball, where fun, entertainment
and camaraderie rule rather than winning a game;
Basketball Schools and Academies, where students are trained in developing basketball fundamentals, undergo tness and endurance exercises and learn various basketball skills. Basketball students learn proper ways of passing,
ball handling, dribbling, shooting from various
distances, rebounding, oensive moves, defense,
layups, screens, basketball rules and basketball
ethics. Also popular are the basketball camps organized for various occasions, often to get prepared
for basketball events, and basketball clinics for improving skills.
College and University basketball played in educational institutions of higher learning.
This includes National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) intercollegiate basketball.
Disabled basketball played by various disabled
groups, such as
Bankshot basketball,[51]
Deaf basketball,
Wheelchair basketball, a sport based on basketball but designed for disabled people in
wheelchairs and considered one of the major
disabled sports practiced.
Ethnic and Religion-based basketball: Examples of ethnic basketball include Indo-Pak or Russian or Armenian leagues in the United States or
Canada, for example, or Filipino expatriate basketball leagues in the Gulf or the United States.
Religion-based basketball includes, most notably,
church-related Christian basketball leagues, Jewish, Muslim and Hindu basketball leagues, and so
on. or denominational leagues like Coptic, Syriac/Assyrian basketball leagues in the United States
or Canada.

Prison basketball, practiced in prisons and penitentiary institutions. Active religious basketball
missionary groups also play basketball with prisoners. Some prisons have developed their own prison
basketball leagues. At times, non-prisoners may
play in such leagues, provided all home and away
games are played within prison courts. Film director
Jason Moriarty has released a documentary relating
to the sport, entitled Prison Ball.
Rezball, short for reservation ball, is the avid Native
American following of basketball, particularly a
style of play particular to Native American teams
of some areas.
School or High school basketball, the sport of basketball being one of the most frequently exercised
and popular sports in all school systems.
Show basketball as performed by entertainment
basketball show teams, the prime example being the
Harlem Globetrotters. There are even specialized
entertainment teams, including
Celebrity basketball teams made of celebrities (actors, singers, and so on.) playing in
their own leagues or in public, often for entertainment and charity events;
Midget basketball teams made up of athletes
of short stature oering shows using basketball;
Slamball oered as entertainment events.

7 Fantasy basketball
Main article: Fantasy basketball

Fantasy basketball was popularized during the 1990s

after the advent of the Internet. Those who play this game
are sometimes referred to as General Managers, who
draft actual NBA players and compute their basketball
statistics. The game was popularized by ESPN Fantasy
Sports,, and Yahoo! Fantasy Sports. Other
sports websites provided the same format keeping the
Gay basketball played in gay, lesbian, bisexual game interesting with participants actually owning speand transgender communities in gay basketball cic players.
leagues. The sport of basketball is a major part of
events during the Gay Games, World Outgames and
8 See also
Midnight basketball, a basketball initiative to curb
inner-city crime in the United States and elsewhere Main article: Outline of basketball
by keeping urban youth o the streets and engaging
them with sports alternatives to drugs and crime.
Basketball at the Summer Olympics
Mini basketball played by underage children.
Basketball moves
Maxi Basketball played by more elderly individuals.
Basketball National League


Continental Basketball Association

Hot hand fallacy
National Basketball Association
Timeline of womens basketball
ULEB Union des Ligues Europennes de Basket, in
English Union of European Leagues of Basketball


[1] Griths, Sian (September 20, 2010). The Canadian who

invented basketball. BBC News. Retrieved September
14, 2011.
[2] The Greatest Canadian Invention. CBC News.
[3] Hoop Hall History Page. Archived from the original on
April 19, 2001.
[4], James A. Naismith. Retrieved 2010.02.24.
[5] James Naismith Biography.
February 14, 2007.
Archived from the original on February 5, 2007. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
[6] Thinkquest, Basketball. Retrieved 2009.01.20.
[7] Newly found documents shed light on basketballs birth.
ESPN. Associated Press. November 13, 2006. Retrieved
January 11, 2007.
[8] Fuoco, Linda (April 15, 2010). Grandson of basketballs inventor brings games exhibit to Geneva College. Retrieved June 3, 2011.
[9] Hamline University Athletics: Hutton Arena. January 4, 1937. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
[10] dcollier (September 11, 2004). Hamline University Athletics: Admission Athletics Intro Page.
Archived from the original on August 10, 2010. Retrieved
July 25, 2010.
[11] Queens Journal, vol. 31, no. 7, February 16, 1904; 105
years of Canadian university basketball, by Earl Zukerman,
[12] 200809 High School Athletics Participation Survey


[15] National Catholic Invitations Basketball Tournament Retrieved September 13, 2009. Archived from the original on August
10, 2010. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
[16] " National Interscholastic Basketball Tournament for
Black High Schools, 19291942 Retrieved September
13, 2009. Archived from the original on August 10, 2010. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
[17] National Invitational Interscholastic Basketball Tournament Retrieved September 13,
2009. Archived from the original
on August 10, 2010. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
[18] Golden, Daniel (23 July 2012). Three Seconds at 1972
Olympics Haunt U.S. Basketball. Bloomberg Business
Week. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
[19] Pioneers in Physical Education.
Archived from the original on June 20, 2009. Retrieved
June 3, 2009.
[20] Senda Berenson Papers. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
[21] Jenkins, Sally.
History of Womens Basketball. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
[22] Peacock-Broyles, Trinity. You Come in as a Squirrel and
Leave as an Owl. Archived from the original
on June 15, 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2011.
[23] Historical Timeline. Archived from the original on June
21, 2009. Retrieved June 2, 2009.
[24] The Great Teams. Retrieved June 2, 2009.
[25] Street & Smiths SportsBusiness Journal, MLS attendance,
TV viewership numbers slip
[26] Street & Smiths SportsBusiness Journal, NHLs attendance, TV ratings both showing increases
[27] Television New Zealand, BASKETBALL | NBA getting
through tough times
[28] FIBA Ocial Basketball Rules (2010) Rule 4, Section 8.1
Retrieved July 26, 2010
[29] NBA Ocial Rules (20092010) Rule 5, Section II, a.
Retrieved July 26, 2010.
[30] 20092011 Mens & Womens Basketball Rules Rule 5,
Section 6, Article 1. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
[31] Struckho, Mary, ed. (2009). 20092010 NFHS Basketball Rules. Indianapolis, Indiana: National Federation of
High Schools. p. 41. Rule 5, Section 5, Article 1

[13] National Interscholastic Basketball Tournament Retrieved September 13, 2009. Archived from the original on August 10,
2010. Retrieved July 25, 2010.

[32] NBA Ocial Rules (20092010) Rule 5, Section II, c.

Retrieved July 26, 2010.

[14] National Catholic Interscholastic Basketball Tournament, 19241941 Retrieved

September 13, 2009. December 7,
1941. Archived from the original on August 10, 2010.
Retrieved July 25, 2010.

[34] NBA Ocial Rules (20092010) Rule 5, Section II, b.

Retrieved July 26, 2010.

[33] FIBA Ocial Basketball Rules (2010) Rule 4, Section 8.4

Retrieved July 26, 2010

[35] FIBA Ocial Basketball Rules (2010) Rule 4, Section 8.7

Retrieved July 26, 2010


[36] FIBA Ocial Basketball Rules (2010) Rule 3, Section

4.2.2 Retrieved July 26, 2010
[37] NBA Ocial Rules (20092010) Rule 3, Section I, a. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
[38] 20092011 Mens & Womens Basketball Rules Rule 10,
Section 2, Article 6. Retrieved July 26, 2010.

10 Further reading
Adolph H, Grundman (2004). The golden age of
amateur basketball: the AAU Tournament, 1921
1968. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-80327117-4.

[39] Struckho, Mary, ed. (2009). 20092010 NFHS Basketball Rules. Indianapolis, Indiana: National Federation of
High Schools. p. 59. Rule 10, Section 1, Article 6

Batchelor, Bob (2005). Basketball in America: from

the playgrounds to Jordans game and beyond. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7890-1613-3.

[40] Connor Sports Flooring. Archived from the original on

June 7, 2009. Retrieved June 3, 2009.

Brown, Donald H (2007). A Basketball Handbook.

AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4259-6190-9.

[41] Marshall, John (1 November 2014). Positionless basketball taking hold in college. Retrieved 18 November

Forrest C, Allen (1991). All you wanted to know

about Basketball. Sterling publishing. ISBN 81207-2576-X.

[42] Muggsy Bogues Bio. Archived from the

original on July 17, 2010. Retrieved July 25, 2010.

Grundy, Pamela; Susan Shackelford (2005).

Shattering the glass: the remarkable history of
womens basketball. New Press. ISBN 1-56584822-5.

[43] 2011 3x3 Youth World Championship | FIBA.COM. 2011-09-11. Retrieved 2012-1122.
[44] 3-on-3 basketball might become big time?". ESPN. Retrieved 2011-01-11.
[45] Eric Shanburn (2008). Basketball and Baseball Games:
For the Driveway, Field Or the Alleyway. AuthorHouse.
ISBN 978-1-4343-8912-1. Retrieved June 29, 2010.
[46] Learn Basketball on FindSportsNow. November 5, 2007. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
[47] IWBF. IWBF website. Retrieved July 25,

Herzog, Brad (2003). Hoopmania: The Book of

Basketball History and Trivia. Rosen Pub. Group.
ISBN 0-8239-3697-X.
Simmons, Bill (2009). The book of basketball: the
NBA according to the sports guy. Ballantine/ESPN
Books. ISBN 978-0-345-51176-8.
Naismith, James (1941). Basketball: its origin and
development. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN

[48] World Beach Basketball site.

May 5, 1995. Archived from the original on August 9,
2010. Retrieved July 25, 2010.

11 External links

[49] web site


[50] Comcast SportsNet Feature about Berkeley Unicycle Basketball

[51] Bankshot basketball website. Retrieved
July 25, 2010.

General references

Naismith Museum & Basketball Hall of Fame Almonte, ON

Basketball Hall of Fame Springeld, MA
Hometown Sports Heroes

National Basketball Association (2014). Ocial Organizations

Rules of the National Basketball Association. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
Basketball at the Olympic Games
International Basketball Federation (June 2004).
Ocial Basketball Rules.
Reimer, Anthony (June 2005). FIBA vs North
American Rules Comparison. FIBA Assist (14):
Bonsor, Kevin. How Basketball Works: Whos
Who. HowStuWorks. Archived from the original
on January 1, 2006. Retrieved January 11, 2006.

International Basketball Federation

National Basketball Association
Womens National Basketball Association
Continental Basketball Association (oldest professional basketball league in the world)
National Wheelchair Basketball Association



Basketball at DMOZ
Eurobasket website
Analysis and History

Basketball Statistics,

Ontario historical plaque Dr. James Naismith




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Basketball Source: Contributors: Magnus Manske, WojPob, Lee Daniel

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