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Frac-Packing Fluids

Mehmet Parlar
Advisor, Schlumberger SMS

Fluid Types
Crosslinked Polymer Fluids
Most commonly Borate Crosslinked Guar Polymer
Other crosslinkers: Zirconate, Titanate

ViscoElastic Surfactant Fluids


ClearFRAC HP

Types of Polymers and Crosslinkers


Crosslinker binds to polymer chain
Results in higher viscosity and excellent proppant transport
Polymer
 HEC
 Xanvis
 Guar
 HPG

 CMHPG
 CMG

Crosslinker

 Borate
 Titanate
 Zirconate
 Zirconate

Guar
Naturally occurring
Producers: India and Pakistan (semiarid)
Molecular weight: 1 to 3 million

Typical Additives
Bactericide
Clay Stabilizer (L64 or KCl)
Surfactant
Crosslinker (depends on fluid type)
Buffer (pH control)
Delay agent (only in delayed fluids)
Breakers
-

Oxidizers
Enzymes

High temperature stabilizers (> 200 OF)

Crosslink Time Characterization

1. Vortex Closure

Vortex
3. Final Crosslink

2. Initial Crosslink

Finger tip lip

Stout Tongue

Desired Features
Compatible with formation mineralogy and fluids
Controllable early viscosity to create required fracture geometry
Fluid loss within reasonable range (efficiency: 10 20%)
Fast fluid breaking and cleanup
Low friction pressure
Proppant transport
Simple to prepare, QC, and pump
Low cost

Fluid Qualification Process


Breaker Performance @ 250 DegF

1000

1500

200

1000

150

500

Apparent Permeability to Liquid, millidarcys

250
Temperature [degF]

Apparent Viscosity [cP]

2000

100
100.000 cP

0
-20

-10

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100 110 120

Conductivity

10

Whole gel leakoff


0.1

0.01

Time at Temperature [min]

Rheology

100

25% Oil 75%


Fluid

50% Oil 50%


Fluid

75% Oil 25%


Fluid

Compatibility

Proppant Settling

12

24

36

48
60
72
Cumulative Fluid Injected, pore volumes

35,000 ppm Sodium Chloride

84

96

108

120

Fracture Gel

Core Regain

Shear History

Fracture geometry and conductivity is highly dependent on fluid


properties. Hence the stipulation for a comprehensive fluid
qualification process.

Advantages of Borate Crosslinked Fluids


Well known chemistry simple execution
High early viscosity
greater fracture widths

Can withstand pipe shear due to reversible crosslinking


Delay chemistry is well understood
Low cost

Borate Crosslinking Rate (Delayed Systems)


Benefit of delayed crosslinking
Reduced pipe friction pressure

Factors affecting crosslinking rate

Fluid temperature
pH
Shear condition
Concentration of reactants
Crosslinker type
The presence of competing ligands

Fluid Selection Criteria


Polymer loading
-

Cooldown temperature (CoolFRAC)

Non-delayed or Delayed
-

Pump rate, tubular size, depth (BHP), and temperature

Rules of thumb
Non-delay: < 25 bpm and cooldown < 200oF
Delayed: > 25 bpm or > 200oF cooldown or > 14,500 psi treating
pressure

YF100EC

Challenges in Deepwater Frac-Packs




Deep wells (> 20,000 ft)

Long intervals > 100 ft

Multi lobes
High pump rates > 35 bpm
TP = BHP + Pfriction Phydrostatic

Solution: Reduce friction pressure

YF100EC Features

Solution to frac-packing deepwater, deep HPHT reservoirs,


and wells with restricted wellbore configuration

Delay mechanism is unique


Borate crosslinked fluid technology

Extended delay time


2 to 20 minute
Minimizes friction pressure

Wide temperature stability from 40 F to 350 F


Over 100 jobs pumped in last 4 years

Chemistry
Conventional delay mechanisms

Crosslinker is coated with a material that


dissolves in high pH (> 8.0) fluid
Polymer based: guar or HPG

pH, ligands, borate species

core

20 ppt and higher

Fluid is broken with conventional oxidizer


breakers
Compatible with methanol and up to 10% KCl

thickness

coating

Fluid Performance Friction Pressure





Pump rate: 30 bpm


TVD: 18,990 ft

Surface treating pressure with YF100EC: < 9,300 psi


Estimated treating pressure with conventional fluid 12,100 psi

Friction Pressure major reduction


Conventional

YF100EC

Friction Pressure (psi/1000 ft)

350
300
250
200

47%

150

45%

100
50
0
3.82" I.D., 30 bpm

4.28" I.D., 20 bpm

YF100HD

Challenges in Ultra Deepwater Frac-Packs




Deep wells (> 25,000 ft)

High reservoir pressure (> 14,000 psi)

Long intervals > 100 ft

Multi lobes

Challenges: High pump rates > 40 bpm are required and


Limitation: Treating pressure only up to 15,000 psi due to
equipment

What is the Solution


One Solution: Decrease Treating
Pressures by using efficient fluids

Scenario Manager: Treating Pressure


YF130ST

YF130EC

YF130HD

Treating Pressure - psi

TP = BHP + Pfriction Phydrostatic

12000
11000
10000
9000
8000

Reduce Friction Pressure


Increase Hydrostatic Pressure

Delay effect

7000

Density effect

6000
5000
4000

YF100HD combines the delay times of


YF100EC with the higher density of sodium
bromide brine
BG

10

20
30
40
50
Treatment Time - min

60

YF100HD Features




Formulation in high density brine


Up to 12.5 ppg NaBr
Delay mechanism is unique
Borate crosslinked technology
Benefits of both friction pressure and hydrostatic

TP = BHP + Pfriction Phydrostatic


 Higher hydrostatic and lower friction



Working temperature: 40 F to 350 F


Incorporates a scale inhibitor

Fluid Qualifications









Hydration Time: 80% Hydration in <5 min


Delay Time: Control of the delay from 2 to 20 min
Rheology: Develop and maintain minimum 300-500 cP
Shear History: Maintain viscosity through shear
Clean Up: No more damage than KCl based fluids
Compatibility: Oil and scale inhibitor compatibility
Oil and Grease: Meet MMS requirements
Friction: Do not overcome the density effect by friction

Shear History Tests


Case Simulated
Travel time: 13 min (26,000 ft)
Shear Rate: 726 sec-1 (45 bpm)

2 Runs:

Shear @ 40 DegF

Mudline temperature of 40 DegF

250
200

600
150
400
100
200

50

0:10

0:20

0:30

0:40

0:50

Sample Temperature - DegF

300

800
Viscosity - cP

Sample Temperature

1000

0
0:00

Room temperature

YF100HD is not shear sensitive

Stability at Mudline Temperature and Shear History Test


Baseline

Static Test
Test Time
Criteria
5 min
> 100 cP
881
10 min
> 160 cP
758
15 min
> 70% of Static
817
30 min
> 80% of Static
667

0
1:00

Elapsed Time - hh:mm

BG

M udline Test
201

555

770

733

CoolFRAC
(SPE 71658)

What is it?
Engineered service to design fit for purpose fluid for given
well conditions utilizing cool-down temperatures as the basis
Value


Minimal polymer loading higher conductivity


Improve chances of Tip Screenout (TSO)
Low Skin = Higher Production

* Patented Technology

Frac-packs are short, wide and high leak-off


20 50

Shear rates are low


Significant coolcool-down of the formation
1 Propped halo

1 2

BG

Viscosity and Shear Rate in StimPAC Job


1000

1000

Shut-In
10
1

PAD

100
0

20

40

60

80

Pumping Time (min)

0.1
100

1000
-1

20 ppt @
150OF

10000
45

300O F
100

40

10

1000

35

1
PAD
TSO

S.I.

0.1

100
0

10

20
Time (min)

BG

30

40

Viscosity (cp)

Shear Rate (sec )

Viscocity (cp)

100

Shear Rate (sec-1)

TSO

300
280
260
1st Calib
240
220 Acid
200 190oF
180
160
140
120
1900

2000

12000
10000

2nd Calib

8000
6000
4000
2000
0

2100
Time (min)

2200

2300

BHP (psi)

BHT ( OF )

Near wellbore temperature cool down from injection of


pre-frac and frac-pack fluids.

Water_Temp Simulation
300

Waiting Time
1

BHT (oF)

250

Field

200
Simulation

150
100
50
0
1975

Injection Events
2025

2075

1 Acid
2 Shut-in
3 Gel
4 Shut-in
5 DataFRAC
6 Shut-in
7 Frac job

2125

Time (min)

BG

Stimpac
2175

2225

2275

Temperature cool down inside the fracture (after Sinclair)

T Ti
0.8 TD =
Tri Tir

90%
70%

0.6
TD

10%
50%

0.4

30%
20%

0.2
5%
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6
X/L

0.8

Effect of Temperature on Breaker Loading


BHST

Borate XL25 ppt @150O F


600

160

550
140
500
120
100

Cool down

F)

Oxidizer - 1 ppt (Breaker)

400

300

80

250
60
200

Temperature (

BorateXL25ppt@110 F
600

120

Bob Climb (Viscositycloser to 350 cp)

150

550

40

Oxidizer- 5ppt (Breaker)

500

100
20

100

450
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

0
130

400

80

-1

(cp)

50

OF)

Viscosity @170 sec

350

350
Viscosity @170 sec

Time (min)
File number: 1895

300

60

250
200

40

150
100

20

50
0
0

10

20

30

40

50
Time(min)

Filenumber: 1900

BG

60

70

80

90

0
100

Temperature (

-1

(cp)

450

Effect of Breakers on Conductivity

Retained Permeability (%)

100
80
60

60
44
37

40
20

15

0
No Breaker

Persulfate

1 lb/Mgal

Encapsulated

3 lb/Mgal

Encapsulated

4 lb/Mgal

(Borate Crosslinked Fluid 160F, 3000 psi closure, 2 lb/ft2 20/40 sand)

Effect of Polymer Loading on Conductivity

60%
21%

Retain Conductivity

50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
25 ppt

30 ppt

BG

Sandface Oil Production Rate (STB/Day)

GoM Deepwater Well Production Simulation


60000

Schlumberger
Polymer loading: 20 ppt

50000

35% Higher Production

40000

Polymer loading: 30 ppt

30000

46% retained conductivity


34% retained conductivity

20000
Reservoir h - 136 feet
Res Press Initial - 9600 psi
Permeability - 2600 mD
Fracture Length - 50 feet

10000

M54 Simulation by Holditch and Associates


0
0

500

1000

1500
2000
Time (days)

2500

3000

3500

CoolFRAC Optimization Field Case

Conventional (45 ppt)


1996
CoolFRAC (30 ppt)
1997

60
50
40
30
20
10

Well
*Tubing Limited

B3*

B2

B1

A4

A3

A2

0
A1

Rate (MMCFD)

70

Canyon Express Example


Production Data

MINIFO/ Perform Evaluation

BHP
(psi)

Pwf
(psi)

p
(psi)

Kh/

Net H
(psi)

Perm
(md)

MMCFD

#1 Green

29

6502

6204

300

3533

30

117

-1.5

#1 Red

10

6557

6236

321

2574

50

51

11

#2 Orange

34

6512

6297

215

6109

22

277

-0.5

#2 Green

29

6515

6302

213

3250

56

58

-3

#3 Green

32

6571

6302

269

6273

44

142

1.6

#3 Red

32

6549

6350

156

#4 Orange*

34

6588

6313

275

2565

39

80

#4 Green*

34

6569

6313

256

4834

25

193

#4 Red

34

6568

6344

224

8471

43

197

Well/Zone

Rate

BG

40