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Tissue

Function

NERVO
US

Impulse
Transmis
sion
Lining/
Secretion

EPITHE
LIAL
MUSCLE

Movemen
t

CONNE
CTIVE

Support,
Protectio
n

Cells
1) Polyhedral form cells
2) Basement membrane
3) Polarity
II. TYPES OF
Covering Epithelium
Classified according to:
a) Number of layers
1) Simple only 1 cell
butnuclei are
2) Stratified with 2 or

Cell
ECM
Morpho.
Elongate
Non
d
e
proceses
Aggregat
Sma
e,
ll
polyhedr
Amt
al Simple Squamous
.
epithelium
Elongate
Mod
d,
Amt
contractil
.
e
Various
Hig
Simple cuboidal
fixed
&
h
epithelium
wanderin
Amt
Simple
columnar
g cells
.
epithelium

Simple columnar
ciliated epithelium
Pseudo
stratified columnar
ciliated epithelium
Stratified squamous
epithelium
Nonkeratinized(wet/moist)
Keratinized(dry)
Stratified cuboidal
epithelium
Stratified columnar
epithelium
Transitional
epithelium/
Urothelium

Functions of Epithelium
1) Covering and protection, e.g. skin
2 Absorption, e.g. GI tract lining
3 Secretion, e.g. mammary glands, Goblet cells
4) Contractility (due to actin
fibers), myoepithelium
5) Receptor via
transmembrane proteins
6) Lubrication via secretion
of mucous membranes
7) Transport of materials to
and from the blood.

CELL SHAPE
flat and very thin

FUNCTION
Exchange gas diffusion,
secretion,
lubrication in pleuralcavity,
active transport,

EXAMPLES
Pleural and abdominal cavity
(mesothelium,*) peritoneum,
lining blood vessel walls (endothelium,*)
lining of ventricles and atria of heart
(endocardium*)

square/cuboidal
with round nucleus
at center
columnar/tall cells
with nuclei at basal
part
columnar/tall and
ciliated
nuclei at midzone
of the cell
at different levels
cells that reach the
surface are
columnar;

absorption,secretion, conduit,
barrier

small ducts of exocrine glands, surface


of ovary, kidney tubules, thyroid follicles

absorption,secretion,
protection,lubrication**

Digestive tract, intestine, gall bladder

Characteristics of
Epithelium & Epithelial

Lining of fallopian tube(ciliated)

packed in dense spaces.


ALL epithelium

secretion,protection, transport of
particles trapped in mucus out of
air passages.

Lining of respiratory track(nasal cavity,


trachea, bronchi)

Flat with nuclei


(top most layer)

lubrication, protection, secretion

lining of mouth, esophagus, larynx,


vagina

flat without nuclei


(dead cells;) like
flakes
Several layers of
cuboidal cells
columnar

prevents water loss or


desiccation, barrier

epidermis of skin

protection,secretion,conduit

Sweat glands, large


Ducts of exocrine glands
Conjunctiva of eye,liningsomelarge
excretory ducts

largedome
shaped/umbrella
cells

protect underlying tissues from


the hypertonic effects of urine

protection,conduit

liningrenalcalyces,renalpelvis, ureter,
urinary bladder

EPITHELIAL CELLS

layer
Pseudostratified 1 layer
at different levels;
more cell layers

b) Cell type/shape
Squamous flat, thin (lateral view);
Cuboidal height and width roughly similar Columnar height is greater than width;
Transitional different shapes (always stratified
APICAL

Cilia

Micro
villi

Stereo
cilia
Flagell
um

STRUCTURE
Elongated, hair-like
protrusions
Axoneme
Dynein,
conversion of ATP
for movement
Short finger-like
projections
Striated Border
same height;
Brush Border
different heights
Longer than
microvilli
Anchored by fibrin
and erzin
Similar to cilia but
larger and usually
limited to single
flagellum per cell

Reticular Lamina -is

FUNCTION
Motile cilia propel
substances
(Respiratory tract,
female reproductive
tract)
Increases surface
area 20x 30x for
absorption
Intestines)
Junction
Typebut
No motility

c) Apical/Free-surface Modification/Specialization
1) Ciliated2) Non-ciliated 3) Flagellated
4)Microvilli
Brush border uniform ofmicrovilli
Striated border unevenlength of microvilli
III. POLARITY OF EPITHELIAL CELLS
The Basement Membrane/Basal Domain
A sheet-like layer that underlies virtually all
epithelia,
acid-Schiff
(PAS) positive area underneath epithelial cells.

Classificatio

increases surfacen
Occluding
Zonula
areafor absorption
Junction
Occludens
(Epididymis)
Movement in whipAnchoring
Zonula
like motion to
Junction
Adherens
propel cell
Macula
Adherens
(Sperm cells)

Communicatin
g/
Gap Junction
Anchoring
Junction

Major Link
Proteins
Occludins, JAM

E-cadherincatenin complex
Cadherins
(desmogleins,
desmocolins)

Function
regulates paracellular transport
restrict flow of substances between cell
membranes
anchorage points for cytoskeletal
elements
(deepest junction)
Able to withstand the greatest friction

Fascia
Adherens
Nexus

Connexin

Control of growth, development, cell


recognition and differentiation

Hemidesmo
some

Integrins,
Collagen XVII

Focal
adhesion

Integrins

Anchors the epithelial cells to the


basementmembrane and the adjacent
connective tissue
detects and transduces signals
from outside the cell

Lamina Lucida - electron-lucent zone


Lamina Densa- electron-dense layer
Components
o Type IV collagen
o Glycoproteins
o Perlecan - heparan sulfateproteoglycan

Stabilize non-epithelial tissue

attached to the basal lamina with collagenVII

anchoring fibrils and fibrillin microfibrils


Components
Type III collagen delicate andreticular
Type I collagen fibers.
Lateral Domain (Junctional Complexes)
Where two cells contact or attach toeach other laterally

IV. GLANDULAR EPITHELIUM

Glandular Epithelia
specialized cells to secrete substances in membrane-bound secretory granules (vesicles).
Examples of Glandular Epithelia
1) Sebaceous glands (lipid)
2) Pancreatic acini (enzymes)
3) Salivary glands (carbohydrate-protein complex)
Classifications of Glandular Epithelia
Based on Path of Release
1) ENDOCRINEDuctless
o Releases secretions directly intobloodstream can act on distant tissueshormones (e.g. thyroid)
2) EXOCRINE
o releases secretions on to an epithelial surface either directly or via a duct
Two major components:
Acinus (secretory portion)
Ducts (Conducting portion)
Intercalated duct joins together with acinus
Intralobar ducts drain to main excretory duct
Interlobular ducts between lobules
Lobule acini and intercalated ducts are located
Lobes contains lobules
3) PARACRINE
o cells whose secretions target the immediate extracellular environment, travels short distances then Endocrine
4) AUTOCRINE
o the target cell is on the secreting cellitself
Based on Number of Cells
UNICELLULAR (Single Cell)
Respiratory tract and small intestines MULTICELLULAR (More than one Cell)o
Based On Mechanism Of Product Released
1) MEROCRINE/ECCRINEMost common Exocytosis of proteins from vesicles

Cells remain intact (Pancreatic acinar cells)


2) APOCRINE- Ruptures and releases secretion with bits of cytoplasm and plasma membrane (Mammary glands and sweat glands)
3) HOLOCRINEWhole cell disintegrates when it secretes product(sebaceous glands of skin)

Based on Type of Secretion


Mucus/Mucinous (Watery secretion)
goblet cells, sublingual gland
Serous (Viscous secretion)
Pyramidal-shaped cells lining the acinus
parotid gland, lacrimal gland
Mixed Glandboth mucinous & serous glands
Submandibular gland
Based on Morphology
1) Simple (Unbranched) with single duct
2) Compound with two or more branches
Based on Morphology Ducks
Simple Glands on secretory portion
1) Simple Tubular- Intestinal glands
2) Branched tubular- Stomach glands
3) Coiled Tubular- Very long and coiled
4) Acinar/Alveolar- Sebaceous glands
Compound Glands
1) Acinar/Alveolar Mammary glands
2) Tubular Duodenal glands of small intestine
3) Tubuloacinar/alveolar Salivary glands
GERM LAYERS
1) ENDODERM (innermost layer)
Respiratory system epithelium
Alimentary canal epithelium
Extramural digestive gland epithelium
Thyroid, parathyroid, and thymus glands epithelial components

Lining epithelium of the tympanic cavity and


Eustachian tube
2) MESODERM (middle layer)
Epithelium of kidney and gonads
Mesothelium
Endothelium
Adrenal cortex
Seminiferous and genital duct epithelium
3) ECTODERM (outer layer)
Epidermis
Cornea, lens epithelia
Components of the inner ear
Adenohypophysis
EPITHELIAL CELL RENEWAL through Mitosis
Dependent on epithelial type:
Small intestine: 4-6 days; Epidermis: 28 days
Stratified Epithelium
- Mitosis occurs only in the basal layer in contact with the basal lamina