Sie sind auf Seite 1von 9

Jay Cesar

PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING ANG LEARNING


PRINCIPLES

refers to the fundamental truth or law that provides bases of ones actions

It defines the conduct one has to adopt and display in performing the roles demanded by
his/her chosen career.

It is a general belief that you have about the way you should behave, which influences your
behavior.

T E AC H I N G
Teaching happens everywhere. It happens when someone tries to assist others to learn an issue,
an event, a skill, or a value. It takes place in all institution particularly in school, at home, in the
church, and in the community, both in the formal and informal settings.
Is both an art and science. - it is an art when teachers create learning in a spontaneous manner by
combining individual pieces of education and experience into a new whole that is specially made
for the circumstances they see in their situation. - it is a science for its uses specific methods and
skills that will help achieve the goals of teaching. -Moore, 2005Teaching Styles
Every teacher has a teaching style of his/her own. This is usually reflected in his/her actions,
verbal interactions, questioning, and evaluating learning. Over the years, educators view teaching
styles in different ways.
Penelope Peterson (1979) defines teaching style in terms of how teachers utilize space in the
classroom, their choice of instructional activities and materials, and other methods of student
groupings.
Allan Ornstein and Miller (1980) describe teaching as an expressive aspect of teaching such as
warm, or businesslike. Kellough (2003) teaching refers to the way teachers teach, which includes
their distinctive mannerisms complemented by their choices of teaching behavior and strategies.
Three descriptions of teaching styles have been identified in their study, namely authoritarian,
permissive, and democratic.
1. Authoritarian Teachers. These teachers tend to plan furniture arrangements to maintain order
in the classroom and to plan schedules that seldom vary. They believe that it is their
responsibility to make all class rules and establish consequences for misbehaviors. It is the
students role to obey the rules and to do all assigned works satisfactorily.
2. Permissive or Laissez-faire Teachers. These teachers employ a permissive style appear
tentative and powerless. They make few rules and are inconsistent in establishing or delivering
the consequences for misbehavior. They accept excuses and seem unable to assert authority over
academic work or student misbehavior.

3. Democratic Teachers. To this group belong the teachers who are firm and reasonably
consistent about their expectations for academic achievements and student behavior. Democratic
teachers assert their power to make decisions but they are willing to listen to their students
reactions, needs, and desires.
DIFFERENT TEACHING APPROACHES
Concept Teaching. Arends (2004) posits that concept teaching models have been developed
primarily to teach key concepts that serve as the foundation for the higher- level thinking. Key
concepts like landforms, water forms, or environment can be taught effectively using concept
teaching.
Constructivist Teaching. Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, two European psychologists, expound
that learners at any age are actually involved in the process of acquiring information and
constructing their own knowledge.
Deductive teaching. Burden & Byrd (2003) It is an instructional approach that starts from a
known principle and then moves into the unknown. It is a direct and straightforward; lends itself
to direct instructional approach, and it is used effectively in promoting student learning.
Inductive teaching. Burden & Byrd (2003) It is an instructional approach that starts with the
unknown principle and then attention moves to a known. It is intended to tap into the interest
and thinking abilities of students.
Expository Teaching. Burden & Byrd (2003) When teachers want to communicate a large
amount of information within a short period of time, they can employ expository teaching in the
conduct of the class discussion. In this technique, an authority such as a teacher, textbook, film
or a microcomputer presents information without overt interaction between the authority and the
students.
Explicit Teaching. In explicit teaching, teachers teach the students skills to enable them to
master a body of knowledge. It requires teachers to gain student attention, reinforce correct
responses, provide a feedback to students on their progress, and increase the amount of time that
students spend or actively engage in learning course content. (Rosenshine, 1987)
Reciprocal Teaching. This form of teaching is like an interactive dialogue between teacher and
students. It helps students to become involved in the content they are discussing by helping them
to read and better understand the following four steps:
1. summarizing;
2. questioning;
3. clarifying;
4. predicting.
Thus, there is a shifting responsibility from a teacher to learners ( Good & Brophy, 2000).
Principles of Effective Teaching
Effective teaching involves : Effective teaching involves acquiring relevant knowledge
about students and using that knowledge to inform our course design and classroom
teaching. When we teach, we do not just teach the content, we teach students the content. A
variety of student characteristics can affect learning.

Effective teaching involves aligning the three major components of instruction: learning
objectives, assessments, and instructional activities. Taking the time to do this upfront saves
time in the end and leads to a better course.
Effective teaching involves articulating explicit expectations regarding learning objectives
and policies. Being clear about our expectations and communicating them explicitly helps
students learn more and perform better.
Effective teaching involves prioritizing the knowledge and skills we choose to focus on..
Coverage is the enemy: Dont try to do too much in a single course. Too many topics work
against student learning, so it is necessary for us to make decisions sometimes difficult ones
about what we will and will not include in a course.
Effective teaching involves recognizing and overcoming our expert blind spots.- We are not
our students! As experts, we tend to access and apply knowledge automatically and
unconsciously and so we often skip or combine critical steps when we teach.
Effective teaching involves adopting appropriate teaching roles to support our learning
goals.- Even though students are ultimately responsible for their own learning, the roles we
assume as instructors are critical in guiding students thinking and behavior.
Effective teaching involves progressively refining our courses based on reflection and
feedback. Teaching requires adapting. We need to continually reflect on our teaching and be
ready to make changes when appropriate
LEAR N I N G
The act, process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skills. Is the act of acquiring new, or
modifying and reinforcing existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may
involve synthesizing different types of information. -Daniel T. Gilbert, Psychology 2nd EditionALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO LEARNING
1. Authentic Learning. Educators encourage teachers to employ teaching strategies that will
promote authentic learning. A requisite to authentic learning is the utilization of materials drawn
from various fields of learning that will have applications in the students lives. Authentic
learning takes place when students truly know the information and can perform tasks
consistently based on that information. It assures that students understand the materials and they
can use the them in real world tasks (Tilestone, 2004)
2. Mastery Learning. Teachers using mastery learning allow students to progress at their own
rate, particularly in a unit of study. They believe that students can learn if the task fits their
aptitude and they are given sufficient time to master the new skill or concept. The theoretical
model of mastery learning was inspired by John Carolls (1963)
3. Experiential Learning. This forms of learning is based on three assumptions (Johnson &
Johnson, 1994): (1) that learners learn best when they are personally involved in the learning
experience; (2) that knowledge has to be discovered by the learners themselves if it is to mean
anything to them; and (3) that a commitment to learning is the highest when learners are free to
set their own learning goals and actively pursue them within a given framework.
4. Observational Learning. This form of learning is also called social learning. According to
Albert Bandura (1986), its main tenet is that one can learn a lot by watching others. He maintains
that for observational learning to be effective, learners must attend to someones behavior, retain

what they have observed, imitate or reproduce the behavior they saw, and experience
reinforcement or satisfaction as a consequence.
5. Hands-on and Minds-on Learning. When the students are made to process information
using hands-on and minds-on learning, they are learning by doing and are thinking about what
they are learning and doing. Virtually, this approach to learning helps students construct and
reconstruct their perceptions about an activity by engaging in questioning, thereby turning the
learners mind on.
6. Meaningful Verbal Learning. This form of learning refers to the acquisition of ideas
considering that at any point, a learner has an existing organization and clarity of knowledge in
a particular subject mother field (Ausubel, 1963). This organization which Ausubel calls the
cognitive structure determines the learners ability to deal with some new ideas and relationship.
Three Learning Domain
A. Cognitive Domain. Its goals of learning center on the intellectual growth of the individual.
They include the acquisition of basic skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics, as well as
higher-order goals, such as the ability to solve problems, identify relationships, examine cause
and effect, and other abilities described as understanding.
B. Affective Domain. It considers a students concept, personal growth, and emotional
development. It deals with students attitudes and values. Teachers who work in this area focus
on helping students understand who they are, and diagnose and find solutions to personal and
social problems.
C. Psychomotor Domain. Learning is concerned with the development of muscular skill and
coordination. The primary focus is on the development of manipulative skills rather than on the
growth of intellectual capability. -Eggen and Kauchak, 2001The Three-Phase Learning Cycle A. Exploratory Hands-on Phase. In this phase the students
can explore ideas and experience assimilation and disequilibrium that lead to their own questions
and tentative answers.
B. Invention or Concept Development. Under the guidance of the teacher, the students invent
concepts and principles that help them answer their questions and recognize their ideas.
C. Expansion or Concrete Application Phase. This is another hands-on phase in which
students try out their new ideas by applying the situations that are relevant and meaningful to
them. -Kellough and Kellough, 2003Classification of Learning Styles
Imaginative Learner- Perceives information concretely and processes it relatively. They learn
well by listening and sharing with others, interpreting the ideas of others with their own
experiences.
Analytic Learner-Perceives information abstractly and process it reflectively. They prefers
sequential thinking, needs details, and values what experts have to offer.
Common Sense Perceives information abstractly and processes it actively. They are pragmatic
and enjoys hands-on learning. They sometimes find school frustrating unless they can see an
immediate use to what is being learned.

Dynamic Learner. Perceives information concretely and processes it actively. They also prefer
hands-on learning and is excited by anything new. -Bernie McCarthy, 1999Principles of Learning
Students prior knowledge can help or hinder learning. Students come into our courses with
knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes gained in other courses and through daily life. As students bring
this knowledge to bear in our classrooms, it influences how they filter and interpret what they are
learning.
How students organize knowledge influences how they learn and apply what they know.
Students naturally make connections between pieces of knowledge. When those connections
form knowledge structures that are accurately and meaningfully organized, students are better
able to retrieve and apply their knowledge effectively and efficiently. In contrast, when
knowledge is connected in inaccurate or random ways, students can fail to retrieve or apply it
appropriately.
Students motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they do to learn. As students
enter college and gain greater autonomy over what, when, and how they study and learn,
motivation plays a critical role in guiding the direction, intensity, persistence, and quality of the
learning behaviors in which they engage.
To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills, practice, integrating them,
and know when to apply what they have learned.. Students must develop not only the
component skills and knowledge necessary to perform complex tasks, they must also practice
combining and integrating them to develop greater fluency and automaticity. Finally, students
must learn when and how to apply the skills and knowledge they learn.
Goal-directed practice coupled with targeted feedback enhances the quality of students
learning. Learning and performance are best fostered when students engage in practice that
focuses on a specific goal or criterion, targets an appropriate level of challenge, and is of
sufficient quantity and frequency to meet the performance criteria.
Students current level of development interacts with the social, emotional, and intellectual
climate of the course to impact learning. Students are not only intellectual but also social and
emotional beings, and they are still developing the full range of intellectual, social, and
emotional skills. While we cannot control the developmental process, we can shape the
intellectual, social, emotional, and physical aspects of classroom climate in developmentally
appropriate ways.
To become self-directed learners, students must learn to monitor and adjust their
approaches to learning. Learners may engage in a variety of metacognitive processes to
monitor and control their learning assessing the task at hand, evaluating their own strengths
and weaknesses, planning their approach, applying and monitoring various strategies, and
reflecting on the degree to which their current approach is working.
TYPES OF PRINCIPLES LEARNING
1. Starting Principles
2. Guiding Principles
3. Ending Principles

Starting Principles .These involve the nature of the child, his psychological and physiological
endowments which make education possible. Our native equipments have been called by
various names. The most common terms used are reflexes, instincts, capacities, impulses,
temperaments, and the like. These hereditary endowments are the preliminary concern in all
educational Endeavour. In the language of A vent- the childs original nature is absolutely
antecedent and initial to all educational activities and results. It is therefore the function of
education to make the best use of these hereditary tendencies to meet human needs, growth and
development. The primary concern of the teacher is not the he subject but the child, not
knowledge of specialty, but knowledge of the laws and principles of child growth and
development. The process of child growth and development, like all other natural processes,
involve laws and principles.
Guiding Principles .These refer to the procedure, methods of instruction, or agglomerations of
techniques by which the pupil and the teacher may work toward the accomplishment of the goals
or objectives of education. The method of teaching involves the activities of the teacher and the
pupils. It is the method of learning and not the method of teaching that constitutes the real
problems of method. The method is the means of stimulating, directing, guiding, and
encouraging individual or class activities. The method of teaching involves the application of
many laws and principles. They must show how subject matters are organized and taught, how
teaching results are achieved and evaluated. Improved methods of teaching are dependent upon
increased knowledge of principles to be applied. Principles serve as guiding philosophy for the
selection and operation of teaching and learning activities and techniques.
Ending Principles.These refer to the educational aims, goals, objectives, outcomes, or results of
the whole educational scheme to which teaching and learning are directed. These educational
aims or objectives may be used as definite, intelligible principles or guidance by those who seek
to educate effectively. By the aims of education we mean the ends toward which the educative
process is moving. The primary requisite of effective learning is a goal or ending point. In
teaching and in learning one must know his goal or objective.
Goals and Objectives Teaching Strategies Methods Teaching PRINCIPLES related to:
Principles of Teaching Related to Goals and Objectives:
Begin with the end in mind.
Share lesson objective with students.
Lesson objective must be in the two or three domains-knowledge (cognitive) skill,

(psychomotor) and values (affective).


Work on significant and relevant lesson objectives.
Lesson objective must be aligned with the aims of education as embodied in the Philippine

constitution and other laws and on the vision-missing statements of the educational
institution of which you are a part. For accountability of learning, lesson objectives must be
SMART, (Specific. Measurable, attainable, result-oriented and relevant time-bound and
terminal.
Aim at the development of critical thing and creative learning.
Learning is an active process. Nobody can learn for us in the same way that nobody can eat

for us, not live for us, or die for us.

The more senses that are involved in learning, the more and the better the learning. What is

seen and heard is learned more than what is just seen or just heard.
A non-threatening atmosphere enhances learning. A non-threatening and conducive

classroom atmosphere is not only a function of the physical condition of the classroom but
more function of the psychological climate that prevails in the classroom.
Emotion has the power to increase retention and learning. Wolfe ( 2001) states that our own

experience validates that we remember for a long time events that elicit emotion in us.
Learning is meaningful when it is connected to students everyday life. Abstract concepts are

made understandable when we give sufficient examples relating to the students experiences.

Good teaching goes beyond recall of information. Good thinking concerns itself with higher-

order-thinking skill to develop creative and critical thinking.


Good teaching considers learners varied learning styles and learners multiple intelligences.

Principles of Method Based on the Newer Psychology of Learning.


Method should utilize the present interest of pupils and stimulate the development of further

interests.
Method should encourage the pupil to establish worthwile goals toward which to work.
Method should provide opportunities for developing the latent creative abilities of pupils.
Method should make provisions for individual differences in abilities, interests, and

background of pupils.
Method should utilize opportunities for learning through the use of concrete materials.
Method should provide for the development of basic skills through use in meaningful

situations.
Method should provide experiences closely geared to the maturity level of the child.
Method should reflect an understanding of the broadest concept of learning as the

modification of behavior (thinking, feeling, and doing).


Roles and Participants in Teaching-Learning
1. The Teacher: As a Manager. The teacher is responsible for the effective management of the
various activities directly related to the teaching-learning process. The teachers provide direct
instruction, keep pupils/students on task, ask a appropriate question and emphasizing
comprehension monitoring and learning skills.
As a Motivator. The teacher should set the mood of learning by the way of stimulating the
interest of the learners and gets there more involved in the class activities.
As a Leader. The teacher should act as a leader directing, supervising, regulating, controlling
and supporting the class activities to realize optimum results. The skill in leadership of the
teacher as an agent of change will enliven interest and energies of the learners so that the
learning experiences will be meaningful.

As a Model. The teachers demonstrate the good traits of a person worthy of emulation as a
model to his pupils/students. They should always maintain his/her dignity and self-respect when
dealing with pupils/students.
Roles and Participants in Teaching-Learning
As a Surrogate-Parent. While in school, the teacher are the parents of the pupils/students.
Parents feel secured when they know that the children are in good hands. A teacher who is acting
a surrogate parents are like a father who looks ultimately for the welfare of his children.
As a Social-Catalyst. The teacher as an agent of change should make things easy for the process
of change. A social-catalyst creates a group of inter-related and interdependent topics for the
pupils/students in the classroom. She must always assist the learners in the process of good lovehow to see, how to feel, how to think, and how to love.
As a facilitator/Instructor. The most important task of a teacher is to facilitate learning among
his pupils/students. All other task a teacher does is parts of his sworn duties and responsibilities.
As a Guidance Counselor. Every teacher should act as a guidance teacher. While every school
has a guidance counselor, that should help pupils/students acquire insights and understanding,
abilities, attitudes, behavior and appreciation necessary to act intelligently and effectively in
dealing with problems of every day life. The teacher contact with her pupils/students almost
everyday during school days, and therefore she can integrate some guidance pointers to
pupils/students.
2. The Learner. It is assumed that the learner is basically the most important variable in the
school system. To make effective learning experience wholesome, the learner must clearly
perceive and understand the goal. Effective instructions readily occurs when communication
exist between the teacher and the pupils/students on the goal and objective of instruction,
especially when concepts and ideas are directly relevant to his needs and problems. The teacher
should also understand the culture that shapes and influences the learner.
3. The Instructional Methods. In order to insure that delivery of knowledge and information to
intended recipients who are the pupils/students, it is important to know teaching methodology.
Methodology refers to the orderly, logical and systematic procedure in doing something more
specifically on the science and art of teaching. The teacher should have a definite and
comprehensive plan characterrized by a series of related and progressive acts she should perform
to accomplish the specific aims of the lesson for the day. Methods can be considered effective
when it makes use of the principle of learning, considered individual differences and stimulates
thinking.
4. The Curriculum. It has been defined as the aggregate course of study, the courses offered, all
planned experiences provided by the school to assist the pupils/students in attaining selected and
desired learning outcomes to the best of their abilities. It is also consist of all those experiences,
curricular and co-curricular activities, inside and outside of the classroom, which are under the
jurisdiction of the school and are planned and directed for the purpose of promoting the growth
and development of the learners.
5. The Classroom. The classroom is a place where formal learning occurs. This could be a
standard classroom according to prescribed specification designed for educational purpose where
the teacher and the pupils/students are interacting. The important requisite is that, it is a place
that offers a wholesome venue for the learning activities which can be realized only in an
atmosphere conducive to both teaching and learning process.

6. The School Administration. The ultimate function of school administration is to provide


optimum educational opportunities for wholesome experiences for all children in school. There
are certain administrative skills a school administration should possess. These are:
Technical Skills. This is the knowledge of and proficiency in activities involving instructional
methods, procedures and processes. It involves working with tools and specific teaching
strategies and techniques to achieve the educational objectives.
Human Skills. This is the ability of the school administrator to work with people, it is
cooperative effort. It is the creation of work environment in which people feel secure and free to
express their ideas and opinions.
Conceptual Skills. This is the ability to see the over-all picture to identify the important
elements in a situation, and to understand the relationship among the various elements in the
school system.