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Present Simple

What do you do? Qu haces? - What does he do? Qu hace?

I, we, you, they

subject + 1

he, she, it

subject + 1 > s

go

went

Gone

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I go

I don't go

Do I go ?

You go

You don't go

Do you go ?

He goes

He doesn't go

Does he go ?

She goes

She doesn't go

Does she go ?

It goes

It doesn't go

Does it go ?

We go

We don't go

Do we go ?

You go

You don't go

Do you go ?

They go

They don't go

Do they go ?

Affirmative

I go to New York - Voy a New York

He goes to New York - El va a New York

subject + 1 > "s" (he, she, it)

Negative

subject + don't / doesn't + 1

I don't go to New York - No voy a New York

He doesn't go to New York - El no va a New York

Interrogative

Do / Does + subject + 1 ?

Do I go to New York ? - Voy a New York?

Does he go to New York ? - Va l a New York?

usos del presente simple


Acciones habituales (estilos de vida, hbitos, rutina diaria).

Lucas gets up at 9:00 am. Lucas se levanta a las nueve.


Paul and I do a lot of things every day. Paul y yo hacemos muchas cosas a diario.

Hechos o verdades generales.

The sun sets in the west. El sol se pone por el oeste.


The Earth goes around the sun. La Tierra gira alrededor del sol.

Situaciones permanentes.

Maria lives in Buenos Aires. Mara vive en Buenos Aires.


It costs a lot of money to stay at the Hilton. Cuesta mucho dinero alojarse en el Hilton.

Primer Condicional.

If you heat butter, it melts. Si calientas manteca, sta se derrite.

Contact me if you need any help. Ponte en contacto conmigo si necesitas ayuda.

expresiones usuales del presente simple


often - generally - usually - always - never
every day - every week - every month - every year sometimes

Present Continuous
What are you doing? Qu ests haciendo?

go

went

Gone

subject + am/is/are + 1 > "ing"

...ing (...ando, ...endo)


Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I am going

I am not going

Am I going ?

You are going

You are not going

Are you going ?

He is going

He is not going

Is he going ?

She is going

She is not going

Is she going ?

It is going

It is not going

Is it going ?

We are going

We are not going

Are we going ?

You are going

You are not going

Are you going ?

They are going

They are not going

Are they going ?

Affirmative

subject + am/is/are + 1 > "ing"

I am going to New York - Estoy yendo a New York

He is going to New York - El est yendo a New York

Negative

subject + am/is/are + not + 1 > "ing"

I am not going to New York - No estoy yendo a New York

He is not going to New York - El no est yendo a New York

Interrogative

Am/Is/Are + subject + 1 > "ing" ?

Am I going to New York ? - Estoy yendo a New York ?

Is he going to New York ? - Est l yendo a New York ?

usos del presente continuo


Acciones que ocurren en el momento de hablar.

Lucas is getting up now. Lucas se est levantando ahora.


My wife is having lunch now. Mi esposa est almorzando ahora.

Planes futuros que han sido confirmados.

The manager is meeting me tonight. El gerente se va a reunir conmigo esta noche.

They are arriving tomorrow morning. Van a llegar maana por la maana.

Acciones que tendrn lugar en un futuro prximo y sobre las que se ha


tomado una resolucin firme.

I am going to visit their office in Caracas next week.


Voy a visitar su oficina de Caracas la prxima semana.

Acciones habituales con sentido negativo que llevan always.

Mike is always talking nonsense. Mike siempre est hablando estupideces.


He is always annoying his friends. Siempre est molestando a sus amigos.

verbos que no suelen utilizarse en presente continuo


know - like - want - love - hate - need

expresiones usuales del presente continuo


the next - at moment - now - in this week
on Sunday - this evening - tomorrow

Simple Past
What did you do? Qu hiciste?

go

went

Gone

subject + 2

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I went

I didn't go

Did I go ?

You went

You didn't go

Did you go ?

He went

He didn't go

Did he go ?

She went

She didn't go

Did she go ?

It went

It didn't go

Did it go ?

We went

We didn't go

Did we go ?

You went

You didn't go

Did you go ?

They went

They didn't go

Did they go ?

Affirmative

subject + 2

I went to New York - Fui a New York

He went to New York - El fue a New York

Negative

subject + didn't + 1

I didn't go to New York - No fui a New York

He didn't go to New York - El no fue a New York

Interrogative

Did + subject + 1 ?

Did I go to New York? - Fui a New York ?

Did he go to New York? - Fue l a New York?

usos del pasado simple


Acciones pasadas que tuvieron lugar en determinado momento
y que ya han finalizado.

My parents didn't work last week. Mis padres no trabajaron la semana pasada.
Lina worked in a bank from 1995 to 2002. Lina trabaj en un banco desde 1995 a 2002.

Hechos pasados expresados en secuencia.

Sheila got up at 7 am, had breakfast, took a shower and went to work at 9 am.
Sheila se levant a las 7, desayun, se duch y fue a trabajar a las 9.

expresiones usuales del pasado simple


yesterday - last night - before - ago - in 2002
on their vacation - last weekend - last month - last year

Past Continuous
What were you doing? Qu estabas (estuviste) haciendo?

go

went

gone

subject + was/were + 1 >ing

...ing (...ando, ...endo)


Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I was going

I was not going

Was I going ?

You were going

You were not going

Were you going ?

He was going

He was not going

Was he going ?

She was going

She was not going

Was she going ?

It was going

It was not going

Was it going ?

We were going

We were not going

Were we going ?

You were going

You were not going

Were you going ?

They were going

They were not going

Were they going ?

Affirmative

subject + was/were + 1 > "ing"

I was going to New York - Estaba (estuve) yendo a New York

You were going to New York - Ud. estaba (estuvo) yendo a New York

Negative

subject + was/were + not + 1 > "ing"

I was not going to New York - No estaba (estuve) yendo a New York

You were not going to New York - Ud. no estaba (estuvo) yendo a New York

Interrogative

Was/Were + subject + 1 > "ing" ?

Was I going to New York ? - Estaba (estuve) yendo a New York ?

Were you going to New York ? - Estaba (estuvo) Ud. yendo a New York ?

usos del pasado continuo


Actividades que ocurran en determinado momento del pasado y que
continuaron despus.

At 11 am I was preparing our lunch. A las 11 estaba preparando nuestro almuerzo.

Actividades interrumpidas por acciones ms cortas.

When my friend was taking a shower, the telephone rang.


Cuando mi amiga estaba duchndose, son el telfono.
While Martha was listening to music, her brother did his homework.
Mientras Martha escuchaba msica, su hermano hizo sus deberes

Acciones simultneas (ambas en presente continuo).

The kids were running and their grandfather was reading an old paper.
Los nios estaban corriendo y su abuelo estaba leyendo un antiguo peridico.

Present Perfect
What have you done? Qu has hecho?

go

went

gone

subject + have / has + 3

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I have gone

I haven't gone

Have I gone ?

You have gone

You haven't gone

Have you gone ?

He has gone

He hasn't gone

Has he gone ?

She has gone

She hasn't gone

Has she gone ?

It has gone

It hasn't gone

Has it gone ?

We have gone

We haven't gone

Have we gone ?

You have gone

You haven't gone

Have you gone ?

They have gone

They haven't gone

Have they gone ?

Affirmative

subject + have / has + 3

I have gone to New York - He ido a New York

He has gone to New York - El ha ido a New York

Negative

subject + haven't / hasn't + 3

I haven't gone to New York - No he ido a New York

He hasn't gone to New York - El no ha ido a New York

Interrogative

Have / Has + subject + 3 ?

Have I gone to New York? - He ido a New York ?

Has he gone to New York? - Ha ido l a New York?

usos del presente perfecto


Por regla general, se lo utiliza para describir acciones que empezaron en el pasado
y que an no han finalizado o que guardan alguna relacin con el presente.

Con el adverbio just: acciones que acaban de ocurrir.

The President has just arrived from the US. El Presidente acaba de llegar desde EEUU.
They both have just left for Bogota. Ambos acaban de partir para Bogot.

Con las preposiciones for y since.

We have lived in Italy for three years. Hemos vivido en Italia durante tres aos.
I haven't heard from you since 1990!! No he tenido noticias tuyas desde 1990!!

Con los adverbios yet y already.

They haven't taken the Basic Exam yet. No han rendido el Examen Bsico an.
I have already taken the Intermediate Exam. Ya he rendido el Examen Intermedio.

Con el grado superlativo de un adjetivo.

OM Smiles is one of the funniest section in OM Personal.


OM Smiles es una de las secciones ms divertidas de OM Personal.

Con las expresiones: It's the first, It's the second, etc.

It's the first time I have flown United. Es la primera vez que vuelo por United.
It's the second time she has had lunch today. Es la segunda vez que almuerza hoy.

expresiones usuales del presente perfecto simple


since - for - just - ago - lately
yet - already - never - ever - recently

Present Perfect Continous


What have you been doing? Qu has estado haciendo?

go

went

gone

subject + have / has + been + 1 > "ing"

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I have been going

I haven't been going

Have I been going ?

You have been going

You haven't been going

Have you been going ?

He has been going

He hasn't been going

Has he been going ?

She has been going

She hasn't been going

Has she been going ?

It has been going

It hasn't been going

Has it been going ?

We have been going

We haven't been going

Have we been going ?

You have been going

You haven't been going

Have you been going ?

They have been going

They haven't been going

Have they been going ?

Affirmative

subject + have/has + been + 1 > "ing"

I have been going to New York - He estado yendo a New York

He has been going to New York - El ha estado yendo a New York

Negative

subject + haven't / hasn't + been + 1 > "ing"

I haven't been going to New York - No he estado yendo a New York

He hasn't been going to New York - El no ha estado yendo a New York

Interrogative

Have / Has + subject + been + 1 > "ing" ?

Have I been going to New York? - He estado yendo a New York ?

Has he been going to New York? - Ha estado l yendo a New York?

usos del presente perfecto continuo


Actividades que comenzaron en el pasado y continan en el presente y
resaltan la duracin del proceso.

Monica and her husband have been living in Barcelona for ten years.
Mnica y su esposo llevan viviendo en Barcelona diez aos.

Acciones que comenzaron en el pasado y pueden o no haber finalizado


recientemente y resaltan la duracin del proceso.

The weather is really bad. It has been raining all night.


El tiempo est realmente malo. Ha estado lloviendo toda la noche.

Acciones del pasado que acaban de concluir y cuyo estado es evidente.

Hmm. Nice smelling!! Have you been cooking your birthday cake?
Hmm. Qu lindo aroma!! Has estado cocinando tu torta de cumpleaos?

Past Perfect
What had you done? Qu habas hecho?

go

went

gone

subject + had + 3

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I had gone

I hadn't gone

Had I gone ?

You had gone

You hadn't gone

Had you gone ?

He had gone

He hadn't gone

Had he gone ?

She had gone

She hadn't gone

Had she gone ?

It had gone

It hadn't gone

Had it gone ?

We had gone

We hadn't gone

Had we gone ?

You had gone

You hadn't gone

Had you gone ?

They had gone

They hadn't gone

Had they gone ?

Affirmative

subject + had + 3

I had gone to New York - Yo haba ido a New York

He had gone to New York - El haba a New York

Negative

subject + hadn't + 3

I hadn't gone to New York - Yo no haba ido a New York

He hadn't gone to New York - El no haba ido a New York

Interrogative

Had + subject + 3 ?

Had I gone to New York? - Haba ido yo a New York ?

Had he gone to New York? - Haba ido l a New York?

usos del pasado perfecto simple


Accin del pasado que tuvo lugar antes que otra.

Her plane had already left when Thelma arrived at the airport.
Su vuelo ya haba partido cuando Thelma lleg al aeropuerto.

Con el adverbio just para expresar una accin que acaba de ocurrir.

When Oliver phoned, the kids had just gone to bed.


Cuando Oliver llam por telfono, los nios acababan de acostarse.

Tercer Condicional.

If I had known that you were sick, I would have gone to see you.
Si hubiese sabido que estabas enfermo, te habra ido a ver.

Past Perfect Continuous


What had you been doing? Qu habas estado haciendo?

go

went

gone

subject + had + been + 1 > "ing"

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I had been going

I hadn't been going

Had I been going ?

You had been going

You hadn't been going

Had you been going ?

He had been going

He hadn't been going

Had he been going ?

She had been going

She hadn't been going

Had she been going ?

It had been going

It hadn't been going

Had it been going ?

We had been going

We hadn't been going

Had we been going ?

You had been going

You hadn't been going

Had you been going ?

They had been going

They hadn't been going

Had they been going ?

Affirmative

subject + had + been + 1 > "ing"

I had been going to New York - Haba estado yendo a New York

He had been going to New York - El haba estado yendo a New York

Negative

subject + hadn't + been + 1 > "ing"

I hadn't been going to New York - No haba estado yendo a New York

He hadn't been going to New York - El no haba estado yendo a New York

Interrogative

Had + subject + been + 1 > "ing" ?

Had I been going to New York? - Haba estado yo yendo a New York ?

Had he been going to New York? - Haba estado l yendo a New York?

usos del pasado perfecto continuo


Resalta la duracin de una accin que ocurri en el pasado antes que
otra.

I was very tired when I arrived home. I had been working hard all day.
Estaba muy cansado cuando llegu a casa. Haba estado trabajando mucho todo el da.

Ken had been smoking for 30 years when he finally gave it up.
Ken haba estado fumando durante treinta aos cuando finalmente dej de fumar.

The soccer game had to be stopped. They had been playing for half an hour when a terrible
storm began.
El partido de ftbol tuvo que ser detenido. Haban estado jugando durante media hora cuando
empez una espantosa tormenta.

Past Perfect Continuous


What had you been doing? Qu habas estado haciendo?

go

went

gone

subject + had + been + 1 > "ing"

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I had been going

I hadn't been going

Had I been going ?

You had been going

You hadn't been going

Had you been going ?

He had been going

He hadn't been going

Had he been going ?

She had been going

She hadn't been going

Had she been going ?

It had been going

It hadn't been going

Had it been going ?

We had been going

We hadn't been going

Had we been going ?

You had been going

You hadn't been going

Had you been going ?

They had been going

They hadn't been going

Had they been going ?

Affirmative

subject + had + been + 1 > "ing"

I had been going to New York - Haba estado yendo a New York

He had been going to New York - El haba estado yendo a New York

Negative

subject + hadn't + been + 1 > "ing"

I hadn't been going to New York - No haba estado yendo a New York

He hadn't been going to New York - El no haba estado yendo a New York

Interrogative

Had + subject + been + 1 > "ing" ?

Had I been going to New York? - Haba estado yo yendo a New York ?

Had he been going to New York? - Haba estado l yendo a New York?

usos del pasado perfecto continuo


Resalta la duracin de una accin que ocurri en el pasado antes que
otra.

I was very tired when I arrived home. I had been working hard all day.
Estaba muy cansado cuando llegu a casa. Haba estado trabajando mucho todo el da.

Ken had been smoking for 30 years when he finally gave it up.
Ken haba estado fumando durante treinta aos cuando finalmente dej de fumar.

The soccer game had to be stopped. They had been playing for half an hour when a terrible
storm began.
El partido de ftbol tuvo que ser detenido. Haban estado jugando durante media hora cuando
empez una espantosa tormenta.

Simple Future
What will you do? Qu hars?

Go

went

gone

subject + will + 1

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I will go

I won't go

Will I go ?

You will go

You won't go

Will you go ?

He will go

He won't go

Will he go ?

She will go

She won't go

Will she go ?

It will go

It won't go

Will it go ?

We will go

We won't go

Will we go ?

You will go

You won't go

Will you go ?

They will go

They won't go

Will they go ?

Affirmative

subject + will + 1

I will go to New York - Ir a New York

He will go to New York - El ir a New York

Negative

subject + won't (will not) + 1

I won't go to New York - No ir a New York

He won't go to New York - El no ir a New York

Interrogative

Will + subject + 1 ?

Will I go to New York ? - Ir a New York ?

Will he go to New York ? - Ir l a New York ?

usos del futuro simple


Acciones que se van a desarrollar con certeza en el futuro.

I will play tennis tomorrow. Jugar tenis maana.


OM Personal will be six in 2005. OM Personal cumplir seis aos en el 2005.

Prediccin en el futuro.

It will snow tomorrow. Nevar maana.

Promesas.

"Every Argentinian will have a job in this blessed country." (Carlos Menem)
"Todo Argentino tendr un puesto de trabajo en este bendito pas." (Carlos Menem)

Ofrecimientos.

I will stay with you all night if you really need it.
Me quedar contigo toda la noche si realmente lo necesitas.

Suele utilizarse el auxiliar shall (o su contraccin 'll) para el futuro de la


primera persona del singular y del plural.
We shall go to the movies = We will go to the movies
We'll go to the movies. Iremos al cine.

expresiones usuales del futuro simple


tomorrow - the day after tomorrow - in 2010
next Monday - next week - next month - next year

Progressive Future
What will you be doing? Qu estars haciendo?

go

went

gone

subject + will be + 1 > "ing"

...ing (...ando, ...endo)


Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I will be going

I will not be going

Will I be going ?

You will be going

You will not be going

Will you be going ?

He will be going

He will not be going

Will he be going ?

She will be going

She will not be going

Will she be going ?

It will be going

It will not be going

Will it be going ?

We will be going

We will not be going

Will we be going ?

You will be going

You will not be going

Will you be going ?

They will be going

They will not be going

Will they be going ?

Affirmative

subject + will be + 1 > "ing"

I will be going to New York - Estar yendo a New York

He will be going to New York - El estar yendo a New York

Negative

subject + won't (will not) be + 1 > "ing"

I won't be going to New York - No estar yendo a New York

He won't be going to New York - El no estar yendo a New York

Interrogative

Will + subject + be + 1 > "ing" ?

Will I be going to New York ? - Estar yendo a New York ?

Will he be going to New York ? - Estar l yendo a New York ?

usos del futuro continuo


Acciones que van a tener lugar en el futuro y que, al momento
del tiempo al que nos referimos, seguirn desarrollndose. No
siempre se menciona en la oracin el momento del futuro.

We will be watching TV. Estaremos viendo televisin.


Tonight we will be watching TV. Esta noche estaremos viendo televisin.
She will be visiting me. Me estar visitando.
She will be visiting me on Sunday. Me estar visitando el domingo.

expresiones usuales del futuro continuo


tomorrow - the day after tomorrow - in 2010
next Monday - next week - next month - next year

Simple Future Perfect


What will you have done? Qu habrs hecho?

go

went

gone

subject + will have + 3

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I will have gone

I will not have gone

Will I have gone ?

You will have gone

You will not have gone

Will you have gone ?

He will have gone

He will not have gone

Will he have gone ?

She will have gone

She will not have gone

Will she have gone ?

It will have gone

It will not have gone

Will it have gone ?

We will have gone

We will not have gone

Will we have gone ?

You will have gone

You will not have gone

Will you have gone ?

They will have gone

They will not have gone

Will they have gone ?

NEGATIVE CONTRACTION: WILL NOT = WON'T

Affirmative

subject + will have + 3

I will have gone to New York - Habr ido a New York

He will have gone to New York - El habr ido a New York

Negative

subject + won't have + 3

I won't have gone to New York - No habr ido a New York

He won't have gone to New York - El no habr ido a New York

Interrogative

Will + subject + have + 3 ?

Will I have gone to New York? - Habr ido a New York ?

Will he have gone to New York? - Habr ido l a New York?

usos del futuro perfecto


Acciones que ya se estn desarrollando o que se van a desarrollar en el
futuro, pero que cuando llegue ese momento futuro que se menciona la
accin ya habr finalizado.

By tomorrow I will have finished my book.


Para maana, habr terminado este libro.

Before winter, you will have sold your old car.


Antes del invierno, habrs vendido tu antiguo automvil.

Before we arrive home, Mom will have prepared our breakfast.


Antes de que lleguemos a casa, mam habr preparado nuestro desayuno.

We will not have finished these reports by 7 pm!!


No habremos finalizado estos informes para las 7 de la tarde!!

expresiones usuales del futuro perfecto


by 10 pm - by Monday - by tomorrow - by 2010
by next week - by next month - by next year

Progressive Future Perfect


What will you have been doing? Qu habrs estado haciendo?

go

went

gone

subject + will have been + 1 > "ing"

...ing (...ando, ...endo)


Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I will have been going

I will not have been going

Will I have been going ?

You will have been going

You will not have been going

Will you have been going ?

He will have been going

He will not have been going

Will he have been going ?

She will have been going

She will not have been going

Will she have been going ?

It will have been going

It will not have been going

Will it have been going ?

We will have been going

We will not have been going

Will we have been going ?

You will have been going

You will not have been going

Will you have been going ?

They will have been going

They will not have been going

Will they have been going ?

Affirmative

subject + will have been + 1 > "ing"

I will have been going to New York - Habr estado yendo a New York

He will have been going to New York - El habr estado yendo a New York

Negative

subject + won't (will not) have beeen + 1 > "ing"

I won't have been going to New York - No habr estado yendo a New York

He won't have been going to New York - El no habr estado yendo a New York

Interrogative

Will + subject + have been + 1 > "ing" ?

Will I have been going to New York ? - Habr estado yendo a New York ?

Will he have been going to New York ? - Habr l estado yendo a New York ?

usos del futuro perfecto continuo


Acontecimientos o acciones pertenecientes a un perodo de tiempo
entre ahora y algn momento del futuro, que puede ser incompleto.

I will have been waiting here for five hours by 10 pm.


Habr estado esperando aqu durante cinco horas cuando sean las 10 de la noche.

By the time you finish our OM Basic Course, you will have been learning American
English for six months.
Para cuando finalices nuestro OM Curso Bsico, habrs estado aprediendo Ings Americano
durante seis meses.

By 2100 OM Personal will have been teaching on the Internet for a century.
Para el 2100 OM Personal habr estado enseando en Internet durante un siglo.

expresiones usuales del futuro perfecto continuo


By the time you ... - By 2020 ... - By 8:00 am tomorrow ...

The Three Conditionals


conditional type I
a) IF + SIMPLE PRESENT + SIMPLE PRESENT
Used for scientific truth (usado para expresar verdades cientficas)

If you heat butter, it melts.


Si calientas manteca, sta se derrite.

b) IF + SIMPLE PRESENT + SIMPLE FUTURE

If you study, you will pass your exams.


Si estudias aprobars tus exmenes.

c) IMPERATIVE + OR / AND + SIMPLE FUTURE


Used for threats and promises (usado para expresar amenazas y promesas)

Don't say a word about this, or I will kill you.


No cuentes una palabra de esto o te mato.
Finish your job, and you will have a bonus.
Termina tu tarea y tendrs una gratificacin.

d) IMPERATIVO + IF / IN CASE + SIMPLE PRESENT

Contact me if you need any help.


Ponte en contacto conmigo si necesitas ayuda.
Call them in case you need help.
Llmalos en caso de necesitar ayuda.

NOTE: In cases a, b and d above, you can replace IF (si) by UNLESS (a menos que)

conditional type II
IF + SIMPLE PAST + SIMPLE CONDITIONAL
If FIRST verb in the sentence is TO BE, WERE is used for all persons.
(Si el PRIMER verbo de la oracin es TO BE, se usa WERE para todas las personas)

If I were rich, I would buy a castle.


Si fuera rico, comprara un castillo.
If I were him, I would go and see a doctor.

Si fuera l -en su lugar- consultara con un mdico.

NOTE: You can replace IF (si) by UNLESS (a menos que) in the examples above.

conditional type III


IF + PAST PERFECT + CONDITIONAL PERFECT
If FIRST verb in the sentence is TO BE, WERE is used for all persons.
(Si el PRIMER verbo de la oracin es TO BE, se usa WERE para todas las personas)

If I had known that you were sick, I would have gone to see you.
Si hubiese sabido que estabas enfermo, te habra ido a ver.

NOTE: The real situation was that I didn't know you were sick. So I say If I had known... When you are talking
about the past, you use the Past Perfect (I had known) after IF. You can replace IF (si) by UNLESS (a menos
que) in the examples above.