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436

REFERENCES

Fig. 7.

input/output, minimum output resistance).

tor voltages are the primary criterion, the circuits shown in Fig. 6

are the best. For the four circuits shown in Fig. 6, the capacitor

voltages are charged to [ E ,E,2E,2E,2E,2E,7E]. The output

resistance for all of these circuits is 12/fC. If minimum output

resistance is the primary criterion, the circuit shown in Fig. 7,

which has an output resistance of 6 / f C , is the best.

The conventional circuit is a good choice if the capacitor

voltages and the common ground are the only concerns. If the

isolation of input and output terminals, or the minimization of

output resistance to improve voltage regulation, becomes an

important design issue, then the circuits provided by VMD would

provide better choices. By specifying the appropriate values for

C,, and C,, VMD can be used to generate circuits with the

desirable tradeoff between capacitor voltages and output resistance, with or without a common ground.

Broudcusr Telec. Receioers, vol. BTR 16 pp. 32-36, Feb. 1970.

J. R. Woodyard. Cockcroft- Walton accelerations in Enqvclopediu of

Electronics, C. Susskind. New York: Reinhold. 1962.

D. C. Ray and M. L. Lampton, A high voltage power converter for

space astronomy applications, in Proc. I988 1ntersociet.v Energv Conoersion Engineering Con/., Denver, vol. 3, pp. 767-773, 1988.

W. F. Clocksin and C. S. Mellish, Progrumming in Prolog. Berlin,

Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1984.

P. M. Lin and L. 0. Chua, Topological generation and analysis of

voltage multiplier circuits, I Truns. Circuits Syst.. vol. CAS-24, pp.

517-530, Oct. 1977.

N. Deo, Gruph Theorv with Applicutions to Engineering and Computer

Sciences. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall 1974, ch. 10.

Zero-Current-Switching Rectifiers

MARIAN K. KAZIMIERCZUK

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors acknowledge Michael Bessos contribution to the

first version of VMD. Suggestions and comments from the reviewers are appreciated.

I. INTRODUCTION

In recent years, the growing demand for smaller and lighter

power supplies has initiated the development of high-efficiency

high-frequency resonant dc/dc power converters. Resonant dc/dc

converters operate efficiently at switching frequencies above 1

M E . Such high frequencies permit a significant miniaturization

of converter components such as magnetics and capacitors, yielding a higher power density of converters. Smaller filter components increase the availabile control-loop bandwidth, resulting in

a faster transient response to variations in the dc input voltage

and the load resistance. Because of smooth current and voltage

waveforms, resonant converters have lower device switching losses

and stresses, lower electromagnetic interference (EMI), and lower

noise than PWM converters.

A typical resonant converter consists of a dc/ac inverter (e.g.,

a Class E or a Class D tuned power amplifier) and an ac/dc

converter, i.e., a rectifier circuit. Common problems encountered

in high-frequency rectifiers are as follows:

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

parasitic oscillations,

incompatibility with ac sources, e.g., inverters,

low power factor,

high harmonic content of the input current or voltage.

Manuscript received December 5. 1988: revised April 17, 1989. This work

was supported by the State of Ohio under the Research Challenge Grant

660-763. This paper was recommended by Associate Editor C.A.T. Salama.

The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Wright State

University, Dayton, OH 45435.

IEEE Log Number 8933459.

.

...

JACEK JOZWIK

Abstract -A number of Class E half-wave and full-wave, zero-voltageswitching (low du/dr), zero-current switching (low d1 /df), and mixed-mode

rectifiers are introduced and verified experimentally. The rectifiers are

derived from conventional rectifiers by adding reactive components. New

conventional rectifiers are also introduced. The rectifiers are presented in

a systematic manner. The principle of the Class E rectifier operation is

explained using current and voltage waveforms. The Class E rectifiers

offer a new means of rectification suitabile for high-frequency applications, e.g., in resonant dc/dc power converters. A new general approach to

synthesis of resonant dc/dc converters is presented.

IV. CONCLUSIONS

This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using computers to

perform the generation of alternative circuits (that have different

topologies), the evaluation of these alternatives, and the selection

of the best solution according to a given set of criteria. This

approach is especially useful if the circuit to be designed has a

large number of alternatives. Based on this idea, an expert system

VMD has been developed to automate the design of voltage

multipliers. Given the multiplicity, VMD can generate circuits of

different topologies, evaluate them, and select the best solution

based on a given set of criteria. Some unconventional circuits

that have better performance than the conventional circuits for

some applications has been generated by VMD.

By systematically searching through the feasible design space,

computer programs developed based on this approach can be

used to enhance productivity of circuit designers as well as to

improve the quality of design. The proposed approach is intended for high level conceptual design or preliminary design.

The emphasis is on the basic structures of the alternative circuits.

Depending on the type of circuits, there exist computer software

tools that are specialized in performing analysis and parameter

optimization on given circuits. Schemes can be developed so that

programs implementing the proposed approach can be integrated

with one or more of the existing CAD tools so that the alternative analysis and evaluation process can be enhanced.

AND

voltage. They can be reduced by applying Schottky diodes,

germanium diodes, or synchronously driven transistor switches.

Switching losses are caused by losing the capacitive energy stored

in diode-junction capacitances or losing the inductive energy

stored in parasitic inductances. The reverse recovery of p-n

diodes becomes particularly detrimental when the area enclosed

by the negative part of the diode current becomes significant

compared with the area enclosed by the positive part, degrading

the diode rectifying property. These effects increase with frequency. Parasitic oscillations may occur when the diode-junction

capacitance or other capacitances form a parasitic resonant circuit with an inductance intentionally included in the circuit or

with a parasitic inductance, e.g., a lead inductance or a transformer leakage inductance. DC/AC converters usually contain a

series or parallel resonant circuit. Therefore, the output of these

inverters behaves as a sinusoidal current or voltage source. The

rectifier must be compatible with a given ac source. To achieve

this compatibility, the designer should choose a proper rectifier

or insert an interface between the source and the rectifier. The

power factor is defined as the ratio of the real power to the

apparent power at the output of the ac power source and is

expressed as

m

437

IC-v

T V C?

(4

(4

-- - - - --

n-1

n=l

where Pn is the power of the nth harmonic, I,,, and V,,, are the

rms values of the source current and voltage, Inand V, are the

rms values of the n th harmonic of the source current and voltage,

and +n is the phase shift between the current and voltage of the

nth harmonic. For example, if the source voltage is sinusoidal

and the source current is nonsinusoidal, the source delivers power

at the fundamental frequency only and, therefore, (1) becomes

n=l

where

current. The power factor increases to 1 if 1) higher harmonics

are reduced to zero and 2) the phase shift (pl between the source

voltage and the fundamental component of the source current

decreases to zero. In commonly used peak rectifiers, the conduction angle of the rectifier diode(s) is very small (e.g., 10'). Such

narrow current pulses contain a small fundamental component

and generate substantial amounts of harmonics which reduce the

power factor and are difficult to filter out. In addition, the high

ratio of peak-to-average current may require larger diodes with

larger parasitic capacitances, leading to higher switching losses. A

low power factor and a high harmonic content of the input

current are serious problems in rectifiers driven by 50/60 Hz or

higher frequency power lines.

Synthesis of new topologies of resonant dc/dc converters

requires new circuits of rectifiers. Recently, resonant rectifiers

(b)

(4

Waveforms in the rectifier of Fig. l(a). (c) Class E zero-current-switching

rectifier. (d) Waveforms in the rectifier of Fig. l(c).

and zero-current-switching tuned power amplifiers [5]-[8]. The

purpose of this paper is to introduce a large number of Class E

zero-voltage-switching (low dv/dt) and zero-current-switching

(low di/dt) rectifiers. These rectifiers are related to Class E

zero-voltage-switching [5]-[8] and zero-current-switching [4],

[9]-[ll] amplifiers. The new rectifiers may be applied in resonant

dc/dc converters. For example, new resonant dc/dc converters

may be obtained by replacing conventional rectifiers with Class E

rectifiers in Class E [12]-[17] or Class D converters, leading to

Class E2 [18], [19] or Class D-E [19] converters.

OF OPERATION

11. PRINCIPLE

in Fig. l(a). It consists of a diode, a resonant capacitor C, a

resonant inductor L , and a large filter capacitor C,. The circuit is

driven by a sinusoidal voltage source v. The resistor R , is a load

to which the dc power is delivered. An important advantage of

this topology is that the diode-junction capacitance is included in

the resonant capacitor C and therefore does not adversely affect

the circuit operation.

43 8

Fig. l(b). The filter capacitance C, is assumed to be sufficiently

large that the output voltage V, is constant. When the diode is

off, the inductor L and the capacitor C form a series-resonant

circuit driven by the difference between the sinusoidal input

voltage U and the constant output voltage V,. Therefore, the

current i through L and C is part of a sine wave, but this sine

wave is shifted up by a dc component. Thus the capacitor voltage

U , ( = U , ) has a sinusoidal component and a ramp component.

When the capacitor voltage reaches zero, the diode turns on. The

derivative dv,/dt of the voltage across the capacitor and diode

at turn-on is low.

When the diode is on, the voltage across the inductor L is the

difference between the sinusoidal input voltage U and the dc

output voltage V,. Therefore, the inductor current, equal to the

diode current i , , is a superposition of a sinewave and a ramp

function. When i , reaches zero, the diode turns off. The inductor

current i , is a continuous wave. This current is diverted from the

diode to the capacitor when the diode turns off. Since the

inductor current at this time is zero, the capacitor current is also

zero. Consequently, according to the equation i , = Cdv,/dt, the

derivative of the capacitor/diode voltage is zero at turn-off. The

dc output current I, is equal to the average diode current

because the average capacitor current is zero. The diode-voltage

waveform has no step changes, i.e., the diode turns on at low

dv,/dt and turns off at zero du,/dt. Therefore, switching losses

and noise are minimized. The absolute value of the current

derivative Idi,/dt( at turn-off is small, reducing the reverserecovery effect. The step change of the diode current at turn-on

produces switching noise and loss of the inductive energy stored

in the diode parasitic inductance. The waveform of the input

current i is close to a sine wave. Therefore, the harmonic content

of the input current is nearly zero. However, the phase shift

between the voltage U and the current i is not zero. It may be

compensated for a given load by adding a capacitor in parallel

with the input source, resulting in the power factor close to 1.

The circuit may be used in aerospace applications to rectify the

new standard 20-kHz power-line voltage. Its advantage is passive

(therefore, reliable) power-factor correction.

B. Class E Zero-Current-SwitchingRectifier

A Class E zero-current-switching(low d i , / d t ) rectifier is shown

in Fig. l(c). It is similar to the rectifier of Fig. l(a), but the

resonant capacitor C is connected in parallel with the series

combination of the diode and the inductor L. A drawback of the

circuit is that the diode-junction capacitance is not included in

the rectifier topology.

The idealized current and voltage waveforms in the rectifier of

Fig. l(c) are depicted in Fig. l(d). When the diode is on, the

capacitor C and the inductor L form a resonant circuit. The

voltage across the resonant circuit is equal to the difference

between the sinusoidal input voltage U and the dc output voltage

V,. Therefore, the current i , through the capacitor C is sinusoidal and the current i , through the inductor and diode is a

superposition of a sinusoidal function and a ramp function. The

input current i is a sum of the currents i , and i , . The derivative

of the diode current at turn-on is zero. When the diode current

reaches zero, the diode turns off.

When the diode is off, the inductor current, equal to the diode

current, is zero. Therefore, the voltage across the inductor is zero.

Consequently, the capacitor voltage U, and the diode voltage U ,

are equal to the sinusoidal input voltage shifted by the dc

37, NO.

Class E

Zero Voltage

Rectifiers

Switching

Conventional Rectiliers

la1

L,

<

3, MARCH 1990

Class E

Zero-Current-Switching

Rectifiers

191

101

In]

1"l

1

0

component Vo. When the negative diode voltage reaches zero, the

diode turns on. The diode turns on at zero di,/dt and turns off

at low di,/dt.

The waveforms in Class E rectifiers are mirror images of the

corresponding waveforms in Class E amplifiers [5]-[ll]. This

property for Class E zero-voltage-switchingrectifiers and amplifiers was indicated in [2].

OF RECTIFIERS

111. A FAMILY

Fig. 2(a)-(f) shows a family of conventional half-wave rectifiers with a single-pole low-pass filter. The family contains voltage-driven and current-driven rectifiers ended with a voltage load

(capacitive filter) or a current load (inductive filter). Therefore,

the circuits are classified as voltage-to-voltage (V/ V ) , currentto-current (I/Z), current-to-voltage (I/ V ) , and voltage-to-current ( V / Z ) rectifiers. The circuits of Fig. 2(a), (b), (e), and (f)

may be called peak rectifiers because either the dc output voltage

is almost equal to the ac-input peak voltage or the dc output

current is equal the ac-input peak current. They operate similarly

as Class C amplifiers with a small conduction angle of the drain

or collector current. Therefore, the peak rectifiers may be called

"Class C rectifiers."

Fig. 2(c) shows a half-wave current-to-voltage rectifier. If the

input current i is sinusoidal, the input voltage is ideally a square

31, NO.

439

3, MARCH 1990

V, is the diode forward voltage. Thus the power factor is quite

high, equal to PF = 2fi/lr

0.9. The voltage across each of the

diodes is ideally a square wave. Fast recharging of the diodejunction capacitances produces switching losses at turn-on and

turn-off, and the switching times may be significant. Expenmental waveforms at 1 MHz are shown in [16]. The current through

each of the diodes is a half-sine wave. Consequently, the diodes

turn on and off at low di,/dt, reducing inductive switching

losses and the reverse-recovery effect. This rectifier is preferred if

the dc output voltage V, is low (e.g., V, = 5 V) and the dc output

current I , is high.

Fig. 2(d) shows a half-wave voltage-to-current rectifier. If the

input voltage v is sinusoidal, the input current i is a square wave.

This results in a high power factor, P F = 2 f i / r = 0.9. The diode

currents are square waves and the diode voltages are half-sine

waves. Thus the diodes turn on and off at low dv,/dt, yielding

low capacitive switching losses, but inductive switching losses are

high. The reverse-recoveryeffect is quite large because the derivative Idi,/dtl at turn-off is large. The reverse-recovery charge may

significantly reduce the average value of the diode current at high

frequencies. Experimental waveforms in the actual rectifier operating at 1 MHz are shown in [17]. This rectifier is preferred if the

dc output voltage V, is high and the dc output current I, is low.

The waveforms in the rectifiers of Fig. 2(c) and (d) are the same

as those in Class D tuned power amplifiers. Therefore, the

circuits of Fig. 2(c) and (d) may be called Class D rectifiers.

The two circuits are average-value rectifiers. For example, in the

circuit of Fig. 2(c), the dc output current I, = I,/r is determined by the average value of the half-sine wave of the input

current whose amplitude is I,. In turn, the dc output voltage

V, = I, R , is determined by the current I , and the load resistance R , . The circuits of Fig. 2(a)-(f) are mutually dual.

Class E zero-voltage-switching rectifiers are shown in Fig.

2(g)-(n). They are derived from the conventional rectifiers by

adding a resonant capacitance C in parallel with the diode and a

resonant inductance L in series with the diode/capacitance combination or, in Fig. 2(m) and (n), by replacing a filter capacitor

by a small capacitor. The first concept was proposed in [l], [2].

Note that the diode-junction capacitance is included in the

resonant capacitance C and a lead inductance and a transformer

leakage inductance (if any) are included in the resonant inductance L. Since the capacitor C is connected in parallel with the

diode, the diode voltage is jumpless. Hence, the diode turns on at

low dv,/dt and turns off at zero du,/dt, reducing switching

losses. These circuits are called Class E rectifiers because their

operation is similar to that of Class E amplifiers [2]-[4]. The

rectifiers of Fig. 2(g)-(j) are essentially the same as those presented in [2], the rectifier of Fig. 2(m) was introduced in [3], while

the others are introduced in this paper, The resonant inductance

L can be shifted to the input-source branch in Fig. 2(h), (j)-(l),

and even removed in Fig. 2(h) and (k). This is because the

inductance L is a short circuit for the dc component and the

choke is an open circuit for the ac component. Therefore, it is not

important to which terminal of L one connects the choke. On the

other hand, the inductance connected in series with a sinusoidal

current source is equivalent to the current source itself.

Fig. 2(0)-(v) shows Class E zero-current-switching rectifiers.

The circuit of Fig. 2(u) was introduced in [4], and the others are

introduced in this paper. These circuits are derived from the

conventional rectifiers by adding a resonant inductance L in

series with the diode and a resonant capacitance C in parallel

with the combination of the diode and the inductance L , or by

Since the inductance L is connected in series with the diode, the

diode current is jumpless, reducing switching losses. The reverserecovery effect is also alleviated. Unfortunately, the diode-junction capacitance is not included in the resonant capacitance C.

When the diode is off, its junction capacitance forms a resonant

circuit with C and L , causing parasitic oscillations. The frequency of the oscillations is determined by the inductance L and

the series combination of the diode-junction capacitance and the

resonant capacitance C. These oscillations can be damped by a

snubber. Instead of the snubber, an external capacitance can be

connected in parallel with the diode, leading to the mode of

operation which is intermediate between the zero-current- and

zero-voltage switching [4]. The resonant capacitor C may be

connected to the other terminal of the filter capacitor in Fig. 2(0)

and (t), and since C appears across the voltage source, it may be

even deleted. This is because the capacitor C is an open circuit

, is a short

for the dc component, while the large filter capacitor C

circuit for the ac component, and a sinusoidal voltage source with

a parallel capacitor is equivalent to the voltage source itself.

Note that the rectifiers of Fig. 2(g) and (p), (h) and (o), (i) and

(r), (j) and (q), (k) and (t), (1) and (s), and (m) and (U) are

mutually dual.

The two-diode rectifiers of Fig. 2(i), (j), (q), and (r) may be

modified in many ways. Possible modifications of the circuits of

Fig. 2(j) and (r) are shown in Fig. 3. Four cases may be

distinguished: (a) both diodes are switched at zero voltage (Of,-O[,),

(b) both diodes are switched at zero current (0, -O,), (c) one

diode is switched at zero current and the other at zero voltage

(0, -Of,), and (d) vice versa to (c) (O[, - O r ) . In cases (a) and (b),

the number of resonant elements may be reduced to three: two

capacitors and one inductor, or one capacitor and two inductors,

respectively. In cases (c) and (d), the minimal number of resonant

components is two: one inductor and one capacitor. The minimum number of components results from the fact that zero-voltage-switching of a diode requires a parallel capacitor, and zerocurrent-switching of a diode requires a series inductor, and a

resonant circuit requires at least one capacitor and one inductor.

The conduction angle of the diode current in the Class E

rectifiers depends on the load resistance. The input impedance of

the Class E rectifiers is complex and both the resistive and

reactive components of this impedance are functions of the load

resistance. The rectifier diodes can be replaced by controlled

switches, e.g., MOSFETs or BJTs with antiparallel or series

diodes, which results in synchronous rectifiers. In such a case, the

dc output voltage may be controlled by varying the switch-conduction angle, while the frequency may be constant.

B.

Rectifiers

rectifiers. The circuits are full-wave counterparts of the half-wave

rectifiers of Fig. 2. Therefore, all the principles presented for

half-wave rectifiers can he applied to full-wave rectifiers as well.

Note that the transformer leakage inductances are included in the

resonant inductances of the Class E zero-voltage-switchingrectifiers. The circuit of Fig. 4(g) was introduced in [2], while all other

resonant rectifiers of Fig. 4 are introduced in this paper.

It is also possible to apply one zero-voltage-switchingrectifier

and the other zero-current-switching rectifier in one circuit as

shown in Fig. 5. In these mixed-mode rectifiers, the phase shift

between the fundamental components of the input current and

voltage may be reduced to zero (at least for a nominal load) by

440

Fig. 3.

Conventional Rectifiers

Class E

Zero-Voltage-Switching

Rectifiers

vo@

Class E

Zero-Current-Switching

Rectifiers

Conuen t i o n o !

Class E

Class E

Zero-VoltageSuitchlng

Rectifiers

Sui tching

Zero-Current

DouBLE(m

mm

Rec t l f l e r s

OUTPUT

( f l

Rectifiers

I n 1

[ e !

(e)

(

I t

FULL-

c

10

BRIDGE

~,

, \

( c 1

if!

a

I n !

ik!

Fig. 4. Conventional, Class E zero-voltage-switching, and Class E zerocurrent-switching transformer center-tapped rectifiers.

Fig. 6.

Fig. 5 .

compensating the phase shifts introduced by the zero-voltageswitching and zero-current-switching parts of the circuit.

C. Other Full- Wave Rectifiers

and center-coupled rectifiers, are shown in Fig. 6. The conventional center-coupled rectifiers and all Class E rectifiers are

introduced in this paper. The rectifiers of Fig. 6(f) and (m) can

be modified in a similar way as indicated in Fig. 3. In the

rectifiers of Fig. 6(g) and (h), two of the four capacitors may be

I 1 1

deleted: one of the two upper capacitors and one of the two

lower capacitors. In the rectifier of Fig. 6(i), only one of the two

capacitors is necessary. In the rectifiers of Fig. 6(j) and (k). two

capacitors may be added as in Fig. 6(g). The center-coupled

rectifiers need two coupling capacitors instead of one if the

transformer-center tap is'directly connected with the load ground.

In all the rectifiers, the diodes can be reversed to obtain a

negative dc output voltage. The output filters can be more

complex, e.g., second or third order. The first component of an

output filter in conventional rectifiers may be reduced to a small

reactive component, resulting in low du/dt or low di/dr rectifiers, as indicated in Section IV. Some rectifiers may operate even

without filters. Also, dc voltage and current multipliers can be

derived from the rectifier circuits. Topologies of the full-wave

rectifiers of Figs. 4-6 are the same for the ac current and voltage

sources, but their operation is different.

37.

NO.

441

3 . .MARCH 1990

Interface

D. Interface

An interface between an ac source and a rectifier is necessary

when the designer wants to connect a voltage-driven rectifier to

an ac current source or a current-driven rectifier to an ac voltage

source. Both V / I and I / V interfaces are shown in Fig. 7. Class

D rectifiers have been chosen as an example of the interface

application in order to obtain V / V and I / I average-value rectifiers. These circuits may be used instead of conventional V / V

and I / I peak rectifiers. If the loaded quality factor of the

interface circuits is sufficiently high, the waveforms of both the

source voltage and the source current can be sinusoidal, reducing

the harmonic content to nearly zero. Furthermore, the component values of the interface circuits can be adjusted so that the

phase shift between the source voltage and the source current is

zero at least at a given load, yielding the power factor close to 1.

These interface circuits are therefore passive power-factor correctors. Other interface circuits are given in Section IV.

IV. SYNTHESIS

OF RESONANT

DC/DC CONVERTERS

In general, a resonant dc/dc converter consists of a resonant

dc/ac inverter and a rectifier. Fig. 8 illustrates a method of

synthesis of resonant dc/dc converters with current-driven rectifiers. Three parts of an inverter can be distinguished: an active

part, a resonant circuit, and a load. Fig. 8(a) shows different

active parts of resonant dc/ac inverters. Fig. 8(b) contains different resonant circuits that are compatlble with the active parts of

Fig. 8(a). By connecting any active part of Fig. 8(a) with any

resonant circuit of Fig. 8(b) and a load resistance, one obtains a

resonant dc/ac inverter. (The circuits b,, and b,, of Fig. 8 are

not always applicable.) In this way, many different inverters are

obtained. The active part a, or az and the resonant circuit b,

produce a Class E zero-voltage-switching inverter with a parallel

capacitor (Class E,,), a3 or a, and b, produce a Class E

zero-current-switching inverter with a parallel inductor (Class

E,,), while u s and b, produce a Class D zero-current-switching

inverter (Class DI). Other resonant circuits of Fig. 8(b) may also

be applied. If a load resistance of an inverter is replaced by any

current-driven rectifier from Figs. 2, 4, and 6, one obtains a

resonant dc/dc converter with a current-driven rectifier. The

appropriate rectifiers are depicted in Fig. 8(c)-(f). For example,

the Class E-D converter described in [17] is obtained by connecting parts a,-h,-e,,and the Class E' converter described in [18]

consists of the parts a,-h,-d,. Each transformerless converter

without a dc-energy flow between its input and output has

transformer versions. The bridge rectifiers can be used without

transformer as well. When different parts of a converter are

connected, certain elements may become redundant. Some of

them are pointed out in the remarks below. Other redundancies

as well as possible modifications of the circuits are obtained by

applying the rules given in [20].

Detailed remarks to Fig. 8 are as follows:

capacitors are optional; zero-voltage-switching is

achieved by applying the capacitors and a deadtime driver;

equivalent circuits; the coupling capacitor is necessary only for rectifiers e,, c3,d,, d,, e,,e,, e5,

f19f2;

the coupling capacitor is not necessary for active

parts u 2 ,a,; for a,,a,, the capacitor may be

removed by connecting the inductor to the positive terminal of the power supply instead of

Interface

Fig. 7.

(b) Between a current source and a voltage-driven rectifier.

Class

ECP

UT

DC/AC-inverter active parts. (b) Resonant circuits. ( c ) Conventional rectifiers. (d) Class E zero-voltagc-switching rectifiers. (e) Class E zero-currentswitching rectifiers. ( f ) Class E mixed-mode rectifiers.

the capacitor may also be connected as in h?:

the coupling capacitor may be deleted if dc coupling is not harmful, e.g,. between a, or u 4 and

c? or transformer rectifiers, or between U , and c,

operating as a buck converter:

may be applied if a resonant capacitor is introduced by an active part or by a rectifier, e.g., by

U , or d,;

may be applied if a resonant inductor is introduced by an active part or by a rectifier, e.g., by

d,:

the choke should be removed if applied with

h z , h,, h9,h,,,, h , , , h,, without a coupling capacitor:

if the filter capacitor is replaced by a small capacitor and an inductive filter is added, two other

zero-voltage-switching rectifiers are obtained:

442

DC/RC

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Gf-z2ram

l o 1

Fl

PRnT

l b l

( c l

I d 1

( e l

I f 1

Rectifiers

Inuer ters

Fig.

Closs

ELS

Fl

Rectifiers

Class

EC 5

(b)

Fig. 10. Resonant dc/dc converters with interface circuits

c 1ass

OV

applied with bl,; it may be shifted to the

diode/capacitor branch;

d,, d4,* modifications as in Fig. 3 are applicable;

e5,e,,

f l ? f2, f 3

d,, d6,* the resonant inductors may be removed if prof4, fs vided by the transformer;

d,, d,, d9,* see the comments in Section 111-C;

dl19 dl2

e3,e4* the resonant capacitor may be removed if its function is provided by a resonant part of an inverter.

Fig. 9 illustrates a similar method of synthesis of resonant

dc/dc converters with voltage-drivenrectifiers. Remarks to Fig. 9

are :

without a choke, or with b,,, b,, in a converter

with a dc-energy flow between its output and

input;

as* this active part already contains a resonant circuit and may be directly connected with a load

resistance or a rectifier;

b2,b6, b,* the choke is required only for c,, c3,d,, d 3 ,e2,e 3 ,

e5,fl,f 2 ;

b,, b9* the choke is required only for a,, a,;

cl,c3,4,

d3,e2,e3,es,fl,or f2 if no dc-energy

flow is allowed from input to output of a converter;

may be applied only if the missing resonant

component is introduced by an active part or a

rectifier;

if the filter capacitor is replaced by a small

capacitor and an inductive filter is added, different zero-voltage-switching rectifiers are obtained;

if the filter inductor is replaced by a small inductor and a capacitive filter is added, different

zero-current-switchingrectifiers are obtained;

the coupling capacitor is not required if applied

with b2, b6,6, without the choke;

the resonant inductor may be shifted to the

diode/capacitor branch;

the resonant inductor may be removed if its

function is provided by a resonant part of an

inverter, e.g., b3;

modifications as in Fig. 3 are applicable;

see the comments in Section 111-C.

be extended by connecting the active parts of Fig. 8(a), interface

circuits, and voltage-driven rectifiers of Fig. 9(c)-(f), as shown in

Fig. lO(a). Likewise, the family of the converters with currentdriven rectifiers may be extended as shown in Fig. 10(b).

V. EXPERIMENTALRESULTS

Class E zero-current-switching rectifier of Fig. l(c) were constructed and tested, using 1N914 diode, R, = 50 a, C = 10 nF,

and L = 26 pH. The rectifiers were driven by a sinusoidal voltage

source with an amplitude of 8.5 V and a frequency of 300 kHz.

443

based on the similarity of operation between amplifiers (dc/ac

inverters) and rectifiers.

Class E rectifiers offer a new means of rectification. Compared

with Class C (peak) rectifiers, they offer lower device stresses,

lower reverse-recovery effect, and lower harmonic content of the

input current or voltage. Compared with Class D (average)

rectifiers, they feature reduced switching noise and switching

times of the diodes. The circuits are especially useful at high

frequencies. The current and voltage waveforms in Class E rectifiers are mirror images of the waveforms in Class E amplifiers.

The diode-conduction angle can be large (e.g., lSO), reducing

the diode stresses. The conduction angle and the dc output

voltage depend on the load resistance and the values of resonant

components L and C. However, this angle may be controlled to

regulate V, if diodes are replaced by controlled switches, resulting in synchronous rectifiers. The input current and voltage

waveforms in some of the rectifiers are close to sine waves. The

Class E rectifiers represent an inductive or capacitive load to the

ac source. The full-wave mixed-mode rectifiers can be designed

Fig. 11. Waveforms at f = 300 kHz, R , = 50 Cl, C = 10 n F and L = 26 pH.

so that their input impedance at the fundamental component is

(a) In the rectifier of Fig. l(a) at Vo = 4.01 V. (h) In the rectifier of Fig. l(c)

at Vo = 2.35 V. Vertical: 0.1 A and 5 V/div.; horizontal 0.5 ps/div.

resistive. If the rectifiers are used in a sine-wave power-distribution network, the zero phase shft between the line voltage and

Fig. 11 shows the input current and voltage waveforms of the current may be obtained by applying balanced numbers of differrectifier and the current and voltage waveforms of the rectifier ent types of the rectifiers or connecting a proper reactance at the

output of the power source, providing passive power-factor cordiode in both circuits. In the rectifier of Fig. l(a), the diode

turned on and off at low du,/dt. Hence, the diode-junction rection.

The diode-junction capacitance is absorbed into the resonant

capacitance did not adversely affect the circuit operation. The

turn-on and turn-off switching losses in the diode were reduced. capacitance in the zero-voltage-switching rectifiers. Therefore,

these rectifiers perform better at high frequencies than their

In addition, Idi,/dtl at turn-off was small and the diode voltage

decreased slowly after turn-off. Therefore, the reverse-recovery zero-current switching counterparts. Experimental results have

been given for two selected Class E rectifiers. The experimental

effect was significantly reduced. The conduction angle of the

and theoretical waveforms were in good agreement. The Class E

rectifier diode was approximately 150. The ratio of the peakrectifiers can be applied in resonant dc/dc power converters, e.g.,

to-average values of the diode current was relatively low ( = 4.5).

Thus the ripple current through the filter capacitor Cr was low, Class E converters [12]-[19]. A new method of synthesis of

resulting in a low ripple voltage at the output. Therefore, Cr may resonant dc/dc converters has been presented. It generates a

be smaller than that in peak rectifiers. The ratio of the peak-to- large number of new converters. A complete characterization of

average values of the diode voltage was 3.75. The input current the rectifiers and converters is recommended for future research.

was almost sinusoidal. The input-voltage waveform led the

REFERENCES

input-current waveform and therefore the rectifier represented an

W. C. Bowman, F. M. Magalhaes, W. R. Suiter. and N. G. Ziesse.

inductive load for the input voltage source. This phase shift can

Resonant rectifier circuits, U.S. Patent 4 685 041, Aug. 4. 1987.

be compensated by adding a capacitor in parallel with the input

W. A. Nitz. W. C. Bowman. F. T. Dickens, F. M. Magalhaes. W.

voltage source U .

Strauss, W. B. Suiter, and N. G. Ziesse, A new family of resonant

rectifier circuits for high frequency dc-dc converter applications, in

In the rectifier of Fig. l(c), the diode turned on and off at low

Proc. I E Applied Pouer Electron. Conf.. New Orleans, LA. pp. 12-22.

Idi, / d t 1, reducing the switching losses and the reverse-recovery

1988.

effect. The diode conduction angle was 210. The ratio of the

M. K. Kazimierczuk and J. Jhiwik, Class E zrro-voltage-switching

rectifier

with a series capacitor. I Truns. Circuits S w . , vol. CAS-36,

peak-to-average values of the diode current was 3.2. The ratio of

pp. 926-928, June 1989.

the peak-to-average values of the diode voltage was 6.4. The

J. Jhiwik and M. K. Kazimierczuk, Class E zero-current-switching

input current of the rectifier was not sinusoidal. The fundamental

rectifier with a parallel inductor. in Proc. l E E E Nut. Arrospoce arid

Electron. Conf. ( N A E C O N R V ) , Dayton, OH. vol. 1. pp. 233-239. May

component of the current led the sinusoidal input voltage; there22-26. 1989.

fore, the circuit represented a capacitive load for the input

N . 0. Sokal and A. D. Sokal. Class E-A new class of high-efficiency

source. This phase shift can be compensated by connecting an

tuned single-ended switching power amplifiers. I J . Solid-State

Circuits, vol. SC-10. pp. 168-178. June 1975.

inductor in parallel with the input source U .

VI. CONCLUSIONS

A large family of Class E rectifiers has been presented. The

family comprises half-wave and full-wave, zero-voltage-switching,

zero-current-switching, and mixed-mode rectifiers. All the zerocurrent-switching and mixed-mode rectifiers, most of the zerovoltage-switching rectifiers, and a few conventional rectifiers

have been introduced in this paper. The rectifiers have been

presented in a systematic manner. Classification of the rectifiers

I Truns. Circuirs Spsr.. vol. CAS-24, pp. 725-735, Dec. 1977.

M. K. Kazimierczuk and K. Puczko, Exact analysis of Class E tuned

power amplifier at any Q and switch duty cycle, I E E E Truns. Circuits

Syst., vol. CAS-34, pp. 149-159. Feb. 1987

R. E. Zulinski and J. W. Steadman, Class E power amplifiers and

frequency multipliers with finite dc-feed inductance, I Truns. Circuits S.W., vol. CAS-34. pp. 1074-1087, Sept. 1987.

M. K. Kazimierczuk, Class E tuned power amplifier with shunt inductor, I E J . Solid-Srure Circuits, vol. SC-16. pp. 2-7, Feb. 1981.

N. C. Voulgaris and C. P. Avratoglou, The use of a thyristor as a

switching device in a Class E tuned power amplifier. I Truns.

Circuirs Spw, vol. CAS-34. pp 1248-1250, Oct. 1987.

configuration with finite dc-feed inductance and no capacitance in

parallel with switch, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., vol. CAS-35, pp.

416-422, Apr. 1988.

R. J. Gutmann, Application of R F circuit design to distributed power

converters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. Contr. Instrum., vol. IECI-27,

pp. 156-164, Aug. 1980.

R. Redl, B. MolnL, and N. 0. Sokal, Class E resonant dc/dc power

converters: Analysis of operation and experimental results at 1.5 MHz,

IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. PE-1, pp. 111-120, Apr. 1986.

-,

Small-signal dynamic analysis of regulated Class-E dc/dc converters, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. PE-1, pp. 121-128, Apr.

1986.

M. K. Kazimierczuk and X. T. Bui, A family of Class E resonant

dc/dc power converters, in Proc. 16th Int. Power Electron. Con/.

(SATECH?), Dearborn, MI, pp. 69-93, Oct. 3-6,1988.

-,

Class E converter with an inductive impedance inverter, IEEE

Trans. Power Electron., vol. PE-4, pp. 124-135, Jan. 1989.

-,

Class E converter with a capacitive impedance inverter, IEEE

Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. IE-36, pp. 425-433, Aug. 1989.

M. K. Kazimierczuk and J. JMwik, DC/DC converter with Class E

inverter and rectifier, in Proc. High Frequency Power Converter Con/.,

Naples, FL, M a 14 18, 1989, pp. 383-394.

-,

Class EnGow-band dc/dc converters, IEEE Trans. Instrum.

Meas., vol. IM-38, pp. 1064-1068, Dec. 1989.

-,

Optimal topologies of resonant dc/dc converters, IEEE Trans.

Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. AES-25, pp. 363-372, May 1989.

Discrete-Time Systems Utilizing the Saturation

Nonlinearity, Based on Passivity Properties

a,>O, & > O ,

I. INTRODUCTION

Consider a discrete-time system characterized by a linear part

G(z):

z+(a,

+ h,)z-l+(U,-, + hn-1)Z-2+

+ u,z-l+

associated with the saturation nonlinearity [2].

A novel generalization of (2) is discussed presently. The present generalization involves certain parameters I,, i = 1,2,. . .,m,

such that, with z, = 0, i =1,2; . ., m, it reduces to (2). To the

best of the authors knowledge, this generalization was not explicitly mentioned previously to this paper.

11. GENERALIZED

CRITERION

Theorem 1: Assume that (4) holds true. Assume further that

there exist real numbers a , ,/3, i = 1,2,. . ., m, satisfying (3) and

real numbers z,, i = 1,2,. . .,m, satisfying

lzil <1,

(5 )

i = 1 , 2 ; - . , rn

1-

{alRe[

i-1

l+G(z)

]+&Re[

1+

(z+zj)-i

>O,

(z+Zi)-

l+G(z)

]]

forall 1z1=1 ( 6 )

is satisfied. Then the null solution of the feedback system described by (1) is asymptotically stable in the large (ASIL).

Proof The underlying difference equation is

n+l

+ . . . + h,z + h,

un_,z-2 + . . . + a,z + a, (14

... + ( U, + h2)z

+(u,+h,) zO,

h,z-l+ hn-,Z-2

G( z)

(3)

VIMAL SINGH

Abstract -A criterion for the absolute stability of discrete-time feedback systems utilizing the saturation nonlinearity is presented. The criterion is based on the passivity properties associated with the saturation

nonlinearity. The present approach is essentially a generalization of an

earlier one due to Mitra 121 (see also 111).

i=1,2;-.,m

a,y(r+z-n-1)+

=1

h,f(y(r+i-n-1))

=O.

(7.1)

1=l

a,

z, and - z,, and utilizing (7.1), we obtain [3]

ni 2

( ul-l + a l z , ) y ( r + i - n - 1)

I

digital filters (e.g., a, = a2 = . . . = a, = 0) employing saturation

arithmetic [l].

In [2] (see [l] also), a criterion for the absolute stability of (1)

was presented, which takes the form of the inequality

=1

n+l

(h,-,+h,z,)f(y(r+i-n-1))

I

=O.

(7.2)

=1

rearrangement (i.e., utilizing (7.2)) [3]:

n+3

[u,~2+u,~1(~,+zm~1)+u,~m~m~l]y(r+z-n-~)

I

=1

n +2

+

Manuscript received February 16, 1989. This paper was recommended by

Associate Editor R. Ansari.

The author is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, M.N.R. Engineering College, Allahabad 211004, India.

IEEE Log Number 8933450.

C [ h i - 2 + hz-l(zm tzrn-1) + h z ~ r n ~ r n - 1 1

r=l

.f( y ( r + I

n -1))

=o.

(7.3)

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