Sie sind auf Seite 1von 8

CHAPTER 14: RIZAL IN LONDON (1888-89)

After visiting the United States, Rizal stayed in London from


May, 1888 to March, 1889. He chose this city for three
reasons:
1. Improve his knowledge of the English language
2. Study and annotate Morgas Sucesos
3. London being a safe place
TRIP ACROSS THE ATLANTIC
During his trip from New York to Liverpool, Rizal
won many friends because he was friendly, and
he entertained the foreigners with his yo-yo as
an offense weapon. Though he didnt enjoy
much of his trip because his companions were
intellectually inferior to him.
Arrived in Liverpool, England, on May 24, 1888
LIFE IN LONDON
May 25, 1888 Rizal stayed with Dr. Antonio Ma.
Regidor, an exile of 1872 who is also a
practicing lawyer in London.
End of May Rizal board with the Beckett family.
NEWS FROM HOME, GOOD AND BAD
Bad News injustices by Spanish authorities to
Filipinos and the Rizal family, such as:
Persecution of the Filipino patriots who
signed the Anti-Friar Petition of 1888
Persecution of the Calamba tenants, that
included Rizals family and relatives
Attacks on Rizal in Spanish newspapers
Manuel T. Hidalgo was exiled
Good News Rev. Vicente Garcias defense of
the Noli against the attacks of the friars.
ANNOTATING MORGANS BOOK
With Rizal spending so much time in the British
Museum, annotating Morgans Book, Sucesos de
las Islas Filipinas was by far his greatest
achievement while he was in London.

SHORT VISIT TO PARIS AND SPAIN


Early September, 1888, he visited Paris in
search for more historical materials in the
Bibliotheque Nationale accompanied by Juan
Luna and his wife Paz Pardo de Tavera.
December 11, 1888, Rizal went to Spain to visit
Madrid and Barcelona where he met Marcelo H.
del Pilar and Mariano Ponce.
CHRISTMAS IN LONDON
December 24, 1888, Rizal returned to London to
celebrate Christmas and New Years Day with
the Becketts.
RIZAL BECOMES LEADER OF FILIPINOS IN
EUROPE
December 31, 1888, Asociacion La Solidaridad
was inaugurated with the following officers:
Galicano Apacible, President
Graciano Lopez Jeana, Vice-President
Manuel Santa Maria, Secretary
Mariano Ponce, Treasurer
Jose Ma. Panganiban, Accountant
Rizal was voted by all the members to be their
honorary President.
January 28, 1889, he wrote a letter expressing
his gratitude for making him president and gave
the following advice:
No one should resent defeat
Members should have integrity and good
will
RIZAL AND THE LA SOLIDARIDAD NEWSPAPER
February 15, 1889, Graciano Lopez Jeana
founded La Solidaridad in Barcelona.
La Solidaridad served as an organ of the
Propaganda Movement, and its aims were:
Work peacefully for political and social
reforms
Portray poor conditions of the Philippines

Oppose the evil forces of reaction and


medievalism
Advocate liberal ideas and progress
Aspirations of Filipinos to life, democracy,
and happiness
FIRST ARTICLE IN LA SOLIDARIDAD
March 25, 1889, first article by Rizal was
published entitled Los Agricultores Filipinos
This article shows a representation of how
poor the conditions were in the
Philippines which cause the country
toward its worse state.
WRITINGS IN LONDON
La Vision del Fray Rodriguez was a pamphlet he
wrote as a defense from the full attack on his
Noli, which was published in Barcelona under his
nom-de-plume Dimas Alang.
February 22, 1889, he wrote Letter to the
Young Women of Malolos in Tagalog.
The main points of this letter were:
Filipino mothers should teach their
children to love God, fatherland, and
mankind
Filipino mother should be proud to offer
her sons in the defense of the fatherland
Filipino woman should know how to
preserve their dignity and honor
Filipino woman should educate herself
Live as a real Christian, with good morals
and good manners
May 1889, Specimens of Tagal Folklore was
published.
June 1889, Two Eastern Fables was published.
ROMANCE WITH GERTRUDE BUCKETT
Rizals friendship with the oldest of the tree
Beckett sisters Gertrude drifted towards
romance, but before they got into a deep

relationship Rizal realized that he could not be


with Gertrude because he had to fulfill his
mission in life.
Rizal then decided to leave London, but before
he left he finished four sculptures;
Prometheus Bound
The Triumph of Death over Life
The Triumph of Science over Death
Carved heads of the Beckett sisters
March 19, 1889, Rizal left London for Paris.
Chapter 15: Rizals Second Sojourn in Paris and the
Universal Exposition of 1889
DIFFICULTY OF FINDING QUARTERS
March 19, 1889 he arrived at Paris
Rizal had difficulty finding a living quarter since
most of the hotels were accommodated by
thousands of tourists for the approaching
Universal Exposition of 1889
He lived in the house of his friend VALENTIN
VENTURA at No. 45 Rue Maubeuge and polished
his annotated edition of Morgas book
He transferred his residence several times;
hotel-hotel, boarding house to another
FINALLY he lived in a little room together with 2
other Filipinos:
CAPITAN
JUSTO
TRINIDAD
(former
gobernadorcillo of Sta. Ana, Manila and a
refugee from Spanish Tyranny)
JOSE ALBERT (a young student from
Manila)
LIFE IN PARIS
Spent most of his time in a
National Library and at
writing letters to his family
and to his friends, in the
daily physical exercises and

reading room at the


his living quarters
in Calamba, Laguna
gymnasium for his
visiting his friends

Rizal used to dine at the homes of his friends


such as the Pardo de Taveras, the Lunas, etc.
June 24, 1889, a baby girl was born to Juan Luna
and Paz Pardo de Tavera (2nd child) Rizal was her
baptismal godfather and named her Maria de
la Paz, Blanca, Laureana, Hermenegilda Juana
Luna y Pardo de Tavera

RIZAL AND PARIS EXPOSITION OF 1889


May 6, 1889: Rizal Paris Exposition
Paris was jammed with thousands of Tourists
coming from all parts of the world
Greatest attraction: Eiffel Tower, 984 ft. high
built by Alexander Eiffel, a French engineer
They participated in the international art
competition
Felix Hidalgo- 2nd price
Juan Luna and Felix Pardo de Tavera- 3 rd
price
Jose Rizal- none
KIDLAT CLUB
Founded by Rizal on the same day when he
arrived at Paris
Purpose: to simply bring together the Young
Filipinos in the French capital so that they could
enjoy their stay in the city during the duration of
the Universal Exposition
Formed in one hour but lasted only during the
Exposition
Members:
Antonio and Juan Luna, Gregorio Aguilera,
Fernando Canon, Julio Llorente, etc.
INDIOS BRAVOS
Watched the BUFFALO BULL featuring the
American Indians
Rizal was enchanted by the dignified and proud
bearing of the American Indians and so later
called themselves INDIOS BRAVOS

Replaced the Kidlat Club


Pledged to excel in intellectual and physical
prowess
Rizal thought them Judo an Asian art of selfdefense that he learned in Japan and they also
practiced the use of sword and pistol
R.D.L.M. SOCIETY
Secret society founded by Rizal
According to DR. LEONCIO LOPEZ-RIZAL,
grandnephew of Rizal the letters RDLM are
believed to be the initials of the societys secret
name: Redencion de los Malayos (Redemption of
the Malays)

AIM:
1. Propagation of all the useful knowledgescientific, artistic, literary in the Philippines.
2. Redemption of the Malays
Few of Rizals trusted friends became members
such as Marcelo H. del Pilar and Mariano Ponce
ANNOTATED EDITION OF MORGA PUBLISHED
Rizals outstanding achievement in Paris which
he wrote in the British Museum
Published in 1890
Printed by Garnier Freres, prologue was written
by professor Blumentritt
Reason for annotating and publication: it was
the best of the many histories of the Philippines
written by early Spanish writers, accurate in the
narration of events, unbiased judgment, and
unmarred by childish fantasies.
Rizal dedicated his new edition of Morga to the
Filipino people so that they would know of their
glorious past.
COMMENT ON MORGAS PUBLICATION DATE
Title page of Rizals edition: Paris, Libreria de
Garnier Hermanos, 1890

All biographers of Rizal asserted that his edition


was published in 1890.
3 letters sent and received by Rizal dated
October 12, 1889, December 28, 1889 and
December 31, 1889 stating that he already sent
a copy of his edition and some of his friends
received the book are incontrovertible proofs
that Morgas Sucesos by Rizal actually came off
the press in 1889.
RIZAL AS HISTORIAN
Rizals research studies in the British Museum
(London) and in the Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris)
enriched his historical knowledge.
His knowledge of foreign languages enabled Rizal to
read historical documents and books in the languages
in which they were originally written. Some of them
were Pigafettas First Voyage Around the World in
Italian, the writings of Blumentritt, Jagor, and Virchow
in German, the books of M. Jacquet, J. Mallat, and A.
Marche in French, etc.
Rizal also wrote other books which qualify him to be a
real historian.
Two historical commentaries written in London- Ma-yi
(December 6, 1888) and Tawalisi of Ibn Batuta
(January 7, 1889)
Filipinas dentro de Cien Anos (The Philippines Within a
Century), published in La Solidaridad in four issues on
September 30, October 31, December 15, 1889 and
February 15, 1890.
THE PHILIPPINES WITHIN A CENTURY
In this article, Rizal expressed his views on Spanish
colonization in the Philippines and predicted with
amazing accuracy the tragic end of Spains
sovereignty in Asia.
He pointed out the glorious past of the Filipinos,
described their economic stagnation and unhappiness
under the harsh Spanish regime.

Towards the end of the article, Rizal warned Spain of


what would happen to her colonial empire in Asia if
she would not adopt a more liberal and enlightened
policy toward the Philippines.
THE INDOLENCE OF THE FILIPINOS
This essay by Rizal is an able defense of the alleged
indolence of the Filipinos.
Rizal made a critical study of the causes why his
people did not work hard during the Spanish regime.
His main thesis was that the Filipinos are not by nature
indolent.
The Spanish conquest of the country brought about a
decline in economic activities because the Filipinos had
abandoned their pre-Spanish industries and worked
less than their ancestors. Such decline was due to
certain causes:
1. The native revolts and other internal disorders
which followed the establishment of Spanish rule.
2. The wars which the Filipinos fought for Spain
against the Dutch, Portuguese, English, and other
enemies.
3. The frightful raids on the coastal towns and village
of Christian Philippines by the Muslim pirates of
Mindanao and Sulu.
4. The forced labor which compelled thousands of
Filipino labourers to work in shipyards, roads,
bridges, and other public works, resulting in the
abandonment
of
industry,
commerce,
and
agriculture.
5. Lack of stimulus to work harder because the people
could not enjoy the fruits of their labor.
6. Government neglect and indifference to agriculture,
industry, and commerce.
7. The bad example shown by the Spaniards in
despising manual labor.
8. The teaching of Spanish missionaries that it is
easier for a poor man to enter heaven than for a

rich man, hence the Filipinos prefer not to work and


be poor so that they could easily enter heaven
when they die.
9. Encouragement and propagation of gambling by
the Spanish authorities.
10.
System of Spanish education did not promote
economic enterprise and activity, for, as Rizal
asserted, the education of the native was from his
birth until he sinks into his grave... is brutalizing,
depressive and anti-human and deprives him of
dignity.
Rizal admits that the Filipinos are easy-going and do
not work so hard because they are wise enough to
adjust themselves to their warm, tropical climate. They
do not have to kill themselves working hard in order to
live because nature gives them abundant harvests by
working less than those in temperate and arid
countries.
INTERNATIONAL
ASSOCIATION
OF
FILIPINOLOGISTS
Universal Exposition of 1889, Paris
Rizal proposed to establish an International Association
of Filipinologists and have its inaugural convention in
the French capital.
He first submitted the idea to Blumentritt in a letter
dated January 14, 1889 and the latter gladly supported
him.
Aim of the Association: To study the Philippines from
the scientific and historical point of view.
The officers were as follows:
President: Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt (Australian)
Vice President: Mr. Edmund Plauchut (French)
Counsellor: Dr. Reinhold Rost (Anglo-German)
Counsellor: Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor (Filipino-Spanish)
Secretary: Dr. Jose Rizal (Filipino)
The inaugural convention was scheduled by Rizal in
August 1889, Paris and invited renowned scholars in
Europe. Unfortunately, the convention did not

materialize
because
the
French
government
discouraged the holding of conferences by private
organizations during the period of the international
exposition.
PROJECT FOR FILIPINO COLLEGE IN HONGKONG
A project by Rizal in Paris was to establish a modern
college in Hong Kong
Rizal wrote to his friend, Jose Maria Basa, about this
matter.
Aim of the college: To train and educate men of good
family and financial means in accordance with the
demands of modern times and circumstances.
Mr. Mario Cunanan- a rich Filipino resident in Paris,
from Mexico, Pampanga, promised to help Rizal raise
P40,000 as initial capital for the college.
Some subjects in the curriculum were: Ethics, Religion,
Natural Law, Civil Law, Deportment, Hygiene,
Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, Geography,
Political Economy, Philippine History, Logic, Poetics,
Spanish, English, French, German, Chinese, Tagalog,
Gymnastics, Dancing, Drawing, Fencing, etc.
Unfortunately, this project did not materialize.
However, years later, during his exile in Dapitan, he
actually founded a school for boys, in which he put into
practice some of his splendid pedagogical concepts.
POR TELEFONO
A satirical work written by Rizal as a reply to another
Slanderer, Fr. Salvador Font, who masterminded the
banning of his Noli.
Was published in booklet form in Barcelona in 1889
This work was under the authorship of Dimas Alang
(one of Rizals pen names)
A witty satire which ridicules Fr. Font. It describes a
telephone conversation between Fr. Font who was in
Madrid and the father provincial of the San Agustin
Convent in Manila.

Por Telefono demonstrates not only Rizals sparkling


wit but also his prophetic insight.
Rizal predicted that people could carry on overseas
telephonic conversations. History shows that the first
radio-telegraph signal received by Marconi across the
Atlantic was in 1901, 12 years after the publication of
Rizals Por Telefono.
CHRISTMAS IN PARIS
December 25, 1889- Rizals last Christmas dinner in
Paris.
Rizal was living with Jose Albert in a frugally small
room occupied by Capitan Justo Trinidad.
Shortly after New Year, Rizal made a brief visit to
London. According to biographers, purpose of the visit
were unknown but it may be due to 2 reasons:

1. To check up his annotated edition of Morgas


Sucesos with the original copy in the British
museum and;
2. To see Gertrude Beckett for the last time.
By the middle of January, 1890, he was back in Paris.
At that time, an epidemic of influenza was raging in
Europe. Although Rizal complained of a terrible
headache, fortunately, he was not stricken with flu.

Reference:
Zaide, G. F., Zaide, S. M., & Rizal, J. (1999). Chapter 14-15:
Rizal in London & Rizal's second sojourn in Paris and
the Universal Exposition of 1889. In Jose Rizal: Life,
works and writings of a genius , writer, scientist and
national hero (2nd ed., pp. 142-166). Quezon City
[Philippines: All-Nations Pub. Co.

Saint Louis University


Baguio, City
School of Nursing

CHAPTER 14: RIZAL IN LONDON (1888-89)

Chapter 15: RIZALS SECOND SOJOURN IN PARIS AND THE UNIVERSAL


EXPOSITION OF 1889

Submitted by:

Baybay, Leanlexoz Valiant B.


De los Santos, Maria Vida
Hernando, Lara Mae
Saifuddin, Girlie

Submitted to:
Atty. Maychelle Ablog

November__, 2014