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Lectures Nos.

l, 2 and 3
Evolution of Solid Waste Management
Part I, Chapter 1, p.3
1. General

Solid wastes are the wastes arising from human activities and are normally solid as
opposed to liquid or gaseous and are discarded as useless or unwanted. Focused on
urban waste (MSW) as opposed to agricultural, mining and industrial wastes.
Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) is the term applied to all the activities
associated with the management of society's wastes.
In medieval times, wastes discarded in the streets led to the breeding of rats and the
associated fleas which carried the bubonic plague. The lack of management of solid
wastes thus led to the Black Plague which killed half of 14th century Europe.
USPHS has traced 22 human diseases to improper solid waste management.
Solid wastes also have a great potential to pollute the air and water. Mining tailings
from Colorado gold and silver mines will probably being spilling arsenic into the
water supply forever. Just finished toxic metal treatment facility in Park City, Utah.
Materials Flow - The best way to reduce solid wastes is not to create them in the first
place. Others methods include: decrease consumption of raw material and increase
the rate of recovery of waste materials.
Technological advances - Increased use of plastics and fast, pre-prepared foods.

2. Solid Waste Management

Solid waste management is the control of :


- generation, materials are identified as being no longer value
- storage, management of wastes until they are put into a container
- collection, gathering of solid wastes and recyclable materials and the transport of these
materials where the collection vehicle is emptied. 50% or higher of the total cost.
- processing, source separated (at the home) vs. commingled (everything together) is a
big issue. Includes: physical processes such as shredding and screening, removal of
bulky material, and chemical and biological processes such as incineration and
composting.
- transfer and transport, small trucks to the biggest trucks allowable
- disposal of solid waste, landfilling with or without attempting to recover resources.

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Waste
Generation

Waste handling, separation,


storage and processing
at the source

Collection
Separation and processing
and transformation of
solid waste

Transfer and
Transport

Disposal

in a manner that is in accord with:


- public health
- economics
- engineering
- conservation
- aesthetics
- public attitudes
Final disposal at the turn of the century included:
- dumping on land
- dumping in water
- plowing into soil
- feeding to hogs
- incineration
Modern landfilling was begun in the 1940's in NYC under Major LaGuardia and in
Fresno, Ca under Dir. of Public Works, Jean Vincenz
3. Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM)

ISWM - defines as the selection and application of suitable techniques, technologies


and management programs to achieve specific waste management objectives and
goals. AB939 in California: 25% reduction by 1995, 50% reduction by 2000.
Hierarchy - adopted by EPA to rank actions:
- source reduction, most useful, may involve design of packaging with minimum toxic
content, minimum volume or a longer useful life.
- recycling
- waste combustion (transformation), physical, chemical and biological alteration of the
waste for the purposes of:
- improving efficiency
- recover reusable material, glass

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- recover conversion products, compost
- landfilling, material that:
- cannot be recycles
- has no further use
- residual matter attendant to another process, ash left over after combustion
HOMEWORK
Read Chapter 1, pp. 3-22
Problems, p.22, 1-3, 1-4

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Legislative Trends and Impacts
Part II, Chapter 2, p.23

Rivers and Harbors Act, 1899, regulated the dumping of debris in navigable waters
and adjacent land. The idea was to protect navigation.
Solid Waste Disposal Act, 1965, PL89-272,
- The intent was:
- Promote solid waste management and resource recovery.
- Promote technical and financial aid
- Promote national research.
- Provide for guidelines.
- Provide for training grants.
- Enforcement was by USPHS.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 1969, Required Environmental Impact
Statement (EIS).
Resource Recovery Act, 1970, PL95-512, amended the SW Disposal Act of 1965.
Directed that the emphasis should be shifted from disposal as its primary objective to
recycling and reuse. Management activities were transferred the US EPA which was
formed by presidential order under Reorganizational Plan No. 3 of 1970.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 1976, PL94-580. Legal basis for
implementation of guidelines and standards for solid waste storage, treatment and
disposal. RCRA was amended in 1978, 1980, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1986 and 1988. The
1980 and 1984 versions emphasized concern with hazardous waste.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
(CERCLA), 1980, (Superfund), PL96-510. Response to uncontrolled hazardous waste
disposal sites.
- Ancillary laws:
Public Utility Regulation and Policy Act (PURPA), 1981. Directs public and private
utilities to purchase power from waste-to-energy facilities.
Noise Pollution and Abatement Act, 1970. Limits noise.
Clean Air Act, 1970, PL91-604, (reauthorized in 1990), pertains where dust, smoke
and gases discharged from solid waste operations are involved.
- California Law, T2-1, p.28.
AB939, 25% reduction by 1995, 50% reduction by 2000.
Local agency in LA is the LA County Sanitation Districts.
Part II, HOMEWORK
Read Chapter 2, pp. 23-36

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Sources, Composition, and Properties of Solid Waste
Part III, Chapter 3, p.39
1. Sources of Solid Waste (T3-1, p.41)

MSW, Municipal Solid Waste, is the primary focus of this course, which excludes
industrial, mining and agricultural wastes.

A. Residential and Commercial

Residential:Generated by me and you: Organic (combustible) and inorganic (noncombustible), food, paper, garden trimmings, glass, white goods, waste oil, spent cans
of insecticide.
Commercial: stores, restaurants, hotels, car repair: paper, plastic.
Commingled. Mixed wastes, not separated at the source.
Putrescible, wastes that will decompose rapidly primarily food.
Plastics, see p. 42 and handout, contain a numerical code, 1 through 7, which is
stamped on the bottom of the container inside a small triangle.
- Polyethylene terephthalate (PETE/1), 2-liter soda bottle
- High-density polyethylene (HDPE/2), milk bottles

Special Wastes:
- Bulky items: furniture, lamps.
- Electronics
- Major appliances (white goods)
- Batteries, oil and tires

Household hazardous wastes:


- paint
- cleaners
- bug and garden sprays
B. Institutional and others

Generated by government buildings, schools, prisons and hospitals.


Does not include medical wastes which are typically incinerated and manufacturing
wastes from prisons.
Construction and Demolition. Road repair, sewer jobs, renovations: wood, concrete,
steel, shingles, electrical parts.
Municipal Services. Street cleaning, parks, catch basins: trimmings, food, paper,
sweepings, dead animals, abandoned vehicles.
Treatment Plant Sludges.

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C. Industrial Wastes(T3-2, p.46)

SIC (Standard Industrial Classification) codes. Excludes process and hazardous


wastes.
SIC 32 - Stone, clay and glass products from the manufacture of flat glass etc.,
yielding glass, gypsum (sulfur source) abrasives, etc.

D. Agricultural Wastes

Enormous quantities from planting, harvesting from row, field, tree and vine crops
and animal husbandry, feedlots.

2. Composition of Solid Waste (T3.-3, p48)

Composition describes the individual components that make up solid waste and the
distribution of these components by weight.
Example
Given: Scales indicate that a landfill is collecting about 800 ton/day of MSW, 5 days per week.
Find: The weight of material collected from the catch basins in a year.
T3-3, p48 catch basins .7%
Weight MSW generated per week = 800 tons/day x 5 days/week
Weight MSW generated per week = 4000tons/week
Weight in catch basins = 4000tons/week x .007 x 52 weeks/year
Weight in catch basins = 1456 tons/year

Knowing the composition is becoming critical:


- Selection and operation of equipment and facilities
- Feasibility of resource and energy recovery
- Design of disposal facilities
The residential and commercial component is typically 62% of MSW.
Components of MSW excluding specials, recycled materials and food wastes: (T3-4,
p.49)
- Organic, combustible, paper and yard wastes are predominate.
- Inorganic, non-combustible, glass and tin cans.
Composition T3-7, p.52, with and without food wastes, with and without recycling.
Example
**Problem 3-3, p. 67

3. Variation in Distribution

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Highly variable, local studies should be considered, collected data is expensive and of
limited value; make sure that collected data is useful before collecting.
Location, warmer more affluent communities generate more wastes.
Season, T3-8, p.56, More yard and food wastes in the summer; more glass and metals
in the winter.
Example
Given: A recycling company is expecting about 1500 tons/year of glass and they did some field
testing during the winter to verify this number. They chose winter to get a low end of the range
assuming that less beverages would be consumed in the winter.
Find: The percentage decrease in revenues when the glass is actually counted. Assume that the real
glass production will be based on the average of winter and summer months.
T3-8, p.56 Glass in winter 3.5%, glass in summer 2.5%
Total tonnage = 1500 tons/year .035
Total tonnage = 42,857 tons/year
Actual glass percentage = (3.5 + 2.5)/2
Actual glass percentage = 3.0%
Real tonnage of glass = 42,857 tons/year x .03
Real tonnage of glass = 1286 tons/year
% decrease = (1500 - 1286)/1500
% decrease = 14.3% reduction in revenues
Note: They made an incorrect assumption by assuming that there would be more glass in the
summer.

Economics and others.

4. Materials Recovered from MSW (T3-10, p61)

Aluminum: cans and others, window frames, lawn furniture.


Paper: 4 categories: newspaper, cardboard, high-quality, mixed(magazines). Defined
by fiber, source, homogeneity, printing etc.
Plastics: Mostly PETE/1, soda and HDPE/2, milk. Less than 5% being recycled.
Glass: Often separated by colors.
Ferrous metals: cars and appliances and steel (tin) cans.
Yard wastes: Needs to collected separately. Uses include use as compost or
intermediate cover at landfills.
Construction and Demolition: Directly recoverable such as used brick or plumbing
fixtures, gross material may serve to construct temporary roads at landfills.

EXAMPLES
3-3

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HOMEWORK
Read Chapter 3, pp. 37-68
Problems, p.67, 3-4 also 3A, 3B and 3C

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Physical, Chemical and Biological Properties of MSW
Part IV, Chapter 4, p.69
1. Physical Properties of MSW
A. Specific Weight (T4-1, p.70)
lb/yd3, a volume measure and, therefore, subject to interpretation and variable.
Beware of reporting: loose, as found in containers, uncompacted, compacted.
Use:
- 220 lb/yd3 for residential
- 270 lb/yd3 for commercial
- 500 lb/yd3 in the compactor truck
- 760 lb/yd3in the landfill
Example

Given: MSW
Find: What's the decrease in volume for MSW from the house to the landfill.
1
1
Densityoriginal Densitynew
Volume =
Densityoriginal
Volume = (1/220 - 1/760) / 1/220 = (.004545 - .001316)/.004545
Volume = 71.0% decrease

Example
**Problem 4-1, p.97
B. Moisture Content (Ex. 4-1, p.72)

Wet-weight relationship:

w-d
100 eq.4-1, p.72
w
Varies from 15-40%, use 21%, food and yard wastes very high-70%; paper, plastics
and inorganics very low-3%.
Important consideration for transformation processes: energy recovery (incineration)
and composting. Rain soaked trash will way more than its dry counterpart, a
consideration at the weighing scales.
Example
**Problem 4-3b, p.97
M=

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C. Particle Size and Distribution

Imprint consideration in the recovery of materials, pre-processing antecedent to a


classification or sorting process.
Eqs. 4-2 to 4-6, based on a single linear measurement, the average size is 7-8".

D. Field Capacity (FC)

The amount of moisture that can be retained in a waste sample subject to the
downward pull of gravity. Water in excess of FC will flow out of the waste as
leachate.
50-60% for uncompacted, commingled waste from residential and commercial
sources.

E. Permeability (hydraulic conductivity) of Compacted MSW

Measures the movement of gasses and liquids in landfills.


K = Cd2Error! = kError! eq. 4-7, p.76
k= 10-11 to 10-12 m2 in the vertical and 10-10 in the horizontal.
Example
Given: The horizontal direction
Find: Calculate the coefficient for permeability at 60F.
K = Cd2Error! = kError! = 10-10m2 x (ft/.3048m)2 x 62.37 lb/ft3 / 2.359x10-5
K = .02845 ft/s

2. Chemical Properties of MSW


A. Proximate Analysis (T4-2, p78)

Includes the following tests:


- Moisture
- Volatile combustible matte
- Fixed carbon (combustible residue after volatile matter is removed)
- Ash (weight of residue after combustion in an open crucible
Fusing point of ash - temperature at which the ash forms a solid (clinker) by fusion
and agglomeration. 2000-2200F.
Magazines are:
- 4.1% moisture
- 66.4% volatile matter
- 7.0% fixed carbon
- 22.5% non-combustible
- energy content, 4600 Btu/lb as collected.
- Note: rubber as in tires and plastics have a very high energy content.

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Example
Given: The Town of Waytogo, population 56,789, has decided to burn its as collected MSW
which amounts to about 6 lb/capita.day
Find: How many barrels of oil do they save on a daily basis.
1bbl oil = 5.8x106BTU
T4-2, p78 Energy of as collected MSW is 4600 Btu/lb
Energy in the MSW = 4600 Btu/lb x 56,789 cap x 6 lb/capita.day
Energy in the MSW = 1.57 x 109 Btu
Oil = 1.57 x 109 Btu / 5.8x106BTU
Oil = 270 barrels/day

B. Ultimate Analysis of SW Components (T4-3,4, p.80)

Determination of the percent C, H, O, N, S, and ash.


Opportunity to calculate chemical formula, which then can be used in various
chemical and biological reactions.
Magazines are:
- 32.9 % C
- 5.0 % H
- 38.6 % O
- .1 % N
- .1 % S
- 23.3 % ash
**Problem 4.0, p.97
C. Energy Content of SW Components (T4-5, p.84)

Potentially critical element in incineration. Can be measured or calculated.


DuLong Formula:
Btu/lb = 145C +610(H2 - O2/8) + 40S +10N eq.4-10, p.86
Constituents are % by weight

Plastics have:
- An inert residue of 10.0%
- An energy value of 14,000 Btu/lb
Example
**Problem 4-7, p.97

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D. Essential Nutrients (T4-6, p.87)

Potentially critical element in composting.

3. Biological Properties of MSW


VS, volatile solids, ignition at 550C is often used as a measure of the
biodegradability of the organic fraction.
An alternative is the lignin content can be used to determine biodegradability:
BF = 0.83 - 0.028 LC eq.4-11, p.88
BF is the biodegradable fraction and LC is the lignin content from T4-7, p.88
Odors typically result from the anaerobic decomposition of the organic fraction.
- Sulfate is reduced to sulfides and the to H2S.
- Organic compounds containing a sulfur radical can lead to the formation of methyl
mercaptan and aminobutyric acid.
Breeding of flies takes 9-11 days.
4. Physical, Chemical and Biological Transformations (T4-8, p.91)
A. Physical Transformations

Component separation
- Separating identifiable matter from the commingled MSW.
- Used to:
- Recover usable material
- Remove contaminants
- Improve specifications for the separated material
- Remove hazardous waste
- Recover energy and conversion products
Mechanical Volume Reduction (Densification)
- The initial volume is reduced usually by force or pressure.
- Compaction, baling.
Mechanical size reduction
- Purpose:
- reduce size
- create a more uniform product
- Size reduction does not necessarily mean volume reduction, shredded paper occupies
more volume than the parent material
- Shredding, grinding, milling
B. Chemical Transformations
1.) Combustion (Incineration)

Combustion is the chemical reaction of oxygen with organic materials, to produce


oxidized compounds with the emission of light and heat.

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Results in gasses, ashes and heat, highly exothermic.


2.) Pyrolysis (Destructive Distillation)

The splitting or organics by thermal cracking and condensation in an oxygen-free


atmosphere into gaseous, liquid and solid fractions.
Highly endothermic.
Equation
3(C6H10O5) 8H2O + C6H8O + 2CO +CH4 + H2 + 7C
In which:
- C6H10O5 is cellulose
- the gases are CO +CH4 + H2
- the tar and/or oil stream is C6H8O
- and the char is C
3.) Gasification

Partial combustion of a carbonaceous fuel to generate a combustible fuel gas rich in


carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. The fuel gas can then be combusted.
Results in low-BTU gas, char and oil.

C. Biological Transformations

Used to:
- Reduce weight and volume
- To produce compost
- To produce methane
Principal MOs:
- bacteria
- fungi
- yeasts
- actinomycetes
Aerobic composting, biological decomposition
Anaerobic digestion yields methane.
EXAMPLES
4-0 (added), 4-1, 4-3b, 4-7
HOMEWORK
Read Chapter 4, Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties of MSW, pp. 69-98
Problems, p. 97, 4-2a, 4-3a, 4-5, 4-6, 4-8 and ancillary problems 4A, 4B, 4C and 4D

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Sources, Types and Properties of Household Hazardous Wastes
Part V, Chapter 5, p.99

1. Properties and Classification of Hazardous Waste


A. General

Wastes are hazardous to humans if such wastes:


- Are non-biodegradable or persistent in nature
- Can be biologically magnified
- Lethal
- Cause detrimental cumulative effects

Safety-related problems:
- Corrosivity
- Explosivity
- Flammability
- Ignitability
- Reactivity

Health-related problems
- Carcinogenicity
- Infectivity
- Irritant
- Mutagenicity
- Toxicity
- Radioactivity
- Teratogenicity ( Causes monstrosities or abnormal formations)

Municipalities usually go with:


- Ignitability
- Corrosivity
- Reactivity
- Toxicity
- Carcinogenicity
B. EPA Definitions (T5-1,2, p.101)

RCRA Hazardous Wastes:


- Listed wastes. (40 CFR 261.11, Code of Federal Regulations). Presumed toxic in any
concentration.

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- Characteristic hazardous wastes. Are established on the basis of their Ignitability,
Corrosivity, reactivity and toxicity.
- Other hazardous wastes. Mixtures of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes, wastes
derived from other wastes (Derived-From Rule) and hazardous wastes contained in
non-hazardous wastes (Contained-In Rule).
Priority Pollutants. In 1979, pursuant to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as
amend by the Clean Water Act of 1977, the EPA prepared a list of toxic pollutants;
129 substances in 65 classes were identified. Four criteria were used:
- Damage due to toxicological properties.
- Seriousness of point source discharges.
- Effluent standards for point source dischargers.
- Environmental effects of control measures.
Other Hazardous Waste Classifications. Proposed by the following agencies:
- International Agency for Research on Cancer
- National Cancer Institute.
2. Sources, Types and Quantities of Hazardous Wastes in MSW (T5-4,5,
p.106)

Residential (T5-3, p.104) cleaners, paint, nail polisher remover, antifreeze,


photographic chemicals, pesticides.
Commercial: solvents from dry cleanings, oil from automotive.
Hazardous waste is typically .1% (.01-1% range) by weight of MSW. 75-85%
residential sources.

3. Significance of Hazardous Waste in MSW.

In conversion products. Trace amounts of HHW have been found in separated


components and compost and have rendered these materials and products unusable.
In combustion products. Have been found in emission gases and residual material
(ash) especially heavy metals, barium, chromium, silver.
In landfill. Trace organic constituents have been found in atmosphere, in extracted
gases and in leachate. Source may be direct or derived.
Example
**Problem 5-3, p.121
4. Physical, Chemical and Biological Transformations of HHW in MSW
A. Physical Transformations

Volatilization- produces gas.


Phase Distribution- Used to assesess the bioaccumulation potential of a compound.

B. Chemical Transformations

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1.) Combustion.
If the combustion is complete, the hazardous organic compounds should be
destroyed. However, if chlorine containing compounds such as chlorobenzene
(C6H5Cl), HCl is formed, Vulcan, ocean going incinerator that spews HCl all over the
oceans.
If the combustion is not complete, toxic PICs (Products of Incomplete Combustion)
are formed.
2.) Reactions in Landfills
Simple substitution
Dehydrogenation (hydrolysis)
Oxidation
Reduction

Example
**Problem 5-8a, p.121
C. Biological Transformations

1.) Metals
Chromium, mercury, etc. can be biologically converted to toxic compounds such as
methymercury, or dimethylselenide
2.) Non-Persistent Organic Compounds
Same reactions as B.2. above
3.) Persistent Organic Compounds

Biodegradable but at extremely slow rates involving processes such as


Dehalogenation and double bond reduction.

5. Management of HHW in MSW

Most effective way to handle HHW is to eliminate them at the point of separation, in
the household.
HHW collection programs.

EXAMPLES
5-3, 5-8a
HOMEWORK
Read Chapter 5, Sources, Types and Properties of Hazardous Wastes Found in MSW, pp.
99-122
Problems, p. 121, 5-2, 5-4, 5-5, 5-7, 5-8b
LECTURES NOS. L, 2 AND 3 .................................................................................................................... 1

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EVOLUTION OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ............................................................................. 1
1. GENERAL ................................................................................................................................................ 1
2. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................... 1
3. INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT (ISWM) .............................................................. 2
LEGISLATIVE TRENDS AND IMPACTS .............................................................................................. 4
SOURCES, COMPOSITION, AND PROPERTIES OF SOLID WASTE .............................................. 5
1. SOURCES OF SOLID WASTE (T3-1, P.41) ......................................................................................... 5
A. RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL ........................................................................................................... 5
B. INSTITUTIONAL AND OTHERS ................................................................................................................. 5
C. INDUSTRIAL WASTES(T3-2, P.46) .......................................................................................................... 6
D. AGRICULTURAL WASTES ....................................................................................................................... 6
2. COMPOSITION OF SOLID WASTE (T3.-3, P48)............................................................................... 6
3. VARIATION IN DISTRIBUTION ......................................................................................................... 6
4. MATERIALS RECOVERED FROM MSW (T3-10, P61).................................................................... 7
PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MSW ........................................... 9
1. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MSW.................................................................................................... 9
A. SPECIFIC WEIGHT (T4-1, P.70) ............................................................................................................... 9
B. MOISTURE CONTENT (EX. 4-1, P.72) ...................................................................................................... 9
C. PARTICLE SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION .......................................................................................................10
D. FIELD CAPACITY (FC) ..........................................................................................................................10
E. PERMEABILITY (HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY) OF COMPACTED MSW ...................................................10
2. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MSW .................................................................................................10
A. PROXIMATE ANALYSIS (T4-2, P78) .......................................................................................................10
B. ULTIMATE ANALYSIS OF SW COMPONENTS (T4-3,4, P.80) ...................................................................11
C. ENERGY CONTENT OF SW COMPONENTS (T4-5, P.84) ..........................................................................11
D. ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS (T4-6, P.87) .....................................................................................................12
3. BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MSW .............................................................................................12
4. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATIONS (T4-8, P.91) ...................12
A. PHYSICAL TRANSFORMATIONS .............................................................................................................12
B. CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS ............................................................................................................12
1.) Combustion (Incineration)..............................................................................................................12
2.) Pyrolysis (Destructive Distillation) ................................................................................................13
3.) Gasification ....................................................................................................................................13
C. BIOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATIONS .........................................................................................................13
SOURCES, TYPES AND PROPERTIES OF HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTES ....................14
1. PROPERTIES AND CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE.............................................14
A. GENERAL ..............................................................................................................................................14
B. EPA DEFINITIONS (T5-1,2, P.101) ........................................................................................................14
2. SOURCES, TYPES AND QUANTITIES OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN MSW (T5-4,5, P.106) .15
3. SIGNIFICANCE OF HAZARDOUS WASTE IN MSW. ....................................................................15
4. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF HHW IN MSW ......15
A. PHYSICAL TRANSFORMATIONS .............................................................................................................15
B. CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS ............................................................................................................15

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1.) Combustion. ....................................................................................................................................16
2.) Reactions in Landfills .....................................................................................................................16
C. BIOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATIONS .........................................................................................................16
1.) Metals .............................................................................................................................................16
2.) Non-Persistent Organic Compounds ..............................................................................................16
3.) Persistent Organic Compounds ......................................................................................................16
5. MANAGEMENT OF HHW IN MSW ...................................................................................................16